Gene Summary

Gene:TIA1; TIA1 cytotoxic granule associated RNA binding protein
Aliases: WDM, TIA-1
Summary:The product encoded by this gene is a member of a RNA-binding protein family and possesses nucleolytic activity against cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) target cells. It has been suggested that this protein may be involved in the induction of apoptosis as it preferentially recognizes poly(A) homopolymers and induces DNA fragmentation in CTL targets. The major granule-associated species is a 15-kDa protein that is thought to be derived from the carboxyl terminus of the 40-kDa product by proteolytic processing. Alternative splicing resulting in different isoforms has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleolysin TIA-1 isoform p40; nucleolysin TIA-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • T-Cell Intracellular Antigen-1
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Biopsy
  • Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Gene Expression
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Granzymes
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Immunophenotyping
  • CD3 Complex
  • CD56 Antigen
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Natural Killer Cells
  • Adolescents
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Poly(A)-Binding Proteins
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • Gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor Gene Rearrangement
  • Messenger RNA
  • Proteins
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Perforin
  • Phenotype
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • Chromosome 2
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TIA1 (cancer-related)

Yan J, Liu W, Wang X, et al.
Primary Central Nervous System Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type Colliding with Meningioma.
World Neurosurg. 2018; 120:17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Collision tumors are defined as coexistence of 2 histologically different neoplasms occurring in the same anatomic location. Such co-occurrence of tumors in the brain is uncommon. To our knowledge, meningioma colliding with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma has not been described previously.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of progressive memory decline and 2 weeks of drowsiness, bradykinesia, and aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced mass beside the left frontal cerebral falx resulting in midline shift. The left frontal lobe mass was resected. Pathologic examination showed the tumor consisted of whorled spindle cells and diffuse medium-sized lymphoid cells. The spindle cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for S-100. The lymphoid cells expressed CD3ε, CD56, TIA-1, and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNAs were detected by in situ hybridization. No monoclonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement was detected. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was treated with polychemotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate, but he died 2 months later.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a unique brain collision tumor consisting of a meningioma and an extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Diagnosis depends on histopathology. Awareness of this entity is important to distinguish it from other intracranial tumors.

Yang X, Wang M, Lin B, et al.
miR-487a promotes progression of gastric cancer by targeting TIA1.
Biochimie. 2018; 154:119-126 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies as well as the third leading cause for cancer-related death. Molecular basis of GC are essential and critical for its therapeutic treatment, but still remain poorly understood. T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) extensively involves in cancer progression, whereas its role and regulation mechanism in GC have not been revealed. In the present study, we found that TIA-1 protein level was down-regulated in GC tissues and TIA1 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of GC cells. Then, we used bioinformatics to predict miR-487a as the upstream regulator of TIA1 and we also observed an inverse correlation between miR-487a level and TIA-1 protein level in GC tissues. Next, we demonstrated that miR-487a directly targeted TIA1 via binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Furthermore, we investigated the role of miR-487a-TIA1 pathway in the growth of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The repression of TIA-1 by miR-487a promoted cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis in vitro, and the knockdown of miR-487a had the opposite effects. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-487a promoted the development of gastric tumor growth in xenograft mice by targeting TIA-1. These effects could be partially reversed by restoring the expression of TIA-1. Overall, our results reveal that TIA1 is a tumor suppressor gene and is directly regulated by miR-487a in GC, which may offer new therapeutic targets for GC treatment.

Chen Z, Gao L, Wang M, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus positive peripheral T cell lymphoma with novel variants in STAT5B of a pediatric patient: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):373 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (EBV + PTCL) is a rare type of lymphoproliferative disorder which is always present in late adulthood. However, pediatric EBV + PTCL is extremely rare and always present with lymphadenopathy. Additionally, gene detection was not performed in all of these pediatric patients.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report an EBV + PTCL in a 9-year-old child with initial symptom of subcutaneous masses without lymph node involvement. Histologically, the neoplastic cells were centroblastoid with round or oval nuclei, slightly condensed chromatin and median eosinophilic inconspicuous nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, all neoplastic cells were positive for CD8, GranzymeB and TIA-1. Two novel variants (S420Y and E623K) were detected in STAT5B.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of EBV + PTCL with STAT5B variants of a pediatric patient presented as extranodal lesions.

Tak H, Kang H, Ji E, et al.
Potential use of TIA-1, MFF, microRNA-200a-3p, and microRNA-27 as a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 497(4):1117-1122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Precise and early diagnosis is critical to improve the survival rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Although several genetic and protein markers have been developed and are currently used for diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic monitoring, application of these markers still needs to be improved for better specificity and efficacy. In this study, we investigated the relative expression of mitochondrial dynamics-regulating factors including T-cell intercellular antigen protein-1 (TIA-1), mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), microRNA (miR)-200a-3p, and miR-27a/b in the liver tissues from HCC patients. The expressions of TIA-1 and MFF were augmented in the cancerous liver tissues compared to the corresponding non-tumor tissues at mRNA and protein level, while the levels of miR-200a-3p and miR-27a/b were relatively lower in the cancerous liver tissues. In addition, high levels of TIA-1 and MFF mRNA were related to the poor survival rate of HCC patients. Our results indicated that the expressions of TIA-1, MFF, miR-200a-3p, and miR-27a/b in the cancerous liver tissues differed to these in non-cancerous tissues of HCC patients, demonstrating that these gene expressions could be potential markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC.

