XRCC5

Gene Summary

Gene:XRCC5; X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (double-strand-break rejoining)
Aliases: KU80, KUB2, Ku86, NFIV, KARP1, KARP-1
Location:2q35
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is the 80-kilodalton subunit of the Ku heterodimer protein which is also known as ATP-dependant DNA helicase II or DNA repair protein XRCC5. Ku is the DNA-binding component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, and it functions together with the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex in the repair of DNA double-strand break by non-homologous end joining and the completion of V(D)J recombination events. This gene functionally complements Chinese hamster xrs-6, a mutant defective in DNA double-strand break repair and in ability to undergo V(D)J recombination. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Stomach Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Venous Thrombosis
  • Tumor Markers
  • Messenger RNA
  • Twins
  • Radiotherapy
  • Transcription
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Genotype
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • DNA Repair
  • Lung Cancer
  • Drug Resistance
  • Registries
  • p53 Protein
  • Vidarabine
  • Subcellular Fractions
  • Telomere
  • Radiation Tolerance
  • beta Catenin
  • Risk Factors
  • DNA Helicases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Polymorphism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Protein Multimerization
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Cancer DNA
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Leukaemia
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
  • X-Rays
  • Antigens, Nuclear
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Chromosome 2
  • DNA Damage
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XRCC5 (cancer-related)

Rondeau S, Vacher S, De Koning L, et al.
ATM has a major role in the double-strand break repair pathway dysregulation in sporadic breast carcinomas and is an independent prognostic marker at both mRNA and protein levels.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(6):1059-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a kinase that has a central role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). In breast cancer, a low level of ATM was correlated with poor outcome; however, the molecular mechanism of this downregulation is still unclear.
METHODS: We used qRT-PCR assay to quantify mRNA levels of ATM gene in 454 breast tumours from patients with known clinical/pathological status and outcome; reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) were used to assess the levels of ATM and 14 proteins in 233 breast tumours.
RESULTS: ATM mRNA was associated with poor metastasis-free survival (MFS) (P=0.00012) on univariate analysis. ATM mRNA and protein levels were positively correlated (P=0.00040). A low level of ATM protein was correlated with poorer MFS (P=0.000025). ATM expression at mRNA or protein levels are independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis (P=0.00046 and P=0.00037, respectively). The ATM protein level was positively correlated with the levels of six proteins of the DSB repair pathway: H2AX (P<0.0000001), XRCC5 (P<0.0000001), NBN (P<0.0000001), Mre11 (P=0.0000029), Rad50 (P=0.0064), and TP53BP1 (P=0.026), but not with proteins involved in other pathways that are altered in cancer. Low expression of ATM protein was significantly associated with high miR-203 expression (P=0.011).
CONCLUSION: We confirmed that ATM expression is an independent prognostic marker at both RNA and protein levels. We showed that alteration of ATM is involved in dysregulation of the DSB repair pathway. Finally, miR-203 may be responsible for downregulation of ATM in breast cancers.

Li K, Yin X, Yang H, et al.
Association of the genetic polymorphisms in XRCC6 and XRCC5 with the risk of ESCC in a high-incidence region of North China.
Tumori. 2015 Jan-Feb; 101(1):24-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The XRCC6 and XRCC5 genes are part of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, which is the main mechanism repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Genetic variations of XRCC6 and XRCC5 might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility.
METHODS: ESCC patients (n = 189) and cancer-free controls (n = 189) were recruited in an ESCC high-risk area of north China. Then the rs2267437 (XRCC6), rs3835 (XRCC5) and rs16855458 (XRCC5) polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.
RESULTS: A significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency of rs2267437 (XRCC6) was observed between the cases and controls. The CG carriers were at higher risk of ESCC (p = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 2.040, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.323-3.147). G allele carriers were also associated with an increased ESCC risk (p = 0.003, OR = 1.868, 95% CI, 1.230-2.836). In the 2 polymorphisms of XRCC5, no significant difference was found between both groups in the distribution of either genotype or allelic frequency. But in the haplotypes established by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC5, the haplotype AT and CC separately increased by 4.28- and 2.31-fold the risk ratio of ESCC (p = 0.01, OR = 4.28, 95% CI, 1.40-13.05; p = 0.03, OR = 2.31, 95% CI, 1.11-4.80, respectively). In addition, gene-smoking or gene-drinking interactions, and their effect on the risk of ESCC were observed, but no significant gene-environment interaction was demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, both the CG carriers/G allele carriers of rs2267437 (XRCC6) and the haplotype AT/CC established by the SNPs of XRCC5 are associated with ESCC susceptibility.

Al-Kaabi MM, Alshareeda AT, Jerjees DA, et al.
Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1) is an important biomarker in breast cancer having a role in chemotherapy response.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(5):901-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1), which is a key component of DNA-damage-activated checkpoint signalling response, may have a role in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and influence response to chemotherapy. This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of phosphorylated CHK1 (pCHK1) protein in BC.
METHOD: pCHK1 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in a large, well-characterized annotated series of early-stage primary operable invasive BC prepared as tissue microarray (n=1200).
RESULT: pCHK1 showed nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Tumours with nuclear expression showed positive associations with favourable prognostic features such as lower grade, lower mitotic activity, expression of hormone receptor and lack of expression of KI67 and PI3K (P<0.001). On the other hand, cytoplasmic expression was associated with features of poor prognosis such as higher grade, triple-negative phenotype and expression of KI67, p53, AKT and PI3K. pCHK1 expression showed an association with DNA damage response (ATM, RAD51, BRCA1, KU70/KU80, DNA-PKCα and BARD1) and sumoylation (UBC9 and PIASγ) biomarkers. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 was associated with the expression of the nuclear transport protein KPNA2. Positive nuclear expression predicted better survival outcome in patients who did not receive chemotherapy in the whole series and in ER-positive tumours. In ER-negative and triple-negative subgroups, nuclear pCHK1 predicted shorter survival in patients who received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-florouracil chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that pCHK1 may have prognostic and predictive significance in BC. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 protein is related to its function.

