PTPRF

Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRF; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F
Aliases: LAR, BNAH2
Location:1p34
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains three Ig-like domains, and nine non-Ig like domains similar to that of neural-cell adhesion molecule. This PTP was shown to function in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts at adherents junctions, as well as in the control of beta-catenin signaling. An increased expression level of this protein was found in the insulin-responsive tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase F
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Substrate Specificity
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Xenograft Models
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Melanoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Phosphorylation
  • Tumor Burden
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • Cell Movement
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Gene Deletion
  • Tumor Markers
  • Lung Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transfection
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 1
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin
  • Western Blotting
  • Brain Tumours
  • Messenger RNA
  • Species Specificity
  • RTPCR
  • Mutation
  • Skin Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • DNA Methylation
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPRF (cancer-related)

Sumantran VN, Mishra P, Sudhakar N
Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes regulating lipid metabolism during melanoma progression.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2015; 52(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.

Wang D, Tan J, Xu Y, et al.
Identification of MicroRNAs and target genes involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma with microarray data.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):378-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and controls and provide new diagnostic potential miRNAs for HCC. The miRNAs expression profile data GSE20077 included 7 HCC samples, 1 HeLa sample and 3 controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by t-test and wilcox test. The miRNA with significantly differential expression was chosen for further analysis. Target genes for this miRNA were selected using TargetScan and miRbase database. STRING software was applied to construct the target genes interaction network and topology analysis was carried out to identify the hub gene in the network. And we identified the mechanism for affecting miRNA function. A total of 54 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, in which there were 13 miRNAs published to be related to HCC. The differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b was chosen for further analysis and PTPRT (Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T) was its potential target gene. The target genes interaction network was constructed among 33 genes, in which PTPRT was the hub gene. We got the conclusion that the differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b may play an important role in the development of HCC by regulating the expression of its potential target gene PT-PRT.

Chen YW, Guo T, Shen L, et al.
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase κ directly targets STAT3 activation for tumor suppression in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 125(10):1589-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is an aggressive disease characterized by frequent deletions on 6q, and constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phosphorylation at Tyr705 activates STAT3, inducing dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding. In this study, we investigated whether receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase κ (PTPRK), the only protein tyrosine phosphatase at 6q that contains a STAT3-specifying motif, negatively regulates STAT3 activation in NKTCL. PTPRK was highly expressed in normal NK cells but was underexpressed in 4 of 5 (80%) NKTCL cell lines and 15 of 27 (55.6%) primary tumors. Significantly, PTPRK protein expression was inversely correlated with nuclear phospho-STAT3(Tyr705) expression in NKTCL cell lines (P = .025) and tumors (P = .040). PTPRK restoration decreased nuclear phospho-STAT3(Tyr705) levels, whereas knockdown of PTPRK increased such levels in NKTCL cells. Phosphatase substrate-trapping mutant assays demonstrated the binding of PTPRK to STAT3, and phosphatase assays showed that PTPRK directly dephosphorylated phospho-STAT3(Tyr705). Restoration of PTPRK inhibited tumor cell growth and reduced the migration and invasion ability of NKTCL cells. Monoallelic deletion and promoter hypermethylation caused underexpression of PTPRK messenger RNA in NKTCL, and methylation of the PTPRK promoter significantly correlated with inferior overall survival (P = .049) in NKTCL patients treated with the steroid-dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase, and etoposide regimen. Altogether, our findings show that PTPRK underexpression leads to STAT3 activation and contributes to NKTCL pathogenesis.

Rodrigues MF, de Oliveira Rodini C, de Aquino Xavier FC, et al.
PROX1 gene is differentially expressed in oral cancer and reduces cellular proliferation.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e192 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox genes are a family of transcription factors that play a pivotal role in embryogenesis. Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene in various types of cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have previously identified PROX1 as a downregulated gene in OSCC. The aim of this study is to clarify the underlying mechanism by which PROX1 regulates tumorigenicity of OSCC cells. PROX1 mRNA and protein expression levels were first investigated in 40 samples of OSCC and in nontumor margins. Methylation and amplification analysis was also performed to assess the epigenetic and genetic mechanisms involved in controlling PROX1 expression. OSCC cell line SCC9 was also transfected to stably express the PROX1 gene. Next, SCC9-PROX1-overexpressing cells and controls were subjected to proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assays in vitro. OSCC samples showed reduced PROX1 expression levels compared with nontumor margins. PROX1 amplification was associated with better overall survival. PROX1 overexpression reduces cell proliferation and downregulates cyclin D1. PROX1-overexpressing cells also exhibited reduced CK18 and CK19 expression and transcriptionally altered the expression of WISP3, GATA3, NOTCH1, and E2F1. Our results suggest that PROX1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in oral carcinogenesis.

