Gene Summary

Gene:SOX1; SRY-box transcription factor 1
Summary:This intronless gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. In mice, a similar protein regulates the gamma-crystallin genes and is essential for lens development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOX1 (cancer-related)

Guo Z, Hu Y, Yuan L, et al.
A prospective study on the predictive value of DNA methylation in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia prognosis.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2018; 298(3):589-596 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the predictive value of the DNA methylation levels of JAM3, SOX1, SLIT2, C13ORF18, and TERT in the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia prognosis.
METHOD: In the present study, 139 cases were collected and followed up for 24 months. The DNA methylation levels of JAM3, SOX1, SLIT2, C13ORF18, and TERT were tested from their exfoliated cells. One-way ANOVA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The DNA methylation of the five genes was associated with prognosis of CIN. The levels of methylation increased as the progression of lesion for the prognosis. For CIN1, difference between DNA methylation of JAM3, SOX1, SLIT2, and C13ORF18 had significance statistically (P < 0.001). Sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (93.1%) of JAM3 were the highest compared with other genes for the prognosis of CIN1. In addition, for CIN2/3, DNA methylation of JAM3, SOX1, SLIT2, TERT, and C13ORF18 had difference statistically (P < 0.001). JAM3 were also the highest in sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (93.1%) compared with other genes for the prognosis of CIN2/3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest for the first time that DNA methylation levels are associated with prognosis of CIN significantly. DNA methylation levels of some genes, especially JAM3, may serve as markers for the prediction of the CIN prognosis, including CIN1 nature prognosis and CIN2/3 after treatment.

Rogeri CD, Silveira HCS, Causin RL, et al.
Methylation of the hsa-miR-124, SOX1, TERT, and LMX1A genes as biomarkers for precursor lesions in cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(3):545-551 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The methylation profile of genes in precursor lesions in cervical cancer was characterized to improve screening techniques for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.
METHODS: A total of 447 cervical cytology samples obtained from women who underwent colposcopy were examined. The cases were distributed as follows: (1) cervices without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 152); (2) cervices with a CIN grade of 1 (CIN 1; n = 147); and (3) cervices with a CIN grade of 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3; n = 148). The methylation pattern for a panel of 15 genes was analysed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and compared between the groups (≤CIN 1 vs. CIN 2+).
RESULTS: In the validation set, seven genes presented significantly different methylation profiles according to diagnosis, namely, DAPK1 (p = 0.001), EPB41L3 (p = 0.001), HIC1 (p = 0.028), hsa-miR-124-2 (p = 0.001), LMX1A (p = 0.001), SOX1 (p = 0.001), and TERT (p = 0.001). Six genes showed a significant increase in the frequency of methylation in the presence of hr-HPV, namely, DAPK1 (p = 0.001), EPB41L3 (p = 0.001), hsa-miR-124-2 (p = 0.001), LMX1A (p = 0.001), SOX1 (p = 0.001), and TERT (p = 0.001). The methylation of the hsa-miR-124 gene showed sensitivity and specificity (86.7% and 61.3%, respectively) similar to that of the HPV test (91.3% and 50.0%, respectively). The independent factors associated with the diagnosis of CIN 2+ and the methylation of the hsa-miR-124-2 (OR = 5.1), SOX1 (OR = 2.8), TERT (OR = 2.2), and LMX1A (OR = 2.0) genes were a positive test for hr-HPV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of the hsa-miR-124-2, SOX1, TERT, and LMX1A genes may be a promising biomarker for precursor lesions in cervical cancer regardless of the hr-HPV status.

Molnár B, Galamb O, Péterfia B, et al.
Gene promoter and exon DNA methylation changes in colon cancer development - mRNA expression and tumor mutation alterations.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):695 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA mutations occur randomly and sporadically in growth-related genes, mostly on cytosines. Demethylation of cytosines may lead to genetic instability through spontaneous deamination. Aims were whole genome methylation and targeted mutation analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related genes and mRNA expression analysis of TP53 pathway genes.
METHODS: Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) BS-PCR followed by pyrosequencing was performed for the estimation of global DNA metlyation levels along the colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Methyl capture sequencing was done on 6 normal adjacent (NAT), 15 adenomatous (AD) and 9 CRC tissues. Overall quantitative methylation analysis, selection of top hyper/hypomethylated genes, methylation analysis on mutation regions and TP53 pathway gene promoters were performed. Mutations of 12 CRC-related genes (APC, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, FBXW7, KRAS, NRAS, MSH6, PIK3CA, SMAD2, SMAD4, TP53) were evaluated. mRNA expression of TP53 pathway genes was also analyzed.
RESULTS: According to the LINE-1 methylation results, overall hypomethylation was observed along the normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Within top50 differential methylated regions (DMRs), in AD-N comparison TP73, NGFR, PDGFRA genes were hypermethylated, FMN1, SLC16A7 genes were hypomethylated. In CRC-N comparison DKK2, SDC2, SOX1 genes showed hypermethylation, while ERBB4, CREB5, CNTN1 genes were hypomethylated. In certain mutation hot spot regions significant DNA methylation alterations were detected. The TP53 gene body was addressed by hypermethylation in adenomas. APC, TP53 and KRAS mutations were found in 30, 15, 21% of adenomas, and in 29, 53, 29% of CRCs, respectively. mRNA expression changes were observed in several TP53 pathway genes showing promoter methylation alterations.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation with consecutive phenotypic effect can be observed in a high number of promoter and gene body regions through CRC development.