Li D, Fu F, Lian L
Primary central nervous system extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression.
Neuropathology. 2018; 38(2):198-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a unique case of primary CNS extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (PCNS ENKTCL) with CD20 expression and the monoclonal rearrangement of Ig heavey chain (IgH) gene. Resection specimens were evaluated using HE-stained sections, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and PCR. Histopathologic examination, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies showed the intermediate-sized lymphoma cells expressing CD2, CD3ε, granzyme B, TIA-1, CD20 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, with germline T-cell receptor gene and the monoclonal rearrangement of IgH gene. Clinicopathologic and radiographic evaluation indicated the lesion was of exclusive left cerebellar localization. Thus, PCNS ENKTCL with the CD20 expression was diagnosed. ENKTCL with both CD20-positive expression and the monoclonal rearrangement of IgH gene may be mistaken for B-cell lymphoma; thus, the comprehensive evaluation of histomorphology, more extensive immunoprofiles and molecular studies is essential to reach the correct diagnosis. The rare PCNS ENKTCL shows a highly aggressive nature and a poorer prognosis.

Liu Y, Liu R, Yang F, et al.
miR-19a promotes colorectal cancer proliferation and migration by targeting TIA1.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major worldwide health problem due to its high prevalence and mortality rate. T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) is an important tumor suppressor involved in many aspects of carcinogenesis and cancer development. How TIA1 expression is regulated during CRC development remains to be carefully elucidated.
METHODS: In CRC tissue sample pairs, TIA1 protein and mRNA levels were monitored by Western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. Combining meta-analysis and miRNA target prediction software, we could predict microRNAs that targeted TIA1. Next, three CRC cell lines (SW480, Caco2 and HT29) were used to demonstrate the direct targeting of TIA1 by miR-19a. In addition, we investigated the biological effects of TIA1 inhibition by miR-19a both in vitro by CCK-8, EdU, Transwell, Ki67 immunofluorescence and Colony formation assays and in vivo by a xenograft mice model.
RESULTS: In colorectal cancer (CRC), we found that TIA1 protein, but not its mRNA, was downregulated. We predicted that TIA1 was a target of miR-19a and validated that miR-19a binded directly to the 3'-UTR of TIA1 mRNA. miR-19a could promote cell proliferation and migration in CRC cells and accelerated tumor growth in xenograft mice by targeting TIA1.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights an oncomiR role for miR-19a in regulating TIA1 in CRC and suggests that miR-19a may be a novel molecular therapeutic target for CRC.

Ichikawa A, Miyoshi H, Yamauchi T, et al.
Composite lymphoma of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, mixed cellularity type; pathological and molecular analysis.
Pathol Int. 2017; 67(4):194-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Composite lymphomas (CLs) are defined as two unrelated lymphomas occurring at the same time within the same tissue. The incidence of these tumors is low. Of all possible combinations between lymphomas, the least frequent are the ones combining peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We recently identified five cases of CL composed of PTCL and classical HL, mixed cellularity type. We investigated histological and clinical features of these cases. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin sections. PTCL cells were positive for CD8 and TIA-1 in four of the five cases. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells were positive for CD30 and weakly positive for PAX5 in all cases, positive for CD15 in three of five cases, positive for CD20 in one of five cases, and negative for EBER. Monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using whole paraffin sections. We concluded more precisely the monoclonality of the IGH rearrangement of HRS cells based on single-cell PCR for IGH and DNA sequencing analysis after laser microdissection of single cells in one case. HL can occur in CD8-positive and TIA-1-positive PTCL. Clinicians should recognize the possibility of these CL.

Ma X, Wang H, Ji J, et al.
Hippo signaling promotes JNK-dependent cell migration.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(8):1934-1939 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overwhelming studies show that dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is positively correlated with cell proliferation, growth, and tumorigenesis. Paradoxically, the detailed molecular roles of the Hippo pathway in cell invasion remain debatable. Using a