Liu Y, Zhu Z, Xiong Z, et al.
Knockdown of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U inhibits growth and motility of gastric cancer cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5750-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U (PTPRU) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in colon cancer by dephosphorylating β-catenin and reducing the activation of β-catenin signaling. Here, we investigate the expression of PTPRU protein in gastric cancer cell lines, gastric cancer tissues and respective adjacent non-cancer tissues and find that the 130 kDa nuclear-localized PTPRU fragment is the main PTPRU isoform in gastric cancer cells, whereas the full-length PTPRU is relatively lowly expressed. The level of the 130 kDa PTPRU is higher in gastric cancer tissues than in adjacent non-cancer tissues. Knockdown of endogenous PTPRU in gastric cancer cells using lentivirus-delivered specific shRNA results in the attenuation of cell growth, migration, invasion and adhesion. Knockdown of PTPRU also inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of β-catenin as well as levels of focal adhesion proteins and lysine methylation of histone H3. These results indicate that PTPRU is required for gastric cancer progression and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

Chaudhary F, Lucito R, Tonks NK
Missing-in-Metastasis regulates cell motility and invasion via PTPδ-mediated changes in SRC activity.
Biochem J. 2015; 465(1):89-101 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
MIM (Missing-in-Metastasis), also known as MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1), is a scaffold protein that is down-regulated in multiple metastatic cancer cell lines compared with non-metastatic counterparts. MIM regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and actin polymerization, and has been implicated in the control of cell motility and invasion. MIM has also been shown to bind to a receptor PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase), PTPδ, an interaction that may provide a link between tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent signalling and metastasis. We used shRNA-mediated gene silencing to investigate the consequences of loss of MIM on the migration and invasion of the MCF10A mammary epithelial cell model of breast cancer. We observed that suppression of MIM by RNAi enhanced migration and invasion of MCF10A cells, effects that were associated with increased levels of PTPδ. Furthermore, analysis of human clinical data indicated that PTPδ was elevated in breast cancer samples when compared with normal tissue. We demonstrated that the SRC protein tyrosine kinase is a direct substrate of PTPδ and, upon suppression of MIM, we observed changes in the phosphorylation status of SRC; in particular, the inhibitory site (Tyr527) was hypophosphorylated, whereas the activating autophosphorylation site (Tyr416) was hyperphosphorylated. Thus the absence of MIM led to PTPδ-mediated activation of SRC. Finally, the SRC inhibitor SU6656 counteracted the effects of MIM suppression on cell motility and invasion. The present study illustrates that both SRC and PTPδ have the potential to be therapeutic targets for metastatic tumours associated with loss of MIM.

Vater I, Montesinos-Rongen M, Schlesner M, et al.
The mutational pattern of primary lymphoma of the central nervous system determined by whole-exome sequencing.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(3):677-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
To decipher the mutational pattern of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), we performed whole-exome sequencing to a median coverage of 103 × followed by mutation verification in 9 PCNSL and validation using Sanger sequencing in 22 PCNSL. We identified a median of 202 (range: 139-251) potentially somatic single nucleotide variants (SNV) and 14 small indels (range: 7-22) with potentially protein-changing features per PCNSL. Mutations affected the B-cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and NF-κB and genes involved in chromatin structure and modifications, cell-cycle regulation, and immune recognition. A median of 22.2% (range: 20.0-24.7%) of somatic SNVs in 9 PCNSL overlaps with the RGYW motif targeted by somatic hypermutation (SHM); a median of 7.9% (range: 6.2-12.6%) affects its hotspot position suggesting a major impact of SHM on PCNSL pathogenesis. In addition to the well-known targets of aberrant SHM (aSHM) (PIM1), our data suggest new targets of aSHM (KLHL14, OSBPL10, and SUSD2). Among the four most frequently mutated genes was ODZ4 showing protein-changing mutations in 4/9 PCNSL. Together with mutations affecting CSMD2, CSMD3, and PTPRD, these findings may suggest that alterations in genes having a role in CNS development may facilitate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma manifestation in the CNS. This may point to intriguing mechanisms of CNS tropism in PCNSL.