Liu XY, Fan YC, Gao S, et al.
Methylation of SOX1 and VIM promoters in serum as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2017; 64(5):745-753 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of tumor-related genes has been identified as a promising biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 1 (SOX1) and Vimentin (VIM) promoter methylation for HCC. The study included 360 subjects, 240 patients with HCC, 29 with liver cirrhosis (LC), 66 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 25 healthy controls (HCs). The methylation status of SOX1 and VIM promoters in the serum was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The methylation frequencies of SOX1 and VIM promoters in HCC patients were significantly higher than those in LC (p<0.001 and p<0.001), CHB (p<0.001 and p<0.001) and HC (p<0.001 and p<0.001) subjects. Furthermore, hypermethylation of SOX1 and VIM promoters were found in patients with advanced TNM stage (III-IV) and larger tumor size (≥5 cm) compared with early stage (I-II) (p<0.001 and p=0.004) patients with smaller tumor size (<3 cm) (p=0.018 and p=0.001). Moreover, the VIM promoter methylation frequency was higher in patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) (p=0.006) and vascular invasion (p=0.003). In addition, the combination of α-fetoprotein (≥20 ng/ml) with SOX1 and VIM promoter methylation significantly improved their diagnostic value. In conclusions, aberrant methylation of SOX1 and VIM promoters may be potential biomarkers for noninvasive detection of HCC and HCC metastasis.

López JI, Angulo JC, Martín A, et al.
A DNA hypermethylation profile reveals new potential biomarkers for the evaluation of prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer.
APMIS. 2017; 125(9):787-796 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA hypermethylation has emerged as a molecular biomarker for the evaluation of cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We define a methylation signature of bladder cancer and evaluate whether this profile assesses prognosis of patients. Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 70 tumor and 10 normal bladder samples. Hypermethylation status of 1505 CpGs present in the promoter region of 807 genes was studied. Thirty-three genes were significantly hypermethylated in ≥10% of the tumors. Three clusters of patients were characterized by their DNA methylation profile, one at higher risk of dead of disease (p = 0.0012). Association between cluster distribution and stage (p = 0.02) or grade (p = 0.02) was demonstrated. Hypermethylation of JAK3 and absence of hypermethylation of EYA4, GAT6, and SOX1 were associated with low-grade non-invasive disease. On the other hand, in high-grade invasive disease hypermethylation of CSPG2, HOXA11, HOXA9, HS3ST2, SOX1, and TWIST1 was associated with muscle invasiveness. A panel of hypermethylated genes including APC, CSPG2, EPHA5, EYA4, HOXA9, IPF1, ISL1, JAK3, PITX2, SOX1, and TWIST1 predicted cancer-specific survival and SOX1 (HR = 3.46), PITX2 (HR = 4.17), CSPG2 (HR = 5.35), and JAK3 hypermethylation (HR = 0.19) did so independently. Silencing of genes by hypermethylation is a common event in bladder cancer and could be used to develop diagnostic and prognostic markers. Combined hypermethylation of SOX1, PITX2, or CSPG2 signals patients at higher risk of death from bladder cancer.

Hsu YW, Huang RL, Su PH, et al.
Genotype-specific methylation of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 28(4):e56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hypermethylation of human papillomavirus (HPV) and host genes has been reported in cervical cancer. However, the degree of methylation of different HPV types relative to the severity of the cervical lesions remains controversial. Studies of the degree of methylation associated with the host gene and the HPV genome to the severity of cervical lesions are rare. We examined the association of methylation status between host genes and late gene 1 (L1) regions of HPV16, 18, 52, and 58 in cervical brushings.
METHODS: Cervical brushings from 147 HPV-infected patients were obtained. The samples comprised normal (n=28), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=45), CIN2 (n=13), and CIN3/carcinoma in situ (n=61). The methylation status of HPV and host genes was measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: The degree of methylation of L1 in HPV16, 18, and 52 was associated with the severity of the cervical lesion. In HPV52, C-phosphate-G (CpG) sites 6368m, 6405m, and 6443m showed significantly higher methylation in lesions ≥CIN3 (p=0.005, 0.003, and 0.026, respectively). Methylation of most HPV types except HPV52 (r<-0.1) was positively correlated with the degree of methylation of host genes including PAX1 and SOX1 (0.4≤r≤0.7). Combining HPV methylation with PAX1 methylation improved the clustering for ≥CIN2.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the degree of L1 methylation of HPV16, 18, and 52 but not 58 is associated with the severity of cervical lesions. The association between HPV methylation and host gene methylation suggests different responses of host cellular epigenetic machinery to different HPV genotypes.

