Gene Summary

Gene:RXRB; retinoid X receptor beta
Aliases: NR2B2, DAUDI6, RCoR-1, H-2RIIBP
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the effects of retinoic acid (RA). The encoded protein forms homodimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region on chromosome 6. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RXRB (cancer-related)

Zhang H, Li L, Chen Q, et al.
PGC1β regulates multiple myeloma tumor growth through LDHA-mediated glycolytic metabolism.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(9):1579-1595 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematologic malignancy due to inevitable relapse and chemoresistance development. Our preliminary data show that MM cells express high levels of PGC1β and LDHA. In this study, we investigated the mechanism behind PGC1β-mediated LDHA expression and its contribution to tumorigenesis, to aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for MM. Real-time PCR and western blotting were first used to evaluate gene expression of PGC1β and LDHA in different MM cells, and then, luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, LDHA deletion report vectors, and siRNA techniques were used to investigate the mechanism underlying PGC1β-induced LDHA expression. Furthermore, knockdown cell lines and lines stably overexpressing PGC1β or LDHA lentivirus were established to evaluate in vitro glycolysis metabolism, mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and cell proliferation. In addition, in vivo xenograft tumor development studies were performed to investigate the effect of PGC1β or LDHA expression on tumor growth and mouse survival. We found that PGC1β and LDHA are highly expressed in different MM cells and LDHA is upregulated by PGC1β through the PGC1β/RXRβ axis acting on the LDHA promoter. Overexpression of PGC1β or LDHA significantly potentiated glycolysis metabolism with increased cell proliferation and tumor growth. On the other hand, knockdown of PGC1β or LDHA largely suppressed glycolysis metabolism with increased ROS formation and apoptosis rate, in addition to suppressing tumor growth and enhancing mouse survival. This is the first time the mechanism underlying PGC1β-mediated LDHA expression in multiple myeloma has been identified. We conclude that PGC1β regulates multiple myeloma tumor growth through LDHA-mediated glycolytic metabolism. Targeting the PGC1β/LDHA pathway may be a novel therapeutic strategy for multiple myeloma treatment.

Peng CH, Jiang YZ, Tai AS, et al.
Causal inference of gene regulation with subnetwork assembly from genetical genomics data.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(5):2803-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deciphering the causal networks of gene interactions is critical for identifying disease pathways and disease-causing genes. We introduce a method to reconstruct causal networks based on exploring phenotype-specific modules in the human interactome and including the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) that underlie the joint expression variation of each module. Closely associated eQTLs help anchor the orientation of the network. To overcome the inherent computational complexity of causal network reconstruction, we first deduce the local causality of individual subnetworks using the selected eQTLs and module transcripts. These subnetworks are then integrated to infer a global causal network using a random-field ranking method, which was motivated by animal sociology. We demonstrate how effectively the inferred causality restores the regulatory structure of the networks that mediate lymph node metastasis in oral cancer. Network rewiring clearly characterizes the dynamic regulatory systems of distinct disease states. This study is the first to associate an RXRB-causal network with increased risks of nodal metastasis, tumor relapse, distant metastases and poor survival for oral cancer. Thus, identifying crucial upstream drivers of a signal cascade can facilitate the discovery of potential biomarkers and effective therapeutic targets.

Feng D, Wu J, Tian Y, et al.
Targeting of histone deacetylases to reactivate tumour suppressor genes and its therapeutic potential in a human cervical cancer xenograft model.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant histone acetylation plays an essential role in the neoplastic process via the epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs); therefore, the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) has become a promising target in cancer therapeutics. To investigate the correlation of histone acetylation with clinicopathological features and TSG expression, we examined the expression of acetylated H3 (AcH3), RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in 65 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. The results revealed that the absence of AcH3 was directly associated with poor histological differentiation and nodal metastasis as well as reduced/negative expression of RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in clinical tumour samples. We further demonstrated that the clinically available HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), can overcome the epigenetic barriers to transcription of RARβ2 in human cervical cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the combination treatment increased the enrichment of acetylated histone in the RARβ2-RARE promoter region. In view of these findings, we evaluated the antitumor effects induced by combined VPA and ATRA treatment in a xenograft model implanted with poorly differentiated human squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, VPA restored RARβ2 expression via epigenetic modulation. Additive antitumour effects were produced in tumour xenografts by combining VPA with ATRA treatment. Mechanistically, the combination treatment reactivated the expression of TSGs RARβ2, E-cadherin, P21 (CIP1) , and P53 and reduced the level of p-Stat3. Sequentially, upregulation of involucrin and loricrin, which indicate terminal differentiation, strongly contributed to tumour growth inhibition along with partial apoptosis. In conclusion, targeted therapy with HDAC inhibitors and RARβ2 agonists may represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

