Gene Summary

Gene:TIA1; TIA1 cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein
Aliases: WDM, TIA-1
Summary:The product encoded by this gene is a member of a RNA-binding protein family and possesses nucleolytic activity against cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) target cells. It has been suggested that this protein may be involved in the induction of apoptosis as it preferentially recognizes poly(A) homopolymers and induces DNA fragmentation in CTL targets. The major granule-associated species is a 15-kDa protein that is thought to be derived from the carboxyl terminus of the 40-kDa product by proteolytic processing. Alternative splicing resulting in different isoforms of this gene product has been described in the literature. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleolysin TIA-1 isoform p40
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Viral RNA
  • Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer
  • Granzymes
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • Antigens, CD3
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Gene Expression
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Immunophenotyping
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
  • Adolescents
  • Antigens, CD8
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Tumor Markers
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 2
  • Gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor Gene Rearrangement
  • Perforin
  • Proteins
  • Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain
  • Antigens, CD56
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Poly(A)-Binding Proteins
  • Childhood Cancer
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Natural Killer Cells
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Phenotype
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TIA1 (cancer-related)

Leventaki V, Manning JT, Luthra R, et al.
Indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal tract.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(2):421-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe an unusual case of indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma with multifocal involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. The patient, a 42-year-old Asian man, has been followed up for more than 10 years without chemotherapy and multiple gastrointestinal biopsies showing similar findings. Histologically, the neoplasm expanded into the lamina propria and/or focally extended into the submucosa and was composed of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes with slightly irregular nuclear contours and clear cytoplasm and rare large lymphocytes. The tumor cells were positive for CD3, CD8, granzyme B, and TIA-1 (subset) and negative for CD5, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Molecular studies for T-cell receptor γ and/or β chain gene rearrangement demonstrated the same clone at different sites and times during the course of the disease. Rare cases of indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract have been previously described and need to be further characterized to avoid the use of aggressive chemotherapy.

Fried I, Artl M, Cota C, et al.
Clinicopathologic and molecular features in cutaneous extranodal natural killer-/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with aggressive and indolent course.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 70(4):716-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer-/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-NT) is a highly aggressive lymphoma and prognosis is usually poor. The genetic background of primary cutaneous cases is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT, and the prognostic significance of genomic copy number alterations.
METHODS: Eight cases of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT (5 primary, 2 secondary, 1 no staging performed), including 2 patients with an unusually prolonged course of 5 and 23 years, were investigated using array comparative genomic hybridization.
RESULTS: All patients presented with typical clinicopathologic features. Epstein-Barr virus was found in neoplastic cells in all specimens. Copy number alterations were detected in all 8 cases with losses on 6q (37.5% of cases) and 7p (37.5% of cases), and gains on 7q (37.5% of cases) being the most frequent. Complexity of array comparative genomic hybridization profile did not correlate with the course of the disease. However, an increase of copy number alterations was detected in sequential biopsy specimens of 1 long-term survivor.
LIMITATIONS: This was a small case series retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: Clinicopathologic features of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT are distinctive. Lower number of copy number alterations cannot be used as predictor for prolonged survival in cutaneous ENKTCL-NT.

Wang W, Cai Y, Sheng W, et al.
The spectrum of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the head and neck.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 117(1):96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the clinicopathologic spectrum of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (PTCLDs) of the head and neck.
STUDY DESIGN: Archives of PTCLDs primarily arising in head and neck mucosa were reviewed. Immunostaining of CD20, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD30, CD56, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytotoxic molecules (TIA-1, granzyme B, or perforin), and Ki67; in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus; and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Fourteen cases of primary mucosal anaplastic large cell lymphoma (M-ALCL) were identified, and no lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) cases were found. All cases demonstrated atypical mononuclear neoplastic cells with diverse histology and cytomorphology. The typical immunophenotype of neoplastic cells was CD3-positive, CD4-positive, CD8-negative, CD30-positive, ALK-negative, and cytotoxic molecules-positive. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was common. All cases presented an indolent course, regardless of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: PTCLDs of the head and neck provisionally included M-ALCL alone.

Zhang X, Wang Z, Wang L, Yao H
An adult case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with good outcome.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(11):2620-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV+T/NK LPD) encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders that have a common feature with excessive lymphoid proliferation of mainly T cells and/or NK cells. This disease is rare, predominantly affects children and young adults, and associated with high mortality. Herein, we report a case of EBV+T/NK LPD that occurred in an old woman with good outcome. The patient presented with fever, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed splenomegaly. The clinical impression was a malignant tumor of spleen, so splenectomy was performed. Microscopically, the architecture of the spleen was preserved. The white pulp Malpighian corpuscles were atrophied. The red pulp showed intact sinusoids and pulp cords with increased cellular infiltrate. The proliferating lymphoid cells were mostly small lymphoid cells with minimal or no nuclear atypia, mixed with rare medium-sized or large cells. Immunohistochemical study and in-situ hybridization showed that the EBER-positive lymphoid cells were positive for CD3 and CD56. They were also positive for cytotoxic molecules, such as T-cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA1), granzyme B. The case exhibited polyclonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gene (TCR) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies. Without radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well with no evidence of disease 25 months after surgery.

