Gene Summary

Gene:STAT6; signal transducer and activator of transcription 6
Aliases: STAT6B, STAT6C, D12S1644, IL-4-STAT
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein plays a central role in exerting IL4 mediated biological responses. It is found to induce the expression of BCL2L1/BCL-X(L), which is responsible for the anti-apoptotic activity of IL4. Knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this gene in differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, expression of cell surface markers, and class switch of immunoglobulins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signal transducer and activator of transcription 6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • siRNA
  • X-Box Binding Protein 1
  • Interleukin-13
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Prostate Cancer
  • IL4
  • Adolescents
  • STAT6 Transcription Factor
  • Gene Fusion
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Signal Transduction
  • Hemangiopericytoma
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Promoter Regions
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Repressor Proteins
  • FISH
  • Apoptosis
  • Western Blotting
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Chromosome 12
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Phenotype
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Viral Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Uniparental Disomy
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: STAT6 (cancer-related)

Shukla P, Gulwani HV, Kaur S, Shanmugasundaram D
Reappraisal of morphological and immunohistochemical spectrum of intracranial and spinal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas with impact on long-term follow-up.
Indian J Cancer. 2018 Jul-Sep; 55(3):214-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) and solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unique entities in the central nervous system (CNS) and even rarer in the spine with propensity to recurrence and metastasis. Both these tumors were detected to share the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene with frequent morphologic overlap that necessitated the need for the combined term SFT/HPC in the CNS by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016.
AIMS: This study aims to describe the clinical outcome of intracranial and spinal SFT/HPCs based on detailed histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of these tumors was conducted over a period of 10 years from January 2006 to January 2017 at our institute. Based on the elaborative assessment of morphology and immunohistochemistry, these tumors were categorized into three grades as per WHO criteria.
RESULTS: A total of 13 cases were encountered involving mainly extra-axial and supratentorial regions. Among intracranial HPCs, anaplastic subtypes constituted significantly higher proportion (39%) when compared with peripheral HPCs. Peculiar morphological patterns like micropapillae and pseudoangiomatous arrangement of tumor cells were observed in high-grade tumors. A panel of immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other mimickers. Gross total resection was achieved in 54% (7/13) of the cases with local recurrence observed in 31% (4/13). Grade II tumors showed recurrence in 28% cases. No case showed distant metastasis.
CONCLUSION: To conclude, not just clinical parameters but morphologic features such as unusual patterns, mitosis, and proliferative index also play a pivotal role in predicting the clinical behaviour of SFT/HPC.

Ma H, Yan D, Wang Y, et al.
Bazedoxifene exhibits growth suppressive activity by targeting interleukin-6/glycoprotein 130/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(3):950-961 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interleukin (IL)-6/glycoprotein (GP)130/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathway is emerging as a target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. IL-6 binds to IL-6R, forming a binary complex, which further combines with GP130 to transduce extracellular signaling by activating STAT3. Therefore, blocking the interaction between IL-6 and GP130 may inhibit the IL-6/GP130/STAT3 signaling pathway and its biological effects. It has been reported that bazedoxifene acetate (BAZ), a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, could inhibit IL-6/GP130 protein-protein interactions. Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, wound healing and colony formation assays were used to detect the effect of BAZ on liver cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis of cells was determined using the Annexin V-FITC detection kit. Mouse xenograft tumor models were utilized to evaluate the effect of BAZ in vivo. Our data showed that BAZ inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation (P-STAT3) and expression of STAT3 downstream genes, inducing apoptosis in liver cancer cells. BAZ inhibited P-STAT3 induced by IL-6, but not by leukemia inhibitory factor. BAZ inhibited P-STAT1 and P-STAT6 less significantly as elicited by interferon-α, interferon-γ and IL-4. In addition, pretreatment of BAZ impeded the translocation of STAT3 to nuclei induced by IL-6. BAZ inhibited cell viability, wound healing and colony formation in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth in HEPG2 mouse xenografts were significantly inhibited by daily intragastric gavage of BAZ. Our results suggest that BAZ inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, indicating another potential strategy for HCC prevention and therapy.

Tan NJH, Sun ISY, Low SW, et al.
A rapidly fatal intracranial anaplastic hemangiopericytoma with de-novo dedifferentiation: emphasis on diagnostic recognition, molecular confirmation and discussion on treatment dilemma.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(1):20-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumors/ hemangiopericytomas (SFT/HPC) are mesenchymal tumors that share a common genetic aberration and very rarely undergo dedifferentiation. We report a unique case of an intracranial anaplastic SFT/HPC with de-novo dedifferentiation, which pursued a rapidly fatal clinical course in a 41-year-old lady. The dedifferentiated component comprised a focal area of glandular formation with epithelial immunophenotype acquisition. The distinct biphasic pattern of the tumor imparted great diagnostic challenges to the pathologists. An increased awareness of SFT/HPCs with a diverse morphologic spectrum or even a biphasic histologic pattern is essential in working up such cases. We first attempted gamma knife radiosurgery in treating a recurrent dedifferentiated SFT/HPC; unfortunately it was to no avail. Although it is now known that SFT/HPC is characterized by NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, the unavailability of targeted therapy against this molecular signature still results in a treatment dilemma.

