Gene Summary

Gene:ZFP36; ZFP36 ring finger protein
Aliases: TTP, G0S24, GOS24, TIS11, NUP475, zfp-36, RNF162A
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mRNA decay activator protein ZFP36
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (27)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Uridine
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Protein Binding
  • Liver Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Down-Regulation
  • RNA Stability
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Transcription Factors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Binding Sites
  • ELAV-Like Protein 1
  • Transcription
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Chromosome 19
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • ELAV Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • MicroRNAs
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Survival
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Biological Models
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Transfection
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • siRNA
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • beta Catenin
  • Base Sequence
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ZFP36 (cancer-related)

Qian L, Yu S, Yin C, et al.
Plasma IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 correlate with survival and chemotherapeutic efficacy in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(2):340-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that the CXCL9, 10, 11/CXCR3 axis is significant in immune regulation and therapeutic efficacy in human cancers; however, its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown. This study serves to evaluate the prognostic prediction value of plasma IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, in advanced PDAC.
METHODS: Two hundred patients with advanced PDAC receiving palliative chemotherapy were retrospectively recruited. The association between Plasma CXCL9/CXCL10 levels and survival time was first analyzed in a test group of 110 patients and then confirmed in a validation group of 90 patients.
RESULTS: High levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were significantly correlated with longer overall survival (OS) in advanced PDAC patients (314 vs. 136 days for CXCL9, P < 0.0001, and 374 vs. 163 days for CXCL10, P < 0.0001, respectively) in the test group, which was consistent with the results derived from the validation group. In addition, high levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were associated with longer time to progression (TTP) in patients receiving chemotherapy (100 vs. 60 days for CXCL9, P = 0.0021, and 104 vs. 67 days for CXCL10, P = 0.0057, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed that CXCL9 and CXCL10 were independent prognostic predictors for OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.452, P < 0.001 for CXCL9; and HR: 0.586, P = 0.007 for CXCL10, respectively) and TTP (HR: 0.656, P = 0.015 for CXCL9; and HR: 0.687, P = 0.040 for CXCL10, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CXCL9 and CXCL10 can be used to predict survival of advanced PDAC patients receiving chemotherapy, allowing clinicians to potentially improve treatment outcomes by identifying candidates for aggressive therapy.

Kim DJ, Vo MT, Choi SH, et al.
Tristetraprolin-mediated hexokinase 2 expression regulation contributes to glycolysis in cancer cells.
Mol Biol Cell. 2019; 30(5):542-553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hexokinase 2 (HK2) catalyzes the first step of glycolysis and is up-regulated in cancer cells. The mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein that inhibits the expression of ARE-containing genes by enhancing mRNA degradation. TTP expression is down-regulated in cancer cells. We demonstrated that TTP is critical for down-regulation of HK2 expression in cancer cells. HK2 mRNA contains an ARE within its 3'-UTR. TTP binds to HK2 3'-UTR and enhances degradation of HK2 mRNA. TTP overexpression decreased HK2 expression and suppressed the glycolytic capacity of cancer cells, measured as glucose uptake and production of glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvate, and lactate. TTP overexpression reduced both the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of cancer cells. Ectopic expression of HK2 in cancer cells attenuated the reduction in glycolytic capacity, ECAR, and OCR from TTP. Taken together, these findings suggest that TTP acts as a negative regulator of HK2 expression and glucose metabolism in cancer cells.