Laczmanska I, Karpinski P, Kozlowska J, et al.
Copy number alterations of chromosomal regions enclosing protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(12):893-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases that act in different cellular pathways are described most commonly as tumor suppressors, but also as oncogenes. Their role has previously been described in colorectal cancer, as well as in gastric, breast, thyroid, prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, glioma, liver, leukemia and many other cancers. In a previous study, we have described protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type T, M, Z1 and Q genes (PTPRT, PTPRM, PTPRZ1 and PTPRQ) hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer. Thus, in this study, we examined the relation of unbalanced chromosomal alterations within regions covering these four protein tyrosine phosphatase genes with this cancer. One hundred and two cancer tissues were molecularly characterized, including analysis of the BRAF and K-ras mutations and methylator phenotype. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed using Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We observed amplification of three regions containing genes coding for PTPs, such as PTPRZ1 (7q31.3, amplified in 23.5% of cases), PTPRQ (12q21.2, amplified in 5.9% of cases), PTPRT (20q12, amplified in 29.4% of cases), along with deletions in the region of PTPRM (18p11.2, deleted in 21.6% of cases). These data may suggest that in sporadic colorectal cancer PTPRZ1, PTPRT, PTPRQ probably act as oncogenes, while PTPRM acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Our study also revealed that gains on chromosome 20q12 and losses on chromosome 18p11.2 are connected with the absence of the BRAF mutation and the conventional adenocarcinoma pathway.

Ortiz B, White JR, Wu WH, Chan TA
Deletion of Ptprd and Cdkn2a cooperate to accelerate tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6976-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
PTPRD encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D and is frequently inactivated across many human cancers. Despite its frequent inactivation, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. PTPRD is located on chromosome 9p, as is CDKN2A, and the two loci are frequently deleted together. Here, we show that co-deletion of Ptprd and Cdkn2a cooperate to accelerate tumorigenesis. Interestingly,heterozygous loss of Ptprd was sufficient to promote tumorigenesis in our model, suggesting that Ptprd may be a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The loss of Ptprd resulted in changes to the tumor spectrum in mice and increased the frequency of lymphomas. In total, we reveal that Ptprd is a tumor suppressor that can promote tumorigenesis in concert with Cdkn2a loss.

Walia V, Prickett TD, Kim JS, et al.
Mutational and functional analysis of the tumor-suppressor PTPRD in human melanoma.
Hum Mutat. 2014; 35(11):1301-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a "substrate trap" form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell-cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers.

Ortiz B, Fabius AW, Wu WH, et al.
Loss of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPRD leads to aberrant STAT3 activation and promotes gliomagenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(22):8149-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
PTPRD, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-δ, is one of the most frequently inactivated genes across human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). PTPRD undergoes both deletion and mutation in cancers, with copy number loss comprising the primary mode of inactivation in GBM. However, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo, and the mechanistic basis of PTPRD function in tumors is unclear. Here, using genomic analysis and a glioma mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of Ptprd accelerates tumor formation and define the oncogenic context in which Ptprd loss acts. Specifically, we show that in human GBMs, heterozygous loss of PTPRD is the predominant type of lesion and that loss of PTPRD and the CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor frequently co-occur. Accordingly, heterozygous loss of Ptprd cooperates with p16 deletion to drive gliomagenesis in mice. Moreover, loss of the Ptprd phosphatase resulted in phospho-Stat3 accumulation and constitutive activation of Stat3-driven genetic programs. Surprisingly, the consequences of Ptprd loss are maximal in the heterozygous state, demonstrating a tight dependence on gene dosage. Ptprd loss did not increase cell proliferation but rather altered pathways governing the macrophage response. In total, we reveal that PTPRD is a bona fide tumor suppressor, pinpoint PTPRD loss as a cause of aberrant STAT3 activation in gliomas, and establish PTPRD loss, in the setting of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) deletion, as a driver of glioma progression.

Zhang S, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al.
Transcriptome profiling of a multiple recurrent muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder by deep sequencing.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91466 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is one of the commonly diagnosed cancers in the world. The UCB has the highest rate of recurrence of any malignancy. A genome-wide screening of transcriptome dysregulation between cancer and normal tissue would provide insight into the molecular basis of UCB recurrence and is a key step to discovering biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. Compared with microarray technology, which is commonly used to identify expression level changes, the recently developed RNA-seq technique has the ability to detect other abnormal regulations in the cancer transcriptome, such as alternative splicing. In this study, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing at ∼50× coverage on a recurrent muscle-invasive cisplatin-resistance UCB tissue and the adjacent non-tumor tissue. The results revealed cancer-specific differentially expressed genes between the tumor and non-tumor tissue enriched in the cell adhesion molecules, focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction pathway. Five dysregulated genes, including CDH1, VEGFA, PTPRF, CLDN7, and MMP2 were confirmed by Real time qPCR in the sequencing samples and the additional eleven samples. Our data revealed that more than three hundred genes showed differential splicing patterns between tumor tissue and non-tumor tissue. Among these genes, we filtered 24 cancer-associated alternative splicing genes with differential exon usage. The findings from RNA-Seq were validated by Real time qPCR for CD44, PDGFA, NUMB, and LPHN2. This study provides a comprehensive survey of the UCB transcriptome, which provides better insight into the complexity of regulatory changes during recurrence and metastasis.