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

Mizuno K, Mataki H, Arai T, et al.
The microRNA expression signature of small cell lung cancer: tumor suppressors of miR-27a-5p and miR-34b-3p and their targeted oncogenes.
J Hum Genet. 2017; 62(7):671-678 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) constitutes approximately 15% of all diagnosed lung cancers. SCLC is a particularly lethal malignancy, as the 2-year survival rate after appropriate treatment is less than 5%. The patients with SCLC have not been received a benefit of the recently developed molecular targeted treatment. Therefore, a new treatment strategy is necessary for the patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness of SCLC cells and their development of treatment-resistance are still ambiguous. In this study, we newly constructed a microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of SCLC by analysis of autopsy specimens. Based on the resultant signature, four miRNAs (miR-27a-5p, miR-485-3p, miR-34-5p and miR-574-3p) were found to be candidate anti-tumor miRNAs. To investigate their functional importance, we first validated the downregulation of miR-27a-5p and miR-34b-3p in SCLC clinical specimens. Next, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of both miR-27a-5p and miR-34b-3p significantly inhibited cancer cell aggressiveness. Our in silico analyses showed that four genes (topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A), maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), centromere protein F (CENPF) and SRY-box 1 (SOX1) were identified as miR-27a-5p- and miR-34b-3p-regulated genes. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, TOP2A, MELK and CENPF were involved in SCLC pathogenesis. These genes might contribute to high proliferation and early metastatic spread of SCLC cells. Elucidation of differentially expressed miRNA-mediated cancer pathways based on SCLC signature may provide new insights into the mechanisms of SCLC pathogenesis.

Cheng SJ, Chang CF, Lee JJ, et al.
Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 are effective biomarkers for detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer.
Oral Oncol. 2016; 62:34-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the methylation of ZNF582, PAX1, SOX1, NKX6.1, and PTPRR genes in oral scrapings could be used to detect oral dysplasia and oral cancer and to predict oral cancer recurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral scrapings were collected from 65 normal oral mucosa subjects, 107 oral precancer patients, and 95 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methylation levels of the five genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific PCR after bisulfite conversion.
RESULTS: Among the five tested genes, methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582
CONCLUSION: We conclude that hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer and for the prediction of oral cancer recurrence.

Lorincz AT
Virtues and Weaknesses of DNA Methylation as a Test for Cervical Cancer Prevention.
Acta Cytol. 2016; 60(6):501-512 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics is the study of heritable and non-heritable genetic coding that is additive to information contained within classical DNA base pair sequences. Differential methylation has a fundamental role in the development and outcome of malignancies, chronic and degenerative diseases and aging. DNA methylation can be measured accurately and easily via various molecular methods and has become a key technology for research and healthcare delivery, with immediate roles in the elucidation of disease natural history, diagnostics and drug discovery. This review focuses on cancers of the lower genital tract, for which the most epigenetic information exists. DNA methylation has been proposed as a triage for women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and may eventually directly complement or replace HPV screening as a one-step molecular diagnostic and prognostic test. Methylation of human genes is strongly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Of the more than 100 human methylation biomarker genes tested so far in cervical tissue, close to 20 have been reported in different studies, and approximately 10 have been repeatedly shown to have elevated methylation in cervical cancers and high-grade CIN (CIN2 and CIN3), most prominently CADM1, EPB41L3, FAM19A4, MAL, miR-124, PAX1 and SOX1. Obtaining consistent performance data from the literature is quite difficult because most methylation studies used a variety of different assay methodologies and had incomplete and/or biased clinical specimen sets, varying assay thresholds and disparate target gene regions. There have been relatively few validation studies of DNA methylation biomarkers in large population-based screening studies, but an encouraging development more recently is the execution of well-designed studies to test the true performance of the markers in real-world settings. Methylation of HPV genes, especially HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33 and HPV45, in disease progression has been a major focus of research. Elevated methylation of the HPV16 L1 and L2 open reading frames, in particular, is associated with CIN2, CIN3 and invasive cancer. Essentially all cancers have high levels of methylation for human genes and for driver HPV types, which suggests that quantitative methylation tests may have utility in predicting CIN2 and CIN3 that are likely to progress. It is still early in the process of development of methylation biomarkers, but already they are showing strong promise as a universal and systematic approach to molecular triage, applicable to all cancers, not just cancer of the cervix. DNA methylation testing is better than HPV genotyping triage and is competitive with or complementary to other approaches such as cytology and p16 staining. Genome-wide studies are underway to systematically expand methylation classifier panels and find the best combinations of biomarkers. Methylation testing is likely to show big improvements in performance in the next 5 years.

Wang R, van Leeuwen RW, Boers A, et al.
Genome-wide methylome analysis using MethylCap-seq uncovers 4 hypermethylated markers with high sensitivity for both adeno- and squamous-cell cervical carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):80735-80750 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytology-based screening methods for cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC) and to a lesser extent squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) suffer from low sensitivity. DNA hypermethylation analysis in cervical scrapings may improve detection of SCC, but few methylation markers have been described for ADC. We aimed to identify novel methylation markers for the early detection of both ADC and SCC.
RESULTS: Genome-wide methylation profiling for 20 normal cervices, 6 ADC and 6 SCC using MethylCap-seq yielded 53 candidate regions hypermethylated in both ADC and SCC. Verification and independent validation of the 15 most significant regions revealed 5 markers with differential methylation between 17 normals and 13 cancers. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR on cervical cancer scrapings resulted in detection rates ranging between 80% and 92% while between 94% and 99% of control scrapings tested negative. Four markers (SLC6A5, SOX1, SOX14 and TBX20) detected ADC and SCC with similar sensitivity. In scrapings from women referred with an abnormal smear (n=229), CIN3+ sensitivity was between 36% and 71%, while between 71% and 93% of adenocarcinoma in situ (AdCIS) were detected; and CIN0/1 specificity was between 88% and 98%. Compared to hrHPV, the combination SOX1/SOX14 showed a similar CIN3+ sensitivity (80% vs. 75%, respectively, P>0.2), while specificity improved (42% vs. 84%, respectively, P < 10-5).
CONCLUSION: SOX1 and SOX14 are methylation biomarkers applicable for screening of all cervical cancer types.