Parimal S, Pai R, Manipadam MT, Nair S
Lennert's lymphoma: clinicopathological profile of five cases.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2013 Jul-Sep; 56(3):248-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lennert's lymphoma is a rare variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) not otherwise specified (NOS) rich in epithelioid histiocytes. This study aims to analyze the clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic profile of cases of Lennert's lymphoma from our country and determines the utility of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in the diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases diagnosed as Lennert's lymphoma during the period of January 2001 to August 2011 were included in this study. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained slides and immunohistochemistry results were analyzed and TCR gene rearrangement was performed.
RESULTS: There were five cases of Lennert's lymphoma diagnosed in our institution during this period, which included two males and three females. All cases showed effacement of lymph node architecture by diffuse infiltration of small lymphoid T cells [CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1+), Granzyme B-] and clusters of epithelioid histiocytes throughout the lymph node and scattered large transformed cells (CD20-, CD30+, CD15-/+). TCR rearrangement was done in three cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed the presence of a clonal T-cell population.
CONCLUSIONS: Lennert's lymphoma constituted 0.11% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) in our institution. Differentiation from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is sometimes difficult by morphology and immunohistochemistry alone and TCR gene rearrangement was extremely useful in diagnosis.

Tomasini D, Berti E
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 148(4):395-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
Subcutaneous panniculitis like T-cell lymphoma derived from α/β T-cells (SPTCL-AB) belongs to the group of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and it represents less than the 1% of all primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. It affects patients in the 4th decade of life (median age of 36 years) with a female preference (male/female ratio 0.5) with 19% of patients being 20 years or younger. It can be sometime complicated by a hemophagocytic syndrome, and patients without hemophagocytic syndrome had a significantly better survival (5-year OS: 91% vs. 46%). Histopathologically, SPTCL-AB is characterized by a lobular lymphocytic panniculitis. Tumor cells distribute between individual adipose lobules, proliferating and forming "rim" and "capping" images, conferring a lace-like appearance at scanning magnification. This is not an entirely disease-specific feature, and can also be seen in other lobular lymphocytic panniculitis, either of inflammatory and neoplastic origin. Tumor cells are phenotypically CD45RO+, βF1+ (a monoclonal antibody able to identify the alpha/beta chain of TCR), CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, and express cytotoxic granules (TIA-1, granzyme and perforin), whereas they show variable deletion of T-cell restricted antigens like CD2, CD5 and CD7. The majority of cases show a monoclonal rearrangement for TCR beta and gamma genes and do not show genomic integration of EBV. The present review will focus on histopathologic, immunophenotypical and molecolare data useful to overcome to a specific diagnosis of SPTCL-AB and to differentiate SPTCL-AB from other lymphomas of T-cell or NK/T cell origin and with benign panniculitidis sharing with SPTCL-AB a predominant lobular lymphocytic pattern of involvement of subcutaneous tissue.

Jiang Q, Liu S, Peng J, et al.
An extraordinary T/NK lymphoma, nasal type, occurring primarily in the prostate gland with unusual CD30 positivity: case report and review of the literature.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma(NKTCL), nasal type, occurring primarily in the prostate gland, is extremely rare. We present a case of primarily prostatic NKTCL in a 59-year-old man suffering from dysuria. Histological examinations revealed that diffused, large-sized, pleomorphic lymphocytes were arranged in an angiocentric distribution with large areas of geographic necroses. Additionally, the prostatic glands were diffusely infiltrated by heteromorphous lymphocytes forming lymphoepithelial lesions. The tumor cells were strongly expressed CD3ϵ, CD56, TIA-1, granzyme B and EBV-encoded RNAs. And interestingly, the lymphoid cells were also strongly immunoreactive with CD30. A rearrangement study showed T-cell receptor γ-chain gene rearrangement with monoclonal appearance. Though postoperative combination of chemotherapy was given, the patient died four months later. Our observation and other literatures indicate that extremely rare NKTCLs unusually express CD30. TCR gene rearrangement existed in some NKTCL, suggesting that a subset of NKTCL may be a mixed NK/T-cell differentiation.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9671878568932824.

Ha SY, Sung J, Ju H, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus-positive nodal peripheral T cell lymphomas: clinicopathologic and gene expression profiling study.
Pathol Res Pract. 2013; 209(7):448-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (EBV+ PTCL-NOS), in which virtually all neoplastic T cells harbor EBV, is a very rare disease with poor prognosis. To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and gene expression profile, we retrospectively collected six cases of EBV+ PTCL-NOS with no known primary immunodeficiency. The patients were 5 men and 1 woman, their age ranging from 48 years to 88 years (median 61.5 years). Lymphadenopathy was the most common presentation. Four patients had underlying disease, including HBV carrier, HCV infection, diabetes mellitus, and prostate cancer. All patients showed fatal clinical course in spite of chemotherapy. Histopathologically, monotonous infiltration of atypical lymphocytes of small to medium size was shown in four patients and medium to large tumor cells in two patients. Five patients showed CD4-/CD8+/bF-1+ phenotype with TIA-1 expression. In gene expression analysis using mRNA microarray, genes differentially expressed in EBV+ PTCL-NOS compared to normal reactive lymph nodes included 1515 genes (Mann-Whitney U-test p<0.05, folder change ≥4 times). Enriched functional annotation terms by DAVID were mostly related to immune response, defense response, cell-to-cell signaling, and membrane signaling. Especially, the genes involved in B cell differentiation or activation were mostly down-regulated, and T cell activation was mostly suppressed by down-regulation of activation genes and up-regulation of regulatory genes. Genes associated with cytotoxic activity were mostly up-regulated. Based on its peculiar clinical, histopathologic, and gene expression findings in EBV+ PTCL-NOS, we suggest EBV+ PTCL-NOS as a distinct disease entity from PTCL-NOS. In this study, the finding that most significantly enriched the functional term was immune response, suggesting a specific relation between EBV infection and alteration of immune response in the patients with EBV+ PTCL-NOS.