Wang L, Sato-Otsubo A, Sugita S, et al.
High-resolution genomic copy number profiling of primary intraocular lymphoma by single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(5):592-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is a rare lymphoma. Because of difficulties in obtaining tissue samples, little is known about the disease's genetic features. In order to clarify these features, we carried out single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping of IOL using genomic DNA extracted from vitreous fluid. We analyzed 33 samples of IOLs consisting of 16 PIOLs, 12 IOLs with a central nervous system (CNS) lesion at diagnosis (IOCNSL), and five secondary IOLs following systemic lymphoma. All were B-cell type. We identified recurrent copy number (CN) gain regions in PIOLs, most frequently on chromosome 1q followed by 18q and 19q. Chromosome 6q was the most frequent loss region. Although these CN gain regions of PIOL were in common with those of IOCNSL, loss of 6q22.33 containing PTPRK and 9p21.3 containing CDKN2A were more frequently deleted in IOCNSL. Large CN loss in 6q was detected in three of four PIOL patients who had early CNS development and short survival periods, whereas long-term survivors did not have such deletions. There was a correlation between gain of the IL-10 gene located on 1q and intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration, which was higher in IOL than in benign uveitis. The results suggest that IOCNSL is a highly malignant form of PIOL that infiltrates into the CNS at an early stage. They also indicate that genetic differences between PIOL and primary CNS lymphoma need to be clarified.

Bera R, Chiou CY, Yu MC, et al.
Functional genomics identified a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F-mediated growth inhibition in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(6):2238-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: It is unclear how proliferating cells elicit suppression on cell proliferation and how cancer cells evade this growth suppression. Using a loss-of-function screening of the human kinome and phosphatome to identify genes suppressing tumor initiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we identified 19 genes and characterized one of the top-scoring tumor suppressor candidates, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F (PTPRF). We found that PTPRF was induced during cell proliferation by cell-cell contact. Ectopic expression of wild-type PTPRF, but not the phosphatase-inactive mutant, suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation in soft-agar assays. In contrast, PTPRF silencing led to cell hyperproliferation, enhanced tumor colony formation in soft agar, and increased xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistically, PTPRF silencing showed aberrant ERK-dependent signaling including the phosphorylation/stabilization of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) through the direct activation of v-src avian sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC) and suppression of PP2A. This PTPRF-mediated growth suppression during cell proliferation functioned independently of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Clinically, PTPRF was down-regulated in 42% HCC (37/89), 67% gastric cancer (27/40), and 100% colorectal cancer (40/40). PTPRF up-regulation was found in 24% HCC (21/89) and associated with better clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSION: A novel PTPRF-mediated growth suppression pathway was identified by way of a functional genomics screening in human hepatoma cells. Induction of PTPRF by cell-cell contact during cell proliferation quenched the activated ERK-dependent proliferation signaling to prevent cell hyperproliferation and tumor initiation. PTPRF down-regulation in HCC facilitated tumor development. Our findings shed light on how cancer cells can evade growth suppression and open a new avenue for future development of anticancer therapies.

Liu F, You X, Chi X, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(2):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3'UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

Lui VW, Peyser ND, Ng PK, et al.
Frequent mutation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases provides a mechanism for STAT3 hyperactivation in head and neck cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):1114-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
The underpinnings of STAT3 hyperphosphorylation resulting in enhanced signaling and cancer progression are incompletely understood. Loss-of-function mutations of enzymes that dephosphorylate STAT3, such as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are encoded by the PTPR gene family, represent a plausible mechanism of STAT3 hyperactivation. We analyzed whole exome sequencing (n = 374) and reverse-phase protein array data (n = 212) from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). PTPR mutations are most common and are associated with significantly increased phospho-STAT3 expression in HNSCC tumors. Expression of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) mutant proteins induces STAT3 phosphorylation and cell survival, consistent with a "driver" phenotype. Computational modeling reveals functional consequences of PTPRT mutations on phospho-tyrosine-substrate interactions. A high mutation rate (30%) of PTPRs was found in HNSCC and 14 other solid tumors, suggesting that PTPR alterations, in particular PTPRT mutations, may define a subset of patients where STAT3 pathway inhibitors hold particular promise as effective therapeutic agents.

