SMAD6

Gene Summary

Gene:SMAD6; SMAD family member 6
Aliases: AOVD2, MADH6, MADH7, HsT17432
Location:15q22.31
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which are related to Drosophila 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and C. elegans Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein functions in the negative regulation of BMP and TGF-beta/activin-signalling. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: SMAD6 (cancer-related)

Wang F, Wang J, Yang X, et al.
MiR-424-5p participates in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and metastasis via SMAD7 pathway mediated EMT.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: ESCC is a life-threatening disease due to invasion and metastasis in the early stage. Great efforts had been made to detect the molecular mechanisms which led to the invasion and metastasis in ESCC. Recent evidence had suggested that deregulation of miR-424-5p took an important role in cancers. However, its role and functional mechanism in ESCC had seldom been elucidated.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-424-5p were detected in ESCC tissues and cell lines by real-time PCR methods. Then, the invasion, metastasis and proliferation ability of ESCC cell lines transfected with miR-424-5p mimics were analyzed separately by transwell invasion assay, wound healing assay and cell proliferation assay. Finally, the target gene of miR-424-5p was studied and verified by luciferase activity assay. And the role of miR-424-5p in EMT was also investigated by real-time PCR and western blot assay.
RESULTS: We showed that the expression levels of miR-424-5p were decreased both in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-424-5p were negatively linked to lymph node metastasis in ESCC tissues. Restoration of miR-424-5p in EC-1 cells by using miR-424-5p mimics could decrease the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of EC-1 cells, indicating its role in inhibition on the invasion and metastasis ability of ESCC cells and tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that SMAD7 was a specific target gene for miR-424-5p by luciferase activity assay and miR-424-5p could not only negatively regulate SMAD7 expression but also participate in EMT via SMAD7, because overexpression of SMAD7 could partly enhance the miR-424-5p anti-EMT function.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results described that miR-424-5p -SMAD7 pathway contributed to ESCC invasion and metastasis and up-regulation of miR-424-5p perhaps provided a strategy for preventing tumor invasion, metastasis.

Dai F, Liu T, Zheng S, et al.
MiR-106b promotes migration and invasion through enhancing EMT via downregulation of Smad 7 in Kazakh's esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14595-14604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulated evidence suggests that miR-106b played a key role in the promotion of the metastases of cancer; however, little is known about miR-106b in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). To investigate expression level of miR-106b in ESCC tissues, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect miR-106b expression in 35 Kazakh's ESCC and paired normal adjacent tissues (NATs). To evaluate the role mediated by miR-106b in the proliferation, migration, and invasion, MTT, wound healing, and transwell assays were employed, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the downstream target through miR-106b. To understand the regulation between miR-106b and Smad 7, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed. The present study showed that miR-106b was pronouncedly upregulated in ESCC relative to paired NAT and that upregulated miR-106b was significantly associated with lymph node metastases. MiR-106b was found to be able to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro. Smad 7 was confirmed as a downstream target of miR-106b in our experimental setting. Smad 7 was remarkably downregulated in ESCC compared with paired NAT. In addition, upregulation of miR-106b can promote epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ESCC cell in vitro. Our results indicated that miR-106b can promote migration and invasion of ESCC cells through enhancing EMT process via downregulation of Smad 7, suggesting that miR-106b can be a potential molecular phenotype in ESCC metastases.

Liu J, Zhou Y, Shi Z, et al.
microRNA-497 Modulates Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Survival by Targeting SMAD7.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(9):521-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
As an inhibitor of TGF-β signaling, SMAD7 was reported to play dual roles in breast cancer development and progression. It inhibited the cancer metastasis by blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition, however, litter studies focused on its role in other cancer processes. In this study, miR-497 expression was found inversely correlated with SMAD7 expression in breast cancer tissues. Bioinformatics analyses defined a potential miR-497 response element within 3' untranslated region of SMAD7 that was validated in reporter gene experiments. Enforced miR-497 expression, accompanied with SMAD7 reduction, suppressed MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth by MTT and invasion assay, and, induced the S phase arrest detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, upregulated miR-497 expression by mimics treatment significantly suppressed the tumor growth in the orthotopic nude mouse models. Finally, high expression of miR-497 conferred a better prognosis, indicated by Kaplan-Meier test, especially in HER2 overexpression and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Taken together, our results identified the proliferation promoting role of SMAD7 in breast cancer and therefore established the regulations of SMAD7 in breast cancer by miR-497 through a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, miR-497 might be deemed as a novel potential therapeutic target for the HER2 positive and TNBC in future.

