Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SLC34A2 (cancer-related)
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an autosomal recessive disorder with distinctive deposition of calcium phosphate microliths in the lungs. Mutation of the
The ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib has shown dramatic effects in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 fusion genes. However, patients inevitably develop resistance to this agent. Therefore, a new treatment strategy is required for lung tumors with ROS1 fusion genes. In the present study, lung cancer cell lines, HCC78 harboring SLC34A2-ROS1 and ABC-20 harboring CD74-ROS1, were used as cell line-based resistance models. Crizotinib-resistant HCC78R cells were established from HCC78. We comprehensively screened the resistant cells using a phosphor-receptor tyrosine kinase array and RNA sequence analysis by next-generation sequencing. HCC78R cells showed upregulation of HB-EGF and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation and the EGFR signaling pathway. Recombinant HB-EGF or EGF rendered HCC78 cells or ABC-20 cells resistant to crizotinib. RNA sequence analysis by next-generation sequencing revealed the upregulation of AXL in HCC78R cells. HCC78R cells showed marked sensitivity to EGFR-TKI or anti-EGFR antibody treatment in vitro. Combinations of an AXL inhibitor, cabozantinib or gilteritinib, and an EGFR-TKI were more effective against HCC78R cells than monotherapy with an EGFR-TKI or AXL inhibitor. The combination of cabozantinib and gefitinib effectively inhibited the growth of HCC78R tumors in an in vivo xenograft model of NOG mice. The results of this study indicated that HB-EGF/EGFR and AXL play roles in crizotinib resistance in lung cancers harboring ROS1 fusions. The combination of cabozantinib and EGFR-TKI may represent a useful alternative treatment strategy for patients with advanced NSCLC harboring ROS1 fusion genes.
Gong B, Oh-Hara T, Fujita N, Katayama R3D culture system containing gellan gum restores oncogene dependence in ROS1 rearrangements non-small cell lung cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(2):527-533 [PubMed
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The ROS1 fusion gene has been identified in approximately 1% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Several clinical studies have highlighted ROS1 as a promising therapeutic target because crizotinib, a multi-targeted drug against ROS1, ALK, and the MET proto-oncogene, has elicited remarkable responses in ROS1-rearrangements NSCLC. However, acquired resistance mediated by ROS1 kinase domain mutations has been identified and a system to assess ROS1 inhibitors for these resistant mutations is necessary for the promotion of drug development. Publicly available NSCLC cell lines harboring the ROS1 fusion gene are limited to only HCC78 cells carrying SLC34A2-ROS1. This cell line exhibits resistance to ROS1 inhibitors through activation of the EGFR pathway, although the cells were established from ROS1-TKI naïve pleural effusion. Here, we demonstrate that 3D culture with gellan gum can restore the ROS1 oncogene dependence of HCC78 cells by upregulating the expression of the ROS1 fusion gene and reducing the activity of the EGFR pathway. Moreover, we established the HCC78xe3 cell line, a subclone of the HCC78 cell line, by repeated in vitro cultures from tumor xenografts and created xenograft tumors three times using in vitro cultured cells. This eventually enabled us to engraft and stably grow the cells in vivo, and subsequently evaluate various ROS1 inhibitors against HCC78xe3 cells by overexpressing crizotinib-resistant mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain including G2032R and D2033 N. We newly found that lorlatinib, a next generation ROS1/ALK inhibitor, remain the activity against D2033 N mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HCC78xe3 cells expressing SLC34A2-ROS1 G2032R, and D2033 N, but not wild type (WT) cells, were resistant to crizotinib in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that 3D cultures of HCC78 might reflect the features in patients and this new system will be a useful tool for evaluating ROS1 inhibitors.
Liu L, Yang Y, Zhou X, et al.Solute carrier family 34 member 2 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and poor patient survival in colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 99:645-654 [PubMed
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Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2) is a well-known sodium-dependent phosphate transporter that has recently been linked to cancer development. However, its specific oncogenic role remains controversial in numerous human malignancies, and is currently unknown in colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, in this study we firstly used Oncomine database to determine its expression in cancer tissues and found it is overexpressed in thyroid, ovarian and renal cancer, while it is opposite in lung, breast and pancreas cancer. Using qRT-PCR and western blot, we then demonstrated its overexpression in CRC tissues as compared with adjacent normal tissues (n = 20). In a retrospective cohort enrolling 190 CRC patients, we proved its expression was significantly correlated with N stage. Furthermore, high SLC34A2 expression is associated with higher postoperative metastasis rate and serves as an independent adverse factor affecting patient prognosis. In subgroup analysis, SLC34A2 expression could stratify the patient prognosis in stage II and III CRC, but failed in stage IV CRC. In cellular assays in vitro, knockdown of SLC34A2 dramatically inhibited the proliferation and colony formation, induced the apoptosis and arrests the cell cycle progression of HCT-116 CRC cells. In cellular assays in vivo, knockdown of SLC34A2 significantly inhibited the growth of xenografts, decreasing Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and increasing apoptosis rate. Taken together, our study indicates SLC34A2 plays a crucial promoting role in CRC development and therefore has great potential to be further developed as a reliable biomarker for CRC diagnosis and treatment.