Rad A, Esmaeili Dizghandi S, Abbaszadegan MR, et al.
SOX1 is correlated to stemness state regulator SALL4 through progression and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2016; 594(2):171-175 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX1, as a tumor suppressor, play anti-tumorigenecity role in different cells and its expression is inhibited in a variety of cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate SOX1 expression and its correlation with cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in ESCC. Using real time PCR, the relative comparative expression of SOX1 in 40 ESCC samples was assessed compared to related margin normal tissues, and its correlation with CSC markers including SALL4, SOX2, and MEIS1 was analyzed statistically. The results revealed significant under-expression of SOX1 in ESCC in significant correlation with different indices of poor prognosis including depth of tumor invasion (P=0.02), Stage of tumor cell progression (P=0.05), and number of involved lymph node metastasis (P=0.05). Furthermore, the under-expression of SOX1 was associated significantly with SALL4 overexpression. This study was the first to evaluate SOX1 underexpression and its association with poor prognosis in ESCC. Since correlation of SOX1 and SALL4 was detected in advanced stages of ESCC progression, as well as high invasive and aggressive tumor tissues, it may be extrapolated that SOX1 expression may have critical role in inhibition of ESCC invasiveness and aggressiveness especially in advanced stages of the disease.

Kaur M, Singh A, Singh K, et al.
Development of a multiplex MethyLight assay for the detection of DAPK1 and SOX1 methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer in a north Indian population.
Genes Genet Syst. 2016; 91(3):175-181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. It is very heterogeneous at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels and is caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in regulatory genes. More than 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial in origin. Ovarian cancer is typically asymptomatic in its early stages, and, due to difficulties in early detection, most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The positive predictive value of CA-125, a routinely used serum protein marker, is < 30%; therefore, for effective screening, there is a need to develop a marker with high sensitivity for early detection. Development of blood-based biomarkers that detect DNA methylation in cell-free tumor-specific DNA is now being considered as a potential approach for the early diagnosis of cancer. Our objective in this study was to develop an absolute quantitative method, the MethyLight assay, to detect the promoter methylation status of two tumor suppressor genes. We analyzed the methylation level of the promoter regions of these genes in 42 tumor samples using the MethyLight assay. SOX1 promoter methylation was significantly higher in cancer samples than in normal samples (P = 0.011), whereas this difference between cancer and normal samples was not significant for DAPK1 promoter methylation (P = 0.18), when analyzed separately in a singleplex assay, whereas the detection frequency and significance level increased several-fold when these genes were analyzed together in a multiplex assay (P = 0.0004). The sensitivity was found to be 62% and 83% for DAPK1 and SOX1, respectively, when analyzed separately in the singleplex assay, but increased to 90% in the multiplex assay when either or both of the SOX1 and the DAPK1 gene promoters showed methylation.

Song L, Liu D, He J, et al.
SOX1 inhibits breast cancer cell growth and invasion through suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
APMIS. 2016; 124(7):547-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is common in human cancers. Several studies have demonstrated that SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box (SOX) family genes serve as either tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway in different cancers. However, the role of SOX1 in breast cancer and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of SOX1 on the breasted cancer cell growth and invasion. In this study, we established overexpressed SOX1 and investigated its function by in vitro experiments. SOX1 was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of SOX1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and it promoted cell apoptosis. Furthermore, SOX1 inhibited the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SOX1 can function as a tumor suppressor partly by interfering with Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer.

Lou J, Zhang K, Chen J, et al.
Prognostic significance of SOX-1 expression in human hepatocelluar cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5411-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 1 (SOX1) as a member of the SOX gene superfamily is reported to function as a tumor suppressor in hepatocelluar cancer (HCC). However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of SOX-1 expression in HCC is unclear. First, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot assays were performed to detect the expression of SOX-1 mRNA and protein in 15 paired of HCC tissues and corresponding nontumor tissues. Next, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect SOX-1 protein expression in another 96 cases of HCC tissues, and analyze its correlation with clincopathological factors of patients. Finally, the survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards model. Results showed that the expression levels of SOX-1 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues were significantly lower than that in the corresponding nontumor tissues. Statistical analyses indicated that low SOX-1 expression was significantly correlated with higher incidence of venous or lymphatic invasion and advanced TNM stage. Also, patients with high SOX-1 expression showed better overall survival than those with low SOX-1 expression, and multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards indicated that status of SOX-1 expression might be an independent prognostic factor in HCC patients. Collectively, our results indicated that downregulation of SOX-1 was correlated with poor prognosis and tumor development in HCC.