Lin L, Tu HB, Wu L, et al.
MicroRNA-21 Regulates Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Chemo-Sensitivity through SMAD7.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(6):2152-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: SMAD7 is a key inhibitor of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling, which regulates the alteration of cancer cell invasiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal cell conversion. Carboplatin is a commonly used drug in the chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying its suppressive effects on the NSCLC cell invasion are not completely understood. In the current study, we addressed this question by analyzing the effects of Carboplatin on microRNA-regulated SMAD7.
METHODS: We used Carboplatin to treat NSCLC cell lines. We performed bioinformatics analyses on the binding of microRNA-21 (miR-21) to the 3'-UTR of SMAD7 mRNA, and verified the biological effects of this binding using promoter luciferase reporter assay. The effects of Carboplatin or miR-21-modification on NSCLC cell invasion were evaluated in either a transwell cell invasion assay, or a scratch wound healing assay.
RESULTS: We found that Carboplatin inhibited the NSCLC cell invasion, in either a transwell cell invasion assay, or a scratch wound healing assay. Moreover, Carboplatin increased the levels of SMAD7 protein, but not mRNA, in NSCLC cells, suggesting presence of post-transcriptional control of SMAD7 by Carboplatin. Furthermore, expression of miR-21 was found to be inhibited by Carboplatin, and bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-21 targeted the 3'-UTR of SMAD7 mRNA to inhibit its translation, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.
CONCLUSION: Carboplatin may upregulate SMAD7 through suppression of miR-21 to inhibit TGFβ receptor signaling mediated NSCLC cell invasion.

Ge WL, Xu JF, Hu J
Regulation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Proliferation Through Crosstalk Between SMAD7 and CYLD.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(3):1209-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: SMAD7 is a key inhibitor of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling, which regulates the alteration of cancer cell invasiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal cell conversion. Dysfunction of protein ubiquitination plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, whereas the involvement a deubiquitinating enzyme, cylindromatosis gene (CYLD), in the tumor invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unknown.
METHODS: Here, we studied the role of CYLD in regulation of OSCC cell invasion, using clinic specimens and cell lines. We modified SMAD7 levels in OSCC cells, and examined its effects on CYLD mRNA and protein levels by RT-qPCR and by Western blot, respectively. We also modified CYLD levels in OSCC cells, and examined its effects on SMAD7 mRNA and protein levels by RT-qPCR and by Western blot, respectively. Then, we examined the cell invasiveness in CYLD and/or SMAD7-modified OSCC cells in a transwell cell invasion assay.
RESULTS: We found that the levels of CYLD and SMAD7 were significantly decreased in OSCC specimens, compared to the paired normal tissue. Metastatic OSCC appeared to contained lower levels of CYLD and SMAD7. Moreover, CYLD and SMAD7 levels strongly correlated in OSCC specimens. Low CYLD levels were associated with poor patients' survival. Moreover, SMAD did not regulate CYLD, but CYLD regulated the levels of SMAD7 in OSCC cells. Furthermore, CYLD overexpression inhibited SMAD7-mediated cell invasion, while CYLD depletion increased SMAD7-mediated cell invasion in OSCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Suppression of CYLD in OSCC cells may promote SMAD7-mediated cancer invasion. Thus, CYLD appears to be an intriguing therapeutic target to prevent OSCC metastases.

Abd El-Fattah AA, Sadik NA, Shaker OG, Kamal AM
Are SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer in Egyptian patients?
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9387-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
A wide variety of genes have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. The SMAD7 gene encodes an intracellular protein, which inhibits the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, thereby having a key role in the control of neoplastic processes in various organs. The CHI3L1 gene encodes glycoprotein YKL-40, which plays a role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928, as well as circulating TGFβ-1 and YKL-40 levels with CRC in an Egyptian population of 77 CRC patients and 36 healthy controls. Polymorphisms in the SMAD7 rs4939827 and the CHI3L1 rs4950928 genes were determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both the SMAD7 rs4939827 TT genotype and the CHI3L1 rs4950928 C allele were associated with the rectal but not the colon cancer. In addition, the C allele of both SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was associated with increased serum levels of TGF-β1 and YKL-40, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 SNPs have no significant association with CRC. A significant association of SNP in SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was revealed between the rectal cancer and colon cancer patients.

Chang L, Li C, Guo T, et al.
The human RNA surveillance factor UPF1 regulates tumorigenesis by targeting Smad7 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In spite of progress in diagnostics and treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), its prognosis remains poor, and improved treatment strategies for HCC require detailed understanding of the underlying mechanism. In this investigation we studied the role of Up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) in the tumorigenesis of HCC.
METHODS: We determined the expression level of UPF1 in HCC tissues with quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting and then studied its clinical significance. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was used to investigate the regulation of UPF1. We explored the biological significance of UPF1 with gain-and-loss-of-function analyses both in vitro and in vivo. The relationship between UPF1 and SMAD7 was also investigated by western blotting and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: A great downregulation of UPF1 due to promoter hypermethylation was observed in tumor tissues compared to their adjacent normal tissues. Meanwhile, patients with low UPF1 expression have significantly poorer prognosis than those with high expression. Functionally, UPF1 regulated HCC tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the decreased UPF1 level in HCC reduces NMD efficiency and leads to up-regulation of Smad7, then affects the TGF-β pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that UPF1 is a potential tumor suppressive gene and may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

Raja E, Tzavlaki K, Vuilleumier R, et al.
The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1120-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease.