Cha Y, Kim SY, Yeo HY, et al.
Association of CHFR Promoter Methylation with Treatment Outcomes of Irinotecan-Based Chemotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):146-155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant promoter methylation plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, its role in treatment responses is unclear, especially for metastatic disease. Here, we investigated the association between promoter methylation and treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in 102 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Promoter methylation was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for three loci (CHFR, WRN, and SULF2) associated with chemotherapy response and five CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). Association between CHFR methylation and in vitro sensitivity to irinotecan was also evaluated. Promoter methylation of CHFR, WRN, and SULF2 was identified in 16 (15.7%), 24 (23.5%), and 33 (32.4%) patients, respectively. CIMP status was positive in 22 (21.6%) patients. CHFR methylation was associated with a significantly longer time to progression (TTP) (median: 8.77 vs. 4.43 months, P = .019), with trends favoring higher overall survival (OS) (median: 22.83 vs. 20.17 months, P = .300) and response rates (31.3% vs. 17.4%, P = .300). For patients with unmethylated CHFR, TTP (median: 5.60 vs. 3.53, P = .020) and OS (median: 20.57 vs. 9.23, P = .006) were significantly different according to CIMP status. Colorectal cancer cell lines with CHFR methylation demonstrated increased sensitivity to irinotecan. Both CHFR overexpression and combination with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed irinotecan sensitivity in CHFR-methylated cell lines, whereas CHFR knockdown in unmethylated cells restored sensitivity to irinotecan. These data suggest that CHFR methylation may be associated with favorable treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Ke SB, Qiu H, Chen JM, et al.
Therapeutic Effect of First-line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) Combined with Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Patients with EGFR Mutation-positive Lung Adenocarcinoma and Brain Metastases.
Curr Med Sci. 2018; 38(6):1062-1068 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study compared the therapeutic effect of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) with that of EGFR-TKI plus whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastases. A total of 139 patients with lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastases treated with first-line EGFRTKI therapy from September 2008 to December 2017 were enrolled in this study. The study endpoints were intracranial time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). The effects of clinical pathological parameters and EGFR gene status on the study endpoints were compared. The results showed that the intracranial TTP was significantly longer in EGFR-TKI plus WBRT group than in EGFR-TKI group (median 30.0 vs.18.2 months, χ2=10.824, P=0.001), but no significant difference in the OS was noted between the two groups (median 48.0 vs. 41.1 months, χ2=0.012, P=0.912). Also, there was no statistically significant difference in the OS between patients treated with early and late radiotherapy (P=0.849) and between those with asymptomatic and those with symptomatic intracranial metastases (P=0.189). The OS and intracranial TTP of patients with intracranial oligometastases (≤3 metastatic sites) were not significantly different from those of patients with multiple intracranial metastases (P=0.104 and P=0.357, respectively), and exon 19 and exon 21 mutations didn't show significant effects on the OS and intracranial TTP of patients (P=0.418 and P=0.386, respectively). In conclusion, there was no statistically significant difference in the OS between the EGFR-TKI alone group and EGFR-TKI plus WBRT group. However, simultaneous use of WBRT was found to significantly prolong intracranial TTP and improve cerebral symptoms, and thus EGFR-TKI and WBRT combined may be clinically beneficial for patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastases.

Koutras A, Lazaridis G, Koliou GA, et al.
Evaluation of the prognostic value of all four HER family receptors in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) study.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0207707 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the current study, we performed a complete analysis, with four different methods, of all four HER family receptors, in a series of patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based regimens and evaluated their prognostic value. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were collected from 227 patients, considered to be HER2-positive when assessed at the local laboratories. We evaluated gene amplification, copy number variations (CNVs), mRNA and protein expression of all four HER family members. In addition, our analysis included the evaluation of several other factors by immunohistochemistry (IHC), such as pHER2Tyr1221/1222, pHER2Tyr877 and PTEN. Central review of HER2 status by IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that of the 227 patients, only 139 (61.2%) were truly HER2-positive. Regarding the 191 patients treated with trastuzumab as first-line therapy, median time to progression (TTP) was 15.3 and 10.4 months for HER2-positive and HER2-negative participants, respectively, whereas median survival was 50.4 and 38.1 months, respectively. In HER2-positive patients, high HER3 mRNA expression was of favorable prognostic significance for TTP and survival (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88, Wald's p = 0.022 and HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88, p = 0.021, respectively), while EGFR copy gain and EGFR protein expression were associated with higher risk for disease progression in HER2-negative patients (HR = 3.53, 95% CI 1.19-10.50, p = 0.023 and HR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.12-10.17, p = 0.031, respectively). Positive HER3 protein expression was a favorable factor for TTP in HER2-negative patients (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.84, p = 0.014). In the multivariate analysis, only EGFR copy gain retained its prognostic significance for TTP in the HER2-negative population (HR = 3.96, 95% CI 1.29-12.16, p = 0.016), while high HER3 mRNA expression retained its favorable prognostic significance for TTP in the HER2-positive subgroup (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.99, p = 0.048). The present study suggests that EGFR copy gain represents a negative prognostic factor for TTP in HER2-negative patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab. In addition, high HER3 mRNA expression appears to be of favorable prognostic significance for TTP in HER2-positive patients. Given the small number of patients included in the current analysis and the retrospective nature of the study, our findings should be validated in larger cohorts.