Yu BH, Shui RH, Sheng WQ, et al.
Primary Intestinal Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Comprehensive Clinicopathological Analysis of 55 Cases.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0161831 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinicopathological features, survival and prognostic factors of primary intestinal extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (PI-ENKTCL).
METHODS: Clinical and histological characteristics of PI-ENKTCL cases were retrospectively evaluated. Immunohistochemical phenotype and status of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement were examined. The overall survival and prognostic parameters were also analyzed.
RESULTS: Fifty-five (2.7%) cases with PI-ENKTCL were identified out of 2017 archived ENKTCL cases, with a median age of 39 years and a male to female ratio of 2.1:1. The most common symptom was abdominal pain (90.9%), accompanied frequently with fever and less commonly with intestinal perforation or B symptoms. Small intestine (50.9%) was the most common site to be involved. 47.3% and 36.4% cases presented with stage I and II diseases, respectively. Histologically, most cases displayed characteristic morphologic changes of ENKTCL. Cytoplasmic CD3, TIA-1 and CD56 expression was found in 100%, 94.5% and 89.1% of cases, respectively. In situ hybridization detection for EBV demonstrated positive results in all cases. Monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement was found in 52.9% of tested cases. Chemotherapy with a DICE or L-asparaginase/peg-asparginase-containing regimen was most often employed. Both advanced tumor stage and B symptoms were independent inferior prognostic factors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.010). Noticeably, 6 cases demonstrated a CD4-positive phenotype. These cases featured a relatively older median age (58 years), predominance of small/medium-sized neoplastic cells, a higher rate of TCR rearrangement and slightly favorable outcome.
CONCLUSION: We reported by far the largest series of PI-ENKTCL, and demonstrated its heterogeneity, aggressive clinical behavior and unsatisfying response to the current therapeutic strategies. Those CD4-positive cases might represent a unique subtype of PI-ENKTCL or distinct entity. Further investigations are required for the better understanding and management of this unusual disease.

Li L, Chen H, Gao Y, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Promotes Aggressive Pancreatic Cancer Proliferation and Metastasis via the Stimulation of Autophagy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(9):2232-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has emerged as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with the worst prognosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is increased in pancreatic cancer and is identified as a diagnostic biomarker. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism of elevated MALAT1 levels and tumor aggressiveness remains unknown. In this study, MALAT1 was found to be highly expressed in PDAC tissues, and elevated expression was associated with poorer prognoses. In addition, MALAT1 was positively linearly correlated with the expression of LC3B mRNA. Furthermore, several molecules involved in cellular autophagic flux were modulated following the downregulation of MALAT1, including LC3, P62, and LAMP-2. Mechanistically, we found that MALAT1 interacted with RNA binding protein HuR, and silencing of MALAT1 greatly enhanced the posttranscriptional regulation of TIA-1 and had further effects on inhibiting autophagy. MALAT1 was speculated to regulate tumorigenesis via HuR-TIA-1-mediated autophagic activation. Hence, we investigated the biological properties of MALAT1 in terms of tumor proliferation and metastasis by promoting autophagy in vitro In brief, these data demonstrate that MALAT1 could facilitate the advanced progression of tumors in vivo Our study highlights the new roles of MALAT1 on protumorigenic functioning and anticancer therapy via activating autophagy in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2232-43. ©2016 AACR.

Hamada J, Shoda K, Masuda K, et al.
Tumor-promoting function and prognostic significance of the RNA-binding protein T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):17111-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) is an RNA-binding protein involved in many regulatory aspects of mRNA metabolism. Here, we report previously unknown tumor-promoting activity of TIA1, which seems to be associated with its isoform-specific molecular distribution and regulation of a set of cancer-related transcripts, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical overexpression of TIA1 ectopically localized in the cytoplasm of tumor cells was an independent prognosticator for worse overall survival in a cohort of 143 ESCC patients. Knockdown of TIA1 inhibited proliferation of ESCC cells. By exogenously introducing each of two major isoforms, TIA1a and TIA1b, only TIA1a, which was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm, promoted anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent ESCC cell proliferation. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation, followed by microarray analysis or massive-parallel sequencing, identified a set of TIA1-binding mRNAs, including SKP2 and CCNA2. TIA1 increased SKP2 and CCNA2 protein levels through the suppression of mRNA decay and translational induction, respectively. Our findings uncover a novel oncogenic function of TIA1 in esophageal tumorigenesis, and implicate its use as a marker for prognostic evaluation and as a therapeutic target in ESCC.

Greenberg SA, Pinkus JL, Amato AA, et al.
Association of inclusion body myositis with T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia.
Brain. 2016; 139(Pt 5):1348-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
SEE HOHLFELD AND SCHULZE-KOOPS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW053 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Inclusion body myositis and T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia are rare diseases involving pathogenic cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. After encountering four patients with both disorders, we prospectively screened 38 patients with inclusion body myositis for the presence of expanded large granular lymphocyte populations by standard clinical laboratory methods (flow cytometry, examination of blood smears, and T cell receptor gene rearrangements), and performed muscle immunohistochemistry for CD8, CD57, and TIA1. Most (22/38; 58%) patients with inclusion body myositis had aberrant populations of large granular lymphocytes in their blood meeting standard diagnostic criteria for T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. These T cell populations were clonal in 20/20 patients and stably present on follow-up testing in 15 patients a median of 350 days later. T cell aberrant loss of CD5 or gain of expression of CD16 and CD94 were common (19/42, 45%). In comparison, 2/15 (14%) age-matched patients with dermatomyositis, polymyositis, or necrotizing myopathy, and 0/20 (0%) age-matched healthy subjects had large granular lymphocyte expansions, with none of these patients having T cell aberrant expression of CD5, CD16 or CD94. Reduced blood CD4/CD8 ratio, increased blood CD8 count, and lymphocytosis were additional biomarkers highly correlated with flow cytometry-measured large granular lymphocyte expansions. Cross-sectional data suggested more aggressive disease in patients with such expansions than without. Muscle immunohistochemistry demonstrated invasion of large granular lymphocytes into muscle in 15/15 inclusion body myositis patients but in only 1/28 patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis. The extent of CD8+ and CD57+ cells in inclusion body myositis muscle correlated with the size of blood large granular lymphocyte populations. Myofibre-invading cells expressed CD57, a marker of persistent T cell exposure to antigen and T cell aggressiveness. In many patients with inclusion body myositis, the autoimmune T cell expansion has evolved into a neoplastic-like or overtly neoplastic disorder, perhaps contributing to its relative refractoriness to immune-directed therapies previously reported.