Karami S, Andreotti G, Koutros S, et al.
Pesticide exposure and inherited variants in vitamin d pathway genes in relation to prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(9):1557-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D and its metabolites are believed to impede carcinogenesis by stimulating cell differentiation, inhibiting cell proliferation, and inducing apoptosis. Certain pesticides have been shown to deregulate vitamin D's anticarcinogenic properties. We hypothesize that certain pesticides may be linked to prostate cancer via an interaction with vitamin D genetic variants.
METHODS: We evaluated interactions between 41 pesticides and 152 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in nine vitamin D pathway genes among 776 prostate cancer cases and 1,444 male controls in a nested case-control study of Caucasian pesticide applicators within the Agricultural Health Study. We assessed Pinteraction values using likelihood ratio tests from unconditional logistic regression and a false discovery rate (FDR) to account for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Five significant interactions (P < 0.01) displayed a monotonic increase in prostate cancer risk with individual pesticide use in one genotype and no association in the other. These interactions involved parathion and terbufos use and three vitamin D genes (VDR, RXRB, and GC). The exposure-response pattern among participants with increasing parathion use with the homozygous CC genotype for GC rs7041 compared with unexposed participants was noteworthy [low vs. no exposure: OR, 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-6.25; high vs. no exposure: OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 1.10-8.68; Pinteraction = 3.8 × 10(-3)].
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, genetic variations in vitamin D pathway genes, particularly GC rs7041, an SNP previously linked to lower circulating vitamin D levels, modified pesticide associations with prostate cancer risk.
IMPACT: Because our study is the first to examine this relationship, additional studies are needed to rule out chance findings.

Gauchotte G, Lacomme S, Brochin L, et al.
Retinoid acid receptor expression is helpful to distinguish between adenoma and well-differentiated carcinoma in the thyroid.
Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(6):619-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoid receptors (RRs) play a key role in cell proliferation and differentiation. We characterized the expression of RA receptors and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs) in a series of 111 thyroid tumors and investigated the mechanisms responsible for their deregulation: hypermethylation of the RARB2 promoter, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the regions of RARB and RXRA, and altered expression of CRBP1 and enzymes involved in RA biosynthesis (RDH10 and RALDH2). Expression of RALDH2 and RDH10 was conserved in 100 % of adenomas and in 90 and 98 %, respectively, of carcinomas, whereas staining for CRBP1 was decreased in 9 % of FAs and 28 % of carcinomas, mainly anaplastic carcinomas (55 %). We found an abnormal expression of RARA, RARB, RXRA, and RXRB in 67, 69, 66, and 73 %, respectively, of thyroid carcinomas (n = 78) and in 9, 9, 9, and 33 % of follicular adenomas (n = 33) (p < 0.001). An abnormal staining pattern of at least two of these markers had 90 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity for a diagnosis of malignancy. Promoter hypermethylation of RARB2 was observed in some anaplastic carcinomas (14 %). LOH was found to be common at the RARB locus (3p24-3p25) and the RXRA locus (9q34), respectively, in 44 and 55 % of carcinomas and in 27 and 43 % of adenomas. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for RARs and RXRs may help in the differential diagnosis between well-differentiated carcinoma and follicular adenoma. Further investigation should be carried out to determine whether the characterization of RR expression might identify patients who could benefit from therapy with RA derivatives.