Lin X, Stenvang J, Rasmussen MH, et al.
The potential role of Alu Y in the development of resistance to SN38 (Irinotecan) or oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Irinotecan (SN38) and oxaliplatin are chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, the frequent development of resistance to these drugs represents a considerable challenge in the clinic. Alus as retrotransposons comprise 11% of the human genome. Genomic toxicity induced by carcinogens or drugs can reactivate Alus by altering DNA methylation. Whether or not reactivation of Alus occurs in SN38 and oxaliplatin resistance remains unknown.
RESULTS: We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to investigate the DNA methylome in SN38 or oxaliplatin resistant colorectal cancer cell line models. Moreover, we extended the RRBS analysis to tumor tissue from 14 patients with colorectal cancer who either did or did not benefit from capecitabine + oxaliplatin treatment. For the clinical samples, we applied a concept of 'DNA methylation entropy' to estimate the diversity of DNA methylation states of the identified resistance phenotype-associated methylation loci observed in the cell line models. We identified different loci being characteristic for the different resistant cell lines. Interestingly, 53% of the identified loci were Alu sequences- especially the Alu Y subfamily. Furthermore, we identified an enrichment of Alu Y sequences that likely results from increased integration of new copies of Alu Y sequence in the drug-resistant cell lines. In the clinical samples, SOX1 and other SOX gene family members were shown to display variable DNA methylation states in their gene regions. The Alu Y sequences showed remarkable variation in DNA methylation states across the clinical samples.
CONCLUSION: Our findings imply a crucial role of Alu Y in colorectal cancer drug resistance. Our study underscores the complexity of colorectal cancer aggravated by mobility of Alu elements and stresses the importance of personalized strategies, using a systematic and dynamic view, for effective cancer therapy.

Chang CC, Huang RL, Liao YP, et al.
Concordance analysis of methylation biomarkers detection in self-collected and physician-collected samples in cervical neoplasm.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:418 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-attendance at gynecological clinics is a major limitation of cervical cancer screening and self-collection of samples may improve this situation. Although HPV testing of self-collected vaginal samples is acceptable, the specificity is inadequate. The current focus is increasing self-collection of vaginal samples to minimize clinic visits. In this study, we analyzed the concordance and clinical performance of DNA methylation biomarker (PAX1, SOX1, and ZNF582) detection in self-collected vaginal samples and physician-collected cervical samples for the identification of cervical neoplasm.
METHODS: We enrolled 136 cases with paired methylation data identified from abnormal Pap smears (n = 126) and normal controls (n = 10) regardless of HPV status at gynecological clinics. The study group comprised 37 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm I (CIN1), 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm II (CIN2), 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm III (CIN3), 30 carcinoma in situ (CIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and seven adenocarcinomas (ACs)/adenosquamous carcinomas (ASCs). PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 methylation in study samples was assessed by real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. We generated methylation index cutoff values for the detection of CIN3+ in physician-collected cervical samples for analysis of the self-collected group. Concordance between the physician-collected and self-collected groups was evaluated by Cohen's Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (AUC) were calculated for detection of CIN3+ lesions. Finally, we produced an optimal cutoff value with the best sensitivity from the self-collected groups.
RESULTS: We generated a methylation index cutoff value from physician-collected samples for detection of CIN3+. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity of PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 between the self-collected and physician-collected groups. The methylation status of all three genes in the normal control samples, and the CIN 1, CIN2, CIN3, CIS, ACs/ASCs and SCC samples showed reasonable to good concordance between the two groups (κ = 0.443, 0.427, and 0.609 for PAX1, SOX1, and ZNF582, respectively). In determining the optimal cutoff values from the self-collected group, ZNF582 showed the highest sensitivity (0.77; 95%CI, 0.65-0.87) using a cutoff value of 0.0204.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation biomarker analysis of the three genes for detection of CIN3+ lesions shows reasonable to good concordance between the self-collected and physician-collected samples. Therefore, self-collection of samples could be adopted to decrease non-attendance and improve cervical screening.

Wang T, Xu Y, Hou P
Identifying novel biomarkers of gastric cancer through integration analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression profile.
Int J Biol Markers. 2015; 30(3):e321-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an important cause of functional variation in proteins leading to tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify candidate biomarkers with polymorphisms in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: The SNP microarray profile GSE29996 including 50 GC samples and 50 normal controls, and gene expression data GSE56807 consisting of 5 GC samples and 5 controls were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. After preprocessing of raw data, GC-associated SNPs were identified using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out using the limma package in R. Significant DEGs with risk associated SNP loci were screened using the Fisher combination test. Gene ontology function and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs with risk associated SNP loci by GenCLip online tool. Transcriptional regulatory analysis was also conducted for transcription factor and target DEGs.
RESULTS: A total of 79 DEGs with risk associated SNP loci were identified from GC samples compared with normal controls. These DEGs were mainly enriched in anatomical structure development, including embryo development. Additionally, DEGs were significantly involved in the NO1 pathway, including actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (ACTA1). In the regulatory network, transcription factor forkhead box L1 (FOXL1) regulated 26 DEGs with risk associated SNP loci, including Iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1) rs11134044, sex determining region Y (SRY)-box1 (SOX1) rs9549447 and msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) rs41451149.
CONCLUSIONS: IRX1, SOX1 and MSX1 with risk associated SNP loci may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

Li N, Li S
Epigenetic inactivation of SOX1 promotes cell migration in lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4603-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX1 is epigenetically inactivated in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the expression and methylation status of SOX1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the promoter hypermethylation of SOX1 is involved in human lung carcinogenesis. We first detected the expression of SOX1 protein in a tissue microarray (TMA) of primary NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining with a specific anti-SOX1 antibody. Methylation of the promoter region of SOX1 in lung cancer tissues was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). In the present study, we found that the SOX1 promoter was fully or partially methylated in 40 of 60 (66.7 %) tumor tissues but not in the majority 15 of 60 (25 %) of normal tissues. A statistically significant inverse association was found between SOX1 methylation status and expression of the SOX1 in tumor tissues (P = 0.003). We further demonstrate that restoration of SOX1 inhibited cell migration by regulating actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Our results suggest that SOX1 is epigenetically silenced in the majority of NSCLC and restoration of SOX1 inhibited cell migration by regulating actin cytoskeletal remodeling in NSCLC.