Quesada AE, Assylbekova B, Jabcuga CE, et al.
Expression of Sirt1 and FoxP3 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes: Implications for immune dysregulation, prognosis and potential therapeutic targeting.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13241-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells may promote differentiation of CD4+ naïve T cells toward both FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and TIA-1+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Previous studies suggest that an overabundance of cytotoxic TIA-1+ cells in relation to FoxP3+ T reg cells portends unfavorable outcomes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), raising the possibility that its pathogenesis may be related to immune dysregulation. Sirt1 deacetylates FoxP3 and leads to decreased Treg functionality. Our objective was to compare Sirt1 and FoxP3 expressions in Hodgkin lymphoma infiltrating lymphocytes (HLIL) and confirm Sirt1 expression in HRS cells.
DESIGN: Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue with antibodies to Sirt1, FoxP3, TIA-1, and CD8 was performed. Expression of Sirt1 was assessed in both the HRS cells and in the HLILs in twenty-four cases. Adequate tissue was available in 13 cHL cases to permit the enumeration of FoxP3, TIA-1 and CD8 by giving their percent staining of HLILs.
RESULTS: In HLILs, nuclear expression of Sirt1 was 32-88% (mean 67%); FoxP3 expression was 9-40% (mean 23.9%); TIA-1 expression was 15-87% (mean 32%); and CD8 expression was 10-45% (mean = 31%). Sirt1 to FoxP3 ratio was 0.96-5.5 (mean 3.2). TIA-1 to FoxP3 ratio was 0.6-5.1 (mean 1.6). CD8 to FoxP3 ratio was 0.43-3.7 (mean 1.5). There was a difference of Sirt1 to FoxP3 ratios between remission and recurrence groups, being significantly higher in the recurrence group (P = 0.005). Sirt1 demonstrated high nuclear expression in the HRS cells of 21 out of 24 (88%) cases analyzed.
CONCLUSION: The relative overexpression of Sirt1 to FoxP3 in HLILs may be considered possible targets for immune modulation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors may increase the efficacy of existing treatment regimens by downregulating SIRT1 gene mRNA/Sirt1 protein function and together with rapamycin could expand the T regulatory/FoxP3 population and functionality and improve prognosis for remission in cHL. Targeting Sirt1 in the HRS cells may facilitate their ability to promote naïve T cell differentiation toward Treg cells over CTL.

Menon MP, Nicolae A, Meeker H, et al.
Primary CNS T-cell Lymphomas: A Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(12):1719-1729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are relatively rare with the most common subtype being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary CNS T-cell lymphomas (PCNSTL) account for <5% of CNS lymphomas. We report the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics of 18 PCNSTLs. Fifteen cases were classified as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, 2 of which were of γδ T-cell derivation and 1 was TCR silent; there was 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive and 2 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative. Median age was 58.5 years (range, 21 to 81 y), with an M:F ratio of 11:7. Imaging results showed that 15 patients had supratentorial lesions. Regardless of subtype, necrosis and perivascular cuffing of tumor cells were frequently observed (11/18 cases). CD3 was positive in all cases but 1; 10/17 were CD8-positive, and 5/17 were CD4-positive. Most cases studied had a cytotoxic phenotype with expression of TIA1 (13/15) and granzyme-B (9/13). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T-cell receptor γ rearrangement confirmed a T-cell clone in 14 cases with adequate DNA quality. Next-generation sequencing showed somatic mutations in 36% of cases studied; 2 had >1 mutation, and none showed overlapping mutations. These included mutations in DNMT3A, KRAS, JAK3, STAT3, STAT5B, GNB1, and TET2 genes, genes implicated previously in other T-cell neoplasms. The outcome was heterogenous; 2 patients are alive without disease, 4 are alive with disease, and 6 died of disease. In conclusion, PCNSTLs are histologically and genomically heterogenous with frequent phenotypic aberrancy and a cytotoxic phenotype in most cases.