Kim YW, Kwon C, Liu JL, et al.
Cancer association study of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase signaling network in glioblastoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e40960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) and ARS-interacting multifunctional proteins (AIMPs) exhibit remarkable functional versatility beyond their catalytic activities in protein synthesis. Their non-canonical functions have been pathologically linked to cancers. Here we described our integrative genome-wide analysis of ARSs to show cancer-associated activities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. We first selected 23 ARS/AIMPs (together referred to as ARSN), 124 cancer-associated druggable target genes (DTGs) and 404 protein-protein interactors (PPIs) of ARSs using NCI's cancer gene index. 254 GBM affymetrix microarray data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to identify the probe sets whose expression were most strongly correlated with survival (Kaplan-Meier plots versus survival times, log-rank t-test <0.05). The analysis identified 122 probe sets as survival signatures, including 5 of ARSN (VARS, QARS, CARS, NARS, FARS), and 115 of DTGs and PPIs (PARD3, RXRB, ATP5C1, HSP90AA1, CD44, THRA, TRAF2, KRT10, MED12, etc). Of note, 61 survival-related probes were differentially expressed in three different prognosis subgroups in GBM patients and showed correlation with established prognosis markers such as age and phenotypic molecular signatures. CARS and FARS also showed significantly higher association with different molecular networks in GBM patients. Taken together, our findings demonstrate evidence for an ARSN biology-dominant contribution in the biology of GBM.

Liu RZ, Graham K, Glubrecht DD, et al.
A fatty acid-binding protein 7/RXRβ pathway enhances survival and proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer.
J Pathol. 2012; 228(3):310-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
FABP7 has been implicated in tumour cell proliferation, cell migration, and poor prognosis in patients with high-grade astrocytoma and melanoma. In this study, we examine FABP7 expression in a cohort of 176 primary breast cancers by gene profiling and tissue microarray immunostaining. We show that FABP7 is significantly up-regulated in triple-negative breast cancer. Elevated FABP7 levels are associated with poor prognosis, absence of oestrogen and progesterone hormone receptors (ER, PR) and HER2, increased cell proliferation, and high tumour grade. Depletion of FABP7 in the ER/PR-negative cell line, MDA-MB-435S, significantly reduced cell growth rate and sensitized the cells to growth inhibition by omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A target of DHA-bound FABP7 in the nucleus is RXRβ, a retinoid-activated nuclear receptor that functions as a transcription factor by either homodimerizing or heterodimerizing with other nuclear receptors such as PPARs. Based on our microarray data, RXRβ, like FABP7, is an adverse prognostic factor for breast cancer. We propose that the DHA-FABP7-RXRβ pathway promotes cell survival/proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer. Targeting this pathway may thus provide an alternate route for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Wang SS, Menashe I, Cerhan JR, et al.
Variations in chromosomes 9 and 6p21.3 with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(1):42-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence linking genetic variations to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. To complement ongoing agnostic approaches for identifying susceptibility genes, we evaluated 488 candidate gene regions and their relation to risk for NHL and NHL subtypes.
METHODS: We genotyped 6,679 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 947 cases and 826 population-based controls from a multicenter U.S. case-control study. Gene-level summary of associations were obtained by computing the minimum P value ("minP test") on the basis of 10,000 permutations. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between genotypes and haplotypes with NHL. For NHL subtypes, we conducted polytomous multivariate unconditional logistic regression (adjusted for sex, race, age). We calculated P-trends under the codominant model for each SNP.
RESULTS: Fourteen gene regions were associated with NHL (P < 0.01). The most significant SNP associated with NHL maps to the SYK gene (rs2991216, P-trend = 0.00005). The three most significant gene regions were on chromosome 6p21.3 (RING1/RXRB; AIF1; BAT4). Accordingly, SNPs in RING1/RXRB (rs2855429), AIF1 (rs2857597), and BAT4 (rs3115667) were associated with NHL (P-trends ≤ 0.0002) and both diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas (P-trends < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest potential importance for SYK on chromosome 9 with NHL etiology. Our results further implicate 6p21.3 gene variants, supporting the need for full characterization of this chromosomal region in relation to lymphomagenesis.
IMPACT: Gene variants on chromosome 9 may represent a new region of interesting for NHL etiology. The independence of the reported variants in 6p21.3 from implicated variants (TNF/HLA) supports the need to confirm causal variants in this region.

Lee SM, Lee JY, Choi JE, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of retinoid X receptor genes in non-small cell lung cancer and the relationship with clinicopathologic features.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 197(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear receptors for retinoids that play a critical role in the regulation of growth and differentiation in normal and tumor cells. Deregulation of RXR expression has been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the mechanism underlying the impaired expression of RXRs in lung cancer is not known. Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is known to be a major mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We investigated the methylation status of the RXR genes in 139 surgically resected NSCLCs and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients. Methylation in the tumors was detected in all three genes: RXRA, 5.7%; RXRB, 4.3%; RXRG, 23.7%. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that RXRG methylation correlates with mRNA expression. Methylation of the RXRG gene was not significantly associated with the prognosis of patients. When the patients were categorized by smoking status, however, the effect of RXRG methylation on prognosis was significantly different between never- and ever-smokers (P=0.003, test for homogeneity). Specifically, RXRG methylation was associated with a significantly worse survival in never-smokers; a trend to better survival outcome was observed for ever-smokers, although not statistically significant. This finding suggests that methylation-associated downregulation of the RXRG gene may play a differential role in the carcinogenesis of NSCLCs according to smoking status, but further studies are needed to confirm this.