Wang TT, Xu C, Liu SL, et al.
Clinicopathology, immunophenotype, T cell receptor gene rearrangement, Epstein-Barr virus status and p53 gene mutation of cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2013; 126(7):1281-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell (NK/T cell) lymphoma, nasal-type, is a rare lymphoma. Skin is the second most common site of involvement after the nasal cavity/nasalpharynx. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and p53 gene mutations of the lymphoma.
METHODS: The clinicopathologic analysis, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for EBER1/2, TCR gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), mutations of p53 gene analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis were employed in this study.
RESULTS: In the 19 cases, the tumor primarily involved the dermis and subcutaneous layer. Immunohistochemical staining showed that most of the cases expressed CD45RO, CD56, CD3ε, TIA-1 and GrB. Three cases were positive for CD3 and two cases were positive for CD30. Monoclonal TCRγ gene rearrangement was found in 7 of 18 cases. The positive rate of EBER1/2 was 100%. No p53 gene mutation was detected on the exon 4 - 9 in the 18 cases. Fifteen cases showed Pro (proline)/Arg (arginine) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the exon 4 at codon 72. The expression of p53 protein was 72% (13/18) immunohistochemically.
CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous NK/T-cell lymphoma is a rare but highly aggressive lymphoma with poor prognosis. No p53 gene mutation was detected on the exon 4 - 9, and Pro/Arg SNPs on p53 codon 72 were detected in the cutaneous NK/T-cell lymphoma. The overexpression of p53 protein may not be the result of p53 gene mutation.

Gao LM, Liu WP, Yang QP, et al.
Aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia with jaundice and spontaneous splenic rupture: a case report and review of the literature.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma (ANKL) is a rare aggressive form of NK-cell neoplasm. We report an uncommon case of 36-year-old male who showed jaundice and spontaneous splenic rupture. The diagnosis was established by the biopsy of liver and spleen. The monomorphous medium-size neoplastic cells infiltrated into portal areas and sinus of liver as well as the cords and sinus of the spleen. Necrosis, mitotic figures and significant apoptosis could be seen easily. These neoplastic cells demonstrated a typical immunophenotype of CD3ε+, CD56+, CD16+, Granzyme B+, TIA-1+. T-cell receptor γ (TCR-γ) gene rearrangement analysis showed germline configuration and the result of in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER-ISH) was positive. The patient has undergone an aggressive clinical course and died of multi-organ function failure 14 days later after admission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ANKL with spontaneous splenic rupture, and we should pay more attention to recognize it.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2048154883890867.

Al-Ibraheemi A, Kanagal-Shamanna R, Patel KP, et al.
Phenotypic evolution in a case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma suggests the presence of tumor heterogeneity.
J Cutan Pathol. 2013; 40(6):573-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), not otherwise specified (NOS), represents a heterogeneous group of nodal and extranodal lymphomas that express a variety of T-cell antigens indicative of mature T-cell lineage. Most cases of PTCL express CD4 and lack CD8 expression and have a T-helper immunophenotype. Although the immunophenotype of PTCL is usually stable over time, immunophenotypic switch or evolution from T-helper to T-suppressor or vice versa has been rarely reported. Herein, we report a patient who presented with nasal PTCL, NOS, that was CD8+ and negative for Epstein-Barr virus, with concurrent skin lesions that had a CD8+/TIA-1+ T-cell immunophenotype. Patient received multi-agent chemotherapy and matched unrelated donor stem cell transplant, and subsequently suffered a cutaneous relapse with a CD4+/TIA-1(-) immunophenotype. Molecular analysis of the neoplasm biopsied at presentation showed one monoclonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement, and a second oligoclonal peak. At the time of CD4-positive recurrence, the oligoclonal peak was rather prominent, suggesting that the emergence of this peak is related with the phenotypic evolution from CD8+ to CD4+ predominant. These results highlight the utility of sequential immunophenotypic and molecular analysis of PTCL cases at the time of relapse to better understand the mechanisms of disease.