Piton N, Ruminy P, Gravet C, et al.Ligation-dependent RT-PCR: a new specific and low-cost technique to detect ALK, ROS, and RET rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(3):371-379 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1), and rearranged during transfection (RET) gene rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma is usually performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) screening followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is an expensive and difficult technique. Ligation-dependent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) multiplex technique can detect gene rearrangements using probes specifically hybridized to either side of the break point. PCR products are then sequenced by pyrosequencing or high throughput sequencing in order to identify the two genes involved. The reagent cost is <15 dollars per patient and results are available in 2 days. We have developed a 47-probe LD-RT-PCR kit especially for lung adenocarcinomas. Thirty-nine lung adenocarcinomas were studied: 24 ALK+, 14 ROS1+, and 1 RET+. ALK+ and ROS1+ were IHC+ (D5F3 Ventana for ALK and D4D6 Cell Signaling Technology for ROS1) and all cases were FISH+ (Vysis ALK Breakapart Probe Abbott for ALK, Zytolight SPEC ROS1 Dualcolor Breakapart Probe for ROS1 and Zytolight SPEC RET Dual Color Breakapart for RET); 14 wild type samples were included as negative controls. Using LD-RT-PCR, 15 rearrangements (63%) were detected in the ALK cases (gene partner: EML4 in all cases), 9 rearrangements (64%) in the ROS1 cases (gene partners: CD74 in 8 cases and SLC34A2 in 1 case) and 1 (100%) in the single RET case (gene partner: KIF5B). No rearrangement was found in the 14 negative control cases. Negative cases using LD-RT-PCR could be explained by the fact that some partner genes were not included in our assay and therefore could not be detected. Because it is an affordable, fast, and very simple technique, we propose using LD-RT-PCR when ALK immunostaining is positive. For LD-RT-PCR-negative cases, samples should then be analyzed by FISH.
Zhang L, Guo X, Zhang L, et al.SLC34A2 regulates miR-25-Gsk3β signaling pathway to affect tumor progression in gastric cancer stem cell-like cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(3):440-450 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that gastric cancer progression is driven by gastric cancer stem cell-like cells (GCSCs), but molecular mechanisms regulating tumorigenic and self-renewal potential of GCSCs are still unclear. Here, we aim to investigate biological function of SLC34A2 in regulating sphere formation and tumorigenicity (both are the hallmark of CSCs) of GCSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Our findings testified that CD44
Liu X, Zhou X, Xu H, et al.SLC34A2 Regulates the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Through PTEN/PI3K/AKT Signaling.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(9):775-780 [PubMed
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is a bone malignancy with high incidence. The underlying molecular mechanisms that are associated with the development of OS need further investigation. In this study, we showed that SLC34A2, a member of the solute carrier gene family, was significantly downregulated in OS patients and cell lines. Overexpression of SLC34A2 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. Mechanistically, we found that SLC34A2 interacted with PTEN, and inactivated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Collectively, our results demonstrated that SLC34A2 plays important roles in regulating the cancer cell growth of OS. The downregulation of SLC34A2 in OS patients suggested that it might be a promising target in the diagnosis and therapy of OS.
Zhang Z, Ye S, Zhang M, et al.High expression of SLC34A2 is a favorable prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317720212 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Dysregulation of SLC34A2 (NaPi2b) in tumors has attracted wide attention, but its expression and function in non-small cell lung cancer remains unclear. By examining its expression in lung adenocarcinoma and correlation to patient outcome, we aimed to explore its prognostic and therapeutic values in this deadly disease. Overall, 175 cases of lung adenocarcinoma sample were included in this study. Histological subtyping of them was diagnosed according to standards of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011. Protein expression of SLC34A2 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase in these samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were examined using amplification refractory mutation system. Statistical analysis was performed using software of Pearson's correlation coefficient. High expression of SLC34A2 was identified in about 2/3 patients and correlated with significantly better patient's overall survival. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were detected in about 53% of patients with no statistically significant difference to patient's overall survival. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement was found in 8 out of 175 patients, harboring this abnormality leads to shorter overall survival. No correlation has been found between SLC34A2 expression and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma. High expression of SLC34A2 is present in about 3/4 lung adenocarcinoma samples and predicts better outcome. Since it is a membrane protein, antibody-based drugs targeting this marker might bring new resolution to this deadly disease.
Roskoski RROS1 protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of ROS1 fusion protein-driven non-small cell lung cancers.