Li H, Zhan T, Li C, et al.
Repression of MHC class I transcription by HPV16E7 through interaction with a putative RXRbeta motif and NF-kappaB cytoplasmic sequestration.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 388(2):383-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Down-regulation of transcription of the MHC class I genes in HPV16 tumorigenic cells is partly due to HPV16E7 associated with the MHC class I promoter and repressed chromatin activation. In this study, we further demonstrated that HPV16E7 is physically associated with a putative RXRbeta binding motif (GGTCA) of the proximal promoter of the MHC class I genes by using reporter transcriptional assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data also provide evidence that HPV16E7 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of MHC class I transcription by impaired nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. More importantly, CaSki tumor cells treated with TSA and transfected with the constitutively active mutant form of IKK-alpha (which can activate NF-kappaB directly) showed a maximal level of up-regulation of MHC-I expression. Taken together, our results suggest that HPV16E7 may employ two independent mechanisms to ensure that either the constitutive or inducible transcription of MHC class I genes is down-regulated.

Ahn J, Albanes D, Berndt SI, et al.
Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(5):769-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We systematically investigated the association of 48 SNPS in four vitamin D metabolizing genes [CYP27A1, GC, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1] with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] levels and the association of these SNPS and an additional 164 SNPS in eight downstream mediators of vitamin D signaling [VDR, RXRA, RXRB, PPAR, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3 and SMAD3] with prostate cancer risk in the 749 incident prostate cancer cases and 781 controls of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. 25(OH)D (all cases and controls) and 1,25(OH)(2)D (a subset of 150 controls) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and SNP data were genotyped as part of a genome-wide scan. Among investigated SNPS, only four tag SNPS in GC, the major serum 25(OH)D carrier, were associated with 25(OH)D levels; no SNPS were associated with 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. None of the 212 SNPS examined were associated with cancer risk overall. Among men in the lowest tertile of serum 25(OH)D (<48.9 nmol/l), however, prostate cancer risk was related to tag SNPS in or near the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of VDR, with the strongest association for rs11574143 [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for risk allele carriers versus wild-type: 2.49 (1.51-4.11), P = 0.0007]; the genotype associations were null among men in tertile 2 and tertile 3. Results from the most comprehensive evaluation of serum vitamin D and its related genes to date suggest that tag SNPS in the 3' UTR of VDR may be associated with risk of prostate cancer in men with low vitamin D status.

Hoftijzer HC, Liu YY, Morreau H, et al.
Retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor subtype expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 160(4):631-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although differential expression of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subtypes between benign and malignant thyroid tissues has been described, their diagnostic value has not been reported.
AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of RAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR) subtype protein expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
METHODS: We used a tissue array containing 93 benign thyroid tissues (normal thyroid, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)). Immunostaining was done for RAR and RXR subtypes. Staining was analyzed semiquantitatively based on receiver operating curve analyses and using hierarchical cluster analysis.
RESULTS: We found increased expression of cytoplasmic (c) RARA, cRARG, cRXRB and decreased expression of nuclear (n) RARB, nRARG, and nRXRA in thyroid carcinomas compared with benign tissues. We found three proteins differently expressed between FA and FTC and five proteins differentially expressed between FA and FVPTC, with high diagnostic accuracies. Using cluster analysis, the combination of negative staining of membranous RXRB and positive staining for cRXRB had a high positive predictive value (98%) for malignant thyroid disease, whereas the combination of positive nRXRA and negative cRXRB staining had a high predictive value (91%) for benign thyroid lesions.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that differences in RAR and RXR subtype protein expression may be valuable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. The results of this study and especially the value of cluster analysis have to be confirmed in subsequent studies.

