BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation may contribute to the formation, maintenance, and expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and resistance to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the effects of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on colorectal CSC development and metastasis in mice and the correlation between levels of PGE2 and CSC markers in human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens.
METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma specimens and matched normal tissues were collected from patients at the Mayo Clinic (Scottsdale, AZ) and analyzed by mass spectrometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Human primary CRC cells and mouse tumor cells were isolated using microbeads or flow cytometry and analyzed for sphere-formation and by flow cytometry assays. LS-174T cells were sorted by flow cytometry (for CD133(+)CD44(+) and CD133(-)CD44(-) cells) and also used in these assays. NOD-scidIL-2Rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice were given cecal or subcutaneous injections of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Apc(Min/+) mice and NSG mice with orthotopic cecal tumors were given vehicle (controls), PGE2, celecoxib, and/or Ono-AE3-208. PGE2 downstream signaling pathways were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs, expressed from lentiviral vectors in LS-174T cells, or blocked with inhibitors in human primary CRC cells.
RESULTS: Levels of PGE2 correlated with colonic CSC markers (CD133, CD44, LRG5, and SOX2 messenger RNAs) in human colorectal carcinoma samples. Administration of PGE2 to Apc(Min/+) mice increased tumor stem cells and tumor burden, compared with controls. NSG mice given PGE2 had increased numbers of cecal CSCs and liver metastases compared with controls after intracecal injection of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Alternatively, celecoxib, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, reduced polyp numbers in Apc(Min/+) mice, liver metastasis in NSG mice with orthotopic tumors, and numbers of CSCs in Apc(Min/+) and NSG mice. Inhibitors or knockdown of PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), or nuclear factor (NF)-κB reduced PGE2-induced sphere formation and expansion of LS-174T and/or human primary CRC cells. Knockdown of ERK1 or PI3K p85α also attenuated PGE2-induced activation of NF-κB in LS-174T cells. An EP4 antagonist reduced the ability of PGE2 to induce CSC expansion in orthotopic tumors and to accelerate the formation of liver metastases. Knockdown experiments showed that NF-κB was required for PGE2 induction of CSCs and metastasis in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: PGE2 induces CSC expansion by activating NF-κB, via EP4-PI3K and EP4-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and promotes the formation of liver metastases in mice. The PGE2 signaling pathway therefore might be targeted therapeutically to slow CSC expansion and colorectal cancer progression.
Gjyshi O, Roy A, Dutta S, et al.Activated Nrf2 Interacts with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency Protein LANA-1 and Host Protein KAP1 To Mediate Global Lytic Gene Repression.
J Virol. 2015; 89(15):7874-92 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. We have previously shown that KSHV utilizes the host transcription factor Nrf2 to aid in infection of endothelial cells and oncogenesis. Here, we investigate the role of Nrf2 in PEL and PEL-derived cell lines and show that KSHV latency induces Nrf2 protein levels and transcriptional activity through the COX-2/PGE2/EP4/PKCζ axis. Next-generation sequencing of KSHV transcripts in the PEL-derived BCBL-1 cell line revealed that knockdown of this activated Nrf2 results in global elevation of lytic genes. Nrf2 inhibition by the chemical brusatol also induces lytic gene expression. Both Nrf2 knockdown and brusatol-mediated inhibition induced KSHV lytic reactivation in BCBL-1 cells. In a series of follow-up experiments, we characterized the mechanism of Nrf2-mediated regulation of KSHV lytic repression during latency. Biochemical assays showed that Nrf2 interacted with KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA-1) and the host transcriptional repressor KAP1, which together have been shown to repress lytic gene expression. Promoter studies showed that although Nrf2 alone induces the open reading frame 50 (ORF50) promoter, its association with LANA-1 and KAP1 abrogates this effect. Interestingly, LANA-1 is crucial for efficient KAP1/Nrf2 association, while Nrf2 is essential for LANA-1 and KAP1 recruitment to the ORF50 promoter and its repression. Overall, these results suggest that activated Nrf2, LANA-1, and KAP1 assemble on the ORF50 promoter in a temporal fashion. Initially, Nrf2 binds to and activates the ORF50 promoter during early de novo infection, an effect that is exploited during latency by LANA-1-mediated recruitment of the host transcriptional repressor KAP1 on Nrf2. Cell death assays further showed that Nrf2 and KAP1 knockdown induce significant cell death in PEL cell lines. Our studies suggest that Nrf2 modulation through available oral agents is a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of KSHV-associated malignancies.