Park JM, Lee TH, Kang TH
Roles of Tristetraprolin in Tumorigenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic loss or mutations in tumor suppressor genes promote tumorigenesis. The prospective tumor suppressor tristetraprolin (TTP) has been shown to negatively regulate tumorigenesis through destabilizing the messenger RNAs of critical genes implicated in both tumor onset and tumor progression. Regulation of TTP has therefore emerged as an important issue in tumorigenesis. Similar to other tumor suppressors, TTP expression is frequently downregualted in various human cancers, and its low expression is correlated with poor prognosis. Additionally, disruption in the regulation of TTP by various mechanisms results in the inactivation of TTP protein or altered TTP expression. A recent study showing alleviation of Myc-driven lymphomagenesis by the forced expression of TTP has shed light on new therapeutic avenues for cancer prevention and treatment through the restoration of TTP expression. In this review, we summarize key oncogenes subjected to the TTP-mediated mRNA degradation, and discuss how dysregulation of TTP can contribute to tumorigenesis. In addition, the control mechanism underlying TTP expression at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels will be discussed.

Gupta G, Bebawy M, Pinto TJA, et al.
Role of the Tristetraprolin (Zinc Finger Protein 36 Homolog) Gene in Cancer.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2018; 28(3):217-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is a complicated transformational progression that fiercely changes the appearance of cell physiology as well as cells' relations with adjacent tissues. Developing an oncogenic characteristic requires a wide range of modifications in a gene expression at a cellular level. This can be achieved by activation or suppression of the gene regulation pathway in a cell. Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36) associated with the initiation and development of tumors are regulated at the level of mRNA decay, frequently through the activity of AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions. TTP is an attractive target for therapeutic use and diagnostic tools due to its characteristic appearance in cancer tissue alone. Thus, the illumination of TTP in diverse types of cancer might deliver additional effective remedies in the coming era for cancer patients. The objective of this review is to familiarize the reader with the TTP proteins, focus on efficient properties that endow them with their effective oncogenic potential, describe their physiological role in cancer cells, and review the unique properties of TT, and of TTP-driven cancer.

Cao J, Wei J, Yang P, et al.
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screening in gastrointestinal stromal tumor with Imatinib resistance.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout Screening was applied to investigate novel targets in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). 20 genes and 2 miRNAs have been selected by total reads of sgRNA and sgRNA diversity, which has been further validated in imatinib-resistant GIST cells by CCK8 and qPCR analysis. Our study has finally revealed 9 genes (DBP, NR3C1, TCF12, TP53, ZNF12, SOCS6, ZFP36, ACYP1, and DRD1) involved in imatinib-resistant GIST-T1 cells. TP53 and SOCS6 may be the most promising candidate genes for imatinib-resistance due to the possible signaling pathway, such as apoptosis pathway and Wnt signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway. It is necessary to perform more studies to discover novel targets in imatinib-resistant GIST, including DBP, NR3C1, TCF12, ZNF12, ZFP36, ACYP1 and DRD1.

Buhl ASK, Christensen TD, Christensen IJ, et al.
Predicting efficacy of epirubicin by a multigene assay in advanced breast cancer within a Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) cohort: a retrospective-prospective blinded study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 172(2):391-400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Anthracyclines remain a cornerstone in the treatment of primary and advanced breast cancer (BC). This study has evaluated the predictive value of a multigene mRNA-based drug response predictor (DRP) in the treatment of advanced BC with epirubicin. The DRP is a mathematical method combining in vitro sensitivity and gene expression with clinical genetic information from > 3000 clinical tumor samples.
METHODS: From a DBCG cohort, 140 consecutive patients were treated with epirubicin between May 1997 and November 2016. After patient informed consent, mRNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and analyzed using Affymetrix arrays. Using time to progression (TTP) as primary endpoint, the efficacy of epirubicin was analyzed according to DRP combined with clinicopathological data collected retrospectively from patients' medical records. Statistical analysis was done using Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment line.
RESULTS: Median TTP was 9.3 months. The DRP was significantly associated to TTP (P = 0.03). The hazard ratio for DRP scores differing by 50 percentage points was 0.55 (95% CI -0.93, one-sided). A 75% DRP was associated with a median TTP of 13 months compared to 7 months following a 25% DRP. Multivariate analysis showed that DRP was independent of age and number of metastases.
CONCLUSION: The current study prospectively validates the predictive capability of DRP regarding epirubicin previously shown retrospectively allowing the patients predicted to be poor responders to choose more effective alternatives. Randomized prospective studies are needed to demonstrate if such an approach will lead to increased overall survival.