Huang SC, Huang HY
Solitary fibrous tumor: An evolving and unifying entity with unsettled issues.
Histol Histopathol. 2019; 34(4):313-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinct fibroblastic neoplasm of intermediate biological potential, prototypically presenting as a pleura-associated tumor characterized by patternless proliferation of generally banal oval to spindle cells with hemangiopericytoma-like staghorn vessels in fibrocollagenous stroma. Over the past decades, the clinicopathological spectrum of SFT has been ever-expanding with the incorporation of cases exhibiting myxoid, giant cell-containing, and fat-forming histology, as well as those from extrathoracic sites, including the meninx. Atypical, frankly malignant and even dedifferentiated variants have also been recognized in a subset of SFTs. Notably, the recent groundbreaking discovery of the disease-defining NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, resulting from intrachromosomal inversion involving 12q13.3, has largely unified tumors with the aforementioned variations. The derived immunohistochemical detection of nuclear STAT6 expression has high diagnostic value in distinguishing SFTs from histologic mimics, although some relevant pitfalls have been proposed as a precaution. NAB2-STAT6 fusions yield numerous transcript subtypes associated with the clinicopathological variations. Despite mostly following a favorable course, SFT is notoriously difficult for prognostication because of the propensity for late relapse or even metastases in 10-40% of cases, which prompts several proposed schemes incorporating age, size, mitosis, and/or necrosis as factors for risk stratification. Mitotic figures >4/10 HPFs, TERT promoter and/or TP53 mutations have been considered as variables that are better correlated with aggressiveness. Although radiotherapy and chemotherapy provide unsatisfactory responses, a better understanding of SFT tumorigenesis may pave the way for new treatment modalities. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the recent advances of SFTs in diagnostic and molecular pathology.

Anderson WJ, Hornick JL
Immunohistochemical correlates of recurrent genetic alterations in sarcomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(2):111-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate diagnosis of sarcomas relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has expanded as genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of diagnostic markers that serve as surrogates for their detection. Herein, we review selected immunohistochemical markers that can infer the presence of diverse molecular events. These include gene fusions in vascular neoplasms (FOSB, CAMTA1 and TFE3), round cell sarcomas (BCOR, DUX4 and WT1), and fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (STAT6, ALK and Pan-TRK); amplifications in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (MDM2 and CDK4); and deletions in several aggressive neoplasms (SMARCB1 and SMARCA4). Protein correlates of single nucleotide variants (beta-catenin in desmoid fibromatosis) and epigenetic alterations (histone H3K27me3 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and markers discovered through gene expression profiling (NKX2.2 and MUC4) are also discussed.

Lee CC, Lin JC, Hwang WL, et al.
Macrophage-secreted interleukin-35 regulates cancer cell plasticity to facilitate metastatic colonization.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3763 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A favorable interplay between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) facilitates the outgrowth of metastatic tumors. Because of the distinct initiating processes between primary and metastatic tumors, we investigate the differences in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) from primary and metastatic cancers. Here we show that dual expression of M1 and M2 markers is noted in TAMs from primary tumors, whereas predominant expression of M2 markers is shown in metastatic TAMs. At metastatic sites, TAMs secrete interleukin-35 (IL-35) to facilitate metastatic colonization through activation of JAK2-STAT6-GATA3 signaling to reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. In primary tumors, inflammation-induced EMT upregulates IL12Rβ2, a subunit of the IL-35 receptor, in cancer cells to help them respond to IL-35 during metastasis. Neutralization of IL-35 or knockout of IL-35 in macrophages reduces metastatic colonization. These results indicate the distinct TMEs of primary and metastatic tumors and provide potential targets for intercepting metastasis.