IMPORTANCE: KS and PEL are aggressive KSHV-associated malignancies with moderately effective, highly toxic chemotherapies. Other than ganciclovir and alpha interferon (IFN-α) prophylaxis, no KSHV-associated chemotherapy targets the underlying infection, a major oncogenic force. Hence, drugs that selectively target KSHV infection are necessary to eradicate the malignancy while sparing healthy cells. We recently showed that KSHV infection of endothelial cells activates the transcription factor Nrf2 to promote an environment conducive to infection and oncogenesis. Nrf2 is modulated through several well-tolerated oral agents and may be an important target in KSHV biology. Here, we investigate the role of Nrf2 in PEL and demonstrate that Nrf2 plays an important role in KSHV gene expression, lytic reactivation, and cell survival by interacting with the host transcriptional repressor KAP1 and the viral latency-associated protein LANA-1 to mediate global lytic gene repression and thus cell survival. Hence, targeting Nrf2 with available therapies is a viable approach in the treatment of KSHV malignancies.
Majumder M, Landman E, Liu L, et al.COX-2 Elevates Oncogenic miR-526b in Breast Cancer by EP4 Activation.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(6):1022-33 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small regulatory molecules emerging as potential biomarkers in cancer. Previously, it was shown that COX-2 expression promotes breast cancer progression via multiple mechanisms, including induction of stem-like cells (SLC), owing to activation of the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 (PTGER4). COX-2 overexpression also upregulated microRNA-526b (miR-526b), in association with aggressive phenotype. Here, the functional roles of miR-526b in breast cancer and the mechanistic role of EP4 signaling in miR-526b upregulation were examined. A positive correlation was noted between miR-526b and COX-2 mRNA expression in COX-2 disparate breast cancer cell lines. Stable overexpression of miR-526b in poorly metastatic MCF7 and SKBR3 cell lines resulted in increased cellular migration, invasion, EMT phenotype and enhanced tumorsphere formation in vitro, and lung colony formation in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Conversely, knockdown of miR-526b in aggressive MCF7-COX-2 and SKBR3-COX-2 cells reduced oncogenic functions and reversed the EMT phenotype, in vitro. Furthermore, it was determined that miR-526b expression is dependent on EP4 receptor activity and downstream PI3K-AKT and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways. PI3K-AKT inhibitors blocked EP4 agonist-mediated miR-526b upregulation and tumorsphere formation in MCF7 and SKBR3 cells. NF-κB inhibitor abrogates EP agonist-stimulated miRNA expression in MCF7 and T47D cells, indicating that the NF-κB pathway is also involved in miR-526b regulation. In addition, inhibition of COX-2, EP4, PI3K, and PKA in COX-2-overexpressing cells downregulated miR-526b and its functions in vitro. Finally, miR-526b expression was significantly higher in cancerous than in noncancerous breast tissues and associated with reduced patient survival. In conclusion, miR-526b promotes breast cancer progression, SLC-phenotype through EP4-mediated signaling, and correlates with breast cancer patient survival.
IMPLICATIONS: This study presents novel findings that miRNA 526b is a COX-2 upregulated, oncogenic miRNA promoting SLCs, the expression of which follows EP4 receptor-mediated signaling, and is a promising biomarker for monitoring and personalizing breast cancer therapy.