Tseng SH, Yang CC, Yu EH, et al.
K14-EGFP-miR-31 transgenic mice have high susceptibility to chemical-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis that is associating with Ku80 repression.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(6):1263-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurring in the head and neck region and the esophagus causes tremendous cancer mortality around the world. miR-31 is among the most eminently upregulated MicroRNAs in SCC, when it occurs in the head and neck region and the esophagus. We established miR-31 transgenic mouse lines, in which miR-31 is under the control of the K14 promoter. 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) is a mutagen that causes double strand breaks. The transgenic mice exhibited a higher potential for tumor induction than wild-type (Wt) mice of the tongue and esophagus after 4NQO treatment. After 4NQO treatment or irradiation, p-γH2AX expression in squamous epithelium of transgenic mice was increased more than in Wt mice. Exogenous expression of miR-31 was also found to be associated with the higher p-γH2AX expression induced by 4NQO in human oral SCC (OSCC) cell lines. The repair genes PARP1 and Ku80 were validated as new targets of miR-31 in human OSCC cell lines, and were found to be downregulated in the squamous epithelium of the tongue in transgenic mice. However, only the downregulation of Ku80 was essential for maintaining the high level of p-γH2AX induced by 4NQO in OSCC cells. Inverse expression profiles for miR-31 and Ku80 were noted in human OSCC tissue. Our study identifies the high sensitivity of K14-EGFP-miR-31 transgenic mice to chemical carcinogen-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis and shows that this seems to be associated with the downregulation of Ku80 and an impairment of repair activity in squamous cells, which are mediated by miR-31.

Zali H, Rezaei Tavirani M
Meningioma protein-protein interaction network.
Arch Iran Med. 2014; 17(4):262-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is one of the most common central nervous system tumors that derived from meningothelial (arachnoid cap) cells. This paper identified the network-based Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) for meningioma relative to healthy control.
METHODS: Gene expression data including 384 gene or protein names extracted from a number of beforehand investigations.
RESULTS: Out of these 384 proteins, 176 were found to be exclusively expressed in meningiomas and 208 proteins were down-regulated. The networks of related differentially expressed genes were explored using cytoscape and the PPI analysis methods such as MCODE and ClueGO. Results analysis introduced a number of hub proteins and 27 clusters (protein complex) with distinctive seed genes. Identified ClueGO Pathways based on subnetworks mined by MCODE composed of positive regulation in RBC homeostasis, dysregulation of transport from ER to Golgi, disruption regulation of cell cycle and antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen and neutralization of exogenous dsRNA. Combination of over expression of TCEA1, UBE2E1, XRCC5, IFIT1, IFIT-3, MCM2, and MCM7 and under expression of CDC25A, SEC31A, and CDK6 can serve as diagnostic biomarker panel for meningiomas.
CONCLUSION: These introduced network-based biomarkers for the meningioma patterns may be helpful in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment processes however biomarker validation is necessary.

Pitroda SP, Pashtan IM, Logan HL, et al.
DNA repair pathway gene expression score correlates with repair proficiency and tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(229):229ra42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutagenesis is a hallmark of malignancy, and many oncologic treatments function by generating additional DNA damage. Therefore, DNA damage repair is centrally important in both carcinogenesis and cancer treatment. Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining are alternative pathways of double-strand DNA break repair. We developed a method to quantify the efficiency of DNA repair pathways in the context of cancer therapy. The recombination proficiency score (RPS) is based on the expression levels for four genes involved in DNA repair pathway preference (Rif1, PARI, RAD51, and Ku80), such that high expression of these genes yields a low RPS. Carcinoma cells with low RPS exhibit HR suppression and frequent DNA copy number alterations, which are characteristic of error-prone repair processes that arise in HR-deficient backgrounds. The RPS system was clinically validated in patients with breast or non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Tumors with low RPS were associated with greater mutagenesis, adverse clinical features, and inferior patient survival rates, suggesting that HR suppression contributes to the genomic instability that fuels malignant progression. This adverse prognosis associated with low RPS was diminished if NSCLC patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting that HR suppression and associated sensitivity to platinum-based drugs counteract the adverse prognosis associated with low RPS. Therefore, RPS may help oncologists select which therapies will be effective for individual patients, thereby enabling more personalized care.

Nakagawa Y, Kajihara A, Takahashi A, et al.
The BRCA2 gene is a potential molecular target during 5-fluorouracil therapy in human oral cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2001-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in clinical cancer therapy. It is commonly used either alone or in combination with other drugs and/or radiation for head and neck, and other types of cancers. 5-FU induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Inhibition of the repair of 5-FU-induced DSBs may improve the therapeutic response in many tumors to this anticancer agent. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of the pathways which are involved in the repair of 5-FU-induced DSBs. Cell survival after drug treatment was examined with colony forming assays using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells or Chinese hamster ovary cell lines which are deficient in DSB repair pathways involving the homologous recombination repair-related genes BRCA2 and XRCC2, and the non-homologous end joining repair-related genes DNA-PKcs and Ku80. It was found that BRCA2 was involved in such repair, and may be effectively targeted to inhibit the repair of 5-FU-induced damage. Observations showed that knockdown of BRCA2 using small interference RNA suppression increased the sensitivity to 5-FU of human oral cancer cell lines (SAS and HSC3). These findings suggest that downregulation of BRCA2 may be useful for sensitizing tumor cells during 5-FU chemotherapy.