Bertero L, Anfossi V, Osella-Abate S, et al.
Pathological prognostic markers in central nervous system solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma: Evidence from a small series.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0203570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a rare neoplasm and its classification criteria have been redefined by the latest WHO Classification of CNS Tumours. Outcome can vary significantly among patients, thus reliable prognostic markers are warranted.
METHODS: Primary CNS SFT/HPC diagnosed at the Pathology Unit of our Institution between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively collected. Tumour grade along with immunohistochemistry for Ki67, STAT6, PHH3, CD34 and Bcl-2 were assessed. TERT promoter status was evaluated by Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: Fifteen SFT/HPC were analysed: 9/15 (60%) female, median age at diagnosis 60 (range: 10-67). Six (40%) cases showed a SFT phenotype and mean H&E-mitotic count was 4.8/10 HPF. Tumour grade was I in 6, II in 4 and III in 5 cases. Mean PHH3-mitotic count was higher than H&E count (8.4 versus 4.8/10 HPF), but it would have determined a change in tumour grade in a sole case. Nuclear staining for STAT6 was present in 14/15 (93.3%). CD34 and Bcl-2 expression rates were lower in higher grade tumours. TERT promoter was mutated in two cases. Median follow up time was 2.4 years (6 months-7.4 years) and 5/15 (33%) patients developed local disease recurrence. Partial resection (p = 0.0185), higher WHO grade (p = 0.038), lower CD34 (p = 0.038) and Bcl-2 (p = 0.010) expressions were significantly associated with a poorer disease-free interval.
CONCLUSIONS: WHO grade is the main prognostic tool in CNS SFT/HPC, but it could be integrated by other markers, like CD34 and Bcl-2, in the clinical practice. The relevance of TERT promoter mutations in this subset of CNS tumours needs further evaluation.

Liu J, Li Y, Lu Z, et al.
Deceleration of glycometabolism impedes IgG-producing B-cell-mediated tumor elimination by targeting SATB1.
Immunology. 2019; 156(1):56-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
B lymphocytes, known as antibody producers, mediate tumor cell destruction in the manner of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; however, their anti-tumor function seems to be weakened during tumorigenesis, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that IgG mediated anti-tumor effects, but IgG-producing B cells decreased in various tumors. Considering the underlying mechanism, glycometabolism was noteworthy. We found that tumor-infiltrating B cells were glucose-starved and accompanied by a deceleration of glycometabolism. Both inhibition of glycometabolism and deprivation of glucose through tumor cells, or glucose-free treatment, reduced the differentiation of B cells into IgG-producing cells. In this process, special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) was significantly silenced in B cells. Down-regulating SATB1 by inhibiting glycometabolism or RNA interference reduced the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) to the promoter of germline Cγ gene, subsequently resulting in fewer B cells producing IgG. Our findings provide the first evidence that glycometabolic inhibition by tumorigenesis suppresses differentiation of B cells into IgG-producing cells, and altering glycometabolism may be promising in improving the anti-tumor effect of B cells.

Zhang Y, Li C, Zhang M, Li Z
IL-13 and IL-13Rα1 are overexpressed in extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma and mediate tumor cell proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2715-2720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a rare but aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multi-agent chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy are used to treat this disease, but the prognosis remains poor. Interleukin 13 and its receptors (IL-13Rs) are correlated with the pathogenesis and progression of various malignances. However, their roles in NKTCL have not been evaluated. In this study, we examined the roles of IL-13 and IL-13Rs in NKTCL and the underlying mechanisms. We found significantly higher serum IL-13 levels (p < 0.001) and IL-13Rα1 expression in tumor tissues (36 of 40, p < 0.001) in patients with NKTCL than in control cohort. IL-13 secretion was observed in tumor tissues (30 of 40, p < 0.001) and several cell lines of NKTCL. However, we did not detect significant associations between clinical characteristics and the expression levels of IL-13 or IL-13Rs. In vitro, IL-13 activated Stat6 and promoted cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, blocking IL-13 exerted a negative effect on tumor cell growth. We conclude that IL-13 functions as an autocrine growth factor in NKTCL and contributes to its pathogenesis. Blocking IL-13 is thus a potential therapeutic approach for NKTCL.

Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Domańska-Senderowska D, Antczak A, et al.
The Expression Levels of IL-4/IL-13/STAT6 Signaling Pathway Genes and SOCS3 Could Help to Differentiate the Histopathological Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2018; 22(5):621-629 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes.
METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan
RESULTS: Increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 was observed in all histopathological NSCLC subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], adenocarcinoma [AC], and large cell carcinoma [LCC]). Significantly higher expression of IL-13 and STAT6 (p = 0.019 and p = 0.008, respectively) was found in SCC than in LCC. No statistically significant differences were found for IL-4. Significantly higher SOCS3 expression was found in LCC than in AC (p = 0.027). A negative correlation (rho = -0.519) was observed for the STAT6 and SOCS3 genes in SCC (p = 0.005). No associations were found between gene expression and tumor staging (post-operative Tumor Node Metastasis [pTNM], American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]), patients' age, sex, or history of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: As the number of LCC cases in our study was quite low, the statistically significant results obtained should be confirmed in a larger group of patients, particularly as the relationships identified between increased IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 mRNA expression and decreased SOCS3 expression suggest that these genes may serve as potential diagnostic markers for differentiating between NSCLC histopathological subtypes.