The ability of living cells to exert physical forces upon their surrounding is a necessary prerequisite for diverse biological processes, such as local cellular migrations in wound healing to metastatic-invasion of cancer. How forces are coopted in metastasis has remained unclear, however, because the mechanical interplay between cancer cells and the various stromal components has not been experimentally accessible. Current dogma implicates inflammation in these mechanical processes. Using Fourier transform traction microscopy, we measured the force-generating capacity of human breast cancer cells occupying a spectrum of invasiveness as well as basal and inducible COX-2 expression (MCF-7
Zhang N, Subbaramaiah K, Yantiss RK, et al.Id1 Deficiency Protects against Tumor Formation in Apc(Min/+) Mice but Not in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 8(4):303-11 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Different mechanisms contribute to the development of sporadic, hereditary and colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins act as dominant-negative antagonists of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Id1 is a promising target for cancer therapy, but little is known about its role in the development of colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that Id1 is overexpressed in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, whether sporadic or syndromic. Furthermore, elevated Id1 levels were found in dysplasia and colon cancer arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Because levels of PGE2 are also elevated in both colitis and colorectal neoplasia, we determined whether PGE2 could induce Id1. PGE2 via EP4 stimulated protein kinase A activity resulting in enhanced pCREB-mediated Id1 transcription in human colonocytes. To determine the role of Id1 in carcinogenesis, two mouse models were used. Consistent with the findings in humans, Id1 was overexpressed in tumors arising in both Apc(Min) (/+) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis, and in experimental colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia. Id1 deficiency led to significant decrease in the number of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) (/+) mice and prolonged survival. In contrast, Id1 deficiency did not affect the number or size of tumors in the model of colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia, likely due to exacerbation of colitis associated with Id1 loss. Collectively, these results suggest that Id1 plays a role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Our findings also highlight the need for different strategies to reduce the risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer compared with sporadic or hereditary colorectal cancer.
Otsuka A, Dreier J, Cheng PF, et al.Hedgehog pathway inhibitors promote adaptive immune responses in basal cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(6):1289-97 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are tumors ignored by immune surveillance. Activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling within primary cilia is a key driver in the pathogenesis of BCCs. We examined immune alterations during treatment with systemic Hh inhibitors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated biopsies from patients with BCC before (23 patients) and after 4 weeks of treatment (5 patients) with Hh signaling inhibitor. Ber-Ep4, BCL-2, Ki-67, CD4, CD8, MHC class I, HLA-DR-class II, and SOX9 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Primary cilia were analyzed by double immunofluorescence of acetylated tubulin and SOX9. Differential gene expression for 84 cytokines and chemokines was analyzed in 3 patients.
RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment, we found reduction of Ki-67, SOX9, Ber-EP4, and BCL-2 expression in tumors associated with morphologic signs of squamous differentiation. In addition, the number of cilia-positive BCC cells was significantly decreased. An upregulation of MHC I expression on the cell membranes of residual tumor cells and an influx of CD4(+), HLA-DR-class II(+), and CD8(+) cells with invasion into the tumor cell nests were found. Finally, qPCR arrays showed the differential expression of genes involved in modulating immune responses.
CONCLUSIONS: We show that Hh pathway inhibitor-induced tumor regression is accompanied by a dynamic change of the microenvironment with a disruption of immune privilege involving an influx of cytotoxic T cells, activation of the adaptive immune functions, and a profound alteration of the local chemokine/cytokine network.
BACKGROUND: Androgens drive the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) via androgen receptor (AR) signalling. The principal treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy, although the majority of patients eventually develop a lethal castrate-resistant form of the disease, where despite low serum testosterone levels AR signalling persists. Advanced PCa often has hyper-activated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling thought to be due to loss of function of key negative regulators of the pathway, the details of which are not fully understood.