Elizondo G, Medina-Díaz IM, Cruz R, et al.
Retinoic acid modulates retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 gene expression through the induction of GADD153-C/EBPbeta interaction.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2009; 77(2):248-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammalian class I aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the hormone retinoic acid (RA), which modulates gene expression and cell differentiation. RA has been shown to mediate control of human ALDH1 gene expression through modulation of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta). The positive activation of these transcription factors on the ALDH1 promoter is inhibited by RA through a decrease of C/EBPbeta binding to the ALDH1 CCAAT box response element. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Here we report that the RARalpha/retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) complex binds to the mouse retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1) promoter at a non-consensus RA response element (RARE) with similar affinity to that of the consensus RARE. We found that C/EBPbeta binds to a Raldh1 CCAAT box located at -82/-58bp, adjacent to the RARE. Treatment with RA increases GADD153 and GADD153-C/EBPbeta interaction resulting in a decreased cellular availability of C/EBPbeta for binding to the Raldh1 CCAAT box. These data support a model in which high RA levels inhibit Raldh1 gene expression by sequestering C/EBPbeta through its interaction to GADD153.

Tan KP, Kosuge K, Yang M, Ito S
NRF2 as a determinant of cellular resistance in retinoic acid cytotoxicity.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2008; 45(12):1663-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical use of retinoic acids (RA) is hindered by toxicity possibly related to oxidative stress. Recently, RA at relatively low concentrations was shown to inhibit NRF2 and the expression of its target antioxidative genes. This raises the possibility that RA toxicity may result from cellular inability to cope with resultant oxidative stress. Using in vitro cell and in vivo mouse models, we report that RA, specifically all-trans-RA (atRA) at concentrations implicated in toxicity, can activate NRF2 and induce NRF2 target genes, particularly the subunits of the rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione biosynthesis, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM/GCLC). RNA interference-mediated silencing of NRF2, but not of retinoid X receptor-alpha and -beta, reduced basal and atRA-induced GCLM/GCLC gene expression. Moreover, RA increased nuclear accumulation of NRF2, antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter activity, and NRF2 occupancy at AREs. 4-Hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation product, was increased by RA. Inhibition of MEK1/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases significantly suppressed atRA-induced NRF2 activation and ARE-regulated gene expression, reducing cell resistance against toxic concentrations of RA. NRF2-silenced cells were vulnerable to atRA-induced mitochondrial toxicity and apoptosis. In conclusion, toxic RA activates NRF2, thereby triggering an adaptive response against the resultant oxidative stress. NRF2 enhancement as a therapeutic target of retinoid toxicity awaits further investigation.

Obara W, Konda R, Akasaka S, et al.
Prognostic significance of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor expression in renal cell carcinoma.
J Urol. 2007; 178(4 Pt 1):1497-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The active form of vitamin D3, that is 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, binds with vitamin D receptor, which forms a complex with retinoid X receptors alpha, beta and gamma to manifest antitumor effects. We examined the expression of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptors in renal cell carcinoma and elucidated the prognostic significance of these receptors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical examination of vitamin D receptor, and retinoid X receptors alpha, beta and gamma in nephrectomized specimens of 68 patients with renal cell carcinoma. We analyzed the correlation between the expression of these receptors and clinicopathological parameters or patient survival. Mean followup was 68.2 months.
RESULTS: No significant correlation was found between the expression of vitamin D receptor, retinoid X receptor alpha or beta and clinicopathological parameters. In contrast, retinoid X receptor gamma expression correlated significantly with tumor stage (p = 0.009) and distant metastasis (p = 0.005). The 5-year cancer specific survival rate was higher in patients with retinoid X receptor gamma positive renal cell carcinoma than those with retinoid X receptor gamma negative renal cell carcinoma (79.3% vs 40.0%, p <0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that retinoid X receptor gamma expression, tumor status and lymph node status were significant independent prognostic factors in patients with renal cell carcinoma (p <0.05). A significant correlation was observed between the expression of retinoid X receptor gamma and tumor stage, distant metastasis or the 5-year cancer specific survival rate. Furthermore, retinoid X receptor gamma expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that alterations of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor expression may be involved in renal carcinogenesis and retinoid X receptor gamma expression may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Parent R, Kolippakkam D, Booth G, Beretta L
Mammalian target of rapamycin activation impairs hepatocytic differentiation and targets genes moderating lipid homeostasis and hepatocellular growth.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(9):4337-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a major regulator of translation, is frequently activated in hepatocellular carcinomas. We investigated the effects of mTOR activation in the human HepaRG cells, which possess potent hepatocytic differentiation capability. Differentiation of HepaRG cells into functional and polarized hepatocyte-like cells correlated with a decrease in mTOR and Akt activities. Stable cell lines expressing an activated mutant of mTOR were generated. Sustained activation of mTOR impaired the hepatocytic differentiation capability of these cells as shown by impaired formation of bile canaliculi, absence of polarity, and reduced secretion of alpha1-antitrypsin. An inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, was able to revert this phenotype. Furthermore, increased mTOR activity in HepaRG cells resulted in their resistance to the antiproliferative effects of transforming growth factor-beta1. Profiling of polysome-bound transcripts indicated that activated mTOR specifically targeted genes posttranscriptionally regulated on hepatocytic differentiation. Three major biological networks targeted by activated mTOR were identified: (a) cell death associated with tumor necrosis factor superfamily members, IFNs and caspases; (b) lipid homeostasis associated with the transcription factors PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and retinoid X receptor beta; and (c) liver development associated with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and hepatic mitogens. In conclusion, increased mTOR activity conferred a preneoplastic phenotype to the HepaRG cells by altering the translation of genes vital for establishing normal hepatic energy homeostasis and moderating hepatocellular growth.