Mullapudi N, Ye B, Suzuki M, et al.
Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0143826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents.

Yao K, Hua L, Wei L, et al.
Correlation Between CASC8, SMAD7 Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis Based on GWAS Results.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(46):e1884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and a number of case-control studies have suggested that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs7837328, rs7014346, rs6983267, rs10505477 on CASC8 gene and rs4939827, rs4464148, rs12953717 on SMAD7 gene are significantly correlated with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). For the sake of clarifying the association, a meta-analysis was conducted and population heterogeneity was considered in the study.A total of 34 articles including 90 studies (168,471 cases and 163,223 controls) that evaluated the relationship between the CASC8, SMAD7 genes and the risk of CRC under the allelic model were reviewed. Also subgroup analysis was performed by ethnicity (Caucasian, Asian, and African) and all of the analyses were implemented in R 3.2.1 software.Pooled data from the meta-analysis revealed that the A allele of rs7837328, the A allele of rs7014346, the G allele of rs6983267, the A allele of rs10505477, the T allele of rs4939827, the T of rs4464148, and the T of rs12953717 were significantly associated with an increased risk of CRC under the allelic model. Additionally, subgroup analyses of 6 SNPs by ethnicity (rs4464148 excepted) witnessed that the A allele of rs7837328, the G allele of rs6983267, and the T of rs12953717 were notably associated with an increased risk of CRC among Caucasian and Asian. Furthermore, the A allele of rs7014346, the A allele of rs10505477, and the T allele of rs4939827 were significantly related with an elevated risk of CRC only among Caucasian.Our study suggested that for CASC8 gene, SNP of rs7837328 and rs6983267 are risk factors for CRC among both Caucasian and Asian whereas rs7014346 and rs10505477 are risky gene polymorphisms only among Caucasian. For SMAD7 gene, rs4939827 and rs4464148 are risk factors for CRC among Caucasian whereas rs12953717 could elevate the susceptibility to CRC in both Caucasian and Asian.

Maxfield KE, Taus PJ, Corcoran K, et al.
Comprehensive functional characterization of cancer-testis antigens defines obligate participation in multiple hallmarks of cancer.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8840 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumours frequently activate genes whose expression is otherwise biased to the testis, collectively known as cancer-testis antigens (CTAs). The extent to which CTA expression represents epiphenomena or confers tumorigenic traits is unknown. In this study, to address this, we implemented a multidimensional functional genomics approach that incorporates 7 different phenotypic assays in 11 distinct disease settings. We identify 26 CTAs that are essential for tumor cell viability and/or are pathological drivers of HIF, WNT or TGFβ signalling. In particular, we discover that Foetal and Adult Testis Expressed 1 (FATE1) is a key survival factor in multiple oncogenic backgrounds. FATE1 prevents the accumulation of the stress-sensing BH3-only protein, BCL-2-Interacting Killer (BIK), thereby permitting viability in the presence of toxic stimuli. Furthermore, ZNF165 promotes TGFβ signalling by directly suppressing the expression of negative feedback regulatory pathways. This action is essential for the survival of triple negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CTAs make significant direct contributions to tumour biology.

Han M, Wang F, Gu Y, et al.
MicroRNA-21 induces breast cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing smad7 via EGF and TGF-β pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):73-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) upregulation, smad family member 7 (smad7) downregulation, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) actions contribute to breast cancer cell aggressiveness. However, their correlation and the relevant molecular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine the association of miR-21, smad7, EGF and TGF-β with breast cancer cell invasion and migration and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In the present study, the plasma miR-21 levels were significantly increased in patients with breast cancer, as compared to the controls. Smad7 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-21, by luciferase reporter and western blot assays. The downregulation of smad7 by miR-21 or sismad7 enhanced EGF-dependent invasion and migration, as well as TGF-β-dependent invasion and migration. The actions of miR-21 were abrogated by expressing a modified smad7 cDNA resistant to miR-21. Moreover, miR-21, EGF and TGF-β combined to markedly increase cancer cell invasion and migration, and this effect was blocked by the combination of erlotinib (an EGF receptor kinase inhibitor) and SB505124 (a type I TGF-β receptor inhibitor). A lower smad7 expression was identified in poorly differentiated breast cancers, as compared to well- to moderately differentiated breast cancers. Notably, antagonism of miR-21 decreased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in mouse models. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that plasma miR-21 levels may serve as a diagnostic marker in breast cancers, whereas miR-21 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing smad7, which enhances EGF and TGF-β pathways.