METHODS: We recently carried out a genome-wide study and identified a subset of 226 novel androgen-regulated genes (PLOS ONE 6:e29088, 2011). In this study we have meta-analysed this dataset with genes and pathways frequently mutated in PCa to identify androgen-responsive regulators of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
RESULTS: We find the PTGER4 and TSPYL2 genes are up-regulated by androgen stimulation and the ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, SPRY1 and PTPRR are down-regulated by androgens. Further characterisation of PTPRR protein in LNCaP cells revealed it is an early and direct target of the androgen receptor which negatively regulates the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway and reduces cell proliferation in response to androgens.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of PTPRR in clinical PCa is one factor that might contribute to activation of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
Amplification of MYCN is the most well-known prognostic marker of neuroblastoma risk classification, but still is only observed in 25% of cases. Recent evidence points to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating ligand prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and β-catenin as two novel players in neuroblastoma. Here, we aimed to define the potential role of PGE2 and cAMP and its potential interplay with β-catenin, both of which may converge on neuroblastoma cell behaviour. Gain and loss of β-catenin function, PGE2 , the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were studied in two human neuroblastoma cell lines without MYCN amplification. Our findings show that PGE2 enhanced cell viability through the EP4 receptor and cAMP elevation, whereas COX-2 inhibitors attenuated cell viability. Interestingly, PGE2 and forskolin promoted glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition, β-catenin phosphorylation at the protein kinase A target residue ser675, β-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF-dependent gene transcription. Ectopic expression of a degradation-resistant β-catenin mutant enhances neuroblastoma cell viability and inhibition of β-catenin with XAV939 prevented PGE2 -induced cell viability. Finally, we show increased β-catenin expression in human high-risk neuroblastoma tissue without MYCN amplification. Our data indicate that PGE2 enhances neuroblastoma cell viability, a process which may involve cAMP-mediated β-catenin stabilization, and suggest that this pathway is of relevance to high-risk neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification.
Gobec M, Prijatelj M, Delić J, et al.Chemo-sensitizing effects of EP4 receptor-induced inactivation of nuclear factor-κB.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2014; 742:81-8 [PubMed
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The EP4 receptor conveys growth-inhibitory effects in mature and immature B cells via NF-κB. Herein, the EP4 receptor was evaluated as a potential therapeutic target for leukemia and lymphoma, whose survival depends on the constitutive activity of NF-κB. Utilizing a pharmacological approach, we proved that the EP4 receptor induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in malignantly transformed B cells, with the most prominent effect being on Burkitt׳s lymphoma cells. Since the increased activation of NF-κB underlies multi-drug resistance phenomena, we modulated this signaling pathway via EP4 receptor triggering. Pge1-OH, a specific EP4 receptor agonist, led to decreased NF-κB activity and a consequent decrease in levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-xL in Ramos cells, resulting in an elevated sensitivity of cells towards bortezomib- and doxorubicin-induced chemotherapeutic effects. Our study identifies the as yet unrecognized potential of EP4 receptor agonists as chemo-sensitizing agents in B-cell lymphoma. The specific downregulation of NF-κB-dependent pathways in B-cell malignancies opens new possibilities for treatment and current therapy optimization using specific EP4 receptor agonists.
Xia S, Ma J, Bai X, et al.Prostaglandin E2 promotes the cell growth and invasive ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by upregulating c-Myc expression via EP4 receptor and the PKA signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1521-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem worldwide. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the predominant product of cyclooxygenase-2, has been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. c-myc, a cellular proto-oncogene, is activated or overexpressed in many types of human cancer, including HCC. The present study was designed to investigate the internal relationship and molecular mechanisms between PGE2 and c-Myc in HCC, and to define its role in HCC cell growth and invasion. Our results showed that PGE2 significantly upregulated c-Myc expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of c-Myc blocked PGE2-induced HCC cell growth and invasive ability in human HCC Huh-7 cells. The effect of PGE2 on c-Myc expression was mainly through the EP4 receptor, and EP4 receptor-mediated c-Myc protein upregulation largely depended on de novo biosynthesis of c-Myc mRNA and its protein. EP4 receptor signaling activated GS/AC and increased the intracellular cAMP level in Huh-7 cells. The adenylate cyclase (AC) activator forskolin mimicked the effects of the EP4 receptor agonist on c-Myc expression, while the AC inhibitor SQ22536 reduced EP4 receptor-mediated c-Myc upregulation. These data confirm the involvement of the GS/AC/cAMP pathway in EP4 receptor-mediated c-Myc upregulation. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of CREB protein were markedly elevated by EP4 receptor signaling, and by using specific inhibitor and siRNA interference, we demonstrated that PKA/CREB was also involved in the EP4 receptor-mediated c-Myc upregulation. In summary, the present study revealed that PGE2 significantly upregulates c-Myc expression at both mRNA and protein levels through the EP4R/GS/AC/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, thus promoting cell growth and invasion in HCC cells. Targeting of the PGE2/EP4R/c-Myc pathway may be a new therapeutic strategy to prevent and cure human HCC.