Huppmann AR, Xi L, Raffeld M, et al.
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma in the pediatric age group: a lymphoma of low malignant potential.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(7):1165-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare neoplasm of mature αβ cytotoxic T-cells. Most commonly occurring in young adults, few reports are described in children. A separate analysis of a significant cohort of pediatric patients has not previously been performed.
PROCEDURE: We analyzed the pathology including molecular results as well as available clinical data from 16 pediatric patients (age 5 months to 21 years) who had a total of 19 biopsies submitted to the National Cancer Institute from 1999 to 2011. This included 6 males and 10 females.
RESULTS: Most patients (10/16, 62.5%) had multiple skin lesions at the time of biopsy. Histologic features included rimming of adipocytes by atypical lymphocytes, fat necrosis, and karyorrhectic debris. Four biopsies showed only partial involvement by lymphoma; and plasma cells were identified in 14/19 (74%) cases, including three in which they were focally prominent. The neoplastic cells in general were positive for CD3, CD8, TIA-1, and βF1 and were negative for CD4 and CD56. CD5 expression was weak to negative in 5/8 cases (63%). A clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was demonstrated in 11/17 (65%). Patients were treated with a variety of agents. While 5/9 (56%) patients had evidence of recurrent skin lesions, no deaths were attributed to disease for the seven patients with follow-up information.
CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric SPTCL shares many clinical and pathologic features with adult SPTCL. The presence of partial involvement or admixed plasma cells makes the differential diagnosis with reactive conditions challenging in some cases.

Matsushita Y, Takeshita M
Paediatric T-cell lymphoma of the appendix: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: A 7-year-old boy with no history of malnutrition or diarrhoea complained of acute abdominal pain, was diagnosed with acute appendicitis, and underwent appendectomy. Histologically, a diffuse infiltrate of large atypical lymphoid cells was found in the entire appendiceal wall. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumour cells expressed T-cell receptor (TCR)-βF1, CD3, CD4, CD25, cytotoxic-related protein TIA1 and granzyme-B, but were negative for CD8, Foxp3, CD20, CD30 and CD56. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed clonal bands of TCR-γ gene products in the tumour tissue. No anti-cytomegalovirus antibody-positive cells were detected. In situ hybridization revealed no nuclear signals of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in tumour tissue by anti-East Asian cytotoxin-associated gene (Cag) A antibody and PCR using its specific primers. The patient received chemotherapy and has remained in remission for 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of appendiceal T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been reported, both in elderly patients. We believe that this is the first reported case of childhood CD4- and TIA1-positive cytotoxic T (Th1)-cell NHL in the appendix or gastrointestinal tract. Helicobacter pylori infection might be an initiator of atypical cytotoxic T-cell proliferation.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1302380563830412.

Ogura R, Aoki H, Natsumeda M, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary central nervous system cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma.
Neuropathology. 2013; 33(4):436-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) expressing T-cell markers is rare, among which nasal-type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare subtype associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here we report the clinicopathologic features of a case of EBV-associated PCNSL showing a cytotoxic T-cell phenotype. The patient, a 73-year-old woman, presented with rapidly progressive mental deterioration. Brain MRI revealed multiple lesions with swelling in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres, which were hypointense on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, and slightly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images. Biopsy specimens from the temporal region showed many medium-sized anaplastic lymphocytic cells with perivascular and angio-invasive patterns in the cortex. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for CD3, CD8, T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1), granzyme B and perforin, but negative for CD56 and CD20. In situ hybridization revealed EBV-encoded RNAs in the tumor cell nuclei. A rearrangement study showed T-cell receptor γ-chain gene rearrangement with a clonal appearance. The patient died 6 months after surgery, and a general autopsy revealed no lymphoma cells outside the brain. These cellular profiles are inconsistent with those of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and have not been previously described. This case appears to represent an unusual CNS manifestation of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoma.

Fleming VA, Geng C, Ladd AN, Lou H
Alternative splicing of the neurofibromatosis type 1 pre-mRNA is regulated by the muscleblind-like proteins and the CUG-BP and ELAV-like factors.
BMC Mol Biol. 2012; 13:35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing is often subjected to complex regulatory control that involves many protein factors and cis-acting RNA sequence elements. One major challenge is to identify all of the protein players and define how they control alternative expression of a particular exon in a combinatorial manner. The Muscleblind-like (MBNL) and CUG-BP and ELAV-Like family (CELF) proteins are splicing regulatory proteins, which function as antagonists in the regulation of several alternative exons. Currently only a limited number of common targets of MBNL and CELF are known that are antagonistically regulated by these two groups of proteins.
RESULTS: Recently, we identified neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) exon 23a as a novel target of negative regulation by CELF proteins. Here we report that MBNL family members are positive regulators of this exon. Overexpression of MBNL proteins promote exon 23a inclusion in a low MBNL-expressing cell line, and simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of MBNL1 and MBNL2 family members in a high MBNL-expressing cell line promotes exon 23a skipping. Importantly, these two groups of proteins antagonize each other in regulating inclusion of exon 23a. Furthermore, we analyzed the binding sites of these proteins in the intronic sequences upstream of exon 23a by UV cross-linking assays. We show that in vitro, in addition to the previously identified preferred binding sequence UGCUGU, the MBNL proteins need the neighboring sequences for optimal binding.
CONCLUSION: This study along with our previous work that demonstrated roles for Hu, CELF, and TIA-1 and TIAR proteins in the regulation of NF1 exon 23a establish that this exon is under tight, complex control.