Stevenson WS, Best OG, Przybylla A, et al.
DNA methylation of membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):787-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA promoter methylation with associated gene silencing is a common epigenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and is associated with poor survival. We have identified a family of transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase proteins as targets of hypermethylation in ALL and high-grade B cell lymphoma and demonstrated that this abnormal methylation correlates with transcript expression. PTPRG was methylated in 63% of ALL samples, PTPRK in 47%, PTPRM in 64% and PTPRO in 54% of cases, with most ALL samples containing methylation at multiple phosphatase loci. PTPRK promoter methylation was associated with a decreased overall survival in the cohort. Restoration of PTPRK transcript levels in leukaemia cells, where phosphatase transcript was silenced, reduced cell proliferation, inhibited colony formation and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy. These biological changes were associated with a reduction in levels of phosphorylated Erk1/2, Akt, STAT3 and STAT5 suggesting functional phosphatase activity after transcript re-expression. Methylation of the phosphatase promoters was reversible with decitabine and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that PTPRK-mediated cell signalling pathways may be targeted with epigenetic therapies in lymphoid malignancy.

Boeva V, Jouannet S, Daveau R, et al.
Breakpoint features of genomic rearrangements in neuroblastoma with unbalanced translocations and chromothripsis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72182 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the peripheral nervous system in which structural chromosome aberrations are emblematic of aggressive tumors. In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of somatic rearrangements in two neuroblastoma cell lines and two primary tumors using paired-end sequencing of mate-pair libraries and RNA-seq. The cell lines presented with typical genetic alterations of neuroblastoma and the two tumors belong to the group of neuroblastoma exhibiting a profile of chromothripsis. Inter and intra-chromosomal rearrangements were identified in the four samples, allowing in particular characterization of unbalanced translocations at high resolution. Using complementary experiments, we further characterized 51 rearrangements at the base pair resolution that revealed 59 DNA junctions. In a subset of cases, complex rearrangements were observed with templated insertion of fragments of nearby sequences. Although we did not identify known particular motifs in the local environment of the breakpoints, we documented frequent microhomologies at the junctions in both chromothripsis and non-chromothripsis associated breakpoints. RNA-seq experiments confirmed expression of several predicted chimeric genes and genes with disrupted exon structure including ALK, NBAS, FHIT, PTPRD and ODZ4. Our study therefore indicates that both non-homologous end joining-mediated repair and replicative processes may account for genomic rearrangements in neuroblastoma. RNA-seq analysis allows the identification of the subset of abnormal transcripts expressed from genomic rearrangements that may be involved in neuroblastoma oncogenesis.

Jiang Y, Janku F, Subbiah V, et al.
Germline PTPRD mutations in Ewing sarcoma: biologic and clinical implications.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(6):884-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma occurs in children, adolescents and young adults. High STAT3 levels have been reported in approximately 50% of patients with Ewing sarcoma, and may be important in tumorigenesis. Protein tyrosine phosphatase delta (PTPRD) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits STAT3 activation. To date, while somatic mutations in PTPRD have been reported in diverse tumors, germline mutations of PTPRD have not been investigated in Ewing sarcoma or other cancers. We identified a novel germline mutation in the PTPRD gene in three of eight patients (37.5%) with metastatic Ewing sarcoma. Although the functional impact in two of the patients is unclear, in one of them the aberration was annotated as a W775stop germline mutation, and would be expected to lead to gene truncation and, hence, loss of the STAT3 dephosphorylation function of PTPRD. Since STAT3 is phosphorylated after being recruited to the insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), suppression of IGF-1R could attenuate the enhanced STAT3 activation expected in the presence of PTPRD mutations. Of interest, two of three patients with germline PTPRD mutations achieved durable complete responses following treatment with IGF-1R monoclonal antibody-based therapies. Our pilot data suggest that PTPRD germline mutations may play a role in the development of Ewing sarcoma, a disease of young people, and their presence may have implications for therapy.

Agarwal S, Al-Keilani MS, Alqudah MA, et al.
Tumor derived mutations of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type k affect its function and alter sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in glioma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e62852 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in malignant gliomas is mainly due to the highly dispersive nature of glioma cells. This dispersive characteristic results from genetic alterations in key regulators of cell migration and diffusion. A better understanding of these regulatory signals holds promise to improve overall survival and response to therapy. Using mapping arrays to screen for genomic alterations in gliomas, we recently identified alterations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type kappa gene (PTPRK) that correlate to patient outcomes. These PTPRK alterations are very relevant to glioma biology as PTPRK can directly sense cell-cell contact and is a dephosphorylation regulator of tyrosine phosphorylation signaling, which is a major driving force behind tumor development and progression. Subsequent sequencing of the full length PTPRK transcripts revealed novel PTPRK gene deletion and missense mutations in numerous glioma biopsies. PTPRK mutations were cloned and expressed in PTPRK-null malignant glioma cells. The effect of these mutations on PTPRK anti-oncogenic function and their association with response to anti-glioma therapeutics, such as temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, was subsequently analyzed using in vitro cell-based assays. These genetic variations altered PTPRK activity and its post-translational processing. Reconstitution of wild-type PTPRK in malignant glioma cell lines suppressed cell growth and migration by inhibiting EGFR and β-catenin signaling and improved the effect of conventional therapies for glioma. However, PTPRK mutations abrogated tumor suppressive effects of wild-type PTPRK and altered sensitivity of glioma cells to chemotherapy.