Lee SR, Jin H, Kim WT, et al.
Tristetraprolin activation by resveratrol inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1269-1278 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic compound that naturally occurs in grapes, peanuts and berries. Considerable research has been conducted to determine the benefits of RSV against various human cancer types. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element-binding protein that regulates mRNA stability and has decreased expression in human cancer. The present study investigated the biological effect of RSV on TTP gene regulation in colon cancer cells. RSV inhibited the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HCT116 and SNU81 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, RSV induced a dose-dependent increase in TTP expression in HCT116 and SNU81 cells. The microarray experiment revealed that RSV significantly increased TTP expression by downregulating E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), a downstream target gene of TTP and regulated genes associated with inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although TTP silencing inhibited TTP mRNA expression, the expression was subsequently restored by RSV. Small interfering RNA-induced TTP inhibition attenuated the effects of RSV on cell growth. In addition, RSV induced the mRNA-decaying activity of TTP and inhibited the relative luciferase activity of baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (cIAP2), large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2), E2F1, and lin‑28 homolog A (Lin28) in HCT116 and SNU81 cells. Therefore, RSV enhanced the inhibitory activity of TTP in HCT116 and SNU81 cells by negatively regulating cIAP2, E2F1, LATS2, and Lin28 expression. In conclusion, RSV suppressed the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of colon cancer cells by activating TTP.

Guo J, Qu H, Shan T, et al.
Tristetraprolin Overexpression in Gastric Cancer Cells Suppresses PD-L1 Expression and Inhibits Tumor Progression by Enhancing Antitumor Immunity.
Mol Cells. 2018; 41(7):653-664 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) binds to adenosine-uridine AU-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region of messenger RNAs and facilitates rapid degradation of the target mRNAs. Therefore, it regulates the expression of multiple cancer and immunity-associated transcripts. Furthermore, a lack of TTP in cancer cells influences cancer progression and predicts poor survival. Although the functions of TTP on cancer cells have previously been researched, the mechanism of TTP on the interaction between cancer cells with their microenvironment remains undiscovered. In this study, we admed to determine the role of cancer cell TTP during the interaction between tumor and immune cells, specifically regulatory T cells (Tregs). We evaluate the capability of TTP to modulate the antitumor immunity of GC and explored the underlying mechanism. The overexpression of TTP in GC cells dramatically increased peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocyte (PBML) -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells. Increased cytotoxicity against TTP-overexpressed GC cells by PBMLs was determined by Treg development and infiltration. Surprisingly, we found the stabilization of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA was declining while TTP was elevated. The PD-L1 protein level was reduced in TTP-abundant GC cells. PD-L1 gas been found to play a pivotal role in Treg development and functional maintenance in immune system. Taken together, our results suggest the overexpression of TTP in GC cells not only affects cell survival and apoptosis but also increases PBMLs -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells to decelerate tumor progression. Moreover, we identified PD-L1 as a critical TTP-regulated factor that contributes to inhibiting antitumor immunity.

Wu X, Tommasi di Vignano A, Zhou Q, et al.
The ARE-binding protein Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a novel target and mediator of calcineurin tumor suppressing function in the skin.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(5):e1007366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An increased incidence of skin inflammatory diseases is frequently observed in organtransplanted patients being treated with calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive agents. The mechanism of increased skin inflammation in this context has however not yet been clarified. Here we report an increased inflammation following inhibition of calcineurin signaling seen in both chemically induced mouse skin tumors and in tumors grafted from H-rasV12 expressing primary human keratinocytes (HKCs). Following UVB or TPA treatment, we specifically found that deletion of the calcineurin gene in mouse keratinocytes (MKCs) resulted in increased inflammation, and this was accompanied by the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-8 and CXCL1. Furthermore, expression of the RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (TTP) was down-regulated in response to calcineurin inhibition, wherein TTP was shown to negatively regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. The induction of TTP following TPA or UVB treatment was attenuated by calcineurin inhibition in keratinocytes, and correspondingly, disruption of calcineurin signaling down-regulated the amounts of TTP in both clinical and H-rasV12-transformed keratinocyte tumor models. Our results further demonstrated that calcineurin positively controls the stabilization of TTP in keratinocytes through a proteasome-dependent mechanism. Reducing the expression of TTP functionally promoted tumor growth of H-rasV12 expressing HKCs, while stabilizing TTP expression counteracted the tumor-promoting effects of calcineurin inhibition. Collectively these results suggest that calcineurin signaling, acting through TTP protein level stabilization, suppresses keratinocyte tumors by downregulating skin inflammation.