Pharmacol Res. 2017; 121:202-212 [PubMed
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ROS1 protein-tyrosine kinase fusion proteins are expressed in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers. The ROS1 fusion partners include CD74, CCDC6, EZR, FIG, KDELR2, LRIG3, MSN, SDC4, SLC34A2, TMEM106B, TMP3, and TPD52L1. Physiological ROS1 is closely related to the ALK, LTK, and insulin receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. ROS1 is a so-called orphan receptor because the identity of its activating ligand, if any, is unknown. The receptor is expressed during development, but little is expressed in adults and its physiological function is unknown. The human ROS1 gene encodes 2347 amino acid residues and ROS1 is the largest protein-tyrosine kinase receptor protein. Unlike the ALK fusion proteins that are activated by the dimerization induced by their amino-terminal portions, the amino-terminal domains of several of its fusion proteins including CD74 apparently lack the ability to induce dimerization so that the mechanism of constitutive protein kinase activation is unknown. Downstream signaling from the ROS1 fusion protein leads to the activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 cell proliferation module, the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase cell survival pathway, and the Vav3 cell migration pathway. Moreover, several of the ROS1 fusion proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of a very small proportion of other cancers including glioblastoma, angiosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma as well as ovarian, gastric, and colorectal carcinomas. The occurrence of oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins, particularly in non-small cell lung cancer, has fostered considerable interest in the development of ROS1 inhibitors. Although the percentage of lung cancers driven by ROS1 fusion proteins is low, owing to the large number of new cases of non-small cell lung cancer per year, the number of new cases of ROS1-positive lung cancers is significant and ranges from 2000 to 4000 per year in the United States and 10,000-15,000 worldwide. Crizotinib was the first inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer in 2016. Other drugs that are in clinical trials for the treatment of these lung cancers include ceritinib, cabozantinib, entrectinib, and lorlatinib. Crizotinib forms a complex within the front cleft between the small and large lobes of an active ROS1 protein-kinase domain and it is classified as type I inhibitor.
BACKGROUND: To characterize the expression of the membrane transporter NaPi2b and antigen targeted by the MX35 antibody in ovarian tumor samples. The current interest to develop monoclonal antibody based therapy of ovarian cancer by targeting NaPi2b emphasizes the need for detailed knowledge and characterization of the expression pattern of this protein. For the majority of patients with ovarian carcinoma the risk of being diagnosed in late stages with extensive loco-regional spread disease is substantial, which stresses the need to develop improved therapeutic agents.
METHODS: The gene and protein expression of SLC34A2/NaPi2b were analyzed in ovarian carcinoma tissues by QPCR (n = 73) and immunohistochemistry (n = 136). The expression levels and antigen localization were established and compared to the tumor characteristics and clinical data.
RESULTS: Positive staining for the target protein, NaPi2b was detected for 93% of the malignant samples, and we identified three separate distribution patterns of the antigen within the tumors, based on the localization of NaPi2b. There were differences in the staining intensity as well as the distribution pattern when comparing the tumor grade and histology, the mucinous tumors presented a significantly lower expression of both the targeted protein and its related gene.
CONCLUSION: Our study identified differences regarding the level of the antigen expression between tumor grade and histology. We have identified differences in the antigen localization between borderline tumors, type 1 and type 2 tumors, and suggest that a pathological evaluation of NaPi2b in the tumors would be helpful in order to know which patients that would benefit from this targeted therapy.
Li Y, Chen X, Lu HKnockdown of SLC34A2 Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion.
Oncol Res. 2016; 24(6):511-519 [PubMed
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The gene solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2 (SLC34A2), is a member of the SLC34 family. Increasing evidence suggests that SLC34A2 is involved in the development of many human carcinomas. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. Therefore, in this study we investigated the role of SLC34A2 in HCC and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that the expression of SLC34A2 is upregulated in HCC cell lines. Knockdown of SLC34A2 obviously inhibited HCC cell proliferation, migration/invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Furthermore, knockdown of SLC34A2 significantly inhibited the expression of phosphorylated PI3K and AKT in HCC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that knockdown of SLC34A2 inhibits proliferation and migration by suppressing activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in HCC cells, and SLC34A2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.
Feng H, Zhang Y, Liu K, et al.Intrinsic gene changes determine the successful establishment of stable renal cancer cell lines from tumor tissue.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(11):2526-2534 [PubMed
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Human tumor cell lines, especially those with complete data and follow-up, are important tools in tumor biological studies. Clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) is not sensitive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and treatment of patients with distant metastasis relies on targeted therapy. Here, we report the establishment of seven new ccRCC stable cell lines that were continuously cultured for more than 20 generations among 81 cases of renal cell cancer. Moreover, gene expression and methylation in the established cell lines, in those that had a finite in vitro life span of less than 10 generations, and in cells that originated from the same culture at different generations were profiled using microarrays. Genes including SLC34A2, SEPP1, SULT1C4 and others were differentially expressed in established cell lines and finite cell lines, and changes in their expression might be caused by methylation or demethylation. The expression level of SLC34A2 was related not only to the life span in vitro culture but also to tumor size. Additionally, six of the seven new ccRCC cell lines had VHL deletions or termination mutations. So in addition to the establishment of seven new ccRCC cell lines with complete clinical data, we conclude that genes such as SLC34A2 and VHL play key roles in the continuous in vitro growth and development of ccRCC.