Aladily TN, Nathwani BN, Miranda RN, et al.
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, arising in association with saline breast implant: expanding the spectrum of breast implant-associated lymphomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(11):1729-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is most common in Asia and is driven by Epstein-Barr virus infection. These tumors usually arise in the nasal region; in rare cases they can involve extranasal sites, most often skin, with involvement of the breast being rare. Lymphomas arising adjacent to breast implants are rare, and most cases reported to date have been anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Here we report a 41-year-old white woman with bilateral saline breast implants placed for cosmetic reasons who almost 9 years later developed painful swelling at the right-breast implant site. Excisional biopsy revealed lymphoma composed of monomorphic large cells associated with necrosis and angioinvasion. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an aberrant, NK/T-cell immunophenotype with the lymphoma cells being CD2+, CD3+, CD56+, partial CD30+, granzyme B, TIA-1+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, and CD8+. In situ hybridization analysis showed Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA within the neoplastic cells. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed monoclonal T-cell receptor-γ chain gene rearrangement. These findings support the diagnosis of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. On the basis of our review of the literature, this case is unique. In addition, we believe this case is important to report, because it expands the spectrum of T-cell lymphomas that can be associated with breast implants and may be a forerunner of additional cases to follow.

Jiang QP, Liu SY, Yang YX, et al.
CD20-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma with indolent clinical course: report of case and review of literature.
Diagn Pathol. 2012; 7:133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: CD20-positive T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare and only two cases of CD20-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma with aggressive clinical courses have been described in the literature. We present a case of unusual NK/T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression in nasal cavity occurring in an elder female patient. The patient had presented with left nasal cavity nodule for 10 years. CT scan revealed a mass was located at the left anterior nasal cavity and was observed to extend into the ethmoid sinus. There was no regional lymph node involvement. Biopsy was performed and microscopical inspection revealed the lesion was composed of small- to middle-size atypical lymphoid cell, histiocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils. The lymphoid cells were strongly immunoreactive to CD3, CD20, CD56, TIA-1 and granzyme-B. The Epstein-Barr virus genomes were also found in tumor cells by in situ hybridization. By genetic analysis, however, no clonal rearrangement of the T cell receptor-γ genes (TCRG), or the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene was found. A diagnosis of CD20-positive extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type was made. The patient refused chemotherapy, and had been only on regular follow-up for 6 months. There was no sign of enlargement of tumor and extra-nasal dissemination by whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study. The accurate diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression is important, but the indolent behavior of the present case is more unusual. A long-term follow-up is suggested to be performed to inspect the progression for this tumor.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1320848277788495.

Tsukahara T, Takasawa A, Murata M, et al.
NK/T-cell lymphoma of bilateral adrenal glands in a patient with pyothorax.
Diagn Pathol. 2012; 7:114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary lymphoma of adrenal glands is rare, and non-B-cell lymphoma associated with pyothorax is also very rare. Here we report the first autopsy case of non-B-cell lymphoma in bilateral adrenal glands of a 79-year-old woman with pyothorax who had an aggressive clinical course. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed CD3+, CD45RO+, CD5-, CD7-, CD4-, CD8-, CD10-, CD20-, CD30-, CD79a-, CD138-, CD56-, granzyme B-, TIA-1+ and ALK-. In addition, tumor cells were strongly EBER1-positive by in situ hybridization. In genomic DNA of tumor cells, T-cell receptor rearrangements were not detected by southern blotting. We finally diagnosed this case as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal type). Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8050621197741854.

Kempf W, Kazakov DV, Cipolat C, et al.
CD4/CD8 double negative mycosis fungoides with PD-1 (CD279) expression--a disease of follicular helper T-cells?
Am J Dermatopathol. 2012; 34(7):757-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD4/CD8 double negative mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare phenotypic variant of this epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clinically, this MF form manifests with unusual appearances such as annular lesions confined to one body region as in our patient in whom the lesions were found on the left lower leg. The cellular origin of CD4/CD8 double negative MF is unknown. In our case, the intraepidermal CD4/CD8 double negative clonal T-lymphocytes (CD2+, CD4-, CD8-, CD30-, beta-F1+) expressed programmed death-1 but were negative for CXCL-13 and cytotoxic molecules (TIA-1, granzyme B, perforin). Our observation may give an insight into the histogenesis of this unique MF variant and may also be of therapeutic significance because programmed death-1 may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention.

Pülhorn H, Herrmann M, Harms H, et al.
Apoptotic cells and clonally expanded cytotoxic T cells in bone marrow trephines of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
Histopathology. 2012; 61(2):200-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: There is increasing evidence that autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We examined the number of apoptotic cells, and analysed the T cells and the T cell receptor gene rearrangements in bone marrow trephines of patients with low-grade MDS [refractory anaemia (RA), refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts (RAS) and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD)] to investigate the correlation between T cells and apoptosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow trephines from 30 patients with RA, seven patients with RCMD, four patients with RAS and 11 normal bone marrow donors were stained for CD3 and for apoptotic cells using immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique, respectively. The positive cells were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. In addition, CD 8 and T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)-positive cells were analysed by single staining and evaluated semiquantitatively by light microscopy. Junctional diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) α-, β- and γ-chains were analysed in 24 cases of RA and RCMD by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all cases of RA, RCMD and RAS an increase of apoptotic cells was accompanied by an increase of T cells, when compared to normal donors (P < 0.001). Expression of TIA-1 was found in 33 of 41 patients with low-grade MDS. In contrast, normal controls showed either no or only very weak expression. Furthermore, 14 of 24 cases with low-grade MDS showed clonal TCR gene rearrangement.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that increased apoptosis in low-grade MDS correlates with increased numbers of cytotoxic T cells. A considerable proportion of the MDS cases showed clonal TCR rearrangement suggesting an antigen-driven selection of the T cells. We therefore speculate that cases of MDS can be accompanied by a presumably autoreactive T cell-mediated apoptosis induction in bone marrow cells.