Rajaei M, Saadat I, Omidvari S, Saadat M
Association between polymorphisms at promoters of XRCC5 and XRCC6 genes and risk of breast cancer.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(4):885 [PubMed] Related Publications
Variation in DNA repair genes is one of the mechanisms that may lead to variation in DNA repair capacity. Ku, a heterodimeric DNA-binding complex, is directly involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Ku consists of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80, which are encoded by the XRCC6 and XRCC5 genes, respectively. In the present study, we investigated whether common genetic variant in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) XRCC5 and T-991C XRCC6 was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer. The present study included 407 females with breast cancer and 395 age frequency-matched controls which were randomly selected from the healthy female blood donors. The XRCC5 and XRCC6 polymorphisms were determined using PCR-based methods. For XRCC5 polymorphism, in comparison with the 1R/1R genotype, the 0R/0R genotype increased breast cancer risk (OR 9.55, 95%CI 1.19-76.64, P = 0.034). The 1R/3R genotype compared with 1R/1R genotype decreased the risk of breast cancer (Fisher's exact test P = 0.015). There was no association between T-991C polymorphism of XRCC6 and breast cancer risk. Mean of age at diagnosis of breast cancer for 0, 1, 2, 3, and >4 repeat in XRCC5 were 39.2, 41.9, 44.3, 45.8, and 47.3 years, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the number of repeat was associated with age at diagnosis of breast cancer (log rank statistic = 13.90, df = 4, P = 0.008). The findings of the present study revealed that either breast cancer risk or age at diagnosis of breast cancer was associated with the VNTR polymorphism at promoter region of XRCC5.

Alshareeda AT, Negm OH, Green AR, et al.
SUMOylation proteins in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 144(3):519-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier proteins (or SUMO) modify the function of protein substrates involved in various cellular processes including DNA damage response (DDR). It is becoming apparent that dysregulated SUMO contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting post-transcriptional modification of key proteins. It is hypothesised that SUMO contributes to the aggressive nature of breast cancer particularly those associated with features similar to breast carcinoma arising in patients with BRCA1 germline mutations. This study aims to assess the clinical and biological significance of three members of SUMO in a well-characterised annotated series of BC with emphasis on DDR. The study cohort comprised primary operable invasive BC including tumours from patients with known BRCA1 germline mutations. SUMO proteins PIAS1, PIAS4 and UBC9 were assessed using immunohistochemistry utilising tissue microarray technology. Additionally, their expression was assessed using reverse phase protein microarray utilising different cell lines. PIAS1 and UBC9 showed cytoplasmic and/or nuclear expression while PIAS4 was detected only in the nuclei. There was a correlation between subcellular localisation and expression of the nuclear transport protein KPNA2. Tumours showing positive nuclear/negative cytoplasmic expression of SUMO featured good prognostic characteristics including lower histologic grade and had a good outcome. Strong correlation with DDR-related proteins including BRCA1, Rad51, ATM, CHK1, DNA-PK and KU70/KU80 was observed. Correlation with ER and BRCA1 was confirmed using RPPA on cell lines. SUMO proteins seem to play important role in BC. Not only expression but also subcellular location is associated with BC phenotype.

Ren JH, Dai XF, Yan GL, et al.
Acute oral mucositis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy: association with genetic polymorphism in DNA DSB repair genes.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2014; 90(3):256-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes with the susceptibility of acute oral mucositis (OM) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 120 NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Among them 70 patients also received concurrent chemotherapy. Genotypes in DNA repair genes Ku70 c.-1310C>G (rs2267437), Ku70 c.1781G> T (rs132788), Ku80 c.2099-2408G> A (rs3835), Ku80 c.*841G> A (rs2440) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) c.2888 + 713C> T (rs2213178) were determined by polymerase chain reaction combined with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Mucositis was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events v.3.0 scale. The population was divided into the CTC0-2 group (CTC toxicity grade 0, 1 and 2) and the CTC3 + group (CTC toxicity grade 3 and above). Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: A significant difference in Ku70 c.1781G> T genotype distribution was observed between the CTC0-2 and CTC3 + groups for the 120 patients analyzed. The GG carriers were at higher risks for severe OM (CTC3+) compared with the TT homozygotes (OR = 3.000, 95% CI = 1.287-6.994, p = 0.011). No association was found between Ku70 (c.-1310C> G), Ku80 (c.2099-2408G> A, c.*841G> A), DNA-PKcs (c.2888 + 713 C > T) and the development of severe oral mucositis. Stratification analyses for the 50 patients treated with radiation alone further confirmed the association between the variant genotype of GG and severe OM (OR = 5.128, 95% CI = 1.183-22.238, p = 0.029). Concurrent radiochemotherapy increased the risk of severe OM for both the TT homozygotes and GG genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the Ku70 c.1781G> T polymorphism may be a susceptibility factor for radiation-induced oral mucositis in Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Wu HC, Delgado-Cruzata L, Machella N, et al.
DNA double-strand break repair genotype and phenotype and breast cancer risk within sisters from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR).
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(12):2157-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: We previously observed that poor DNA repair phenotype is associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk within families. Here, we examined whether genetic variation in double-strand break repair (DSBR) genes is associated with BC risk and if genotypes are related to phenotype in unaffected women.
METHODS: Using data from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, we investigated 25 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) involved in DSBR using biospecimens from 337 BC cases and 410 unaffected sister controls.
RESULTS: Genotypes in XRCC4 were associated with BC risk, with ORs of 1.67 (95 % CI 1.01-2.76) for the combined GA/AA of rs1805377 and 1.69 (95 % CI 1.03-2.77) for rs1056503 TG/GG; these associations were no longer statistically significant in multivariable conditional logistic regression models. When examining the association of SNPs with phenotype, we found that genotypes of XRCC5 rs3834 and rs1051685, which were highly correlated with each other, were associated with end-joining (EJ) capacity; women with the XRCC5 rs3834 GA genotype had better DNA repair as measured by higher levels of EJ capacity (37.8 ± 14.1 % for GA vs. 27.9 ± 11.8 % for GG carriers p = 0.0006). Women with the AA genotype of BRCA1 rs799917 also had higher EJ capacity (35.1 ± 9.2 %) than those with GG (26.4 ± 10.1 %, p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that selected DSBR genotypes were associated with phenotype, although they were not associated with BC risk itself, suggesting that phenotypic measures are influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors across the life course and may be better markers than genotypic measures for ascertaining BC risk.