Lai HC, Wang YC, Yu MH, et al.
DNA methylation as a biomarker for the detection of hidden carcinoma in endometrial atypical hyperplasia.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(3):552-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) are often found to have endometrial carcinoma (EC) at hysterectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the hypermethylation of specific genes found by methylomic approaches to the study of gynecologic cancers is a biomarker for EC in women with AH.
METHODS: We evaluated the methylation of AJAP1, HS3ST2, SOX1, and PTGDR from 61 AH patients undergoing hysterectomy. Endometrial biopsy samples were analyzed by bisulfite conversion and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. A methylation index was used to predict the presence of cancer. To confirm the silencing effects of DNA methylation, immunohistochemical analysis of AJAP1, HS3ST2, and SOX1 was performed using tissue microarray.
RESULTS: Fourteen (23%) patients had EC at hysterectomy. AJAP1, HS3ST2, and SOX1 were highly methylated in the EC patients' biopsy samples (p≤0.023). AJAP1, HS3ST2, and SOX1 protein expression was significantly higher in patients with AH only (p≤0.038). The predictive value of AJAP1, HS3ST2, and SOX1 methylation for EC was 0.81, 0.72, and 0.70, respectively. Combined testing of both AJAP1 and HS3ST2 methylation had a positive predictive value of 56%, methylation of any one of AJAP1, SOX1, or HS3ST2 had a 100% negative predictive value.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of AJAP1, HS3ST2, and SOX1 is predictive of EC in AH patients. Testing for methylation of these genes in endometrial biopsy samples may be a hysterectomy-sparing diagnostic tool. Validation of these new genes as biomarkers for AH screening in a larger population-based study is warranted.

Guan Z, Zhang J, Wang J, et al.
SOX1 down-regulates β-catenin and reverses malignant phenotype in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:257 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an important factor in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Previous studies have demonstrated that the developmental gene sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 1 (SOX1) inhibits cervical and liver tumorigenesis by interfering with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, the role of SOX1 in NPC remains unclear. This study investigates the function of SOX1 in NPC pathogenesis.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of SOX1 was detected in NPC cell lines and tissues. Besides, quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that SOX1 promoter was hypermethylated in NPC cell lines. Ectopic expression of SOX1 in NPC cells suppressed colony formation, proliferation and migration in vitro and impaired tumor growth in nude mice. Restoration of SOX1 expression significantly reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, enhanced cell differentiation and induced cellular senescence. Conversely, transient knockdown of SOX1 by siRNA in these cells partially restored cell proliferation and colony formation. Notably, SOX1 was found to physically interact with β-catenin and reduce its expression independent of proteasomal activity, leading to inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and decreased expression of downstream target genes.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX1 decreases the expression of β-catenin in a proteasome-independent manner and reverses the malignant phenotype in NPC cells.

Igci M, Arslan A, Erturhan S, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 13q33-34 region and molecular analysis of ING1 and p53 genes in bladder carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2015; 42(2):507-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is a consequence of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the cell which can lead to activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Since members of ING family were discovered as TSGs in different cancer types, it was aimed to analyze the chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 and p53 genes in bladder cancer. 30 paired normal and tumor tissues were investigated in terms of microdeletion of chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 expression and mutation status of ING1 and p53 genes. Because there is no data available about the transcription factors which bind to ING1 promoter, the promoter sequence was analyzed via Genomatix-MatInspector and TFSEARCH softwares. Used DS markers were D13S285, D13S1315, D13S796, D13S278, D13S158, and D13S779 where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) results were as 23.3, 20, 6.7, 3.3, 6.7, and 0 %, respectively. The highest LOH scores were obtained with markers D13S285 and D13S1315 which are flanking the ING1. Seven of 30 cases showed alteration in expression (p > 0.05). However, no mutation was detected in the exons of ING1. One patient showed a two-nucleotide deletion in p53 gene. However no significant TSG activity of ING1 was observed while higher activity was reported in different cancer types. As for the LOH data 13q33-34 region may contain different candidate TSGs like COL4A1, COL4A2 and SOX1. As a result of computational promoter analysis, some factors like ABL, E2F, HIF1, SOX, P53, BPTF, NRSF, c-Rel and c-ETS were associated with the promoter region. Molecular analysis of ING1 promoter warrants further analysis.