Zheng H, Li Y, Wang Y, et al.Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(1):10-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr(458)), phospho-PDK (Ser(241)) and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE2, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE2, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE2, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities.
INTRODUCTION: Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in primary breast cancer increases tumor growth and metastasis. However, the clinical significance of stromal IDO and the regulation of stromal IDO are unclear.
METHODS: Metabolomics and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to study the effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells on IDO expression in co-cultured human breast fibroblasts. Biochemical inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to clarify how prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) upregulates IDO expression. Associations of stromal IDO with clinicopathologic parameters were tested in tumor specimens. An orthotopic animal model was used to examine the effect of COX-2 and IDO inhibitors on tumor growth.
RESULTS: Kynurenine, the metabolite generated by IDO, increases in the supernatant of fibroblasts co-cultured with COX-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. PGE2 released by cancer cells upregulates IDO expression in fibroblasts through an EP4/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway. Conversely, fibroblast-secreted kynurenine promotes the formation of the E-cadherin/Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) complex, resulting in degradation of E-cadherin to increase breast cancer invasiveness. The enhancement of motility of breast cancer cells induced by co-culture with fibroblasts is suppressed by the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan. Pathological analysis demonstrates that upregulation of stromal IDO is a poor prognosis factor and is associated with of COX-2 overexpression. Co-expression of cancer COX-2 and stromal IDO predicts a worse disease-free and metastasis-free survival. Finally, COX-2 and IDO inhibitors inhibit tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Integration of metabolomics and molecular and pathological approaches reveals the interplay between cancer and stroma via COX-2, and IDO promotes tumor progression and predicts poor patient survival.
Bieniek J, Childress C, Swatski MD, Yang WCOX-2 inhibitors arrest prostate cancer cell cycle progression by down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):999-1011 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that COX-2 inhibitors inhibit cancer cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive.
METHODS: Prostate cancer LNCaP, 22Rv1, and PC3 cells were cultured and treated with the COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and CAY10404. Knockdown of COX-2 in LNCaP cells was carried out using lentiviral vector-loaded COX-2 shRNA. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation were analyzed by flow cytometry, microscopy, cell counting, and the MTT assay. The antagonists of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 were used to examine the effects of the PGE2 signaling. The effect of COX-2 inhibitors and COX-2 knockdown on expression of the kinetochore/centromere genes and proteins was determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Treatment with the COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and CAY10404 or knockdown of COX-2 significantly inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation. Flow-cytometric analysis and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the cell cycle arrested at the G2/M phase. Biochemical analysis showed that inhibition of COX-2 or suppression of COX-2 expression induced a dramatic down-regulation of key proteins in the kinetochore/centromere assembly, such as ZWINT, Cdc20, Ndc80, CENP-A, Bub1, and Plk1. Furthermore, the EP1 receptor antagonist SC51322, but not the EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists, produced similar effects to the COX-2 inhibitors on cell proliferation and down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins, suggesting that the effect of the COX-2 inhibition is through inactivation of the EP1 receptor signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies indicate that inhibition of COX-2 can arrest prostate cancer cell cycle progression through inactivation of the EP1 receptor signaling and down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins.