El Idrissi M, Hervieu V, Merle P, et al.
Cause-specific telomere factors deregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 32:64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Among the numerous genetic defects associated with hepatocarcinogenesis, telomere abnormalities appear to play a role both in tumor promotion and maintenance. Telomeres, the chromosome extremities, are protected by specific proteins, the shelterin complex and by additional factors. Besides telomerase dysregulation, expression changes of these telomere factors have been observed in cancers.
METHODS: Here, we tested the hypothesis that such dysregulation might occur in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with specific patterns depending on the cause of HCC. We compared telomere length, telomerase activity (TA), hTERT and telomere genes expression using PCR and Western-blot analyses between non-cirrhotic liver, peritumoral cirrhotic tissue (40 samples) and cancerous tissue (40 samples) derived from 40 patients with HBV-, HCV-, or alcohol-related HCC.
RESULTS: Alterations in TA, hTERT expression and telomere length between non-cirrhotic, cirrhotic, and tumor samples were not significantly influenced by the cause of HCC. In contrast, the expression pattern of hTR, shelterin, and non-shelterin telomere protective factors clearly distinguished the 3 causes of cirrhosis and HCC. For patients with HBV diseased liver, when compared with non-cirrhotic liver, the cirrhotic tissue underexpressed all shelterin and all but HMRE11A and RAD50 non-shelterin telomere factors. For HCV the expression level of POT1, RAP1, Ku80, and RAD50 was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic liver samples without evidence for significant transcriptional change for the remaining genes. For alcohol-related liver diseases, the expression level of POT1, RAP1, TIN2, hMRE11A, hMRE11B, Ku70, Ku80, RAD50, TANK1, and PINX1 was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic liver samples. For the 3 causes of HCC, there was no significant change in shelterin and non-shelterin gene expression between cirrhosis and HCC samples.
CONCLUSIONS: These results validate our hypotheses and demonstrate that cirrhosis and HCC add-up numerous telomere dysfunctions including numerous cause-specific changes that appear to occur early during the course of the disease.

Gorre M, Mohandas PE, Kagita S, et al.
Association of XRCC5 VNTR polymorphism with the development of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):923-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) inducing agents influence the fidelity of DNA repair in both normal cells and leukemic cells, causing major genomic instability. In eukaryotic cells, non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) is the major mechanism for DSB repair. Human X-ray repair cross-complementing 5 (XRCC5) gene encodes for the protein KU86, an important component of NHEJ pathway. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism (rs 6147172) in the promoter region of XRCC5 gene was shown to have effect on gene expression and was found to be associated with the development of several cancers. We analyzed VNTR polymorphism of XRCC5 gene in 461 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases and 408 controls by polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that frequency of 0R/0R genotype was significantly elevated in CML cases compared to that of controls (p = 0.05). Significant difference in the genotype distribution was observed between cases and controls (p = 0.02). The risk of CML development was found to be elevated for individuals carrying lower repeats (1R p = 0.03; 0R p = 0.007). Elevated 0R/0R genotype frequency was found to be significantly associated with early age at onset (≤ 30 years) and slightly elevated in chronic phase and poor hematologic response to imatinib mesylate. The influence of zero repeat on enhanced expression of XRCC5 might confer risk to error-prone repair leading to genomic instability and CML. Hence, the VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of XRCC5 gene could serve as an important prognostic marker in CML development.

de Miranda NF, Peng R, Georgiou K, et al.
DNA repair genes are selectively mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphomas.
J Exp Med. 2013; 210(9):1729-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis.