Sun PH, Ye L, Mason MD, Jiang WG
Protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK) is a negative regulator of adhesion and invasion of breast cancer cells, and associates with poor prognosis of breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(7):1129-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK) has been shown to exhibit homophilic binding. It is a putative tumour suppressor in primary central nervous system lymphomas and colorectal cancer. The present study investigated the expression of PTPRK in breast cancer and the biological impact of PTPRK on breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Expression of PTPRK protein and gene transcript was examined in a cohort of breast cancer patients. The association of PTPRK transcript level and pathological and clinical aspects was then analysed. Knockdown of PTPRK in breast cancer cells was performed using a specific anti-PTPRK transgene. The impact of PTPRK knockdown on breast cancer cells was investigated using in vitro cell function assays.
RESULTS: Lower levels of PTPRK transcripts were seen in the advanced breast cancer. The reduced PTPRK transcript levels were associated with poor prognosis of the disease. PTPRK transcript levels were decreased in the primary tumours of patients who died from breast cancer or had metastases. Patients with lower expression of PTPRK had shorter survival compared with those higher expression levels of PTPRK. Knockdown of PTPRK resulted in increased proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of PTPRK in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis. PTPRK is a negative regulator of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of breast cancer cells. This suggests that PTPRK is a potential tumour suppressor in breast cancer.

Du WW, Fang L, Li M, et al.
MicroRNA miR-24 enhances tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting PTPN9 and PTPRF to promote EGF signaling.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 6):1440-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are known to play regulatory roles in gene expression associated with cancer development. We analyzed levels of the microRNA miR-24 in patients with breast carcinoma and found that miR-24 was higher in breast carcinoma samples than in benign breast tissues. We generated constructs expressing miR-24 and studied its functions using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. We found that the ectopic expression of miR-24 promoted breast cancer cell invasion and migration. In vivo experiments in mice indicated that the expression of miR-24 enhanced tumor growth, invasion into local tissues, metastasis to lung tissues and decreased overall mouse survival. In the miR-24-expressing cells and tumors, EGFR was highly phosphorylated, whereas expression of the phosphatases tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (PTPN9) and receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase F (PTPRF) were repressed. We confirmed that miR-24 could directly target both PTPN9 and PTPRF. Consistent with this, we found that the levels of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) were higher whereas the levels of PTPN9 and PTPRF were lower in the patients with metastatic breast carcinoma. Ectopic expression of PTPN9 and PTPRF decreased pEGFR levels, cell invasion, migration and tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we found that MMP2, MMP11, pErk, and ADAM15 were upregulated, whereas TIMP2 was downregulated; all of which supported the roles of miR-24 in tumor invasion and metastasis. Our results suggest that miR-24 plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. miR-24 could potentially be a target for cancer intervention.

DaSilva JO, Amorino GP, Casarez EV, et al.
Neuroendocrine-derived peptides promote prostate cancer cell survival through activation of IGF-1R signaling.
Prostate. 2013; 73(8):801-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells promote the progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant state through the production of paracrine growth factors. We have demonstrated this principle using in vitro and in vivo proliferative endpoints; however, the contributions of NE-derived pro-survival factors and anti-apoptosis to this phenomenon have not been thoroughly investigated.
METHODS: Here, we utilized conditioned-medium (CM) from LNCaP cells, engineered to undergo NE differentiation, and examined its effects on PC3 and LNCaP cell survival.
RESULTS: Statistically significant changes in clonogenic survival, Annexin V staining, PARP cleavage and trypan blue positivity of approximately twofold were observed in the presence of NE-derived CM relative to control-CM for both LNCaP and PC3 cells. These changes were partially abrogated by antagonists of the neuropeptides neurotensin, bombesin, and PTHrP. Selective inhibitors of IGF-1R, EGFR or Src caused significant and nearly complete blockade of prostate cancer cell survival due to NE secretions. Similar increases in cell survival were observed for LNCaP or PC3 cells treated with NE-derived medium in the presence of docetaxel. Increased phosphorylation of IGF-1R, following treatment with NE-derived medium, was accompanied by decreased protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type F (PTPRF) mRNA, and protein levels. Overexpression of PTPRF decreased cell survival, the amplitude and duration of IGF-1R phosphorylation, and enhanced PARP cleavage in the presence of NE-derived medium.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that NE-derived factors act upon prostate cancer cells to stimulate pro-survival signaling and describe a novel mechanism of cross-talk between NE-derived factors and IGF-1R, mediated in part by PTPRF.