Steidl U, Schroeder T, Steidl C, et al.
Distinct gene expression pattern of malignant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in polycythemia vera.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005; 1044:94-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder with an expansion of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells. Although it is known that hematopoietic progenitors in PV are erythropoietin independent and hypersensitive to several cytokines, the molecular oncogenic mechanisms in PV are largely unknown. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles of CD34(+) cells from bone marrow of patients with de novo PV and from healthy volunteers to identify molecular changes associated with the malignant growth of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in this myeloproliferative disorder. Using cDNA arrays, we found significant differences (P < .01) in the expression of 107 genes. Proapoptotic genes (CASP2, CASP3, DAPK1, ALG2) were expressed at lower levels in PV-CD34(+) cells, reflecting a lower apoptotic activity. Fibrosis-stimulating growth factors (transforming growth factor beta1, transforming growth factor beta2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and endothelial growth factor) were expressed at significantly higher levels in PV-CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, PV-CD34(+) cells overexpressed several receptors, protein kinases, and proteasome subunits, which might be targets for directed therapeutic approaches. It is interesting that three retinoid receptors were overexpressed in PV-CD34(+) cells--retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta), retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta), and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2). Using methylcellulose colony-forming assays, we found that the formation of erythroid colonies derived from PV hematopoietic progenitors was inhibited by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a natural ligand of those receptors, in a dose-dependent manner, showing a maximum inhibition of 89% at 10 microM; the growth of myelomonocytic colonies was not significantly affected. These data suggest that the use of ATRA could be of therapeutic benefit for patients with PV.

Holland CM, Saidi SA, Evans AL, et al.
Transcriptome analysis of endometrial cancer identifies peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as potential therapeutic targets.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2004; 3(8):993-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, frequently arising in association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. To identify gene pathways contributing to endometrial cancer development, we studied the transcriptome of 20 endometrial cancers and 11 benign endometrial tissues using cDNA microarrays. Among the transcript changes identified in endometrial cancer were up-regulation of the nuclear hormone receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha and gamma, whereas retinoid X receptor beta was down-regulated. To clarify the contribution of PPARalpha to endometrial carcinogenesis, we did experiments on cultured endometrial carcinoma cells expressing this transcript. Treatment with fenofibrate, an activating ligand for PPARalpha, significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death, suggesting that altered expression of nuclear hormone receptors involved with fatty acid metabolism leads to deregulated cellular proliferation and apoptosis. These results support further investigation of members of the PPAR/retinoid X receptor pathway as novel therapeutic targets in endometrial cancer.