Yang C, Wang Y, Zhang F, et al.
Inhibiting UHRF1 expression enhances radiosensitivity in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(9):5225-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for some esophageal cancers, but the molecular mechanisms of radiosensitivity remain unknown. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a novel nuclear protein which is overexpressed in various cancers but not yet examined in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The correlation between UHRF1 and the radioresistance in ESCC is still unclear. In the present study, the expression of UHRF1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of ESCC patients treated with radiotherapy. The results showed that UHRF1 was significantly overexpressed in ESCC specimens. Overexpression of UHRF1 correlated significantly with advanced T-stage, positive lymph node metastasis and poor differentiation. In addition, UHRF1 was associated with radiotherapy response, in which overexpression of UHRF1 was observed more frequently in the radioresistant group than in the effective group. At the molecular level, inhibition of UHRF1 by lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting UHRF1 increased the radiosensitivity and apoptosis, while decreased radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest in TE-1 cells. Moreover, inhibition of UHRF1 resulted in higher residual γH2AX expression after irradiation, but not initial γH2AX. Further study showed that inhibition of UHRF1 down-regulated the endogenous expressions of DNA repair protein Ku70 and Ku80 in TE-1 cells, and significantly inhibited the increase of these proteins after irradiation. Above all, our data suggested that UHRF1 might play an important role in radioresistance of ESCC, and inhibition of UHRF1 can increase the radiosensitivity of TE-1 cells by altering cell cycle progression, enhancing apoptosis, and decreasing DNA damage repair capacity.

Shawi M, Chu TW, Martinez-Marignac V, et al.
Telomerase contributes to fludarabine resistance in primary human leukemic lymphocytes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70428 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
We report that Imetelstat, a telomerase inhibitor that binds to the RNA component of telomerase (hTR), can sensitize primary CLL lymphocytes to fludarabine in vitro. This effect was observed in lymphocytes from clinically resistant cases and with cytogenetic abnormalities associated with bad prognosis. Imetelstat mediated-sensitization to fludarabine was not associated with telomerase activity, but with the basal expression of Ku80. Since both Imetelstat and Ku80 bind hTR, we assessed 1) if Ku80 and Imetelstat alter each other's binding to hTR in vitro and 2) the effect of an oligonucleotide complementary to the Ku binding site in hTR (Ku oligo) on the survival of primary CLL lymphocytes exposed to fludarabine. We show that Imetelstat interferes with the binding of Ku70/80 (Ku) to hTR and that the Ku oligo can sensitize CLL lymphocytes to FLU. Our results suggest that Ku binding to hTR may contribute to fludarabine resistance in CLL lmphocytes. This is the first report highlighting the potentially broad effectiveness of Imetelstat in CLL, and the potential biological and clinical implications of a functional interaction between Ku and hTR in primary human cancer cells.

Dadkhah E, Naseh H, Farshchian M, et al.
A cancer-array approach elucidates the immune escape mechanism and defects in the DNA repair system in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Iran Med. 2013; 16(8):463-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the second-most frequently diagnosed cancer in Northeast Iran, often diagnosed in advanced stages. No standard early diagnostic guideline has been proposed to date and current therapeutic modalities are not effective. Detection of tumor-specific biomarkers, which is the goal of this study, could prove useful in the diagnosis of ESCC. 
METHODS: To better understand the gene expression profile of ESCC, we analyzed tumor samples and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients by Chemiluminescent Human Cancer GEArrays. Candidate genes were verified by real-time PCR. 
RESULTS: Out of 440 cancer-related genes included in the array, 71 were overexpressed compared to normal tissue, with significant differences in 11 genes. There were 108 genes underexpressed, with significant differences in 5 genes. Until now, the AP2M1, FTL, UBE2L6, HLA-C, and HSPA8 overexpressed genes and XRCC5, TP53I3 and RAP1A underexpressed genes were not reported in ESCC. We chose the MMP2, HLA-G, and XRCC5 markers from 58 Iranian ESCC patients to verify the expression validity by real-time PCR. The microarray results were confirmed with two-tailed significance levels of P = 0.003 (MMP2), P = 0.000 (HLA-G) and P = 0.002(XRCC5). Analysis performed for the candidate genes using GNCpro online software highlighted two pathways, an immuno-modulatory response and DNA replication and repair. We successfully performed and validated Chemiluminescent GEArray gene expression profiling in ESCC. Several biomarkers that might be related to tumorigenesis in ESCC were identified.
CONCLUSION: Immuno-modulatory and DNA repair pathways could be used as targets to locate specific diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers for ESCC.

Ogiwara H, Ui A, Shiotani B, et al.
Curcumin suppresses multiple DNA damage response pathways and has potency as a sensitizer to PARP inhibitor.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(11):2486-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are promising anticancer drugs, particularly for the treatment of tumors deficient in the DNA damage response (DDR). However, it is challenging to design effective therapeutic strategies for use of these compounds against cancers without DDR deficiencies. In this context, combination therapies in which PARP inhibitors are used alongside DDR inhibitors have elicited a great deal of interest. Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been tested in clinical studies for its chemosensitizing potential; however, the mechanisms of chemosensitization by curcumin have not been fully elucidated. This study demonstrates that curcumin suppresses three major DDR pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) and the DNA damage checkpoint. Curcumin suppresses the histone acetylation at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites by inhibiting histone acetyltransferase activity, thereby reducing recruitment of the key NHEJ factor KU70/KU80 to DSB sites. Curcumin also suppresses HR by reducing expression of the BRCA1 gene, which regulates HR, by impairing histone acetylation at the BRCA1 promoter. Curcumin also inhibits ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) kinase (IC50 in vitro = 493 nM), resulting in impaired activation of ATR-CHK1 signaling, which is necessary for HR and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Thus, curcumin suppresses three DDR pathways by inhibiting histone acetyltransferases and ATR. Concordantly, curcumin sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors by enhancing apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe via inhibition of both the DNA damage checkpoint and DSB repair. Our results indicate that curcumin is a promising sensitizer for PARP inhibitor-based therapy.