Okumura K, Ikebe M, Shimokama T, et al.
An unusual enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma with MYC translocation arising in a Japanese patient: a case report.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(19):2434-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma classified into 2 types, with or without celiac disease, based on histology. Type 2 EATL is less commonly associated with celiac disease, in which cells are characterized by being monomorphic and small- to medium-sized. Cells are characterized by CD8 and CD56 expression and c-MYC oncogene locus gain. We present an atypical case of type 2 EATL in the jejunum, with human T-lymphotropic virus-1 that was CD4- CD8+ CD56- CD30- CD25- TIA-1+ and granzyme B+ on immunohistological staining. It also displayed translocation of chromosome 8p24 (c-MYC), as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Mucosal spreading and intraepithelial invasion by lymphoma with villous atrophy were detected adjacent to the mucosal layer. The lymphoma may be derived from intraepithelial CD8+ T cells, similar to celiac disease.

West NR, Milne K, Truong PT, et al.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(6):R126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration of breast tumors by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been associated with sensitivity to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. However, it is unclear whether this is true within the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER)-negative subset of breast tumors that frequently manifest high TIL levels.
METHODS: The association of TIL with short-term and long-term clinical response to anthracycline-based therapy was assessed in two independent ER-negative breast cancer cohorts in which patients were categorized as TIL-high or TIL-low. We defined an eight-gene lymphocyte mRNA expression signature (including CD19, CD3D, CD48, GZMB, LCK, MS4A1, PRF1, and SELL) and used unsupervised hierarchical clustering to examine the association between TIL and short-term response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a previously published cohort of ER-negative tumors (n = 113). We also examined the association between TIL and long-term chemotherapeutic efficacy in a second cohort of ER-negative tumors (n = 255) with longer than 6 years of median follow-up by using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of CD3, CD8, CD4, CD20, and TIA-1.
RESULTS: In patients with ER-negative tumors treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy, pathologic complete responses (pCRs) were achieved by 23 (74%) of 31 TIL-high patients and 25 (31%) of 80 TIL-low patients (odds ratio (OR), 6.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.49 to 16.08; P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with standard clinicopathologic features demonstrated that only tumor size (P = 0.037) and TIL status (P = 0.001) were independent predictors of anthracycline response. In the second cohort, adjuvant anthracycline-based therapy was associated with increased disease-free survival (DFS) only in patients with high levels of intraepithelial CD3+ TIL (P = 0.0023). In contrast, outcomes after CMF treatment (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) showed no association with CD3 status. In both cohorts, cytotoxic T-cells were the primary TIL subtype associated with anthracycline sensitivity. Finally, TIL significantly predicted anthracycline sensitivity for both the Her2-positive and triple-negative tumor phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: ER-negative breast cancers with high levels of TIL have heightened sensitivity to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as assessed by the immediate response to neoadjuvant therapy and long-term outcome following adjuvant therapy. Investigations of TIL-based predictive tests to identify patients likely to benefit from anthracycline-based treatments are warranted.

Barron VA, Lou H
Alternative splicing of the neurofibromatosis type I pre-mRNA.
Biosci Rep. 2012; 32(2):131-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NF1 (neurofibromatosis type I) is a common genetic disease that affects one in 3500 individuals. The disease is completely penetrant but shows variable phenotypic expression in patients. NF1 is a large gene, and its pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing. The NF1 protein, neurofibromin, is involved in diverse signalling cascades. One of the best characterized functions of NF1 is its function as a Ras-GAP (GTPase-activating protein). NF1 exon 23a is an alternative exon that lies within the GAP-related domain of neurofibromin. This exon is predominantly included in most tissues, and it is skipped in CNS (central nervous system) neurons. The isoform in which exon 23a is skipped has 10 times higher Ras-GAP activity than the isoform in which exon 23a is included. Exon 23a inclusion is tightly regulated by at least three different families of RNA-binding proteins: CELF {CUG-BP (cytosine-uridine-guanine-binding protein) and ETR-3 [ELAV (embryonic lethal abnormal vision)-type RNA-binding protein]-like factor}, Hu and TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen 1)/TIAR (T-cell intracellular antigen 1-related protein). The CELF and Hu proteins promote exon 23a skipping, while the TIA-1/TIAR proteins promote its inclusion. The widespread clinical variability that is observed among NF1 patients cannot be explained by NF1 mutations alone and it is believed that modifier genes may have a role in the variability. We suggest that the regulation of alternative splicing may act as a modifier to contribute to the variable expression in NF1 patients.