Wei F, Zhang T, Yang Z, et al.
Gambogic Acid Efficiently Kills Stem-Like Colorectal Cancer Cells by Upregulating ZFP36 Expression.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(2):829-846 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported to be a potential novel antitumor drug. Whether GA inhibits putative cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are considered to be the major cause of cancer treatment failure, remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether GA inhibits the CSCs of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanisms.
METHODS: We performed CCK8 and tumor sphere formation assays, percentage analysis of both side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, and the detection of stem cells markers, in order to assess the role of GA in inhibiting the stem celllike features of CRC. An mRNA microarray was performed to identify the downstream gene affected by GA and rescue assays were performed to further clarify whether the downstream gene is involved in the GA induced decrease of the stem cell-like CRC population. CRC cells were engineered with a CSC detector vector encoding GFP and luciferase (Luc) under the control of the Nanog promoter, which were utilized to investigate the effect of GA on putative CSC in human tumor xenograft-bearing mice using in vivo bioluminescence imaging.
RESULTS: Our results showed that GA significantly reduced tumor sphere formation and the percentages of side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, while also decreasing the expression of stemness and EMT-associated markers in CRC cells in vitro. GA killed stem-like CRC cells by upregulating the expression of ZFP36, which is dependent on the inactivation of the EGFR/ ERK signaling pathway. GFP+ cells harboring the PNanog-GFP-T2A-Luc transgene exhibited CSC characteristics. The in vivo results showed that GA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice, accompanied by a remarkable reduction in the putative CSC number, based on whole-body bioluminescence imaging.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that GA significantly inhibits putative CSCs of CRC both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the activation of the EGFR/ ERK/ZFP36 signaling pathway and may be an effective drug candidate for anticancer therapies.

Dong F, Li C, Wang P, et al.
The RNA binding protein tristetraprolin down-regulates autophagy in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 367(1):89-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the most well-known member of RNA-binding zinc-finger protein that play a significant role in accelerating mRNA decay. Increasingly studies have reported that TTP was functioned as a tumor suppressor gene in several types of carcinomas, while its underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In the current study, we found that TTP overexpression decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death in lung adenocarcinoma cells, with the cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Remarkably, instead of inducing cell apoptosis directly, TTP overexpression alters cell autophagy. Our studies demonstrate that TTP overexpression has no effect on apoptosis related genes, but decreases the expression of autophagy-related genes, including Beclin 1 and LC3II. The level of autophagy flux assessed by infection with the mGFP-RFP-LC3 adenovirus construction has been blocked by TTP overexpression. Moreover, the autophagic vacuoles number detected by transmission electron microscopy decreased with TTP expression up-regulation. Our results indicate, for the first time, that TTP suppresses cell proliferation and increases cell death through cell autophagy pathway in lung cancer cells. Our study provides a new angle of view for TTP function as a tumor suppressor which could be targeted in tumor treatment.

Ren C, Yang T, Qiao P, et al.
PIM2 interacts with tristetraprolin and promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(5):690-704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element-binding protein that regulates mRNA stability and plays important roles in cancer. The mechanisms by which TTP is regulated in breast cancer are poorly understood. Using multiple biochemical approaches, we found that proviral insertion in murine lymphomas 2 (PIM2) is a novel binding partner of TTP. Interestingly, PIM2 decreased TTP protein levels independent of its kinase activity. PIM2 instead targeted TTP protein for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed that PIM2 and TTP protein levels were negatively correlated in human breast cancer samples. Indeed, PIM2 overexpression de-repressed TTP-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and promoted breast tumor xenograft growth in vivo. These findings demonstrate an important role for the PIM2-TTP complex in breast cancer tumorigenesis, suggesting that PIM2 may represent a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment.