Juskevicius D, Jucker D, Dietsche T, et al.
Novel cell enrichment technique for robust genetic analysis of archival classical Hodgkin lymphoma tissues.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(11):1487-1499 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) die after relapse or progressive disease. Comprehensive genetic characterization is required to better understand its molecular pathology and improve management. However, genetic information on cHL is hard to obtain mainly due to rare malignant Hodgkin- and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRSC), whose overall frequencies in the affected tissues ranges from 0.1 to 10%. Therefore, enrichment of neoplastic cells is necessary for the majority of genetic investigations. We have developed a new high-throughput method for marker-based enrichment of archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue-derived HRSC nuclei by fluorescence-assisted flow sorting (FACS) and successfully applied it on ten cHL cases. Genomic DNA extracted from sorted nuclei was used for targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 68 genes that are frequently affected in lymphomas. Chromosomal copy number aberrations were investigated by the Agilent SurePrint 180k microarray. Our method enabled HRSC nuclei enrichment to 40-90% in sorted populations. This level of enrichment was sufficient for reliable identification of tumor-specific mutations and copy number aberrations. Genetic analysis revealed that components of JAK-STAT signaling pathway were affected in all investigated tumors by frequent mutations of SOCS1 and STAT6 as well as copy number gains of JAK2. Involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway compounds was evident from recurrent gains of the locus containing the REL gene and mutations in TNFAIP3 and CARD11. Finally, genetic alterations of PD-L1 and B2M suggested immune evasion as mechanisms of oncogenesis in some patients. In this work, we present a new method for HRSC enrichment from FFPE tissue blocks by FACS and demonstrate the feasibility of a wide-scale genetic analysis by cutting-edge molecular methods. Our work opens the door to a large resource of archived clinical cHL samples and lays foundation to more complex studies aimed to answer important biological and clinical questions that are critical to improve cHL management.

Magro G, Spadola S, Motta F, et al.
STAT6 expression in spindle cell lesions of the breast: An immunohistochemical study of 48 cases.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(10):1544-1549 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of spindle cell lesions of the breast parenchyma is challenging. Some of these lesions share the expression of CD34, posing differential diagnostic problems, especially in core biopsies. Recently, antibodies against the STAT6 C-terminal, are being used in paraffin-embedded tissues as a surrogate for identifying the NAB2-STA6 fusion gene which is considered a specific molecular marker for solitary fibrous tumor. Accordingly, we investigated the expression of STAT6 in a large series of uncommon spindle cell tumor-like and tumor lesions occurring primarily in the breast parenchyma. We collected 10 classic-type myofibroblastomas, 9 desmoid-type fibromatosis, 6 spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma, 5 benign fibroblastic spindle cell tumors, 3 solitary fibrous tumors, 7 pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasias, 2 reactive spindle cell nodules, 1 leiomyoma, 1 spindle cell lipoma, 1 case of inflammatory pseudotumor, 1 nodular fasciitis, 1 myxoma and 1 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. A diffuse and strong nuclear STAT6 expression was restricted only to solitary fibrous tumors, while the other lesions were negative or showed only weak cytoplasmic expression. The present study confirms that the demonstration of a diffuse and strong STAT6 nuclear staining is very helpful in distinguishing solitary fibrous tumor from other spindle cell mimics arising in the breast.

Dhabal S, Das P, Biswas P, et al.
Regulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) expression, activity, and function in IL-13-stimulated monocytes and A549 lung carcinoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(36):14040-14064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and inflammation and also in many neurological disorders. MAO-A also has been reported as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling cytokine-induced MAO-A expression in immune or cancer cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that MAO-A expression is co-induced with 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in interleukin 13 (IL-13)-activated primary human monocytes and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. We present evidence that

Chen J, Gong C, Mao H, et al.
E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis is required for IL-4-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):567-578 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of cancer with a mortality rate among the highest worldwide owing to its high rate of metastasis. Therefore, inflammation-associated metastasis in the development of CRC is currently a topic of considerable interest. In the present study, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) was identified to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. However, the enhancing effect of IL-4 was more evident in HCT116 cells compared with in RKO cells. Accordingly, an increased expression level of STAT6 was observed in HCT116 cells compared with RKO cells. Further investigations identified that E2F1 was required for maintaining the level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in HCT116 cells. Mechanistically, E2F1 induced specificity protein 3 (SP3) directly by binding to the promoter of the STAT6 gene and activating its transcription in CRC cells. As a result, phosphorylation-activated STAT6 increased the expression of several EMT drivers, including zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (Zeb)1 and Zeb2, which serve a critical function in IL-4-induced EMT. Rescue experiments further confirmed that IL-4-induced EMT relied on an intact E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis in CRC cells. Finally, analysis of clinical CRC specimens revealed a positive correlation between E2F1, SP3 and STAT6. The ectopically expressed E2F1/SP3/STAT6 axis indicated a poor prognosis in patients with CRC. In conclusion, the E2F1/SP3/STAT6 pathway was identified to be essential for IL-4 signaling-induced EMT and aggressiveness of CRC cells.