Xu J, Ai Q, Cao H, Liu Q
MiR-185-3p and miR-324-3p Predict Radiosensitivity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Modulate Cancer Cell Growth and Apoptosis by Targeting SMAD7.
Med Sci Monit. 2015; 21:2828-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND MiR-185-3p and miR-324-3p are 2 miRNAs that regulate nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radioresistance. This study tried to assess the clinical values of low miR-185-3p and low miR-324-3p expression in predicting response to radiotherapy (RT) and prognosis of NPC and to explore their new downstream targets. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 80 patients with primary NPC. MiR-185-3p and miR-324-3p expression in the tumor tissues before and after RT or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were determined. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival curves were estimated to assess the prognostic values of these 2 miRNAs. Their target was predicted using an online database and verified using dual luciferase assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. In addition, the function of miR-185-3p/miR-324-3p-SMAD7 axis in NPC cells was investigated. RESULTS The expression of miR-185-3p and miR-324-3p was significantly reduced after RT in radioresistant but not in radiosensitive cases. Although miR-185-3p and miR-324-3p are not independent prognostic indicators of overall survival of NPC, their low expression is still associated with poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. In addition, miR-185-3p and miR-324-3p can modulate growth and apoptosis of NPC cells, partly via SMAD7. CONCLUSIONS Combined low miR-185-3p and miR-324-3p might be important markers for prediction of low response to RT/CRT and poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. MiR-185-3p and miR-324-3p can modulate NPC cell growth and apoptosis, at least partly through targeting SMAD7.

Courivaud T, Ferrand N, Elkhattouti A, et al.
Functional Characterization of a WWP1/Tiul1 Tumor-derived Mutant Reveals a Paradigm of Its Constitutive Activation in Human Cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(34):21007-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although E3 ubiquitin ligases are deemed to play key roles in normal cell function and homeostasis, whether their alterations contribute to cancer pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate potential mechanisms that govern WWP1/Tiul1 (WWP1) ubiquitin ligase activity, focusing on its ability to trigger degradation of TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) in conjunction with Smad7. Our data reveal that the WWP1 protein is very stable at steady states because its autopolyubiquitination activity is silenced due to an intra-interaction between the C2 and/or WW and Hect domains that favors WWP1 monoubiquitination at the expense of its polyubiquitination or polyubiquitination of TβRI. Upon binding of WWP1 to Smad7, this functional interplay is disabled, switching its monoubiquitination activity toward a polyubiquitination activity, thereby driving its own degradation and that of TβRI as well. Intriguingly, a WWP1 point mutation found in human prostate cancer disrupts this regulatory mechanism by relieving the inhibitory effects of C2 and WW on Hect and thereby causing WWP1 hyperactivation. That cancer-driven alteration of WWP1 culminates in excessive TβRI degradation and attenuated TGFβ cytostatic signaling, a consequence that could conceivably confer tumorigenic properties to WWP1.

Jin L, Zhu C, Wang X, et al.
Urocortin attenuates TGFβ1-induced Snail1 and slug expressions: inhibitory role of Smad7 in Smad2/3 signaling in breast cancer cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(11):2494-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Corticortropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family are multifunctional endocrine-factors that regulate proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of various types of cancer cells. Deregulation of the transforming growth factor β1(TGFβ1) signal transduction promotes aggressive metastatic properties in late-stage breast cancers. We previously have demonstrated in breast cancer cell line that CRH suppressed TGFβ1-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) via induction of E-cadherin. Our present data in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that Urocortin (Ucn, a member of CRH family) inhibited TGFβ1 signaling by reducing Smad2/3 activation and subsequent nuclear translocation through increasing Smad7 expression, leading to downregulation of Snail1 and Slug, the two EMT promoters. We further found that Antalarmin (CRH receptor type 1, CRHR1 antagonist) and Antisauvagine-30 (CRH receptor type2, CRHR2 antagonist) abrogated the effects of Ucn on TGFβ1 signaling, implying that both active CRHR1 and CRHR2 participate in Ucn-repressed TGFβ1 signaling. Our findings, for the fist time, identify Ucn as a potential mediator that inhibits oncogenic signaling by TGFβ1 and suggest that activating CRHR1 and R2 may prove effective in diminishing breast cancer progression stimulated by TGFβ1.