Su XY, Huang J, Jiang Y, et al.
Serous effusion cytology of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Cytopathology. 2012; 23(2):96-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-N), is a rare form of lymphoma that typically occurs at extranodal sites. It is one of the most common extranodal lymphomas in China. Literature on effusions and cytological findings relating to ENKTCL-N is limited. We studied five consecutive cases of ENKTCL-N effusions collected over a 3-year period. The cytomorphological, immunocytochemical and molecular biological features were evaluated with literature review. The purpose of this study is to discuss how to diagnose ENKTCL-N cytologically in effusions.
METHODS: Smears and cell block sections were reviewed for each case. Immunocytochemistry was performed on 4-μm paraffin sections. Antibodies used were as follows: cCD3 (intracytoplasmic CD3), CD45RO, surface CD3, CD20, CD79a, CD56, TIA-1, granzyme B, CD30, CD99, TdT and Ki-67. In situ hybridization for EBER1/2 (EBER-ISH) and T-cell receptor γ (TCRγ) gene rearrangement were performed for all cases.
RESULTS: Large to medium-sized tumour cells with pleomorphic nuclei and coarse chromatin were found in a necrotic background in all cases. The cytoplasm of the tumour cells was scant to moderately abundant with occasional cytoplasmic projections; in Giemsa-stained smears, fine granules were present in some tumour cells. Mitotic figures were frequent. The tumour cells were all positive for CD56, granzyme B, TIA-1 and cCD3, and were negative for surface CD3, CD20 or CD79a, CD99 and TdT. The MIB index was 50-80%. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) hybridizing signals were detected for most neoplastic cells. The T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement analysis showed germ-line configuration, except for one case.
CONCLUSIONS: Effusion cytology may be appropriate for establishing the diagnosis of ENKTCL-N, particularly for patients in whom tissue biopsy is not possible.

Sitthinamsuwan P, Pongpruttipan T, Bunyaratavej S, et al.
Cutaneous involvement by colonic extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma mimicking mycosis fungoides: a case report*.
J Cutan Pathol. 2011; 38(12):1004-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a 51-year-old woman with cutaneous involvement by extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (TCL) of the colon that microscopically mimicked mycosis fungoides (MF). She had a history of fever of unknown origin for 2 months and then developed multiple erythematous papules on her trunk and extremities. A skin biopsy revealed superficial infiltration by atypical small to medium-sized lymphocytes with epidermotropism and Pautrier collections. Immunohistochemical studies showed expression of CD3 and TIA-1 with lack of expression (double negative) of CD4 and CD8. Initially, we reported the diagnosis as MF, cytotoxic variant. Thereafter, computerized tomography scan incidentally identified a colonic mass. A colonic biopsy revealed infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells with the same morphology and immunophenotype as those found in the skin. Additionally, CD56 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization in both skin and colonic biopsies were diffusely positive. Thus, extranodal NK/TCL was diagnosed. Delta T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was documented in the skin biopsy by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis methods. There was no TCR gene rearrangement detected in the colonic biopsy. Unfortunately, the patient died within 2 months of diagnosis.

Pongpruttipan T, Kummalue T, Bedavanija A, et al.
Aberrant antigenic expression in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma: a multi-parameter study from Thailand.
Diagn Pathol. 2011; 6:79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is not common worldwide, but it is the most common T- and NK-cell lymphomas in many Asian countries. Immunophenotypic profiles were studied based on limited series. The authors, therefore, studied on ENKTL according to characterize immunophenotypic profiles as well as the distribution of EBV subtype and LMP-1 gene deletion.
METHODS: By using tissue microarray (TMA), immunohistochemical study and EBV encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization were performed. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, EBV subtyping, and LMP-1 gene deletion were studied on the available cases.
RESULTS: There were 22 cases eligible for TMA. ENKTL were positive for CD3 (91%), CD5 (9%), CD7 (32%), CD4 (14%), CD56 (82%), TIA-1 (100%), granzyme B (95%), perforin (86%), CD45 (83%), CD30 (75%), Oct2 (25%), and IRF4/MUM1 (33%). None of them was positive for βF1, CD8, or CD57. TCR gene rearrangement was negative in all 18 tested cases. EBV was subtype A in all 15 tested cases, with 87% deleted LMP-1 gene. Cases lacking perforin expression demonstrated a significantly poorer survival outcome (p = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated TIA-1 and EBER as the two most sensitive markers. There were a few CD3 and/or CD56 negative cases noted. Interestingly, losses of CD45 and/or CD7 were not uncommon while Oct2 and IRF4/MUM1 could be positive in a subset of cases. Based on the present study in conjunction with the literature review, determination of PCR-based TCR gene rearrangement analysis might not be a useful technique for making diagnosis of ENKTL.