Lin Y, Seger N, Tsagkozis P, et al.
Telomerase promoter mutations and copy number alterations in solitary fibrous tumours.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(9):832-839 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is an infrequently metastasising mesenchymal tumour defined by the
METHODS: We analysed the
RESULTS: Activating -124 C>T (n=12) or -148 C>T (n=2) mutations were found in 33% of the tumours and associated with older age (P=0.006), necrosis (P=0.009), higher mitotic rate (P=0.003), nuclear atypia (P=0.002), malignant histological diagnosis (P=0.04) and worse progression-free survival (P=0.023). We also observed frequent (24%)

Apra C, Alentorn A, Mokhtari K, et al.
Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):369-372 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways.
METHODS: We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H.
RESULTS: A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib.
CONCLUSIONS: Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

Zhang J, Cao D, Yu S, et al.
Amphotericin B suppresses M2 phenotypes and B7-H1 expression in macrophages to prevent Raji cell proliferation.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):467 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment play a critical role in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with dense macrophage infiltration. However, the role for macrophages in BL remains largely unknown.
METHODS: B7-H1, a transmembrane glycoprotein in the B7 family, suppresses T cell activation and proliferation and induces the apoptosis of activated T cells. The expression of B7-H1 in BL clinical tissues was determined by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. The mutual regulation between macrophages and BL Raji cells was investigated in a co-culture system. The cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Raji cells were determined using BrdU staining coupled with flow cytometry. CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot. Cell invasion was analyzed by Transwell assay. The expression of cytokines was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and allogeneic T-cell proliferation assays were used to compare the expression of B7-H1, p-STAT6, or p-STAT3 and CD3+ T cell proliferation treated with or without amphotericin B.
RESULTS: B7-H1 was highly expressed in tumor infiltration macrophages in most clinical BL tissues. In vitro, Raji cells synthesized IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 to induce CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression in co-cultured macrophages, which in turn promoted Raji cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, antifungal agent amphotericin B not only inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation to suppress the M2 polarization of macrophages, but also promoted CD3+ T cell proliferation by regulating B7-H1 protein expression in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Amphotericin B might represent a novel immunotherapeutic approach to treat patients with BL.

Mehrad M, LaFramboise WA, Lyons MA, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing identifies unique mutations and copy number losses in calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 78:36-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura (CFTP) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of unknown pathogenesis. The diagnosis often requires exclusion of other common entities. Our aim was to determine if genomic changes were associated with CFTP that could contribute to mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Three cases of CFTP with their corresponding uninvolved control lung tissue were identified. Two patients were male, and 1 was female (age range, 21-32 years). Tumors were multifocal in 2 cases and solitary in 1. Immunohistochemistry for STAT6, BCL-2, CD34, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, calretinin, desmin, S100, ALK, and β-catenin was used. All immunohistochemistries were negative in CFTPs. DNA was isolated from all 3 pairs of CFTPs and matching normal lungs for whole-exome sequencing. Damaging, tumor-specific, coding variants were identified in 3 genes including multiple heterozygotic, de novo mutations in the Zinc Finger Protein 717 (ZNF717), fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-1 (FRG1) and cell division cycle 27 (CDC27) genes. Whole-exome sequencing revealed statistically significant, focal, tumor-specific copy number losses among all CFTPs including a large (302 kb) loss at 6p22.2 comprising 32 genes of the histone cluster 1 family and the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. This is the first study to evaluate the molecular pathogenesis of CFTP and to identify novel deleterious mutations in ZN717, FRG1, and CDC27 genes as well as significant copy number losses on 8 chromosomes with a large loss common to all samples on chromosome 6. These mutations deleteriously altered coding domains in a manner predicted to be damaging to protein function and may contribute to CFTP tumorigenesis.

Ronchi A, Cozzolino I, Zito Marino F, et al.
Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor: A distinct entity from pleural solitary fibrous tumor. An update on clinical, molecular and diagnostic features.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 34:142-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that was originally described to be localized in the pleura, but thereafter, this has been reported in several anatomic sites. Although the etiology of the neoplasm remains largely unknown, the pathogenesis seems to be related to an NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene due to paracentric inversion on chromosome 12q13. The diagnosis of extrapleural SFT is challenging, owing to its rarity, and requires an integrated approach that includes specific clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and even molecular findings. Histologically, extrapleural SFT shares morphological features same as those of the pleural SFT because it is characterized by a patternless distribution of both oval- and spindle-shaped cells in a variable collagen stroma. In addition, morphological variants of mixoid, fat-forming, and giant cell-rich tumors are described. A correct diagnosis is mandatory for a proper therapy and management of the patients with extrapleural SFT, as extrapleural SFT is usually more aggressive than pleural form, particularly cases occurring in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, pelvis, and meninges. Although SFT is usually considered as a clinically indolent neoplasm, the prognosis is substantially unpredictable and only partially related to morphological features. In this context, cellularity, neoplastic borders, cellular atypias, and mitotic activity can show a wide range of variability. We review extrapleural SFT by discussing diagnostic clues, differential diagnosis, recent molecular findings, and prognostic factors.