Gu L, Hong L, Ling Z, et al.
Establishment and Characterization of a CD20-Positive NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Cell Line.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(7):731-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD20 positive NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare and difficult for clinical treatment. Due to the lack of an established cell model for this disease, less is known about its biological characterization and potential therapeutic options.
METHODS: A cell line of NK/T-cell lymphoma, which was enriched by magnetic sorting with proper cell surface markers (CD56) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) drawn from a 21-year-old male patient with nasal angiocentric NK/T-cell lymphoma, was designated as ZQNK-29. Immunophenotypic analysis of ZQNK-29 was performed by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was used for cytogenetic analysis of ZQNK-29. Potential rearrangements of the immunoglobulin gene and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection were examined by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: ZQNK-29 cells express the phenotypic T-cell marker (CD3), T cell activation markers (HLA-DR), markers for both NK and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (TIA-1), and B-lineage marker CD20; however, expression of CD56 was not detected in expanded ZQNK-29 cells although this NK cell surface marker was used as one of selective cell surface markers for the initial isolation of NK/T cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that the pattern of gene expressions for infected EBV was latency type III, with the expressions of LMP1, EBNA-1, and EBNA-2; no rearrangements were found in the heavy-chain of the immunoglobulin gene or in the y chain of the T cell receptors (TCRs) gene. CGH analysis demonstrated that ZQNK-29 possessed an abnormal karyotype, 46XY, 1p (dist)+, 4p (dist)+, 4q (mid)-, 5q (mid)-, 9q (dist)+, 16p (dist)+, 16q (dist)+, 17p+, 17q (dist)+, 19q (dist)+, 20p+, 20q+, 21q+, and 22q+. Of these, 1p (dist)+, which has been confirmed to be mitochondrial DNA amplification, is believed to be mainly caused by EBV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: ZQNK-29 is a well characterized premature human NK/T-cell lymphoma cell line with expression of the B-cell marker CD20 and will provide a useful pre-clinic model for characterization and potential therapeutic studies of the aggressive NK/T-cell lymphoma.

Parekh V, Shim EH, Knapp CF, et al.
Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma With Coexpression of T-Cell Receptors αβ and γδ.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(1):66-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
T lymphocytes belong to 2 distinct sublineages that express either αβ or γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. Although malignancy is a great instigator of lineage infidelity, as exemplified by aberrant expression of numerous lineage markers in lymphoma cells, malignant T cells rarely coexpress αβ and γδ TCR complexes. Similarly, only rare cases of CD4/CD8 double-positive primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma have been reported. In this report, we describe a remarkable case of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma coexpressing αβ and γδ TCR complexes, strong diffuse CD8, and a very restricted coexpression of CD4 and CD8. A 66-year-old man was referred to our center for treatment of a persistent eczematoid eruption of 6 years of duration. An initial biopsy demonstrated not only marked spongiosis, but also an epidermotropic population of CD4 small mature T cells with partial expression of CD8. The process remained indolent for another year, followed by an abrupt progression with development of plaques and tumors. Repeat biopsies of these lesions demonstrated a superimposed population of large anaplastic T cells extensively involving the dermis and epidermis. The large cells showed a strong uniform expression of CD3, CD8, CD45RA, CD5, granzyme, TIA1, perforin, TCR-β, and TCR-γ and a weaker but unambiguous expression of CD4, CD25, CD2, and CD56. TCR gene rearrangement studies showed clonal rearrangements for TCR-β and TCR-γ with identical peaks to those seen in the biopsy from a year earlier. The patient developed lymphadenopathy, with a biopsy showing nodal involvement by a morphologically and phenotypically identical neoplastic T-cell population. The disease showed partial response to systemic chemotherapy with development of new plaques, but these new lesions have regressed with radiation therapy.

Zhang H, Kheradpour A, Rowsell EH, et al.
Cytotoxic Molecule-positive Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma in a 20-Month-old Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(8):e475-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is rare in children. Expression of cytotoxic molecules (CM) in nodal PTCL has unique clinicopathologic features, including an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association. However, CM+, EBV-associated PTCL is extremely rare in the childhood, with only 1 study having been reported to date, including both pediatric and adult patients. We report a case of CM+ PTCL in a 20-month-old boy with left neck lymphadenopathy as well as multiple visceral lesions. A biopsied lymph node was diffusely infiltrated by atypical lymphoid cells with a CD4/CD8, granzyme B+, perforin+, and TIA-1+ phenotype, and EBV positivity by in situ hybridization. Rearrangements of the TCR γ-chain and β-chain genes were demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. Ancillary genetic studies detected trisomy 2, trisomy 10, a structurally abnormal 6p, and additional copies of the IRF4 gene. Multiple bone marrow biopsies failed to show any evidence of tumor, histiocytic hyperplasia, or hemophagocytosis. This lesion was therefore diagnosed as "CM+, EBV-associated high-grade peripheral T-cell lymphoma." After 5 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient was in remission 8 months following initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this represents the youngest child with this rare tumor in the published literature, and showing an unusually favorable initial response to therapy.