Sun PH, Ye L, Mason MD, Jiang WG
Protein tyrosine phosphatase µ (PTP µ or PTPRM), a negative regulator of proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells, is associated with disease prognosis.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PTPRM has been shown to exhibit homophilic binding and confer cell-cell adhesion in cells including epithelial and cancer cells. The present study investigated the expression of PTPRM in breast cancer and the biological impact of PTPRM on breast cancer cells.
DESIGN: Expression of PTPRM protein and gene transcript was examined in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Knockdown of PTPRM in breast cancer cells was performed using a specific anti-PTPRM transgene. The impact of PTPRM knockdown on breast cancer was evaluated using in vitro cell models.
RESULTS: A significant decrease of PTPRM transcripts was seen in poorly differentiated and moderately differentiated tumours compared with well differentiated tumours. Patients with lower expression of PTPRM had shorter survival compared with those which had a higher level of PTPRM expression. Knockdown of PTPRM increased proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PTPRM in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in increased cell migration and invasion via regulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK and JNK.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of PTPRM in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis and inversely correlated with disease free survival. PTPRM coordinated cell migration and invasion through the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK and JNK.

Laczmanska I, Karpinski P, Bebenek M, et al.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes are frequently hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2013; 58(1):11-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activity of phosphatases could be influenced by genetic, as well as epigenetic alterations. In our study, we have investigated the methylation status of four PTPRs: PTPRM, PTPRT, PTPRR and PTPRZ1, which were pre-selected using microarray techniques as being alternatively methylated in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The analyses were carried out on 131 surgical specimens obtained from sporadic CRC patients. The methylation status of the four genes was examined using methyl specific PCR (MSP). The analysis of promoter methylation using an Illumina 27K microarray revealed four protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPRM, PTPRT, PTPRR and PTPRZ1 as being hypermethylated with β-value ≥0.2 and P≤0.05. Subsequent analysis using MSP confirmed these observations-the frequency of promoter methylation was significantly higher in tumor cells compared with matched normal tissue for each of the analyzed genes. There was no association observed between the methylation status of PTPRs and either CIMP, K-ras (codon 12) and BRAF (exon 15, V600E) mutations or tumor localization (proximal/distal). The results of our study show a statistically significant difference between promoter methylation in cancerous and healthy tissue. This result supports the hypothesis that the PTPR family has an important role in the etiology of CRC.

Du Y, Su T, Tan X, et al.
Polymorphism in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta is associated with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2013; 512(1):64-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common urological malignancy. Our previous study has indicated that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) gene may play a role. To determine the effect of PTPRD genetic polymorphisms on ccRCC occurrence and progression, a total of 377 ccRCC cases and 754 matched controls were enrolled in the study. DNA sequencing and genotyping, and immunohistochemistry were conducted to test the associations of genotypes with ccRCC risk and PTPRD expression level in somatic tissues. The C allele of PTPRD rs2279776 was associated with a higher risk of ccRCC (per allele OR=1.23, P=0.03). Patients without distant metastasis at the time of surgery were followed for a median of 33.1months. Overall survival was not different between different rs2279776 genotype groups (P=0.30). The C allele was associated with a higher percentage of negative immunostaining in adjacent normal renal tissues (P=0.02). PTPRD rs2279776 SNP may be a novel genetic risk factor of ccRCC.

Hao JJ, Gong T, Zhang Y, et al.
Characterization of gene rearrangements resulted from genomic structural aberrations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE150 cells.
Gene. 2013; 513(1):196-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements and involved genes have been reported to play important roles in the development and progression of human malignancies. But the gene rearrangements in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain to be identified. In the present study, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was performed on the ESCC cell line KYSE150. Eight disrupted genes were detected according to the obviously distinct unbalanced breakpoints. The splitting of these genes was validated by dual-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), genome walking and sequencing analysis, we further identified gene disruptions and rearrangements. A fusion transcript DTL-1q42.2 was derived from an intrachromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 1. Highly amplified segments of DTL and PTPRD were self-rearranged. The sequences on either side of the junctions possess micro-homology with each other. FISH results indicated that the split DTL and PTPRD were also involved in comprising parts of the derivative chromosomes resulted from t(1q;9p;12p) and t(9;1;9). Further, we found that regions harboring DTL (1q32.3) and PTPRD (9p23) were also splitting in ESCC tumors. The data supplement significant information on the existing genetic background of KYSE150, which may be used as a model for studying these gene rearrangements.