Weston VJ, Wei W, Stankovic T, Kearns P
Synergistic action of dual IGF1/R and MEK inhibition sensitizes childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells to cytotoxic agents and involves downregulation of STAT6 and PDAP1.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 63:52-63.e5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Heterogeneous upregulation of multiple prosurvival pathways underlies resistance to damage-induced apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells despite normal p53 responses. Here, we show that the dual combination of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/IGF1 receptor (IGF1/R) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibition using AG1024 + U0126 can sensitize apoptosis-resistant ALL cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage irrespective of effect of single pathway inhibition in vitro. This AG1024 + U0126 combination also significantly potentiates the ability of the core chemotherapy compounds vincristine, dexamethasone, and daunorubicin to kill ALL cells in vitro. Evidence of the synergistic action of AG1024 + U0126 in samples with variable basal levels of phosphorylated IGF1/Rβ and ERK1/2 suggested additional targets of this drug combination. Consistent with this, gene expression profiling identified 32 "synergy genes" differentially targeted by IGF1/R + MEK inhibition and, among these, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) and platelet-derived growth factor-associated protein 1 (PDAP1) were the most differentially downregulated cluster. Pearson correlation analysesrevealed that STAT6 and PDAP1 display significant expression codependency and a common expression pattern linked with other key "synergy" genes, supporting their predicted role in an STAT6-ERK-nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) network. Knockdown studies revealed that loss of STAT6, but not PDAP1, impinges on the cell cycle, causing reduced numbers of viable cells. In combination with daunorubicin, STAT6 loss has an additive effect on cell killing, whereas PDAP1 loss is synergistic, indicating an important role of PDAP1 in the cellular response to this anthracycline. Inhibition of STAT6 or PDAP1 may therefore represent a potential novel therapeutic strategy for resistant ALL by enhancing sensitivity to chemotherapy.

Tiacci E, Ladewig E, Schiavoni G, et al.
Pervasive mutations of JAK-STAT pathway genes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(22):2454-2465 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Dissecting the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), a common cancer in young adults, remains challenging because of the rarity of tumor cells in involved tissues (usually <5%). Here, we analyzed the coding genome of cHL by microdissecting tumor and normal cells from 34 patient biopsies for a total of ∼50 000 singly isolated lymphoma cells. We uncovered several recurrently mutated genes, namely,

Macagno N, Vogels R, Appay R, et al.
Grading of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas: analysis of the prognostic value of the Marseille Grading System in a cohort of 132 patients.
Brain Pathol. 2019; 29(1):18-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The finding that meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are both characterized by NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has pushed their inclusion in the WHO 2016 Classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) as different manifestations of the same entity. Given that the clinical behavior of the CNS SFT/HPC spectrum ranges from benign to malignant, it is presently unclear whether the grading criteria are still adequate. Here, we present the results of a study that analyzed the prognostic value of an updated version of the Marseille Grading System (MGS) in a retrospectively assembled cohort of 132 primary meningeal SFTs/HPCs with nuclear overexpression of STAT6. The median patient follow-up was 64 months (range 4-274 months); 73 cases (55%) were MGS I, 50 cases (38%) MGS II and 9 cases (7%) were MGS III. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were investigated using univariate analysis: the prognostic factors for PFS included MGS, extent of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and mitotic activity ≥5/10 high-power field (HPF). Moreover, MGS, radiotherapy, mitotic activity ≥5/10 HPF, and necrosis were the prognostic factors measured for DSS. In multivariate analysis, extent of surgery, mitotic activity ≥5/10 HPF, MGS I and MGS III were the independent prognostic factors measured for PFS while necrosis, MGS III and radiotherapy were the independent prognostic factors for DSS. In conclusion, our results show that assessing the malignancy risk of SFT/HPC should not rely on one single criterion like mitotic activity. Therefore, MGS is useful as it combines the value of different criteria. In particular, the combination of a high mitotic activity and necrosis (MGS III) indicates a particularly poor prognosis.