Cheung B, Yan J, Smith SA, et al.
Growth inhibitory retinoid effects after recruitment of retinoid X receptor beta to the retinoic acid receptor beta promoter.
Int J Cancer. 2003; 105(6):856-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear retinoid receptors mediate retinoid effects through tissue-specific, ligand-receptor interactions and subsequent transcriptional regulation of secondary target genes. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) is itself a retinoid target gene with a retinoic acid response element (betaRARE) in the 5' untranslated region of the RARbeta2 gene. Altered transcriptional regulation of RARbeta may play a role in human carcinogenesis and the retinoid-responsiveness of malignant cells. Here we used retinoid X receptor-specific antibodies in electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that the retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) protein was recruited to the betaRARE, after retinoid treatment of retinoid-sensitive neuroblastoma (NB), lung and breast cancer cell lines, but not retinoid-resistant lung and breast cancer cell lines. RXRbeta selectively enhanced retinoid-induced transcriptional activation of the betaRARE. Stable overexpression of RXRalpha and RXRbeta in NB cells resulted in marked growth inhibition and cell death, which increased after retinoid treatment. However, only proteins from the RXRbeta transfectants exhibited specific RXRbeta binding to the betaRARE in vitro and in vivo, enhanced histone acetylation and increased endogenous RARbeta expression. These data indicate that recruitment of RXRbeta to the betaRARE, and consequent induction of endogenous RARbeta expression, is an important component in the retinoid anticancer signal. RXRalpha may also participate in the retinoid signal, but through mechanisms that do not involve RARbeta.

Madarová J, Lukesová M, Hlobilková A, et al.
Androgen sensitivity related proteins in hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines treated by androgen antagonist bicalutamide.
Neoplasma. 2001; 48(5):419-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the bcl-2 gene family and endogenous inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases participate in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in a diverse range of cell types and are implicated in the development of hormone refractory prostate cancer and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. The expression of several of these genes can be regulated by steroid hormones and related agents via their nuclear receptors. However, insufficient information considering the protein expression after the treatment by hormone antagonists is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, (Bcl-2, Bax), and to correlate this with the appearance of some nuclear receptors and cell cycle related proteins in androgen sensitive and androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU-145, after the treatment by androgen antagonist bicalutamide. Our results revealed that androgen receptor (AR) expression in LNCaP cells decreased, however in DU-145 cells AR slightly increased following anti-androgen treatment. The same agent stimulated expression of p21Waf1/Cip5 and p27Kip1 in LNCaP, as well as in DU-145 cell lines. Bcl-2 level increased slightly in LNCaP cells and, in DU-145 cells was almost undetectable. Bax expression was not changed in LNCaP but significantly decreased in DU-145 cells. Similarly, retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) level was significantly down regulated after 24 hours in DU-145 and also in LNCaP cells after 72 hours. These results confirm that androgen withdrawal therapy employing anti-androgens may elicit different signalling pathways in various types of prostate cancer that may be dependent on AR status and AR sensitivity.

Lee CH, Wei LN
Characterization of an inverted repeat with a zero spacer (IR0)-type retinoic acid response element from the mouse nuclear orphan receptor TR2-11 gene.
Biochemistry. 1999; 38(27):8820-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
An inverted repeat with zero nucleotides in the spacer (IR0, 5'-GGGTCA CGAACT-3') element was localized in the proximal promoter region of the mouse TR2-11 gene, and characterized as a functional retinoic acid response element (RARE). In gel mobility shift assays, heterodimers of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) and retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) bound specifically to this element. Neither receptor alone was able to bind to this element efficiently. The dissociation constant (Kd) with respect to RAR-RXR binding was estimated to be 8 nM. The biological activity of this IR0 element was assessed in a heterologous reporter system. The IR0-containing reporter was induced by RA in COS-1 cells in the presence of exogenously provided RARalpha and RXRbeta. In addition, the IR0 oligomers could be bound by nuclear extracts isolated from COS-1 cells harboring the expression vectors for RARalpha and RXRbeta, but not by extracts isolated from control COS-1 cells. RA responsiveness of this IR0 was further confirmed in P19 cells that expressed endogenous RARs and RXRs. Collectively, these data demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of a natural RARE of the IR0 type, and suggested a potential cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptor TR2-11 and RAR-RXR families.