Coelho MA, de Carné Trécesson S, Rana S, et al.
Oncogenic RAS Signaling Promotes Tumor Immunoresistance by Stabilizing PD-L1 mRNA.
Immunity. 2017; 47(6):1083-1099.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The immunosuppressive protein PD-L1 is upregulated in many cancers and contributes to evasion of the host immune system. The relative importance of the tumor microenvironment and cancer cell-intrinsic signaling in the regulation of PD-L1 expression remains unclear. We report that oncogenic RAS signaling can upregulate tumor cell PD-L1 expression through a mechanism involving increases in PD-L1 mRNA stability via modulation of the AU-rich element-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP). TTP negatively regulates PD-L1 expression through AU-rich elements in the 3' UTR of PD-L1 mRNA. MEK signaling downstream of RAS leads to phosphorylation and inhibition of TTP by the kinase MK2. In human lung and colorectal tumors, RAS pathway activation is associated with elevated PD-L1 expression. In vivo, restoration of TTP expression enhances anti-tumor immunity dependent on degradation of PD-L1 mRNA. We demonstrate that RAS can drive cell-intrinsic PD-L1 expression, thus presenting therapeutic opportunities to reverse the innately immunoresistant phenotype of RAS mutant cancers.

Jakobsen Falk I, Lund J, Gréen H, et al.
Pharmacogenetic study of the impact of ABCB1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on lenalidomide treatment outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma: results from a phase IV observational study and subsequent phase II clinical trial.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(1):183-193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite therapeutic advances, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) continue to experience disease relapse and treatment resistance. The gene ABCB1 encodes the drug transporter P-glycoprotein, which confers resistance through drug extrusion across the cell membrane. Lenalidomide (Len) is excreted mainly via the kidneys, and, given the expression of P-gp in the renal tubuli, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB1 gene may influence Len plasma concentrations and, subsequently, the outcome of treatment. We, therefore, investigated the influence of ABCB1 genetic variants on Len treatment outcomes and adverse events (AEs).
METHODS: Ninety patients with relapsed or refractory MM, who received the second-line Len plus dexamethasone in the Rev II trial, were genotyped for the ABCB1 SNPs 1199G>A (Ser400Asn, rs2229109), 1236C>T (silent, rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (Ala893Ser, rs2032582), and 3435C>T (silent, rs1045642) using pyrosequencing, and correlations to response parameters, outcomes, and AEs were investigated.
RESULTS: No significant associations were found between genotype and either best response rates or hematological AEs, and 1236C>T, 2677G>T or 3435C>T genotypes had no impact on survival. There was a trend towards increased time to progression (TTP) in patients carrying the 1199A variant, and a significant difference in TTP between genotypes in patients with standard-risk cytogenetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a limited influence of ABCB1 genotype on lenalidomide treatment efficacy and safety. The results suggest that 1199G>A may be a marker of TTP following Len treatment in standard-risk patients; however, larger studies are needed to validate and clarify the relationship.

Štrbac D, Goričar K, Dolžan V, Kovač V
Matrix Metalloproteinases Polymorphisms as Prognostic Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:8069529 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with a relatively short overall survival (OS). Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a vast biological effect on tumor progression, invasion, metastasis formation, and apoptosis. MMP expression was previously associated with survival in MPM. Our aim was to evaluate if genetic variability of
Methods: We genotyped 199 MPM patients for ten polymorphisms: rs243865, rs243849 and rs7201, in
Results: Carriers of polymorphic
Conclusions: Selected

Tian SB, Tao KX, Hu J, et al.
The prognostic value of AGR2 expression in solid tumours: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognostic value of anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) in tumours remains inconclusive. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature evidence and assessed the association between AGR2 expression and prognosis in solid tumours. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS)/progression-free survival (PFS). All analyses were performed by STATA 12.0, with the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) as the effect size estimate. A total of 20 studies containing 3285 cases were included. Pooled analyses revealed that AGR2 overexpression had an unfavourable impact on OS (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.32-2.81) and time to tumour progression (TTP) (DFS/RFS/PFS) (HR 1.60 95% CI 1.06-2.40) in solid tumour patients. Subgroup analyses indicated that AGR2 overexpression in breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor OS (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.03-8.81) and TTP (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.20). Excluding breast cancer, AGR2 overexpression was also found to have a significant correlation with poor OS in the remaining solid tumour patients (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.19). Overall, AGR2 might be a potential biomarker to predict prognosis in solid tumour patients.