Conway K, Edmiston SN, May R, et al.
DNA methylation profiling in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study defines cancer subclasses differing in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(5):450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood.
METHODS: A microarray targeting promoters of cancer-related genes was used to evaluate DNA methylation at 935 CpG sites in 517 breast tumors from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of invasive breast cancer.
RESULTS: Consensus clustering using methylation (β) values for the 167 most variant CpG loci defined four clusters differing most distinctly in HR status, intrinsic subtype (luminal versus basal-like), and p53 mutation status. Supervised analyses for HR status, subtype, and p53 status identified 266 differentially methylated CpG loci with considerable overlap. Genes relatively hypermethylated in HR+, luminal A, or p53 wild-type breast cancers included FABP3, FGF2, FZD9, GAS7, HDAC9, HOXA11, MME, PAX6, POMC, PTGS2, RASSF1, RBP1, and SCGB3A1, whereas those more highly methylated in HR-, basal-like, or p53 mutant tumors included BCR, C4B, DAB2IP, MEST, RARA, SEPT5, TFF1, THY1, and SERPINA5. Clustering also defined a hypermethylated luminal-enriched tumor cluster 3 that gene ontology analysis revealed to be enriched for homeobox and other developmental genes (ASCL2, DLK1, EYA4, GAS7, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB13, IHH, IPF1, ISL1, PAX6, TBX1, SOX1, and SOX17). Although basal-enriched cluster 2 showed worse short-term survival, the luminal-enriched cluster 3 showed worse long-term survival but was not independently prognostic in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, likely due to the mostly early stage cases in this dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that epigenetic patterns are strongly associated with HR status, subtype, and p53 mutation status and may show heterogeneity within tumor subclass. Among HR+ breast tumors, a subset exhibiting a gene signature characterized by hypermethylation of developmental genes and poorer clinicopathologic features may have prognostic value and requires further study. Genes differentially methylated between clinically important tumor subsets have roles in differentiation, development, and tumor growth and may be critical to establishing and maintaining tumor phenotypes and clinical outcomes.

Lin H, Chen TC, Chang TC, et al.
Methylated ZNF582 gene as a marker for triage of women with Pap smear reporting low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions - a Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):64-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Our previous work revealed that host genes ZNF582, PTPRR, PAX1, and SOX1 are highly methylated in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 or worse (CIN3(+)). In this study, we used a standardized testing assay to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these biomarkers in the triage of cytological diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), and compared the performance with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing.
METHODS: This 2-year multicenter prospective study examined a population of 230 women from 12 medical centers who were diagnosed with LSILs on cervical cytology. Cervical scrapings were obtained prior to a colposcopy-directed biopsy for quantitative methylation analysis of ZNF582, PTPRR, PAX1, and SOX1, and HPV testing. Using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, the abilities of methylated genes and HPV to predict CIN3(+) were assessed.
RESULTS: Fifteen (6.5%) of the 230 women with a cytological diagnosis of LSIL were confirmed to have CIN3(+) after a colposcopy-directed biopsy. Among the 4 methylated genes, ZNF582 was found to be the best biomarker for detecting CIN3(+). The sensitivities for methylated ZNF582 and HPV testing were 73% and 80%, and the specificities were 71% and 28%, respectively. The odds ratio for predicting CIN3(+) using methylated ZNF582 was 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-22.1), which was much better than HPV testing (OR=1.6, 95% CI 0.4-5.8).
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that ZNF582 methylation analysis of cervical swabs may be a promising choice in the positive triage of cytological diagnoses of LSILs.

Kuo IY, Chang JM, Jiang SS, et al.
Prognostic CpG methylation biomarkers identified by methylation array in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Int J Med Sci. 2014; 11(8):779-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. We aimed to identify a panel of CpG methylation biomarkers for prognosis prediction of ESCC patients.
METHODS: Illumina's GoldenGate methylation array, supervised principal components, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression model were conducted on dissected tumor tissues from a training cohort of 40 ESCC patients to identify potential CpG methylation biomarkers. Pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay were performed to validate prognostic CpG methylation biomarkers in 61 ESCC patients. The correlation between DNA methylation and RNA expression of a validated marker, SOX17, was examined in a validation cohort of 61 ESCC patients.
RESULTS: We identified a panel of nine CpG methylation probes located at promoter or exon1 region of eight genes including DDIT3, FES, FLT3, NTRK3, SEPT5, SEPT9, SOX1, and SOX17, for prognosis prediction in ESCC patients. Risk score calculated using the eight-gene panel statistically predicted poor outcome for patients with high risk score. These eight-gene also showed a significantly higher methylation level in tumor tissues than their corresponding normal samples in all patients analyzed. In addition, we also detected an inverse correlation between CpG hypermethylation and the mRNA expression level of SOX17 gene in ESCC patients, indicating that DNA hypermethylation was responsible for decreased expression of SOX17.
CONCLUSIONS: This study established a proof-of-concept CpG methylation biomarker panel for ESCC prognosis that can be further validated by multiple cohort studies. Functional characterization of the eight prognostic methylation genes in our biomarker panel could help to dissect the mechanism of ESCC tumorigenesis.

Kan YY, Liou YL, Wang HJ, et al.
PAX1 methylation as a potential biomarker for cervical cancer screening.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24(5):928-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: DNA methylation is a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. Previous studies suggested that the methylations of several genes are promising markers for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at grade III or worse (CIN3+). The purpose of the present study was to explore the feasibility of these DNA methylation testing in cervical cancer screening.
METHODS: A total of 443 women were recruited from the Yuan's General Hospital. Cervical scrapings were collected for Papanicolaou (Pap) test by using cervical brushes, and the cytological data were used for analysis. The residual cells on the brush were preserved in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 4°C until DNA extraction. Then, the extracted DNA were used for molecular tests, which included human papillomavirus typing and quantification of the methylation levels for PAX1, SOX1, and NKX6-1 genes. Subjects who had abnormal Pap test results underwent colposcopy or biopsy with subsequent conization or major surgery when biopsy results revealed CIN2+. The final diagnosis for this group was confirmed by colposcopy or pathological examination. The study was approved by the institutional review board of Yuan's General Hospital, and all the molecular tests were performed by ISO17025 certified laboratories.
RESULTS: The sensitivity of PAX1 and SOX1 was greater than 80%, and the specificity of PAX1 and NXK6-1 was greater than 80% for the detection of CIN3+ lesions. PAX1 detection alone had a sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 85%, respectively, whereas when used as a cotest with the Pap test, the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 83%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: PAX1 showed great potential as a biomarker for cervical cancer screening. When incorporating PAX1 detection into current screening protocol, the efficacy of screening could be greatly improved. Moreover, unnecessary referral for colposcopy and biopsy could be reduced up to 60%. However, prospective population-based studies are necessary for further implementation of this screening program.