Miloudi H, Leroy K, Jardin F, Sola B
STAT6 is a cargo of exportin 1: Biological relevance in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.
Cell Signal. 2018; 46:76-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma subtype with unique clinicopathological and molecular features. PMBL cells are characterised by several genetic abnormalities that conduct to the constitutive activation of the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (JAK2/STAT6) signalling pathway. Among recurrent genetic changes in PMBL, we previously reported that the XPO1 gene encoding exportin 1 that controls the nuclear export of cargo proteins and RNAs, is mutated (p.E571K) in about 25% of PMBL cases. We therefore hypothesized that STAT6 could be a cargo of XPO1 and that STAT6 cytoplasm/nucleus shuttle could be altered in a subset of PMBL cells. Using immunocytochemistry techniques as well as the proximity ligation assay, we showed that STAT6 bound XPO1 in PBML cell lines and in HEK-293 cells genetically engineered to produce STAT6. Moreover, XPO1-mediated export of STAT6 occurs in cells expressing either a wild-type or the E571K mutated XPO1 protein.

Rahal OM, Wolfe AR, Mandal PK, et al.
Blocking Interleukin (IL)4- and IL13-Mediated Phosphorylation of STAT6 (Tyr641) Decreases M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Protects Against Macrophage-Mediated Radioresistance of Inflammatory Breast Cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 100(4):1034-1043 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the role of macrophage polarization on the response of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells to radiation and whether modulation of macrophage plasticity can alter radiation response.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The human THP-1 monocyte cell line and primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into macrophages and polarized to either an "antitumor" (M1) or a "protumor" (M2) phenotype. These polarized macrophages were co-cultured with IBC cells (SUM149, KPL4, MDA-IBC3, or SUM190) without direct contact for 24 hours, then subjected to irradiation (0, 2, 4, or 6 Gy). Interleukin (IL)4/IL13-induced activation of STAT6 signaling was measured by Western blotting of phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), and expression of M2 polarization gene markers (CD206, fibronectin, and CCL22) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Expression of M2 polarization markers was higher in M2-polarized macrophages after IL4/IL13 treatment than in control (M0) or M1-polarized macrophages. Co-culture of IBC cell lines with M1-polarized THP-1 macrophages mediated radiosensitivity of IBC cells, whereas co-culture with M2-polarized macrophages mediated radioresistance. Phosphopeptide mimetic PM37, targeting the SH2 domain of STAT6, prevented and reversed IL4/IL13-mediated STAT6 phosphorylation (Tyr641) and decreased the expression of M2 polarization markers. Pretreatment of M2-THP1 macrophages with PM37 reduced the radioresistance they induced in IBC cells after co-culture. Targeted proteomics analysis of IBC KPL4 cells using a kinase antibody array revealed induction of protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ) in these cells only after co-culture with M2-THP1 macrophages, which was prevented by PM37 pretreatment. KPL4 cells with stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PRKCZ exhibited lower radioresistance after M2-THP1 co-culture.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that inhibition of M2 polarization of macrophages by PM37 can prevent radioresistance of IBC by down-regulating PRKCZ.

Lu G, Shi W, Zheng H
Inhibition of STAT6/Anoctamin-1 Activation Suppresses Proliferation and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2018; 33(1):3-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma is the most popular cancer worldwide. Anoctamin-1 is a calcium-activated channel and highly expressed in various tumors. A previous study indicated that suppressed Anoctamin-1 expression decreased cancer cell proliferation or migration. As a signal transduction and transcription activator, STAT6 is a novel agonist for Anoctamin-1 promoter. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation or migration remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to suppress STAT6 and Anoctamin-1 protein expression in gastric cancer cells to test the inhibitory effects on gastric cancer cell migration or invasion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT colorimetry was used to test cell proliferation. Western blot was used to measure STAT6 and Anoctamin-1 expression before and after small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment. A scratch assay was performed to measure cell migration, followed by Transwell chamber assay analysis of cell invasion.
RESULTS: After STAT6 siRNA interference, the expression of STAT6 and Anoctamin-1 was significantly decreased in the gastric carcinoma cell line. Anoctamin-1 siRNA interference only decreased its protein expression, but not STAT6 protein expression. Interference of STAT6 or Anoctamin-1 reduced their protein expression and inhibited proliferation, migration, or invasion of gastric cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of STAT6/Anoctamin-1 activation decreased proliferation, migration, or invasion of gastric cancer cells, suggesting that the STAT6/Anoctamin-1 pathway might be a novel target for treating gastric cancer.