Guo J, Qu H, Chen Y, Xia J
The role of RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin in cancer and immunity.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(12):196 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) plays a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological processes including differentiation, reprogramming, metabolism, proliferation, pluripotency, tumorigenesis and immunity. Due to its ability to bind and target ARE-containing mRNAs for rapid degradation, TTP down-regulates the expression of a mass of critical genes, thereby functioning as cancer suppressor gene. The loss of TTP has been reported in several human cancers and is relevant to poor prognosis. Recent research shows that TTP also has an emerging significant role in immunity. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of various roles of TTP in human cancers and immunity. We summarize TTP deficiency in several cancers and discuss that the lack of TTP can influence tumor progression at different aspects such as promoting cancer cell proliferation; accelerating cell cycle; improving survivability and resisting cell death; inducing angiogenesis; activating invasion and metastasis; inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition; and deregulating cellular energetics. We also pay attention to novel understanding of the relationship between TTP and immunity. Finally, due to its vital role, the disorder of TTP in both cancer and immune cells receives increasing attention and we overview current thinking about regulatory mechanisms of TTP itself expression. This knowledge may contribute to TTP becoming a diagnostic marker for cancer or immune-related diseases and a possible therapeutic target.

Tini P, Nardone V, Pastina P, et al.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression Predicts Time and Patterns of Recurrence in Patients with Glioblastoma After Radiotherapy and Temozolomide.
World Neurosurg. 2018; 109:e662-e668 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression in predicting the modality of treatment failure in glioblastoma (GB).
METHODS: Patients with unifocal GB undergoing surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy from February 2008 to July 2015 were included into the study. The EGFR protein expression level was assessed by immunohistochemistry in GB tissues and classified into high and low expression. Time to progression (TTP) and pattern of recurrence (PR) were evaluated. PRs were classified as central, in-field, marginal, or distant recurrences.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 13 months (range, 6-67 months), 102 patients (79.1%) showed recurrences that were detectable on magnetic resonance imaging. Median TTP was 9 months after the completion of radiochemotherapy. EGFR expression was significantly correlated with TTP (log-rank test, P = 0.003) and PR (Fisher exact test, P = 0.01). The low-EGFR group had a median TTP of 13 months and a prevalence of central/in-field recurrences (accounting to a total 81%). The high-EGFR group had a shorter median TTP (6 months) and a higher rate of marginal/distant recurrences (55.6%).
CONCLUSIONS: Different modality of recurrence related to EGFR expression in patients with GB envisages implication for target contouring of radiotherapy volumes and other therapeutic strategies.

Cheng Z, Wu Z, Shi G, et al.
Discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions using volumetric quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
Eur Radiol. 2018; 28(3):982-991 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of volumetric quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (qDCE-MRI) in differentiation between malignant and benign breast lesions.
METHODS: DCE-MRI was performed in 124 patients with 136 breast lesions. Quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters K
RESULTS: qDCE parameters (K
CONCLUSION: qDCE-MRI can be used to improve diagnostic differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions in relation to morphology and kinetic analysis.
KEY POINTS: • qDCE-MRI parameters are useful for discriminating between malignant and benign breast lesions. • K

Oliveira ÉA, Lima DS, Cardozo LE, et al.
Toxicogenomic and bioinformatics platforms to identify key molecular mechanisms of a curcumin-analogue DM-1 toxicity in melanoma cells.
Pharmacol Res. 2017; 125(Pt B):178-187 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic cancer with high mortality rates and chemoresistance. Around 50% of melanomas are driven by activating mutations in BRAF that has led to the development of potent anti-BRAF inhibitors. However resistance to anti-BRAF therapy usually develops within a few months and consequently there is a need to identify alternative therapies that will bypass BRAF inhibitor resistance. The curcumin analogue DM-1 (sodium 4-[5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-oxo-penta-1,4-dienyl]-2-methoxy-phenolate) has substantial anti-tumor activity in melanoma, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we use a synthetic lethal genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify 211 genes implicated in sensitivity to DM-1 toxicity. From these 211 genes, 74 had close human orthologues implicated in oxidative phosphorylation, insulin signaling and iron and RNA metabolism. Further analysis identified 7 target genes (ADK, ATP6V0B, PEMT, TOP1, ZFP36, ZFP36L1, ZFP36L2) with differential expression during melanoma progression implicated in regulation of tumor progression, cell differentiation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Of these TOP1 and ADK were regulated by DM-1 in treatment-naïve and vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells respectively. These data reveal that the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues is likely to be mediated via multiple targets and identify several genes that represent candidates for combinatorial targeting in melanoma.