Ye W, Chen C, Gao Y, et al.Overexpression of SLC34A2 is an independent prognostic indicator in bladder cancer and its depletion suppresses tumor growth via decreasing c-Myc expression and transcriptional activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(2):e2581 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2), a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, is associated with several human cancers. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of SLC34A2 and its function in human bladder cancer (BC). The expression dynamics of SLC34A2 were examined in two independent cohorts of BC samples by quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In the training cohort (156 cases), we applied the X-tile program software to assess the optimal cutoff points for biomarkers in order to accurately classify patients according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort (130 cases), the cutoff score derived from X-title analysis was investigated to determine the association of SLC34A2 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were then performed to elucidate the function of SLC34A2 in BC and its underlying mechanisms. Results showed that SLC34A2 was significantly upregulated in BC cell lines and clinical samples. In both two cohorts of BC samples, high expression of SLC34A2 was associated with large tumor size, advanced T status and poor patients' survival. The depletion of SLC34A2 in BC suppressed cellular viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo, whereas overexpression of SLC34A2 had the converse effect. Simultaneously, downregulation of SLC34A2 decreased the transcriptional activity and protein expression level of c-Myc in BC cells, whereas restoration of c-Myc expression could compromise the anti-proliferation effect of SLC34A2 depletion. Furthermore, miR-214 was proved as a negative regulator of SLC34A2. Our present study illustrated that SLC34A2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of BC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for this disease.
BACKGROUND: The development of chemoresistance and metastasis are the leading causes of death for gastric cancer (GC) patients, however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with a variety of disease, including GC. Recently, microarray profiling analysis revealed that miR-939 was dysregulated in human GC samples, but the role of miR-939 in GC has not been intensively investigated.
METHODS: In the present study, we firstly examined the expression pattern of miR-939 in two independent cohorts of clinical GC samples: one cohort of 112 GC patients with stage I-III disease who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy; and another cohort of 110 GC patients with stage IV disease who received palliative chemotherapy. A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were then performed to investigate the function of miR-939 in GC.
RESULTS: We detected that reduced expression of miR-939 was associated with chemoresistance and increased risk of tumor recurrence in GC patients. Further function study demonstrated that overexpression of miR-939 suppressed GC cell growth, and enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced chemosensitivity by compromising cellular growth and inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, miR-939 repressed the migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro, and diminished the occurrence of lung metastasis in vivo. We further identified solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2) was a novel target of miR-939. Mechanistically, we elucidated that miR-939 exerted its function mainly through inhibiting SLC34A2/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which is activated in GC. Multivariate analysis identified miR-939, SLC34A2, and their combination as independent indicators for poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in GC patients.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that miR-939 acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA in GC, and miR-939/SLC34A2 axis represents a novel therapeutic strategy for future GC treatment.
Lim SM, Kim EY, Kim HR, et al.Genomic profiling of lung adenocarcinoma patients reveals therapeutic targets and confers clinical benefit when standard molecular testing is negative.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(17):24172-8 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of clinically relevant oncogenic drivers in advanced cancer is critical in selecting appropriate targeted therapy. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based clinical cancer gene assay, we performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of advanced cases of lung adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors from 51 lung adenocarcinoma patients whose tumors previously tested negative for EGFR/KRAS/ALK by conventional methods were collected, and CGP was performed via hybridization capture of 4,557 exons from 287 cancer-related genes and 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer.
RESULTS: Genomic profiles of all 51 cases were obtained, with a median coverage of 564x and a total of 190 individual genomic alterations (GAs). GAs per specimen was a mean of 3.7 (range 0-10).Cancer genomes are characterized by 50% (80/190) non-synonymous base substitutions, 15% (29/190) insertions or deletion, and 3% (5/190) splice site mutation. TP53 mutation was the most common GAs (15%, n=29/190), followed by CDKN2A homozygous loss (5%, n=10/190), KRAS mutation (4%, n=8/190), EGFR mutation (4%, n=8/190) and MDM2 amplification (2%, n=5/190). As per NCCN guidelines, targetable GAs were identified in 16 patients (31%) (BRAF mutation [n=1], EGFR mutation [n=8], ERBB2 mutation [n=4], MET amplification [n=1], KIF5B-RET rearrangement [n=2], CCDC6-RET rearrangement [n=1], CD74-ROS1 rearrangement [n=1], EZR-ROS1 rearrangement [n=5], and SLC34A2-ROS1 rearrangement [n=1]).
CONCLUSION: Fifty eight percent of patients wild type by standard testing for EGFR/KRAS/ALK have GAs identifiable by CGP that suggest benefit from target therapy. CGP used when standard molecular testing for NSCLC is negative can reveal additional avenues of benefit from targeted therapy.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence and partners of ROS1 rearrangements, to explore the correlation between FISH and IHC assays, and to investigate clinical implications of ROS1 copy number alterations (CNAs).
METHODS: A total of 314 NSCLC patients were screened using ROS1 FISH break-apart probes. Of these, 47 surgical tumors were included in TMAs to analyze ROS1 heterogeneity assessed either by FISH and IHC, and chromosome 6 aneusomy. To characterize ROS1 partners, probes for CD74, EZR, SLC34A2 and SDC3 genes were developed. ROS1 positive FISH cases were screened also by IHC.