Spina V, Bruscaggin A, Cuccaro A, et al.
Circulating tumor DNA reveals genetics, clonal evolution, and residual disease in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(22):2413-2425 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rarity of neoplastic cells in the biopsy imposes major technical hurdles that have so far limited genomic studies in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). By using a highly sensitive and robust deep next-generation sequencing approach for circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), we aimed to identify the genetics of cHL in different clinical phases, as well as its modifications on treatment. The analysis was based on specimens collected from 80 newly diagnosed and 32 refractory patients with cHL, including longitudinal samples collected under ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy and longitudinal samples from relapsing patients treated with chemotherapy and immunotherapy. ctDNA mirrored Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cell genetics, thus establishing ctDNA as an easily accessible source of tumor DNA for cHL genotyping. By identifying

Shahmarvand N, Nagy A, Shahryari J, Ohgami RS
Mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription family of genes in cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(4):926-933 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
In recent years, it has become clear that members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of genes play an important role in cancer. The STAT family consists of seven genes, STAT1-4, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6, that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and the immune system response. Constitutive activation of STAT3, via mutational changes, is important in oncogenesis in both solid and hematopoietic cancers. In the case of hematopoietic neoplasms, STAT3 driver mutations have been described in T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia and chronic natural killer lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD-NK) and are seen in 30%-40% of T-LGL leukemia patients. STAT5B is also mutated in T-LGL leukemia and CLPD-NK, but in a much smaller proportion. Here we review past and current research on STAT genes in hematopoietic and solid cancers with emphasis on STAT3 and STAT5B and their roles in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, particularly T-LGL leukemia and CLPD-NK.

Wu Z, Liu J, Hu S, et al.
Serine/Threonine Kinase 35, a Target Gene of STAT3, Regulates the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(2):808-818 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serine/threonine kinase 35 (STK35) may be associated with Parkinson disease and human colorectal cancer, but there have been no reports on the expression levels or roles of STK35 in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: STK35 mRNA expression was determined in osteosarcoma and bone cyst tissues by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: STK35 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues as indicated by analyzing publicly available expression data (GEO dataset E-MEXP-3628) and real-time PCR analysis on our own cohort. We subsequently investigated the effects of STK35 knockdown on two osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and U2OS. STK35 knockdown inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors. Meanwhile, STK35 knockdown enhanced apoptosis. Expression of the active forms and the activity of two major executioner caspases, caspase 3 and caspase 7, were also increased in osteosarcoma cells with STK35 silenced. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was positively correlated with STK35 expression. The mRNA expression of STK35 was repressed by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), but not by siRNA of STAT4, STAT5A or STAT6. A luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated that STAT3 transcriptionally regulated STK35 expression. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the direct recruitment of STAT3 to the STK35 promoter. The promotion effects of STAT3 knockdown on cell apoptosis were partially abolished by STK35 overexpression. Furthermore, STK35 mRNA expression was positively correlated with STAT3 mRNA expression in osteosarcoma tissues by Pearson correlation analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results collectively reveal that STAT3 regulates the transcription of STK35 in osteosarcoma. STK35 may exert an oncogenic role in osteosarcoma.

Wang S, Yu L, Shi W, et al.
Prognostic roles of signal transducers and activators of transcription family in human breast cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family are critical transcription factors, which have been proved as prognostic predictors for a number of cancers. However, the prognostic roles of STAT family in breast cancer patients remain in dispute. In the present study, we mined the 'Kaplan-Meier plotter' (KM plotter) online database to explore the prognostic roles of STAT family mRNA expression in breast cancer including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), as well as post-progression survival (PPS). The results suggest high mRNA expression of all the individual STATs, except STAT1 and STAT2, are significantly associated with favorable OS in breast cancer patients; high

Zhao XY, Zeng M, Yang QY, et al.
Scrotum solitary fibrous tumor: A case report and review of literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(48):e8854 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare clinical tumor, often manifesting as solitary nodules. It is a rare condition that occurs in the scrotum. Currently, no study has reported this condition.
CASE SUMMARY: We reported a case of an SFT in a 77-year-old man, and discuss its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Clinical and histopathological features, as well as the EnVision 2-step method, were used to diagnosis the SFT. The results of imaging tests and surgery indicated that the SFT was located in the right scrotum with 2 connected tumor nodules and a clear perimeter. The larger one was 11.0 cm × 9.3 cm × 8.1 cm, and the smaller one was 3.1 cm × 2.0 cm × 2.0 cm. Pathological results indicated that in both tumor nodules, tumor cells were spindle-shaped with unclear cell boundaries. The nucleus was vacuolated with mild to moderate atypia. In the larger tumor nodule, there were many thin-walled blood vessels with vasodilation or branching. In the smaller tumor nodule, rich blood vessels were found, mostly with fibrous degeneration of the thick walls of blood vessels, and more collagen-like tissue in the interstitial layers. Immunohistochemical results demonstrated diffuse, strongly positive expression of CD34, CD99, Vim, and Bcl-2 markers. The expression of the new fusion gene, NAB2-STAT6, as an alternative tool specifically confirmed the diagnosis of SFT. This patient underwent lump resection without further treatment. The patient is alive after 18-month follow-up.
CONCLUSION: This case was diagnosed as a SFT according to its histopathological features, immunophenotype. The patient is still alive at 18 months follow-up after the lump resection.

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