Kamada Y, Sakata-Yanagimoto M, Sanada M, et al.
Identification of unbalanced genome copy number abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray analysis.
Int J Hematol. 2012; 96(4):492-500 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray (SNP array) analysis provides detailed information on chromosomal copy number aberrations. To obtain detailed information on genomic abnormalities related to pathogenesis or prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM), we performed 250K SNP array analysis in 39 MM patients and 11 cell lines. We identified an accumulation of deletions and uniparental disomies at 22q12.1. Among the hyperdiploid MM cases, chromosomal imbalance at this locus was associated with poor prognosis. On sequencing, we also found a mutation in the seizure-related 6 homolog (mouse)-like (SEZ6L) gene located at ch.22q12.1 in an MM cell line, NOP1. We further found isolated deletions in 17 genes, five of which are known tumor suppressor genes. Of these, deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD) was found in three samples, including two patients. Consistent with previous reports, non-hyperdiploid MM, deletion of 13q (del13q) and gain of 1q in non-hyperdiploid MMs were predictive of poor prognosis (p = 0.039, p = 0.049, and p = 0.013, respectively). However, our analysis revealed that unless accompanied by gain of 1q, the prognosis of non-hyperdiploid MM was as good as that of hyperdiploid MM. Thus, SNP array analysis provides significant information useful to understanding the pathogenesis and prognosis of MM.

Fernández-Martos C, Nogué M, Cejas P, et al.
The role of capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer treatment: an update.
Drugs. 2012; 72(8):1057-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preoperative infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and concurrent radiation therapy (RT) followed by total mesorectal surgery is the current standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LAR). When compared with postoperative 5-FU-based chemoradiation, this strategy is associated with significantly lower rates of local relapse, lower toxicity and better compliance. Capecitabine is a rationally designed oral prodrug that is converted into 5-FU by intracellular thymidine phosphorylase. Substitution of infusional 5-FU with capecitabine is an attractive option that provides a more convenient administration schedule and, possibly, increased efficacy. Indeed, incorporation of capecitabine in combined modality neoadjuvant therapy for LAR has been under intense investigation during the last 10 years. Phase I and II clinical trials showed that a regimen consisting of capecitabine 825mg/m(2) twice daily for 7 days/week continuous oral administration in combination with RT is an active and well tolerated regimen, thereby being the preferred concurrent regimen. The definitive demonstration that efficacy of capecitabine/RT is similar to 5-FU/RT has been provided by the NSABP-R-04 and the German Margit trials. One approach to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to deliver a second RT-sensitizing drug with effective systemic activity. Oxaliplatin and irinotecan are therefore good candidates. However, two phase III trials demonstrated that incorporation of oxaliplatin to capecitabine with RT did not improve early outcomes and, by contrast, increased toxicity. Capecitabine has also been combined with irinotecan. This regimen showed encouraging results in phase I and II clinical trials, which led to an ongoing phase III clinical trial. New strategies with induction chemotherapy with or without chemoradiation prior to surgery are currently under investigation. Whether or not capecitabine has a role in this setting is being investigated in ongoing trials. Incorporation of agents directed towards new targets, such as anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies or antiangiogenic agents, in combination preoperative regimens, is being hampered by results of early trials in which efficacy outcomes with cetuximab were poor and an excessive rate of surgical complications with bevacizumab was observed. The lack of improvements in efficacy with the addition of cetuximab or bevacizumab in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer led to concerns about further development of these agents in rectal cancer. The role of capecitabine in the postoperative adjuvant setting is the aim of the ongoing Dutch SCRIPT trial. The prediction of response associated with capecitabine has been based on expression of thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, as well as on gene expression arrays. All these procedures require further validation and should be considered as investigational. In conclusion, capecitabine can safely and effectively replace intravenous continuous infusion of 5-FU in the preoperative chemoradiation setting for rectal cancer management. The addition of other new antineoplastic agents to a fluoropyrimidine-based regimen remains investigational.

Clark O, Schmidt F, Coles CH, et al.
Functional analysis of the putative tumor suppressor PTPRD in neuroblastoma cells.
Cancer Invest. 2012; 30(5):422-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene encoding PTPδ is mutated or downregulated in human cancers including neuroblastoma. Here, we functionally tested the tumor-suppressive potential of PTPδ in neuroblastoma cell lines by reconstitution of both short and long PTPδ isoforms. We did not observe any significant difference in colony forming ability between cells expressing wild-type or catalytically inactive PTPδ. Although endogenous PTPδ expression was very low in neuroblastoma cells, it was also low in mouse embryo adrenal glands, suggesting that PTPδ may have little developmental function in early adrenal neuroblasts. This study, therefore, questions the significance of PTPδ as a tumor suppressor protein in neuroblastoma.

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