Xu S, Zhang Z, Ogawa O, et al.An EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 suppresses cell invasion, migration, and metastasis of prostate cancer.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(1):521-7 [PubMed
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EP4 is one of the prostaglandin E2 receptors, which is the most common prostanoid and is associated with inflammatory disease and cancer. We previously reported that over-expression of EP4 was one of the mechanisms responsible for progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 in vivo suppressed the castration-resistant progression regulating the activation of androgen receptor. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of EP4 with prostate cancer metastasis and the efficacy of ONO-AE3-208 for suppressing the metastasis. The expression levels of EP4 mRNA were evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, and PC3. EP4 over-expressing LNCaP was established, and their cell invasiveness was compared with the control LNCaP (LNCaP/mock). The in vitro cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of these cells were examined under different concentrations of ONO-AE3-208. An in vivo bone metastatic mouse model was constructed by inoculating luciferase expressing PC3 cells into left ventricle of nude mice. Their bone metastasis was observed by bioluminescent imaging with or without ONO-AE3-208 administration. The EP4 mRNA expression levels were higher in PC3 than in LNCaP, and EP4 over-expression of LNCaP cells enhanced their cell invasiveness. The in vitro cell invasion and migration were suppressed by ONO-AE3-208 in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell proliferation. The in vivo bone metastasis of PC3 was also suppressed by ONO-AE3-208 treatment. EP4 expression levels were correlated with prostate cancer cell invasiveness and EP4 specific antagonist ONO-AE3-208 suppressed cell invasion, migration, and bone metastasis, indicating that it is a potential novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
Abbas M, Kramer MW, Spieker T, et al.Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis with carcinoma in situ in the ureter.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2014; 26(1):51-4 [PubMed
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Primary epithelial tumor of the renal pelvis is rare and only 100 cases are reported in the literature . Histological examination of the tumor showed glands, cysts, and papillae lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with hyperchromatic nuclei. Scattered signet ring-type cells were also seen floating in large pools of extracellular mucin. Sections from the ureter showed a component of adenocarcinoma in situ. No invasive tumor was identified in ureteric tissue. One case was reported with carcinoma in situ of the ureter (2). Immunohistochemically: The tumor showed positivity for CK7, CK20, CK8/18, GATA-3, MSH-2, MSH-6, MLH-1, Ber-EP4, and S-100-P with focal positivity for CDX-2, weak positivity for PMS-2 and negativity in TTF-1 and Her-2. Molecular pathological analysis revealed microsatellite stability and without mutation in K-ras-gene. Thus, a diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis with in situ adenocarcinoma of the ureter was made.
PURPOSE: Near equal rates of incidence and mortality emphasize the need for novel targeted approaches for better management of patients with pancreatic cancer. Inflammatory molecules NF-κB and STAT3 are overexpressed in pancreatic tumors. Inhibition of one protein allows cancer cells to survive using the other. The goal of this study is to determine whether targeting STAT3/NF-κB crosstalk with a natural product Nexrutine can inhibit inflammatory signaling in pancreatic cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HPNE, HPNE-Ras, BxPC3, Capan-2, MIA PaCa-2, and AsPC-1 cells were tested for growth, apoptosis, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-κB, and STAT3 level in response to Nexrutine treatment. Transient expression, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine transcriptional regulation of COX-2. STAT3 knockdown was used to decipher STAT3/NF-κB crosstalk. Histopathologic and immunoblotting evaluation was performed on BK5-COX-2 transgenic mice treated with Nexrutine. In vivo expression of prostaglandin receptor E-prostanoid 4 (EP4) was analyzed in a retrospective cohort of pancreatic tumors using a tissue microarray.
RESULTS: Nexrutine treatment inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. Reduced levels and activity of STAT3, NF-κB, and their crosstalk led to transcriptional suppression of COX-2 and subsequent decreased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2. STAT3 knockdown studies suggest STAT3 as negative regulator of NF-κB activation. Nexrutine intervention reduced the levels of NF-κB, STAT3, and fibrosis in vivo. Expression of prostaglandin receptor EP4 that is known to play a role in fibrosis was significantly elevated in human pancreatic tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Dual inhibition of STAT3-NF-κB by Nexrutine may overcome problems associated with inhibition of either pathway.
Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. We have shown previously that differentiation of myofibroblasts is regulated by microtubule polymerization state. In this work, we examined the potential antifibrotic effects of the antitussive drug, noscapine, recently found to bind microtubules and affect microtubule dynamics. Noscapine inhibited TGF-β-induced differentiation of cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLFs). Therapeutic noscapine treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of the disease. Noscapine did not affect gross microtubule content in HLFs, but inhibited TGF-β-induced stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor without affecting Smad signaling. Furthermore, noscapine stimulated a rapid and profound activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which mediated the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs, as assessed with the PKA inhibitor, PKI. In contrast, noscapine did not activate PKA in human bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells. Finally, activation of PKA and the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs were blocked by the EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, but not by the antagonists of EP4, prostaglandin D2, or prostacyclin receptors. Together, we demonstrate for the first time the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in vitro and in vivo, and we describe a novel mechanism of noscapine action through EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor-mediated activation of PKA in pulmonary fibroblasts.
Clatot F, Gouérant S, Mareschal S, et al.The gene expression profile of inflammatory, hypoxic and metabolic genes predicts the metastatic spread of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2014; 50(3):200-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value of the expression profile of the main genes implicated in hypoxia, glucose and lactate metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix interactions for the metastatic spread of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a high-throughput qRT-PCR, we performed an unsupervised clustering analysis based on the expression of 42 genes for 61 patients. Usual prognostic factors and clustering analysis results were related to metastasis free survival.
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 48months, 19 patients died from a metastatic evolution of their head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and one from a local recurrence. The unsupervised clustering analysis distinguished two groups of genes that were related to metastatic evolution. A capsular rupture (p=0.005) and the "cluster CXCL12 low" (p=0.002) were found to be independent prognostic factors for metastasis free survival. Using a Linear Predictive Score methodology, we established a 9-gene model (VHL, PTGER4, HK1, SLC16A4, DLL4, CXCL12, CXCR4, PTGER3 and CA9) that was capable of classifying the samples into the 2 clusters with 90% accuracy.
CONCLUSION: In this cohort, our clustering analysis underlined the independent prognostic value of the expression of a panel of genes involved in hypoxia and tumor environment. It allowed us to define a 9-gene model which can be applied routinely to classify newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. If confirmed by an independent prospective study, this approach may help future clinical management of these aggressive tumors.
Sterlacci W, Savic S, Fiegl M, et al.Putative stem cell markers in non-small-cell lung cancer: a clinicopathologic characterization.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(1):41-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory postulates the existence of a distinct population of undifferentiated cells responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. CSCs may be naturally resistant to the cytotoxic effect of radio-chemotherapy because of slow cell cycling, lower proliferation, and increased expression of DNA repair and antiapoptosis genes. To date, a universal marker for CSCs has not been identified. Proposed CSC markers are expressed both by cancer cells as well as by benign stem cells. Although many putative CSC markers exist, a precise characterization for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lacking.
METHODS: We explored the expression of multiple alleged stemness associated markers in 371 surgically resected NSCLCs. Extensive clinical data and a postoperative follow-up period of up to 15 years enabled detailed clinicopathological correlations. ABCG5, ALDH1, CD24, CD44, CD133, CD166, epithelial cell adhesion molecule epitopes (ESA, MOC-31, Ber-EP4), nestin, OCT4, and sex-determining region Y-box 2 were analyzed immunohistochemically by using a standardized tissue microarray platform.
RESULTS: Sex-determining region Y-box 2, CD44, ABCG5, ALDH1, and nestin were associated with poorer tumor differentiation and/or an increased proliferation index. ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 were frequently found in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas CD24, CD166, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule markers were encountered in adenocarcinomas. CD44 expression was an independent marker associated with better overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma and Ber-EP4 was associated with tumor recurrences.
CONCLUSION: The expression and prognostic significance of CSC markers obviously varies depending on histologic NSCLC subtype. Importantly, our findings suggest that CD44 and Ber-EP4 may be promising for ongoing targeted therapies in specific NSCLC subgroups.