Berghöfer-Hochheimer Y, Zurek C, Langer G, Munder T
Expression of the vitamin D and the retinoid X receptors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: alternative in vivo models for ligand-induced transactivation.
J Cell Biochem. 1997; 66(2):184-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor family regulate gene expression via a complex network of macromolecular interactions. The ligand dependent activity of the vitamin D receptor is of particular interest because it modulates gene expression by the heterodimeric interaction with retinoid X receptors. We report here that individual functions of the vitamin D receptor including DNA-binding, homo- and heterodimerization and transactivation can be reconstituted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, the simultaneous expression of the native vitamin D receptor and the retinoid X receptor beta resulted in a ligand independent transactivation of the lacZ reporter gene coupled to a mouse osteopontin vitamin D response element. However, homodimerization of the vitamin D receptor and heterodimerization were strongly enhanced upon ligand binding, when the receptors were expressed as fusion proteins with the Gal4 transcription factor in a yeast two-hybrid system. Furthermore, transactivating activity of a Gal4-fused vitamin D receptor was induced by vitamin D in a one-hybrid system devoid of retinoid X receptors. In addition, both Gal4-based systems behaved similar with regard to their dose-dependent response to vitamin D and related compounds when compared to the transcriptional activity of the vitamin D receptor in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Our results point out that specific ligands strongly enhanced receptor dimerization and induced transactivation in yeast and in MCF-7 cells. The constitutive transactivation by vitamin D receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimers in yeast, depending on DNA binding of the receptors, strongly argues for the existence of cofactors, which are absent in yeast, but play a fundamental role in gene regulation in higher eukaryotic organisms.

Swisshelm K, Ryan K, Lee X, et al.
Down-regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta in mammary carcinoma cell lines and its up-regulation in senescing normal mammary epithelial cells.
Cell Growth Differ. 1994; 5(2):133-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoids are important cellular, dietary factors that regulate differentiation and cellular growth. They serve as ligands for specific nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Ligand-activated receptors regulate gene transcription through target retinoic acid-responsive elements (RAREs) found in promoter regions. We have investigated the expression of retinoic acid receptor genes (alpha, beta, gamma) and retinoid X receptor beta in normal, senescing, and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. We find that most tumor cells show a loss of RAR-beta expression, but that RAR-alpha and -gamma as well as retinoid X receptor beta are variably expressed in both normal and tumor cells. RAR-beta gene expression is induced both by retinoic acid and by fenretinide in normal cells, but tumor cells fail to respond to either. In contrast, RAR-beta expression increases with serial passage in senescing cells. Paradoxically, both normal and tumor cells can trans-activate an exogenous beta-RARE, as demonstrated by reporter gene assays. Oligonucleotide mobility shift assays with the beta-RARE show a single discrete complex in normal cells, whereas tumor cells exhibit a heterogeneous set of larger complexes, which indicates that tumor cells utilize a different array of factors within the beta-RARE. Reporter gene assays with extended promoter regions indicate the presence of negative regulatory elements and/or factor binding sites that reside between -1500 and the RARE located at -59, and that the promoter is down-regulated in MCF-7 tumor cells. Our findings reveal a dichotomy: RAR-beta transcription is down-regulated in tumor cells compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells, and up-regulated in senescence.

Nagata T, Segars JH, Levi BZ, Ozato K
Retinoic acid-dependent transactivation of major histocompatibility complex class I promoters by the nuclear hormone receptor H-2RIIBP in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992; 89(3):937-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
H-2RIIBP is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that binds to the region II enhancer of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes. The binding occurs through the GG(T/A)CA motif present also in many other genes. The role of H-2RIIBP in developmental regulation of MHC class I genes has been studied in undifferentiated N-Tera2 embryonal carcinoma cells by transient cotransfection of an expressible H-2RIIBP plasmid and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene linked to the MHC class I promoter. Transfection of the expression plasmid led to production of H-2RIIBP transcripts and enhanced MHC class I promoter activity in cells that were treated with retinoic acid but not yet differentiated. Retinoic acid concentrations required for transactivation overlapped with those capable of inducing morphological differentiation and expression of endogenous MHC class I genes in these cells. This enhancement was mediated by region II, as a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter driven by region II also served as a target for H-2RIIBP transactivation. Deletion of the bulk of the DNA-binding domain or the ligand-binding domain of H-2RIIBP, but not of the N-terminal domain, abolished transactivation, indicating that the former two domains are critical for the enhancement. Moreover, H-2RIIBP transactivation exhibited a strict cell-type restriction. As observed in other cell lines, N-Tera2 cells that had undergone differentiation failed to elicit transactivation, suggesting that H-2RIIBP acts in concert with a cofactor expressed in undifferentiated N-Tera2 cells that requires retinoic acid for its function. These results suggest that H-2RIIBP can function as a developmentally specific transcription factor for MHC class I genes.

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