Long XD, Zhao D, Wang C, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC4 and XRCC5 and aflatoxin B1-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Epidemiology. 2013; 24(5):671-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may influence individual variation in DNA repair capacity and may play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms at XRCC4 codon 247 (rs3734091, XRCC4P) and XRCC5 codon 180 (rs80309960, XRCC5P) in liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1).
METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study, including 1499 liver cancer cases and 2045 controls without any liver disease, was conducted in a high aflatoxin exposure area in the Guangxi region of China to assess the relationship between these two polymorphisms and aflatoxin-related liver cancer risk and prognosis. Genotypes, mRNA levels, and the hot-spot mutation of TP53 gene (TP53M) related to AFB1 exposure was tested using TaqMan-PCR technique. XRCC4 protein level was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: For XRCC4P and XRCC5P, only XRCC4P modified liver cancer risk. Compared with the homozygote of XRCC4 codon 247 Ala alleles (XRCC4-AA), the genotypes of XRCC4 codon 247 Ser alleles (namely XRCC4-AS or -SS) increased liver cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35 and 2.02, respectively). Significant interactive effects between risk genotypes (OR > 1) and aflatoxin exposure status were also observed in the joint effects analysis. Moreover, this polymorphism was associated not only with lower XRCC4 expression levels but also with higher AFB1-DNA adduct levels and increasing TP53M and portal vein tumor risk. Additionally, XRCC4P modified the recurrence-free survival and overall survival of cases, especially under conditions of high aflatoxin exposure.
CONCLUSION: XRCC4P may be a genetic modifier for the risk and outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by AFB1 exposure.

Alsbeih G, El-Sebaie M, Al-Harbi N, et al.
SNPs in genes implicated in radiation response are associated with radiotoxicity and evoke roles as predictive and prognostic biomarkers.
Radiat Oncol. 2013; 8:125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are needed to individualize cancer radiation treatment. Therefore, we have investigated the association between various risk factors, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and late complications to radiotherapy in our nasopharyngeal cancer patients.
METHODS: A cohort of 155 patients was included. Normal tissue fibrosis was scored using RTOG/EORTC grading system. A total of 45 SNPs in 11 candidate genes (ATM, XRCC1, XRCC3, XRCC4, XRCC5, PRKDC, LIG4, TP53, HDM2, CDKN1A, TGFB1) were genotyped by direct genomic DNA sequencing. Patients with severe fibrosis (cases, G3-4, n = 48) were compared to controls (G0-2, n = 107).
RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed significant association (P < 0.05) with radiation complications for 6 SNPs (ATM G/A rs1801516, HDM2 promoter T/G rs2279744 and T/A rs1196333, XRCC1 G/A rs25487, XRCC5 T/C rs1051677 and TGFB1 C/T rs1800469). In addition, Kaplan-Meier analyses have also highlighted significant association between genotypes and length of patients' follow-up after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression has further sustained these results suggesting predictive and prognostic roles of SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS: Univariate and multivariate analysis suggest that radiation toxicity in radiotherapy patients are associated with certain SNPs, in genes including HDM2 promoter studied for the 1st time. These results support the use of SNPs as genetic predictive markers for clinical radiosensitivity and evoke a prognostic role for length of patients' follow-up after radiotherapy.

Zhao P, Zou P, Zhao L, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes and glioma susceptibility.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:234 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual's susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development.
METHODS: We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case-control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform.
RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas.

Dai ZJ, Gao J, Kang HF, et al.
Targeted inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances radiosensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 7:149-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that regulates protein translation, cell growth, and apoptosis. Rapamycin (RPM), a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exhibits potent and broad in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against leukemia, breast cancer, and melanoma. Recent studies showing that RPM sensitizes cancers to chemotherapy and radiation therapy have attracted considerable attention. This study aimed to examine the radiosensitizing effect of RPM in vitro, as well as its mechanism of action. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay showed that 10 nmol/L to 15 nmol/L of RPM had a radiosensitizing effects on pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, a low dose of RPM induced autophagy and reduced the number of S-phase cells. When radiation treatment was combined with RPM, the PC-2 cell cycle arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the expression of DDB1, RAD51, and XRCC5 were downregulated, whereas the expression of PCNA and ABCC4 were upregulated in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that RPM effectively enhanced the radiosensitivity of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

Alshareeda AT, Negm OH, Albarakati N, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of KU70/KU80, a key DNA damage repair protein in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 139(2):301-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the role of BRCA1 and the homologous recombination (HR) pathway in breast cancer (BC) has been extensively studied, the alternative repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) remains to be defined. Ku proteins bind to DNA DSB ends and play a key role in NHEJ. In this study we aimed to assess the expression and biological significance of the KU70/KU80 heterodimer in the different molecular classes of BC. The expression of KU70/KU80 was assessed immunohistochemically in a well-characterised and annotated series of 1302 unselected invasive BC cases with a long-term follow-up together with 25 cases with known BRCA1 mutations. The results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters, other DNA repair proteins and patient outcome. The expression of KU70/KU80 protein was further evaluated in various BC cell lines using western blotting and reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPA). Nuclear KU70/KU80 expression was correlated with features of poor prognosis including higher histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, negative oestrogen receptor expression, basal-like phenotype, P53 and CHK1 positivity. KU70/KU80 was expressed in all BRCA1-associated tumours and showed an inverse correlation with nuclear BRCA1 protein and aberrant cytoplasmic RAD51 expression. RPPA confirmed these results and showed higher expression of KU70/KU80 in BRCA1-deficient cell line compared to BRCA1-proficient cell line. KU70/KU80 expression showed an association with disease-free interval; however, it was not an independent predictor of outcome. As a conclusion, KU70/KU80 may play a role in DNA DSBs repair in HR-deficient tumours. Further study of other NHEJ markers in sporadic BC is warranted.