Wang ZH, Zhang QS, Duan YL, et al.
TGF-β induced miR-132 enhances the activation of TGF-β signaling through inhibiting SMAD7 expression in glioma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 463(3):187-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) pathway has been proven to play important roles in oncogenesis and angiogenesis of gliomas. MiR-132 might be related to TGF-β signaling pathway and high miR-132 expression was reported to be a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients diagnosed with glioma. However, the expression regulation way involved in TGF-β pathway and clinical significance of miR-132 have not been investigated in glioma cells. Here we reported that the mRNA level of miR-132 and TGF-β concentration were both increased in patients with brain glioma. Correlation analysis revealed that TGF-β concentration was positively correlated with mRNA level of miR-132. In addition, the mRNA level of miR-132 was up-regulated by TGF-β in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that miR-132 was involved in modulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway and down-regulation of SMAD7 expression by directly targeting the SMAD7 3'-UTR. MiR-132 was negatively correlated with SMAD7 in patients with brain glioma. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-132 could be stimulated by TGF-β and might enhance the activation of TGF-β signaling through inhibiting SMAD7 expression in glioma cells. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of the activation of TGF-β signaling by miR-132.

Zhao Z, Xi H, Xu D, Li C
Transforming growth factor β receptor signaling restrains growth of pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7711-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is extremely malignant. Efficient control of cancer growth may substantially improve the survival of PDAC patients. However, no efficient treatments are so far available. Here, we inhibited transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling by overexpression of a key inhibitor of this pathway, SMAD7, in the mouse pancreas, using a recently developed intraductal infusion method. Overexpression of SMAD7 significantly increased growth of both implanted PDAC and PDAC by K-ras modification. Our data thus suggest that TGFβ receptor signaling restrains growth of PDAC, and modulation of TGFβ receptor signaling may be an effective treatment for PDAC.

Wang G, Li X, Tian W, et al.
Promoter DNA methylation is associated with KLF11 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(7):453-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-inducible gene, the expression of Krüppel-like transcription factor 11 (KLF11) is altered in several types of cancer. In the current study, through using human 9K CpG island array, KLF11 was identified as one of hypermethylated genes in RAS-transformed ovarian T29H cells. Methylation of the KLF11 promoter was also observed in ovarian cancer tissue samples accompanied by significantly reduced KLF11 gene expression. Interestingly, the expression of SMAD2, SMAD3, and SMAD7 genes was reduced in the tumour, whilst no change was found in TGF-β expression. Our data suggest a relationship between promoter DNA methylation and KLF11 gene expression in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis.

Zhu Z, Xu Y, Zhao J, et al.
miR-367 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by targeting the Smad7-TGF-β signalling pathway.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1367-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant Smad7 expression contributes to the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the potential mechanism underlying aberrant Smad7 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown.
METHODS: Bioinformatic prediction programmes and luciferase reporter assay were used to identify microRNAs regulating Smad7. The association between miR-367 expression and the overall survival of PDAC patients was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The effects of miR-367 and Smad7 on the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: We found that miR-367 downregulated Smad7 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR in human pancreatic cancer cells. High level of miR-367 expression correlated with poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Functional studies showed that miR-367 promoted pancreatic cancer invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through downregulating Smad7. In addition, we showed that miR-367 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by increasing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced transcriptional activity.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified and characterised a signalling pathway, the miR-367/Smad7-TGF-β pathway, which is involved in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results suggest that miR-367 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer.

Zhao YG, Shi BY, Qian YY, et al.
Dynamic expression changes between non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Tumori. 2014 Nov-Dec; 100(6):e273-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Despite elaborate characterization of the risk factors, bladder cancer is still a major epidemiological problem whose incidence continues to rise each year. We aim to investigate the dynamic expression changes between non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE13507 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and the R package was used to identify gene expression signatures (GESs) between NMIBC and MIBC. Gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed for GES function analysis. We used miRTarBase and TargetScan to identify the differentially regulated microRNAs, and TfactS to identify transcription factors between NMIBC and MIBC. Bionet was used to identify the differentially expressed subnetwork.
RESULTS: A total of 802 upregulated NMIBC GESs and 668 downregulated MIBC GESs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the MIBC GESs were majorly involved in cell cycle and inflammatory response. miR-29c and miR-9 were regarded as key microRNAs in MIBC. SMAD3 in MIBC and SMAD5 and SMAD7 in NMIBC were potential activated transcription factors. In addition, a subnetwork that was considered to capture the differences between MIBC and NMIBC was identified, of which GRB2 and UBC were the hub nodes.
CONCLUSIONS: Some key microRNAs, activated transcription factors and hub nodes have been identified in this study, which may be used as potential biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis, treatment and detection of bladder cancer at different stages.