RESULTS: Five patients were ROS1 positive (1.8%). We identified two known fusion partners in three patients: CD74 and SLC34A2. Four out of five ROS1 rearranged patients were female, never smokers and with adenocarcinoma histology. Rearranged cases were also positive by IHC as well. According to ROS1 CNAs, we found a prevalence of 37.8% gains/amplifications and 25.1% deletions.
CONCLUSIONS: This study point out the high prevalence of ROS1 CNAs in a large series of NSCLC. ROS1 gains, amplifications and deletions, most of them due to chromosome 6 polysomy or monosomy, were heterogeneous within a tumor and had no impact on overall survival.
Ge G, Zhou C, Ren Y, et al.Enhanced SLC34A2 in breast cancer stem cell-like cells induces chemotherapeutic resistance to doxorubicin via SLC34A2-Bmi1-ABCC5 signaling.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5049-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Even though early detection methods and treatment options are greatly improved, chemoresistance is still a tremendous challenge for breast cancer therapy. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) represent a subpopulation that is central to chemoresistance. We aim to investigate the relationship between SLC34A2 and chemoresistance in BCSCs and identify the underlying mechanisms by which SLC34A2 regulates chemoresistance in BCSCs. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis showed the presence of a variable fraction of CD44(+)CD24(-) cells in 25 out of 25 breast cancer samples. We cultured primary breast cancer sample cells and breast cancer cell line cells to induce sphere formation in serum-free medium. Following sorting of CD44(+)CD24(-) cells from spheres, we showed that CD44(+)CD24(-) cells displayed stem cell-like features and were resistant to chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. Significantly, enhanced SLC34A2 expression correlated with chemoresponse and survival of breast cancer patients. We subsequently indicated that increased SLC34A2 expression in BCSCs directly contributed to their chemoresistance by a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SLC34A2 induced chemoresistance in BCSCs via SLC34A2-Bmi1-ABCC5 signaling. Finally, we showed that ABCC5 was a direct transcriptional target of Bmi1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In conclusion, our work indicated that decreased SLC34A2 expression sensitized BCSCs to doxorubicin via SLC34A2-Bmi1-ABCC5 signaling and shed new light on understanding the mechanism of chemoresistance in BCSCs. This study not only bridges the missing link between stem cell-related transcription factor (Bmi1) and ABC transporter (ABCC5) but also contributes to development of potential therapeutics against breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: SLC34A2 with highest expressions in lung, small intestine and kidney encoded a type 2b sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb). In lung, SLC34A2 only expressed in the apical membrane of type II alveolar epithelium cells (ATII cells) and played a pivotal role during the fetal lung development and embryonic development. ATII cells acting as multifunctional stem cells might transform into NSCLC after undergoing exogenous or endogenous factors. Increasing evidences showed that the genes performing critical roles during embryogenesis were also expressed during the development of cancer. In addition, recent research found the expression of SLC34A2 had a significant difference between the surgical samples of NSCLC and normal tissues, and SLC34A2 was down-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and up-regulation expression of SLC34A2 could significantly inhibit cell viability and invasion of A549 in vitro. These results suggested SLC34A2 might play an important role in the development of NSCLC. However, the role of SLC34A2 in tumorigenesis and progression of NSCLC remains unknown.
RESULTS: Our study found that SLC34A2 was also significantly down-regulated in 14/15 of examined NSCLC tissues. Moreover, we found that expressions of SLC34A2 were reduced in six NSCLC cell lines for the first time. Our result also revealed a dramatic inhibitory effects of SLC34A2 on cell growth, migration and invasion of several NSCLC cell lines. SLC34A2 also strongly inhibited tumor growth and metastasis ability in A549 subcutaneous tumor model and lung metastasis model, respectively. Further studies found that the suppressive effects of SLC34A2 on tumorigenesis and progression might be associated with the down-regulation of related protein in PI3K/Akt and Ras/Raf/MEK signal pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our data indicated that SLC34A2 could exert significantly suppressive effects on tumorigenesis and progression of NSCLC. SLC34A2 might provide new insights for further understanding the early pathogenesis of human NSCLC.
Lin K, Rubinfeld B, Zhang C, et al.Preclinical Development of an Anti-NaPi2b (SLC34A2) Antibody-Drug Conjugate as a Therapeutic for Non-Small Cell Lung and Ovarian Cancers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(22):5139-50 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) selectively deliver a cytotoxic drug to cells expressing an accessible antigenic target. Here, we have appended monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to an antibody recognizing the SLC34A2 gene product NaPi2b, the type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter, which is highly expressed on tumor surfaces of the lung, ovary, and thyroid as well as on normal lung pneumocytes. This study evaluated its efficacy and safety in preclinical studies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The efficacy of anti-NaPi2b ADC was evaluated in mouse ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor xenograft models, and its toxicity was assessed in rats and cynomolgus monkeys.