Trinh BQ, Ko SY, Barengo N, et al.
Dual functions of the homeoprotein DLX4 in modulating responsiveness of tumor cells to topoisomerase II-targeting drugs.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(2):1000-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Topoisomerase II (TOP2)-targeting poisons such as anthracyclines and etoposide are commonly used for cancer chemotherapy and kill tumor cells by causing accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of TOP2A, the gene encoding topoisomerase IIα, increases sensitivity of tumor cells to TOP2 poisons, but it is not clear why some TOP2A-overexpressing (TOP2A-High) tumors respond poorly to these drugs. In this study, we identified that TOP2A expression is induced by DLX4, a homeoprotein that is overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancers. Analysis of breast cancer datasets revealed that TOP2A-high cases that also highly expressed DLX4 responded more poorly to anthracycline-based chemotherapy than TOP2A-high cases that expressed DLX4 at low levels. Overexpression of TOP2A alone in tumor cells increased the level of DSBs induced by TOP2 poisons. In contrast, DLX4 reduced the level of TOP2 poison-induced DSBs irrespective of its induction of TOP2A. DLX4 did not stimulate homologous recombination-mediated repair of DSBs. However, DLX4 interacted with Ku proteins, stimulated DNA-dependent protein kinase activity, and increased erroneous end-joining repair of DSBs. Whereas DLX4 did not reduce levels of TOP2 poison-induced DSBs in Ku-deficient cells, DLX4 stimulated DSB repair and reduced the level of TOP2 poison-induced DSBs when Ku was reconstituted in these cells. Our findings indicate that DLX4 induces TOP2A expression but reduces sensitivity of tumor cells to TOP2 poisons by stimulating Ku-dependent repair of DSBs. These opposing activities of DLX4 could explain why some TOP2A-overexpressing tumors are not highly sensitive to TOP2 poisons.

Ren Y, Hao P, Dutta B, et al.
Hypoxia modulates A431 cellular pathways association to tumor radioresistance and enhanced migration revealed by comprehensive proteomic and functional studies.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013; 12(2):485-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Tumor hypoxia induces cancer cell angiogenesis, invasiveness, treatment resistance, and contributes to poor clinical outcome. However, the molecular mechanism by which tumor hypoxia exerts a coordinated effect on different molecular pathways to enhance tumor growth and survival and lead to poor clinical outcome is not fully understood. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the global protein expression and functional changes in A431 epithelial carcinoma cells induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics and biochemical functional assays. Quantitative proteomics results showed that 4316 proteins were quantified with FDR<1%, in which over 1200 proteins were modulated >1.2 fold, and DNA repair, glycolysis, integrin, glycoprotein turnover, and STAT1 pathways were perturbed by hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress. For the first time, hypoxia was shown to up-regulate the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, which plays a central role in DNA repair of irradiated cells, thereby potentially contributing to the radioresistance of hypoxic A431 cells. The up-regulation of Ku70/Ku80 dimer, a key molecular complex in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, was confirmed by Western blot and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-MRM methods. Functional studies confirmed that up-regulation of glycolysis, integrin, glycoprotein synthesis, and down-regulation of STAT1 pathways during hypoxia enhanced metastastic activity of A431 cells. Migration of A431 cells was dramatically repressed by glycolysis inhibitor (2-Deoxy-d-glucose), glycoprotein synthesis inhibitor (1-Deoxynojirimycin Hydrochloride), and STAT1α overexpression that enhanced the integrin-mediated cell adhesion. These results revealed that hypoxia induced several biological processes involved in tumor migration and radioresistance and provided potential new targets for tumor therapy.

Ma Q, Li P, Xu M, et al.
Ku80 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes cisplatin resistance.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ku80 is crucially implicated in DNA repair, apoptosis, and chemoresistance. In this study, we aimed to assess the expression of Ku80 in clinical lung adenocarcinoma specimens, and investigate its role in the regulation of cisplatin sensitivity in cisplatin resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549/DDP.
METHODS: Tumor specimens and medical records of 106 patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma were obtained from 1998 to 2003. Ku80 mRNA and protein levels of the tumor samples, cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 cells and their cisplatin resistant variant A549/DDP cells were examined by reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Ku80-specific siRNA or control scramble siRNA was transfected into A549/DDP cells, then cell sensitivity to cisplatin was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in the treated cells were detected by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Total 83.3% (20/24) cisplatin-resistant tumors had high Ku80 expression, while 8.3% (4/48) cisplatin-sensitive tumors had high Ku80 expression (p < 0.01). Univariate analysis indicated that overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly better in lung adenocarcinoma patients with low vs. high Ku80 expression level (p < 0.01). Ku80 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased in A549/DDP cells compared to parental A549 cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of Ku80 resensitized A549/DDP cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Ku80 expression level could predict the outcome and the sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ku80-siRNA could be utilized as a therapeutic strategy to resensitize nonresponders to cisplatin.