Wentzensen N, Bakkum-Gamez JN, Killian JK, et al.
Discovery and validation of methylation markers for endometrial cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(8):1860-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1,500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p values of ≤ 10(-7) between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33-8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50-62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy.

Yang Y, Wang Y, Yin C, Li X
Clinical significance of the stem cell gene Oct-4 in cervical cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):5339-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to investigate the association between the expression of Oct-4 and the biological behavior or prognosis of cervical cancer. Serum-free suspension culture technology was used to select a suspension of microspheres that can stabilize clones. The tumorigenicity of the microsphere suspension was analyzed in NOD/SCID mice. Microarray analysis was used to detect the specific expression of genes in the microsphere suspension. The expression of Oct-4 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between Oct-4 expression and clinical pathological prognostic indicators was analyzed in cervical cancer. The expression of the following genes was significantly different between the experimental and control groups: stem cell differentiation (CD44 and Oct-4), markers cell cycle regulators (APC), cell cycle regulators (MYC), and self-renewal markers (MYST2, NEUROG2, and SOX1). The expression of Oct-4 was significantly higher in cervical cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissues and was significantly related to differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis. The 5-year survival rate of patients with Oct-4-positive expression was lower than that of patients with Oct-4-negative expression (36.7 vs. 67.7 %, respectively; P=0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and Oct-4 were independent prognostic factors in cervical cancer (P=0.031, 0.012, and 0.001, respectively). Our results showed that Oct-4 was highly expressed in cervical cancer stem cells; Oct-4 expression was associated with biological behavior and was an independent prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Therefore, it may represent a potential target for cervical cancer treatment.

Vasiljević N, Scibior-Bentkowska D, Brentnall AR, et al.
Credentialing of DNA methylation assays for human genes as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk HPV positive women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):709-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Testing for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is increasing; however due to limitations in specificity there remains a need for better triage tests. Research efforts have focused recently on methylation of human genes which show promise as diagnostic classifiers.
METHODS: Methylation of 26 genes: APC, CADM1, CCND2, CDH13, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, DAPK1, DPYS, EDNRB, EPB41L3, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN1, JAM3, LMX1, MAL, MDR1, PAX1, PTGS2, RARB, RASSF1, SLIT2, SOX1, SPARC, TERT and TWIST1 was measured by pyrosequencing in cytology specimens from a pilot set of women with normal or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) histology. Six genes were selected for testing in Predictors 1, a colposcopy referral study comprising 799 women. The three genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL were further tested in a second colposcopy referral study, Predictors 2, comprising 884 women.
RESULTS: The six genes selected from the pilot: EPB41L3, EDNRB, LMX1, DPYS, MAL and CADM1 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2 and CIN3 (CIN2/3) versus ≤CIN1 in Predictors 1 (p<0.01). Highest methylation was observed in cancer tissues. EPB41L3 methylation was the best single classifier of CIN2/3 in both HR-HPV positive (p<0.0001) and negative samples (p=0.02). Logistic regression modeling showed that other genes did not add significantly to EPB41L3 and in Predictors 2, its classifier value was validated with AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.65-0.73).
CONCLUSION: Several methylated genes show promise for detecting CIN2/3 of which EPB41L3 seems the best. Methylated human gene biomarkers used in combination may be clinically useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections.

Chang CC, Huang RL, Wang HC, et al.
High methylation rate of LMX1A, NKX6-1, PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582 genes in cervical adenocarcinoma.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24(2):201-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the status of DNA methylation of 6 genes, LMX1A, NKX6-1, PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582, previously found from squamous cell carcinomas in adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix.
METHODS: We assessed the methylation status of these genes in 40 ACs, cervical scrapings from 23 ACs, and 67 normal control cervices by real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The results were validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: The methylation levels of all the 6 genes in the ACs were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissues, especially for PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of high methylation levels in PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582 for the risk of developing an AC were 15.7 (95% CI, 7.0-40.6), 16.9 (95% CI, 7.6-43.0), 32.1 (95% CI, 12.1-124.3), and 25.4 (95% CI, 10.4-78.3), respectively (all P < 0.001). The methylation indices of PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582 recovered from scrapings of ACs were significantly higher than in normal controls. The odds ratios of these indices for the risk of developing an AC in PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582 were 6.2 (95% CI, 2.6-15.4), 12.1(95% CI, 3.8-46.4), 6.2 (95% CI, 2.6-15.8), and 20.6 (95% CI, 6.9-77.5), respectively (all P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical ACs carry aberrantly high methylation rates of PAX1, PTPRR, SOX1, and ZNF582--commonly methylated in squamous cell carcinomas--which might help for AC screening.

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