Damavand B, Derakhshani S, Saeedi N, et al.
Intronic polymorphisms of the SMAD7 gene in association with colorectal cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(1):41-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) a linkage between several variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 3 of SMAD7 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog7) were, rs12953717, rs4464148 and rs4939827 has been noted for susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study we investigated the relationship of rs12953717 and rs4464148 with risk of CRC among 487 Iranian individuals based on a case- control study. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by PCR-RFLP and for confirming the outcomes, 10% of genotyping cases were sequenced with RFLP. Comparing the case and control group, we have found significant association between the rs4464148 SNP and lower risk of CRC. The AG genotype showed decreased risk with and odds ratio of 0.635 (adjusted OR=0.635, 95% CI: 0.417-0.967, p=0.034). There was no significant difference in the distribution of SMAD7 gene rs12953717 TT genotype between two groups of the population evaluated (adjusted OR=1.604, 95% CI: 0.978-2.633, p=0.061). On the other hand, rs12953717 T allele showed a statistically significant association with CRC risk (adjusted OR=1.339, 95% CI: 1.017-1.764, p=0.037). In conclusion, we found a significant association between CRC risk and the rs4464148 AG genotype. Furthermore, the rs12953717 T allele may act as a risk factor. This association may be caused by alternative splicing of pre mRNA. Although we observed a strong association with rs4464148 GG genotype in affected women, we did not detect the same association in CRC male patients.

Feng T, Dzieran J, Gu X, et al.
Smad7 regulates compensatory hepatocyte proliferation in damaged mouse liver and positively relates to better clinical outcome in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2015; 128(11):761-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is cytostatic towards damage-induced compensatory hepatocyte proliferation. This function is frequently lost during hepatocarcinogenesis, thereby switching the TGF-β role from tumour suppressor to tumour promoter. In the present study, we investigate Smad7 overexpression as a pathophysiological mechanism for cytostatic TGF-β inhibition in liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Transgenic hepatocyte-specific Smad7 overexpression in damaged liver of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH)-deficient mice increased compensatory proliferation of hepatocytes. Similarly, modulation of Smad7 expression changed the sensitivity of Huh7, FLC-4, HLE and HLF HCC cell lines for cytostatic TGF-β effects. In our cohort of 140 HCC patients, Smad7 transcripts were elevated in 41.4% of HCC samples as compared with adjacent tissue, with significant positive correlation to tumour size, whereas low Smad7 expression levels were significantly associated with worse clinical outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate Smad7 levels as an independent predictor for overall (P<0.001) and disease-free survival (P=0.0123). Delineating a mechanism for Smad7 transcriptional regulation in HCC, we identified cold-shock Y-box protein-1 (YB-1), a multifunctional transcription factor. YB-1 RNAi reduced TGF-β-induced and endogenous Smad7 expression in Huh7 and FLC-4 cells respectively. YB-1 and Smad7 mRNA expression levels correlated positively (P<0.0001). Furthermore, nuclear co-localization of Smad7 and YB-1 proteins was present in cancer cells of those patients. In summary, the present study provides a YB-1/Smad7-mediated mechanism that interferes with anti-proliferative/tumour-suppressive TGF-β actions in a subgroup of HCC cells that may facilitate aspects of tumour progression.

Wiguna AP, Walden P
Role of IL-10 and TGF-β in melanoma.
Exp Dermatol. 2015; 24(3):209-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-10 and TGF-β are immunosuppressive cytokines expressed in tumors including melanoma and, therefore, deemed major cause for failing antitumor immune responses. Re-evaluating their role, we compared their expression by quantitative RT-PCR in melanoma and skin of healthy individuals, tested their induction in dendritic cells and T cells co-cultured with tumor cells, and their effects on the immune cells. Both cytokines as well as their receptors were expressed in melanoma at significantly lower levels than in healthy skin. Consequently, the expressions of IL-10-responsive SOCS-3 and TGF-β-responsive Smad-7 were low in tumors but high in healthy skin. T cells co-cultured with tumor cells developed an anergic state without increased IL-10 or TGF-β expression. In vitro tumor-induced immature dendritic cells produced high IL-10 levels and less efficiently induced T-cell proliferation. Nonetheless, they could be induced to mature, and blocking IL-10 did not alter the capacity of the resulting mature dendritic cells to stimulate T cells. Mature dendritic cells co-cultured with tumor cells produced increased IL-10 but decreased TGF-β and more efficiently induced T-cell proliferation. The lack of correlation of IL-10 and TGF-β with immune deficits in situ and in vitro suggests re-evaluating their roles in cancer.