Yang Y, Wang C, Zhang P, et al.
Polycomb group protein PHF1 regulates p53-dependent cell growth arrest and apoptosis.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(1):529-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Polycomb group protein PHF1 is well known as a component of a novel EED-EZH2·Polycomb repressive complex 2 complex and plays important roles in H3K27 methylation and Hox gene silencing. PHF1 is also involved in the response to DNA double-strand breaks in human cells, promotes nonhomologous end-joining processes through interaction with Ku70/Ku80. Here, we identified another function of PHF1 as a potential p53 pathway activator in a pathway screen using luminescence reporter assay. Subsequent studies showed PHF1 directly interacts with p53 proteins both in vivo and in vitro and co-localized in nucleus. PHF1 binds to the C-terminal regulatory domain of p53. Overexpression of PHF1 elevated p53 protein level and prolonged its turnover. Knockdown of PHF1 reduced p53 protein level and its target gene expression both in normal state and DNA damage response. Mechanically, PHF1 protects p53 proteins from MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, we showed that PHF1 regulates cell growth arrest and etoposide-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Finally, PHF1 expression was significantly down-regulated in human breast cancer samples. Taken together, we establish PHF1 as a novel positive regulator of the p53 pathway. These data shed light on the potential roles of PHF1 in tumorigenesis and/or tumor progression.

Zhou LP, Luan H, Dong XH, et al.
Association between XRCC5, 6 and 7 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(8):3637-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. Recent publications indicated that XRCC5, XRCC6 and XRCC7 genes may participate in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to investigate associations between XRCC5, XRCC6 and XRCC7 genetic polymorphisms in the NHEJ pathway and breast cancer risk.
METHODS: Studies focusing on the relationship between genetic polymorphisms in XRCC5, XRCC6 and XRCC7 genes and susceptibility to breast cancer were selected from the Pubmed, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, Springerlink, CNKI and CBM databases. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. The meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager Version 5.1.6 and STATA Version 12.0 software. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated based on the extracted data.
RESULTS: According to the inclusion criteria, we final included seven studies with a total of 2,864 breast cancer cases and 3,060 healthy controls. Meta-analysis results showed that rs3835 (G>A) and rs828907 (G>T) in XRCC5 gene, and rs132793 (G>A) in XRCC6 gene might increase the risk of breast cancer, while rs132788 G>T and rs6002421 (A>G) might be protective factors. However, there was no relationship between XRCC7 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that the rs3835 G>A and rs828907 G>T in XRCC5 gene, rs6002421 (A>G), rs132788 (G>T) and rs132793 (G>A) in XRCC6 gene might be risk factors for breast cancer, while the rs132788 (G>T) and rs6002421 (A>G) in XRCC6 gene might be protective.

Song L, Robson T, Doig T, et al.
DNA repair and replication proteins as prognostic markers in melanoma.
Histopathology. 2013; 62(2):343-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS:   Elevated expression of DNA repair and replication genes has been reported in thick, non-fixed primary melanomas that subsequently went on to metastasize, when compared to non-recurrent primary tumours. This increased expression could contribute to the extreme resistance shown by melanoma to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. We have investigated the hypothesis that levels of key DNA repair and replication proteins are prognostic biomarkers in melanoma.
METHODS AND RESULTS:   We used a tissue microarray containing samples from all stages of melanomagenesis to investigate the hypothesis that levels of key DNA repair and replication proteins are prognostic biomarkers in a larger, more representative and readily available set of fixed primary melanomas. High expression of topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A), that relieves torsional stress during DNA replication, and XRCC5 (Ku80), required for DNA double-strand break repair, were associated with significantly worse survival.
CONCLUSIONS:   Two (XRCC5 and TOP2A) of seven DNA repair and replication proteins studied were prognostic for melanoma.

Jayakumar S, Bhilwade HN, Pandey BN, et al.
The potential value of the neutral comet assay and the expression of genes associated with DNA damage in assessing the radiosensitivity of tumor cells.
Mutat Res. 2012; 748(1-2):52-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The assessment of tumor radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. Therefore, the degree of correlation between radiation-induced DNA damage, as measured by the alkaline and the neutral comet assays, and the clonogenic survival of different human tumor cells was studied. Further, tumor radiosensitivity was compared with the expression of genes associated with the cellular response to radiation damage. Five different human tumor cell lines were chosen and the radiosensitivity of these cells was established by clonogenic assay. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were performed in γ-irradiated cells (2-8Gy; either acute or fractionated). Quantitative PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of DNA damage response genes in control and irradiated cells. The relative radiosensitivity of the cell lines assessed by the extent of DNA damage (neutral comet assay) immediately after irradiation (4Gy or 6Gy) was in agreement with radiosensitivity pattern obtained by the clonogenic assay. The survival fraction of irradiated cells showed a better correlation with the magnitude of DNA damage measured by the neutral comet assay (r=-0.9; P<0.05; 6Gy) than evaluated by alkaline comet assay (r=-0.73; P<0.05; 6Gy). Further, a significant correlation between the clonogenic survival and DNA damage was observed in cells exposed to fractionated doses of radiation. Of 15 genes investigated in the gene expression study, HSP70, KU80 and RAD51 all showed significant positive correlations (r=0.9; P<0.05) with tumor radiosensitivity. Our study clearly demonstrated that the neutral comet assay was better than alkaline comet assay for assessment of radiosensitivities of tumor cells after acute or fractionated doses of irradiation.

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