Ding W, Wang J, Zhao S, et al.
Clinicopathological study of pulmonary extranodal nature killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type and literature review.
Pathol Res Pract. 2015; 211(7):544-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Malignant tumors of the lung are predominantly derived from epithelial tissue, such as squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, while pulmonary lymphatic and hematopoietic tumor is relatively rare. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, originates in nasal and extra-nasal sites anatomically. This distinct non-Hodgkin lymphoma is endemic and is characterized by a highly aggressive clinical course and dismal survival outcome. Extra-nasal ENKTL, especially pulmonary ENKTL, is rare compared with nasal type ENKTL and has received relatively little attention. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the clinicopathological features of pulmonary ENKTL and to promote awareness of this malignancy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ENKTL, nasal type diagnosed from January 2008 to June 2014 in our institution were collected, and those with pulmonary involvement were selected for further study. The eligible cases were analyzed retrospectively: medical recordings, imaging manifestations, pathological features, immunophenotypes, EBER1/2 hybridizations in situ and other related literatures were reviewed.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 1105 cases were diagnosed as ENKTL, nasal type, in this period, and 8 cases (7.2‰) had lung involvement. Seven cases had core biopsy, and for 1 case, a resected tissue specimen was available. The group was composed of 6 men and 2 women (gender ratio 3:1) with ages ranging from 19 to 44 (average age of 33.5) years. In this group, 2 cases were secondary and 5 cases were primary. The clinical symptoms and computed tomography (CT) manifestations were nonspecific. Histologically, the neoplasms presented angiocentric and angiodestructive growth patterns with different degrees of inflammatory response and necrosis. The neoplastic cell sizes were heterogeneous with spectra of small to large or mixed-composition types. For the immunophenotypes, all cases were positive for CD3ɛ and cytotoxic granule (granzyme B or TIA-1). The positive ratios of CD56 and CD30 were 6/8 and 4/5 respectively. All 8 cases showed positive in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER). TCR-γ gene rearrangement was tested in 4 cases, and only 1 of these cases was monoclonal. Laboratory testing demonstrated that the whole blood was decreased while the average level of LDH was elevated. Six bone marrow biopsy specimens were negative and showed no neoplastic cells infiltration. For treatment, 4 individuals accepted chemotherapy and 1 patient underwent localized tumor resection surgery. The follow-up information was available for 6 patients, 1 of whom was alive and the other 5 cases survived shortly between 20 days and 4 months. ENKTL, nasal type of lung is very rare, and the diagnosis is challenging due to nonspecific clinical symptoms and imaging results. The diagnosis of pulmonary ENKTL should be based on comprehensive clinical, imaging, histopathological and molecular examination. More effective treatment strategies are required for this disease.

Sánchez-Jiménez C, Ludeña MD, Izquierdo JM
T-cell intracellular antigens function as tumor suppressor genes.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1669 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Knockdown of T-cell intracellular antigens TIA1 and TIAR in transformed cells triggers cell proliferation and tumor growth. Using a tetracycline-inducible system, we report here that an increased expression of TIA1 or TIAR in 293 cells results in reduced rates of cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of these proteins abolish endogenous TIA1 and TIAR levels via the regulation of splicing of their pre-mRNAs, and partially represses global translation in a phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha-dependent manner. This is accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1/S and cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Genome-wide profiling illustrates a selective upregulation of p53 signaling pathway-related genes. Nude mice injected with doxycycline-inducible cells expressing TIA1 or TIAR retard, or even inhibit, growth of xenotumors. Remarkably, low expressions of TIA1 and TIAR correlate with poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. These findings strongly support the concept that TIA proteins act as tumor suppressor genes.

Yu G, Gao Z, Huang X
ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with an unusual alveolar growth pattern.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(12):9086-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) possesses a broad morphological spectrum. Currently, we present a case of ALK-positive ALCL presenting with an alveolar growth pattern in a 22-year-old Chinese female. This patient complained of a progressively enlarged mass in the right axillary region for 6 months. Excisional biopsy revealed a well-developed alveolar structure with nests of dyscohesive tumor cells separated by delicate fibrovascular septae. The large pleomorphic cells have irregular nuclei with prominent nucleoli and fine chromatin and abundant pale cytoplasm. The neoplasm stained positively for CD2, CD3ε, CD30, ALK1, EMA and cytotoxic molecules (TIA1 and Granzyme B). Cytogenetic study via interphase Fluorescence in-Situ Hybridization disclosed the rearrangement involving ALK gene. The patient received 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. She is alive in good condition up to the present. Our case is biologically similar to the conventional ALK-positive ALCLs and may just represent an unusual morphological appearance.

Wang L, Wang G, Gao T
Acneiform primary cutaneous CD4-positive small/medium pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma with prominent necrosis.
J Cutan Pathol. 2015; 42(4):265-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cutaneous CD4-positive small/medium pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (SMPTCL) is an indolent form of cutaneous lymphoma that usually presents in solitary fashion and is histopathologically characterized by nodular infiltration of small- to medium-sized pleomorphic T-cells. We report the case of a patient who presented with a 5-year history of acneiform lesions on his face. Histopathologic examination of two lesions revealed a nodular infiltrate of small to medium-sized lymphocytes with necrosis in the dermis. The proliferating cells were positive for CD2, CD3 and CD4 and negative for CD8, CD30 and CD56. They were positive for TIA-1 and negative for perforin and granzyme B. The Ki67 proliferation index was approximately 10%. The neoplastic cells expressed programmed death-1 and lacked expression of CXCL-13, bcl-6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA yielded a negative result. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement showed identical T-lymphocyte monoclonality in both lesions. In brief, we report a rare case of acneiform SMPTCL with prominent necrosis.