RESULTS: We show here that an anti-NaPi2b ADC is effective in mouse ovarian and NSCLC tumor xenograft models and well-tolerated in rats and cynomolgus monkeys at levels in excess of therapeutic doses. Despite high levels of expression in normal lung of non-human primate, the cross-reactive ADC exhibited an acceptable safety profile with a dose-limiting toxicity unrelated to normal tissue target expression. The nonproliferative nature of normal pneumocytes, together with the antiproliferative mechanism of MMAE, likely mitigates the potential liability of this normal tissue expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our preclinical results suggest that the ADC targeting NaPi2b provides an effective new therapy for the treatment of NSCLC and ovarian cancer and is currently undergoing clinical developments.
Lindegren S, Andrade LN, Bäck T, et al.Binding Affinity, Specificity and Comparative Biodistribution of the Parental Murine Monoclonal Antibody MX35 (Anti-NaPi2b) and Its Humanized Version Rebmab200.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0126298 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the characteristics of the monoclonal antibody Rebmab200, which is a humanized version of the ovarian-specific murine antibody MX35. This investigation contributes to the foundation for future clinical α-radioimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer with 211At-Rebmab200. Here, the biodistribution of 211At-Rebmab200 was evaluated, as was the utility of 99mTc-Rebmab200 for bioimaging. Rebmab200 was directly compared with its murine counterpart MX35 in terms of its in-vitro capacity for binding the immobilized NaPi2B epitope and live cells; we also assessed its biodistribution in nude mice carrying subcutaneous OVCAR-3 tumors. Tumor antigen and cell binding were similar between Rebmab200 and murine MX35, as was biodistribution, including normal tissue uptake and in-vivo tumor binding. We also demonstrated that 99mTc-Rebmab200 can be used for single-photon emission computed tomography of subcutaneous ovarian carcinomas in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data support the further development of Rebmab200 for radioimmunotherapy and diagnostics.
The ROS1 tyrosine kinase is activated in lung cancer as a consequence of chromosomal rearrangement. Although high response rates and disease control have been observed in lung cancer patients bearing rearranged ROS1 tumors (ROS1+) treated with the kinase inhibitor crizotinib, many of these patients eventually relapse.To identify mechanisms of resistance to ROS1 inhibitors we generated resistant cells from HCC78 lung cancer cells bearing the SLC34A2-ROS1 rearrangement. We found that activation of the RAS pathway in the HCC78 cell model, due to either KRAS/NRAS mutations or to KRAS amplification, rendered the cells resistant to ROS1 inhibition. These cells were cross-resistant to different ROS1 inhibitors, but sensitive to inhibitors of the RAS signaling pathway. Interestingly, we identified focal KRAS amplification in a biopsy of a tumor from a patient that had become resistant to crizotinib treatment.Altogether our data suggest that the activation of members of the RAS family can confer resistance to ROS1 inhibitors. This has important clinical implications as: (i) RAS genetic alterations in ROS1+ primary tumors are likely negative predictors of efficacy for targeted drugs and (ii) this kind of resistance is unlikely to be overcome by the use of more specific or more potent ROS1 targeting drugs.
INTRODUCTION: ROS1 and RET gene fusions were recently discovered in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as potential therapeutic targets with small-molecule kinase inhibitors. The conventional screening methods of these fusions are time-consuming and require samples of high quality and quantity. Here, we describe a novel and efficient method by coupling the power of multiplexing polymerase chain reaction and the sensitivity of mass spectrometry.
METHODS: The multiplex mass spectrometry platform simultaneously tests samples for the expression of nine ROS1 and six RET fusion genes. The assay incorporates detection of wild-type exon junctions immediately upstream and downstream of the fusion junction to exclude false-negative results. To flag false-positives, the system also comprises two independent assays for each fusion gene junction.
RESULTS: The characteristic mass spectrometric peaks of the gene fusions were obtained using engineered plasmid constructs. Specific assays targeting the wild-type gene exon junctions were validated using complimentary DNA from lung tissue of healthy individuals. The system was further validated using complimentary DNA derived from NSCLC cell lines that express endogenous fusion genes. The expressed ROS1-SLC34A2 and CCDC6-RET gene fusions from the NSCLC cell lines HCC78 and LC-2/ad, respectively, were accurately detected by the novel assay. The assay is extremely sensitive, capable of detecting an event in test specimens containing 0.5% positive tumors.
CONCLUSION: The novel multiplexed assay is robustly capable of detecting 15 different clinically relevant RET and ROS1 fusion variants. The benefits of this detection method include exceptionally low sample input, high cost efficiency, flexibility, and rapid turnover.
Lindskog C, Fagerberg L, Hallström B, et al.The lung-specific proteome defined by integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(12):5184-96 [PubMed
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The combined action of multiple cell types is essential for the physiological function of the lung, and increased awareness of the molecular constituents characterizing each cell type is likely to advance the understanding of lung biology and disease. In the current study, we used genome-wide RNA sequencing of normal lung parenchyma and 26 additional tissue types, combined with antibody-based protein profiling, to localize the expression to specific cell types. Altogether, 221 genes were found to be elevated in the lung compared with their expression in other analyzed tissues. Among the gene products were several well-known markers, but also several proteins previously not described in the context of the lung. To link the lung-specific molecular repertoire to human disease, survival associations of pneumocyte-specific genes were assessed by using transcriptomics data from 7 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohorts. Transcript levels of 10 genes (SFTPB, SFTPC, SFTPD, SLC34A2, LAMP3, CACNA2D2, AGER, EMP2, NKX2-1, and NAPSA) were significantly associated with survival in the adenocarcinoma subgroup, thus qualifying as promising biomarker candidates. In summary, based on an integrated omics approach, we identified genes with elevated expression in lung and localized corresponding protein expression to different cell types. As biomarker candidates, these proteins may represent intriguing starting points for further exploration in health and disease.