Boye A, Kan H, Wu C, et al.
MAPK inhibitors differently modulate TGF-β/Smad signaling in HepG2 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3643-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which crosstalk with TGF-β/Smad signaling via linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis. After DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats showed increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2, we next antagonized TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38, ERK1/2, Smad2/3 signaling in HepG2 cells using SP600125, SB203580, and PD98059, respectively. Cell proliferation and invasion were assessed by MTT assay and transwell invasion chambers, respectively. Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 expressions and PAI-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription were measured by using immuno-precipitation/immuno-blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. All the MAPK-specific inhibitors suppressed cell invasion, while all but PD98059 suppressed cell proliferation. Both SP600125 and SB203580 blocked pSmad2C/L and oncogenic pSmad3L. PD98059 blocked pSmad2L but had no effect on elevated pSmad2C and oncogenic pSmad3L. All but PD98059 blocked Smad2/3/4 complex formation and restored Smad7 expression, while all the three MAPK-Specific inhibitors repressed PAI-1 mRNA transcription. Both SP600125 and SB203580 inhibited HepG2 cells' proliferation and invasion by blocking oncogenic pSmad3L and Smad2/3/4 complex formation. PD98059 repressed PAI-1 mRNA by an unknown mechanism.

Sherman SK, Maxwell JE, Qian Q, et al.
Esophageal cancer in a family with hamartomatous tumors and germline PTEN frameshift and SMAD7 missense mutations.
Cancer Genet. 2015 Jan-Feb; 208(1-2):41-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Germline mutations in the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene cause autosomal-dominant conditions such as Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes with variable presentations, including hamartomatous gastrointestinal tumors, dermatologic abnormalities, neurologic symptoms, and elevated cancer risk. We describe a father and son with extensive hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyposis who both developed early-onset esophageal cancer. Exome sequencing identified a novel germline PTEN frameshift mutation (c.568_569insC, p.V191Sfs*11). In addition, a missense mutation of SMAD7 (c.115G>A, p.G39R) with an allele frequency of 0.3% in the Exome Variant Server was detected in both affected individuals. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for PTEN in the resected esophageal cancer specimen demonstrated no PTEN copy loss in malignant cells; however, results of an immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a loss of PTEN protein expression. While the risks of many cancers are elevated in the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes, association between esophageal adenocarcinoma and these syndromes has not been previously reported. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and extensive polyposis/ganglioneuromatosis could represent less common features of these syndromes, potentially correlating with this novel PTEN frameshift and early protein termination genotype. Alternatively, because simultaneous disruption of both the PTEN and TGF-β/SMAD4 pathways is associated with development of esophageal cancer in a mouse model and because SMAD4 mutations cause gastrointestinal hamartomas in juvenile polyposis syndrome, the SMAD7 mutation may represent an additional modifier of these individuals' PTEN-mutant phenotype.

Thakur N, Gudey SK, Marcusson A, et al.
TGFβ-induced invasion of prostate cancer cells is promoted by c-Jun-dependent transcriptional activation of Snail1.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(15):2400-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) correlate with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer and other cancers. TGFβ is a multifunctional cytokine and crucial regulator of cell fate, such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is implicated in cancer invasion and progression. TGFβ conveys its signals upon binding to type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (TβRI/II); phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 promotes their association with Smad4, which regulates expression of targets genes, such as Smad7, p21, and c-Jun. TGFβ also activates the ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which associates with TβRI and activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Snail1 is a key transcription factor, induced by TGFβ that promotes migration and invasion of cancer cells. In this study, we have identified a novel binding site for c-Jun in the promoter of the Snail1 gene and report that the activation of the TGFβ-TRAF6-p38 MAPK pathway promotes both c-Jun expression and its activation via p38α-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63. The TRAF6-dependent activation of p38 also leads to increased stability of c-Jun, due to p38-dependent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β by phosphorylation at Ser9. Thus, our findings elucidate a novel role for the p38 MAPK pathway in stimulated cells, leading to activation of c-Jun and its binding to the promoter of Snail1, thereby triggering motility and invasiveness of aggressive human prostate cancer cells.

Ordóñez R, Gallo-Oller G, Martínez-Soto S, et al.
Genome-wide microarray expression and genomic alterations by array-CGH analysis in neuroblastoma stem-like cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma has a very diverse clinical behaviour: from spontaneous regression to a very aggressive malignant progression and resistance to chemotherapy. This heterogeneous clinical behaviour might be due to the existence of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC), a subpopulation within the tumor with stem-like cell properties: a significant proliferation capacity, a unique self-renewal capacity, and therefore, a higher ability to form new tumors. We enriched the CSC-like cell population content of two commercial neuroblastoma cell lines by the use of conditioned cell culture media for neurospheres, and compared genomic gains and losses and genome expression by array-CGH and microarray analysis, respectively (in CSC-like versus standard tumor cells culture). Despite the array-CGH did not show significant differences between standard and CSC-like in both analyzed cell lines, the microarray expression analysis highlighted some of the most relevant biological processes and molecular functions that might be responsible for the CSC-like phenotype. Some signalling pathways detected seem to be involved in self-renewal of normal tissues (Wnt, Notch, Hh and TGF-β) and contribute to CSC phenotype. We focused on the aberrant activation of TGF-β and Hh signalling pathways, confirming the inhibition of repressors of TGF-β pathway, as SMAD6 and SMAD7 by RT-qPCR. The analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway showed overexpression of PTCH1, GLI1 and SMO. We found overexpression of CD133 and CD15 in SIMA neurospheres, confirming that this cell line was particularly enriched in stem-like cells. This work shows a cross-talk among different pathways in neuroblastoma and its importance in CSC-like cells.