Schimmer BP, Cordova M
Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 408:5-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

Meyuhas O, Kahan T
The race to decipher the top secrets of TOP mRNAs.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1849(7):801-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cells encountering hostile growth conditions, like those residing in the middle of a newly developing solid tumor, conserve resources and energy by downregulating protein synthesis. One mechanism in this response is the translational repression of multiple mRNAs that encode components of the translational apparatus. This coordinated translational control is carried through a common cis-regulatory element, the 5' Terminal OligoPyrimidine motif (5'TOP), after which these mRNAs are referred to as TOP mRNAs. Subsequent to the initial structural and functional characterization of members of this family, the research of TOP mRNAs has progressed in three major directions: a) delineating the landscape of the family; b) establishing the pathways that transduce stress cues into selective translational repression; and c) attempting to decipher the most proximal trans-acting factor(s) and defining its mode of action--a repressor or activator. The present chapter critically reviews the development in these three avenues of research with a special emphasis on the two "top secrets" of the TOP mRNA family: the scope of its members and the identity of the proximal cellular regulator(s). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer.

Hamdollah Zadeh MA, Amin EM, Hoareau-Aveilla C, et al.
Alternative splicing of TIA-1 in human colon cancer regulates VEGF isoform expression, angiogenesis, tumour growth and bevacizumab resistance.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(1):167-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The angiogenic capability of colorectal carcinomas (CRC), and their susceptibility to anti-angiogenic therapy, is determined by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms. The intracellular protein T-cell Intracellular Antigen (TIA-1) alters post-transcriptional RNA processing and binds VEGF-A mRNA. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TIA-1 could regulate VEGF-A isoform expression in colorectal cancers. TIA-1 and VEGF-A isoform expression was measured in colorectal cancers and cell lines. We discovered that an endogenous splice variant of TIA-1 encoding a truncated protein, short TIA-1 (sTIA-1) was expressed in CRC tissues and invasive K-Ras mutant colon cancer cells and tissues but not in adenoma cell lines. sTIA-1 was more highly expressed in CRC than in normal tissues and increased with tumour stage. Knockdown of sTIA-1 or over-expression of full length TIA-1 (flTIA-1) induced expression of the anti-angiogenic VEGF isoform VEGF-A165b. Whereas flTIA-1 selectively bound VEGF-A165 mRNA and increased translation of VEGF-A165b, sTIA-1 prevented this binding. In nude mice, xenografted colon cancer cells over-expressing flTIA-1 formed smaller, less vascular tumours than those expressing sTIA-1, but flTIA-1 expression inhibited the effect of anti-VEGF antibodies. These results indicate that alternative splicing of an RNA binding protein can regulate isoform specific expression of VEGF providing an added layer of complexity to the angiogenic profile of colorectal cancer and their resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy.

Cao Q, Huang Y, Ye Z, et al.
Primary spleen extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, with bone marrow involvement and CD30 positive expression: a case report and literature review.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:169 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Primay spleen NK/T cell lymphoma is very rare. We report a case of 39-years-old male of primary splenic NK/T cell lymphoma with bone marrow involvement and CD30 positive expression.
CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient had high fever for 2 months, and CT scan revealed a diffuse splenomegaly without hepatomegaly. The diagnosis was established by splenectomy specimen and bone marrow biopsy. Normal spleen structure was destroyed by the diffusely infiltrated neoplastic cells, and one of the splenic hilar lymph nodes was involved. The lymphomatous cells were mainly medium-sized, mixed with small and large cells with pleomorphic nuclei and conspicuous nucleoli. Angiocentric growth pattern was present, with mitotic figures and apoptotic bodies easily being found. These neoplastic cells demonstrated a typical immunophenotype of CD2, CD3ε, CD7, CD4, CD56, TIA-1, Granzyme B, CD30 positive, and CD5, CD8, CD20, CD79a negative. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBERs) genomes were also found in tumor cells by in situ hybridization, while no clonal rearrangement of the T cell receptor-γ genes (TCRG) was found. Biopsy of bone marrow revealed scattered atypical cells presented with a predominantly intrasinusoidal distribution. A diagnosis as primary spleen NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) with CD30 expression and bone marrow involvement was finally made. The patient received chemotherapy and was still alive 6 months after splenectomy.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Primary spleen ENKTL is very rare, it should be made with the combination of clinical feature, PET-CT image, and pathological characteristics, and should be distinguished from other lymphomas or leukemia involved in spleen.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_169.

Leventaki V, Manning JT, Luthra R, et al.
Indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal tract.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(2):421-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe an unusual case of indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma with multifocal involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. The patient, a 42-year-old Asian man, has been followed up for more than 10 years without chemotherapy and multiple gastrointestinal biopsies showing similar findings. Histologically, the neoplasm expanded into the lamina propria and/or focally extended into the submucosa and was composed of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes with slightly irregular nuclear contours and clear cytoplasm and rare large lymphocytes. The tumor cells were positive for CD3, CD8, granzyme B, and TIA-1 (subset) and negative for CD5, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Molecular studies for T-cell receptor γ and/or β chain gene rearrangement demonstrated the same clone at different sites and times during the course of the disease. Rare cases of indolent peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract have been previously described and need to be further characterized to avoid the use of aggressive chemotherapy.