Chen YF, Hsieh MS, Wu SG, et al.Clinical and the prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma patients with ROS1 fusion in comparison with other driver mutations in East Asian populations.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(8):1171-9 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: The prevalence, demographic features, and clinical outcomes of lung adenocarcinoma patients with novel ROS1 oncogenic rearrangement in East Asian populations are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma in patients with ROS1 fusion compared with other driver mutations.
METHODS: Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the ROS1 fusion gene in lung adenocarcinoma cases. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the expression of ROS1. The demographic data and clinical outcomes of patients with the ROS1 fusion gene were compared with those of patients without the ROS1 fusion gene, including those with the EGFR mutation, EML4-ALK fusion, KRAS mutation, and quadruple-negative patients.
RESULTS: Of 492 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 12 (2.4%) had the ROS1 fusion gene. Their median age was 45.0 years, significantly younger than that of the ROS1 fusion-negative cohorts (p < 0.001). Acinar (including cribriform) and solid patterns were the two most common histologic subtypes in the ROS1 fusion tumors (7 of 12, 58.3%) and were predominantly seen in CD74-ROS1 fusion tumors (66.7%). There was no significant survival difference between the ROS1 fusion-positive and ROS1 fusion-negative cohorts in surgical group, but ROS1 fusion-positive patients might have worse outcomes than EGFR-mutant patients in the stage IV group.
CONCLUSIONS: The ROS1 fusion gene can be successfully detected in East Asian patients with lung adenocarcinoma using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These patients tend to be younger and have characteristic histologic subtypes. Due to the small number of ROS1 fusion patients, the prognostic value of ROS1 fusion need further studies to confirm.
Abnormal expression of solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2 (SLC34A2) in the lung may induce abnormal alveolar type II (AT II) cells to transform into lung adenocarcinoma cells, and may also be important in biological process of lung adenocarcinoma. However, at present, the effects and molecular mechanisms of SLC34A2 in the initiation and progression of lung cancer remain to be elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, the present study revealed for the first time that the expression levels of SLC34A2 were downregulated in the A549 and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated that the elevated expression of SLC34A2 in A549 cells was able to significantly inhibit cell viability and invasion in vitro. In addition, 10 upregulated genes between the A549‑P‑S cell line stably expressing SLC34A2 and the control cell line A549‑P were identified by microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, including seven tumor suppressor genes and three complement genes. Furthermore, the upregulation of complement gene C3 and complement 4B preproprotein (C4b) in A549‑P‑S cells was confirmed by ELISA analysis and was identified to be correlated with recovering Pi absorption in A549 cells by the phosphomolybdic acid method by enhancing the expression of SLC34A2. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the effect of SLC34A2 on A549 cells might be associated with the activation of the complement alternative pathway (C3 and C4b) and upregulation of the expression of selenium binding protein 1, thioredoxin‑interacting protein, PDZK1‑interacting protein 1 and dual specificity protein phosphatase 6. Downregulation of SLC34A2 may primarily cause abnormal AT II cells to escape from complement‑associated immunosurveillance and abnormally express certain tumor‑suppressor genes inducing AT II cells to develop into lung adenocarcinoma. The present study further elucidated the effects and mechanisms of SLC34A2 in the generation and development of lung cancer.
UNLABELLED: Activated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 tyrosine kinases, through gene fusions, have been found in lung adenocarcinomas and are highly sensitive to selective kinase inhibitors. This study aimed at identifying the presence of these rearrangements in human colorectal adenocarcinoma specimens using a 4-target, 4-color break-apart FISH assay to simultaneously determine the genomic status of ALK and ROS1. Among the clinical colorectal cancer specimens analyzed, rearrangement-positive cases for both ALK and ROS1 were observed. The fusion partner for ALK was identified as EML4 and the fusion partner for one of the ROS1-positive cases was SLC34A2, the partner for the other ROS1-positive case remains to be identified. A small fraction of specimens presented duplicated or clustered copies of native ALK and ROS1. In addition, rearrangements were detected in samples that also harbored KRAS and BRAF mutations in two of the three cases. Interestingly, the ALK-positive specimen displayed marked intratumoral heterogeneity and rearrangement was also identified in regions of high-grade dysplasia. Despite the additional oncogenic events and tumor heterogeneity observed, elucidation of the first cases of ROS1 rearrangements and confirmation of ALK rearrangements support further evaluation of these genomic fusions as potential therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.