Bösmüller H, Haitchi-Petnehazy S, Webersinke G, et al.
Intratumoral lymphocyte density in serous ovarian carcinoma is superior to ERCC1 expression for predicting response to platinum-based therapy.
Virchows Arch. 2011; 459(2):183-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intratumoral immune cells and ERCC1 expression are likely to play a role in the response of ovarian carcinoma to chemotherapy, but their impact on therapy outcome is still unclear. Therefore, 41 cases of optimally resected high grade serous ovarian carcinomas were examined retrospectively for stromal and intraepithelial lymphocyte populations and ERCC1 status in relation to response to platinum-based therapy. Based on RECIST criteria, 27 patients were classified as responsive and 14 as therapy resistant, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD4, TIA1, MUM1 and FOX P3 on representative tumor sections, we quantitatively evaluated the intratumoral density of lymphocyte subpopulations. In addition, ERCC1 protein and mRNA expression were determined by immunohistochemistry using the Steffensen score and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Furthermore, ERCC1 SNP's C8092A and codon 118 were analysed. Response to chemotherapy was significantly associated with higher numbers of stromal CD3+ (mean 21.33 lymphocytes/HPF versus 8.21 lymphocytes/HPF, p = 0.002) and CD8+ lymphocytes (mean 9.22 lymphocytes/HPF versus 4.57 lymphocytes/HPF, p = 0.013). Counts of intraepithelial CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, stromal and intraepithelial FOXP3+ and TIA1+ cells, CD4+ lymphocytes, and MUM1+ plasma cells did not reach statistical significance. Neither ERCC1 protein expression (p = 0.232) nor SNPs codon 118 and C8092A of the ERCC1 gene (p = 0.269 and p = 0.543) showed an association with therapy response. The same was true for ERCC1 mRNA levels (p = 0.896), probably due to intratumoral lymphocyte contamination. In conclusion, the density of CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells in tumor stroma proved to be a significant predictor for response to platinum-based therapy, whereas examination of ERCC1 failed to identify therapy-responsive patients.

Itoh S, Ohno T, Kakizaki S, Ichinohasama R
Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoma cells having chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: an autopsy report of DiGeorge syndrome.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(12):2037-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reported herein was the first autopsy case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma in a 25-year-old man with DiGeorge syndrome. Systemic lymph nodes demonstrated diffuse encasement by large lymphoma cells positive for CD45, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8, TIA1, and granzyme B, accompanied with marked hemophagocytosis. Almost 100% of lymphoma cells were both EBER- and LMP-1-positive, and EBNA2-negative. The rearrangement of T-cell receptor β gene was proved by polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and pathologic features coincided with Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder preceded by chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. A fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues demonstrated a mosaic chromosome 22q11.2 deletion with both host cardiac myocytes and lymphoma cells, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma was associated with and derived from the cells carrying the chromosomal abnormality. Furthermore, the lymphomagenesis of our case correlated with defect of cellular immunity in DiGeorge syndrome.

Subramaniam D, Ramalingam S, Linehan DC, et al.
RNA binding protein CUGBP2/CELF2 mediates curcumin-induced mitotic catastrophe of pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e16958 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Curcumin inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer tumor xenografts in nude mice; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that RNA binding proteins regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and play a critical role in RNA stability and translation. Here, we have determined that curcumin modulates the expression of RNA binding protein CUGBP2 to inhibit pancreatic cancer growth.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that curcumin treated tumor xenografts have a significant reduction in tumor volume and angiogenesis. Curcumin inhibited the proliferation, while inducing G2-M arrest and apoptosis resulting in mitotic catastrophe of various pancreatic cancer cells. This was further confirmed by increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) protein coupled with higher levels of nuclear cyclin B1 and Cdc-2. Curcumin increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, but protein levels were lower. Furthermore, curcumin increased the expression of RNA binding proteins CUGBP2/CELF2 and TIA-1. CUGBP2 binding to COX-2 and VEGF mRNA was also enhanced, thereby increasing mRNA stability, the half-life changing from 30 min to 8 h. On the other hand, silencer-mediated knockdown of CUGBP2 partially restored the expression of COX-2 and VEGF even with curcumin treatment. COX-2 and VEGF mRNA levels were reduced to control levels, while proteins levels were higher.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Curcumin inhibits pancreatic tumor growth through mitotic catastrophe by increasing the expression of RNA binding protein CUGBP2, thereby inhibiting the translation of COX-2 and VEGF mRNA. These data suggest that translation inhibition is a novel mechanism of action for curcumin during the therapeutic intervention of pancreatic cancers.

Izquierdo JM, Alcalde J, Carrascoso I, et al.
Knockdown of T-cell intracellular antigens triggers cell proliferation, invasion and tumour growth.
Biochem J. 2011; 435(2):337-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
TIA (T-cell intracellular antigen) proteins function as DNA/RNA trans-acting regulators to expand transcriptome and proteome diversity in mammals. In the present paper we report that the stable silencing of TIA1 and/or TIAR/TIAL1 (TIA1-related/like protein 1) expression in HeLa cells enhances cell proliferation, anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and invasion. HeLa cells lacking TIA1 and/or TIAR generate larger and faster-growing epithelial tumours with high rates of proliferation and angiogenesis in nude mice xenografts. Protein array analysis of a collection of human tumours shows that TIA1 and TIAR protein expression is down-regulated in a subset of epithelial tumours relative to normal tissues. Our results suggest a link between the epigenetic control exerted by TIA proteins and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of a subset of specific genes involved in tumour progression. Taken together, these results are consistent with a role for TIA proteins as growth/tumour-suppressor genes.

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