Fried I, Artl M, Cota C, et al.
Clinicopathologic and molecular features in cutaneous extranodal natural killer-/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with aggressive and indolent course.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 70(4):716-723 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer-/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-NT) is a highly aggressive lymphoma and prognosis is usually poor. The genetic background of primary cutaneous cases is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT, and the prognostic significance of genomic copy number alterations.
METHODS: Eight cases of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT (5 primary, 2 secondary, 1 no staging performed), including 2 patients with an unusually prolonged course of 5 and 23 years, were investigated using array comparative genomic hybridization.
RESULTS: All patients presented with typical clinicopathologic features. Epstein-Barr virus was found in neoplastic cells in all specimens. Copy number alterations were detected in all 8 cases with losses on 6q (37.5% of cases) and 7p (37.5% of cases), and gains on 7q (37.5% of cases) being the most frequent. Complexity of array comparative genomic hybridization profile did not correlate with the course of the disease. However, an increase of copy number alterations was detected in sequential biopsy specimens of 1 long-term survivor.
LIMITATIONS: This was a small case series retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: Clinicopathologic features of cutaneous ENKTCL-NT are distinctive. Lower number of copy number alterations cannot be used as predictor for prolonged survival in cutaneous ENKTCL-NT.

Wang W, Cai Y, Sheng W, et al.
The spectrum of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the head and neck.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 117(1):96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the clinicopathologic spectrum of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (PTCLDs) of the head and neck.
STUDY DESIGN: Archives of PTCLDs primarily arising in head and neck mucosa were reviewed. Immunostaining of CD20, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD30, CD56, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytotoxic molecules (TIA-1, granzyme B, or perforin), and Ki67; in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus; and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Fourteen cases of primary mucosal anaplastic large cell lymphoma (M-ALCL) were identified, and no lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) cases were found. All cases demonstrated atypical mononuclear neoplastic cells with diverse histology and cytomorphology. The typical immunophenotype of neoplastic cells was CD3-positive, CD4-positive, CD8-negative, CD30-positive, ALK-negative, and cytotoxic molecules-positive. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was common. All cases presented an indolent course, regardless of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: PTCLDs of the head and neck provisionally included M-ALCL alone.

Parimal S, Pai R, Manipadam MT, Nair S
Lennert's lymphoma: clinicopathological profile of five cases.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2013 Jul-Sep; 56(3):248-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lennert's lymphoma is a rare variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) not otherwise specified (NOS) rich in epithelioid histiocytes. This study aims to analyze the clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic profile of cases of Lennert's lymphoma from our country and determines the utility of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in the diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases diagnosed as Lennert's lymphoma during the period of January 2001 to August 2011 were included in this study. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained slides and immunohistochemistry results were analyzed and TCR gene rearrangement was performed.
RESULTS: There were five cases of Lennert's lymphoma diagnosed in our institution during this period, which included two males and three females. All cases showed effacement of lymph node architecture by diffuse infiltration of small lymphoid T cells [CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1+), Granzyme B-] and clusters of epithelioid histiocytes throughout the lymph node and scattered large transformed cells (CD20-, CD30+, CD15-/+). TCR rearrangement was done in three cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed the presence of a clonal T-cell population.
CONCLUSIONS: Lennert's lymphoma constituted 0.11% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) in our institution. Differentiation from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is sometimes difficult by morphology and immunohistochemistry alone and TCR gene rearrangement was extremely useful in diagnosis.

Tomasini D, Berti E
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 148(4):395-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
Subcutaneous panniculitis like T-cell lymphoma derived from α/β T-cells (SPTCL-AB) belongs to the group of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and it represents less than the 1% of all primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. It affects patients in the 4th decade of life (median age of 36 years) with a female preference (male/female ratio 0.5) with 19% of patients being 20 years or younger. It can be sometime complicated by a hemophagocytic syndrome, and patients without hemophagocytic syndrome had a significantly better survival (5-year OS: 91% vs. 46%). Histopathologically, SPTCL-AB is characterized by a lobular lymphocytic panniculitis. Tumor cells distribute between individual adipose lobules, proliferating and forming "rim" and "capping" images, conferring a lace-like appearance at scanning magnification. This is not an entirely disease-specific feature, and can also be seen in other lobular lymphocytic panniculitis, either of inflammatory and neoplastic origin. Tumor cells are phenotypically CD45RO+, βF1+ (a monoclonal antibody able to identify the alpha/beta chain of TCR), CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, and express cytotoxic granules (TIA-1, granzyme and perforin), whereas they show variable deletion of T-cell restricted antigens like CD2, CD5 and CD7. The majority of cases show a monoclonal rearrangement for TCR beta and gamma genes and do not show genomic integration of EBV. The present review will focus on histopathologic, immunophenotypical and molecolare data useful to overcome to a specific diagnosis of SPTCL-AB and to differentiate SPTCL-AB from other lymphomas of T-cell or NK/T cell origin and with benign panniculitidis sharing with SPTCL-AB a predominant lobular lymphocytic pattern of involvement of subcutaneous tissue.

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