Fortini BK, Tring S, Plummer SJ, et al.
Multiple functional risk variants in a SMAD7 enhancer implicate a colorectal cancer risk haplotype.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111914 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have led to the identification of a number of common variants associated with modest risk. Several risk variants map within the vicinity of TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway genes, including rs4939827 within an intron of SMAD7 at 18q21.1. A previous study implicated a novel SNP (novel 1 or rs58920878) as a functional variant within an enhancer element in SMAD7 intron 4. In this study, we show that four SNPs including novel 1 (rs6507874, rs6507875, rs8085824, and rs58920878) in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the index SNP rs4939827 demonstrate allele-specific enhancer effects in a large, multi-component enhancer of SMAD7. All four SNPs demonstrate allele-specific protein binding to nuclear extracts of CRC cell lines. Furthermore, some of the risk-associated alleles correlate with increased expression of SMAD7 in normal colon tissues. Finally, we show that the enhancer is responsive to BMP4 stimulation. Taken together, we propose that the associated CRC risk at 18q21.1 is due to four functional variants that regulate SMAD7 expression and potentially perturb a BMP negative feedback loop in TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways.

Tang Q, Zou Z, Zou C, et al.
MicroRNA-93 suppress colorectal cancer development via Wnt/β-catenin pathway downregulating.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1701-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-93 (miR-93) is involved in several carcinoma progressions. It has been reported that miR-93 acts as a promoter or suppressor in different tumors. However, till now, the role of miR-93 in colon cancer is unclear. Herein, we have found that expression of miR-93 was lower in human colon cancer tissue and colorectal carcinoma cell lines compared with normal colon mucosa. Forced expression of miR-93 in colon cancer cells inhibits colon cancer invasion, migration, and proliferation. Furthermore, miR-93 may downregulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which was confirmed by measuring the expression level of the β-catenin, axin, c-Myc, and cyclin-D1 in this pathway. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7), as an essential molecular protein for nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is predicted as a putative target gene of miR-93 by the silico method and demonstrated that it may be suppressed by targeting its 3'UTR. These findings showed that miR-93 suppresses colorectal cancer development via downregulating Wnt/β-catenin, at least in part, by targeting Smad7. This study revealed that miR-93 is an important negative regulator in colon cancer and suggested that miR-93 may serve as a novel therapeutic agent that offers benefits for colon cancer treatment.

DiVito KA, Trabosh VA, Chen YS, et al.
Inhibitor of differentiation-4 (Id4) stimulates pigmentation in melanoma leading to histiocyte infiltration.
Exp Dermatol. 2015; 24(2):101-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
TGF-β and the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) are linked. Smad7 and other TGF-β inhibitors can potently suppress melanomagenesis; however, little work examining Ids has been reported in melanoma, particularly for Id4. Here, we report that Id4, but not Id2 or Id3 expression, surprisingly, activated robust melanin production in xenografts of previously amelanotic (lacking pigment) 1205Lu/Smad7 (S7) cells. Fontana-Masson stain and de-novo expression of MART-1 and tyrosinase proteins confirmed melanin production. Additionally, pigment-laden CD163+ mouse histiocytes with areas of extensive necrosis were found throughout S7/Id4 tumors, but not in parental 1205Lu, S7/Id2 or S7Id3-derived tumors. Mechanistic investigation revealed increased nuclear M-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and MART-1 promoter activation following Id4 expression in 1205Lu and WM852 melanoma cells, suggesting broader implications for Id4 in melanin synthesis. In human tumors, melanin colocalized with Id4 expression establishing a correlation. Current chemotherapeutics for melanoma are only marginally effective. Immunotherapy provides the most promise, yet the role of innate immunity is poorly understood. Here, TGF-β suppression followed by Id4 expression results in extensive melanin synthesis and robust histiocyte recruitment following tumorigenesis, a novel role for Id4. Our results suggest that TGF-β suppression coupled with pigment overproduction triggers an innate immune response resulting in tumor necrosis.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SMAD6, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/SMAD6.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 11 March, 2017     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999