IMPLICATIONS: ROS1 and ALK fusions occur in colorectal cancer and may have substantial impact in therapy selection.
Fisher KE, Yin-Goen Q, Alexis D, et al.Gene expression profiling of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(2):222-30 [PubMed
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Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a distinct variant of renal cell carcinoma that shares some overlapping histological and immunohistochemical features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Although the clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma immunohistochemical profile is well described, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma mRNA expression has not been well characterized. We investigated the clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma gene expression profile using previously identified candidate genes. We selected 17 clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, 15 clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and 13 papillary renal cell carcinoma cases for molecular analysis following histological review. cDNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was prepared. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting alpha-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR), BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor homolog (BAMBI), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), ceruloplasmin (CP), nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), schwannomin-interacting protein 1 (SCHIP1), solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate) member 2 (SLC34A2), and vimentin (VIM) was performed. Gene expression data were normalized relative to 28S ribosomal RNA. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed all eight genes at variable levels. Compared with papillary renal cell carcinoma, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed more CA9, CP, NNMT, and VIM, less AMACR, BAMBI, and SLC34A2, and similar levels of SCHIP1. Compared with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed slightly less NNMT, but similar levels of the other seven genes. Although clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma exhibits a unique molecular signature, it expresses several genes at comparable levels to clear cell renal cell carcinoma relative to papillary renal cell carcinoma. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma will have a key role in future sub-classifications of this unique tumor.
Matsuura S, Shinmura K, Kamo T, et al.CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts in resected non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1675-80 [PubMed
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The recent discovery of fusion oncokinases in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since NSCLCs that express such fusion oncokinases are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. To better understand the role of recently identified ROS1 and RET fusion oncokinases in pulmonary carcinogenesis, we examined 114 NSCLCs for SLC34A2-ROS1, EZR-ROS1, CD74-ROS1 and KIF5B-RET fusion transcripts using RT-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing analyses. Although the expression of SLC34A2-ROS1, EZR-ROS1, or KIF5B-RET fusion transcripts was not detected in any of the cases, the expression of CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts was detected in one (0.9%) of the 114 NSCLCs. The fusion occurred between exon 6 of CD74 and exon 34 of ROS1 and was an in-frame alteration. The mutation was detected in a woman without a history of smoking. Histologically, the carcinoma was an adenocarcinoma with a predominant acinar pattern; notably, a mucinous cribriform pattern and a solid signet-ring cell pattern were also observed in part of the adenocarcinoma. ROS1 protein overexpression was immunohistochemically detected in a cancer-specific manner in both the primary cancer and the lymph node metastatic cancer. No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and the entire coding region of p53 in the carcinoma, and the expression of ALK fusion was negative. The above results suggest that CD74-ROS1 fusion is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of NSCLCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the future.
Liu P, Wu Y, Sun L, et al.ROS kinase fusions are not common in Chinese patients with cholangiocarcinoma.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2013; 33(4):474-8 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of different forms of ROS fusions in Chinese patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).
METHODS: RT-PCR was employed to examine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded CCA samples from stage I-IV patients for detection of ROS fusions involving Fused in Glioblastoma (FIG), solute carrier protein (SLC34A2) and major histocompatibility complex class II invariant chain (CD74). Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 (SERPINA1) was detected as the reference gene.
RESULTS: In all the 56 CCA samples, 80.4% (45/56) were positive for SERPINA1 expression as evaluable samples. Of these evaluable samples, none expressed the ROS fusions.
CONCLUSION: ROS fusions are not common in Chinese CCA patients.
Lee J, Lee SE, Kang SY, et al.Identification of ROS1 rearrangement in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Cancer. 2013; 119(9):1627-35 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Recently, chromosomal rearrangements involving receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been described in common epithelial malignancies, including nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. One of these RTKs, c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), has been identified as a driver mutation in NSCLC, because its inhibition by crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK)/met proto-oncogene hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET)/ROS1 inhibitor, led to significant tumor shrinkage in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC. Currently, only human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy in combination with chemotherapy has been successful in significantly prolonging the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC). There is a need for the discovery of additional novel targets in GC.
METHODS: Anti-ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to screen 495 GC samples and was followed by simultaneous ROS1 break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses in IHC-positive samples. Fusion partners in ROS1-rearranged GC were determined by RT-PCR. In all 495 samples, HER2 amplification was identified with FISH, and MET expression was identified by IHC.
RESULTS: Twenty-three tumor samples were ROS1 IHC-positive. Three of 23 patients were ROS1 FISH positive, HER2 FISH negative, and negative for MET overexpression; and 2 of those 3 patients harbored a solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2 (SLC34A2)-ROS1 fusion transcripts. No fusion partner was identified in the third patient. Both patients who had SLC34A2-ROS1 transcripts had poorly differentiated histology with recurrence and death within 2 years of curative surgery. ROS1 IHC-positive status was not identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, an SLC34A2-ROS1 rearrangement was identified in GC, and the results provide a rationale for investigating the clinical efficacy of ROS1 inhibitors in this unique molecular subset of GC. Society.