Ma X, Bai J, Xie G, et al.
Prognostic significance of microRNA-101 in solid tumor: A meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0180173 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-101 has been reported as an important factor in carcinogenesis of several malignant tumors. However, its actual role in prognosis among solid malignancies remains unclear. Accordingly, we performed this meta-analysis aiming to identify prognostic significance of miR-101 in solid tumor. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS)/metastasis-free survival (MFS)/progression-free survival (PFS)/relapse-free survival (RFS)/time-to progression (TTP) were estimated with random effects or fixed effects models on the basis of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis, sensitive analysis and meta-regression analysis were also conducted to clarify the possible confounding factors and investigate the source of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by using Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 21 studies containing 3753 cases were selected into our quantitative analysis via electronic database search. A lower expression of miR-101 was significantly associated with worse OS (HR = 0.66, 95%CI [0.52-0.85], P = 0.001) and PFS (HR = 0.70, 95%CI [0.51-0.95], P = 0.023) in patients with solid tumor. The under-expression of miRNA-101 is a credible indicator of poorer prognosis in several of solid malignancies.

Khalaj K, Ahn SH, Bidarimath M, et al.
A balancing act: RNA binding protein HuR/TTP axis in endometriosis patients.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):5883 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometriosis, a major reproductive pathology affecting 8-10% of women is characterized by chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction. Human antigen R (HuR) and Tristetraprolin (TTP) are RNA binding proteins that competitively bind to cytokines involved in inflammation including: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) among others, and stabilize and destabilize them, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine RNA binding protein (RNABP) HuR/TTP axis in endometriosis patients compared to menstrual stage matched healthy fertile controls in hopes of better understanding their contribution to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Additionally, using a targeted in vitro siRNA approach, we examined whether knock-down of TTP can play a functional role on other RNABPs that competitively bind to inflammatory targets of TTP in both endometriotic and endometrial epithelial cell lines. Our results suggest that RNABPs TTP and HuR are dysregulated in endometriotic lesions compared to matched eutopic patient samples as well endometrium from healthy controls. Silencing of TTP in endometriotic and endometrial epithelial cells revealed differential response to inflammatory cytokines and other RNABPs. Our results suggest potential involvement of HuR/TTP RNA binding protein axis in regulation of inflammation in endometriosis.

Poulsen TT, Grandal MM, Skartved NJØ, et al.
Sym015: A Highly Efficacious Antibody Mixture against
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(19):5923-5935 [PubMed] Related Publications

De Luca L, Trino S, Laurenzana I, et al.
Knockdown of miR-128a induces Lin28a expression and reverts myeloid differentiation blockage in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(6):e2849 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lin28A is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that concurs to control the balance between stemness and differentiation in several tissue lineages. Here, we report the role of miR-128a/Lin28A axis in blocking cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormally controlled proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells accompanied by partial or total inability to undergo terminal differentiation. First, we found Lin28A underexpressed in blast cells from AML patients and AML cell lines as compared with CD34+ normal precursors. In vitro transfection of Lin28A in NPM1-mutated OCI-AML3 cell line significantly triggered cell-cycle arrest and myeloid differentiation, with increased expression of macrophage associate genes (EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1). Furthermore, miR-128a, a negative regulator of Lin28A, was found overexpressed in AML cells compared with normal precursors, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in 'AML with maturation' (according to 2016 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia). Its forced overexpression by lentiviral infection in OCI-AML3 downregulated Lin28A with ensuing repression of macrophage-oriented differentiation. Finally, knockdown of miR-128a in OCI-AML3 and in APL/AML leukemic cells (by transfection and lentiviral infection, respectively) induced myeloid cell differentiation and increased expression of Lin28A, EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1, reverting myeloid differentiation blockage. In conclusion, our findings revealed a new mechanism for AML differentiation blockage, suggesting new strategies for AML therapy based upon miR-128a inhibition.

Wang Y, Chen F, Yang Z, et al.
The Fragment HMGA2-sh-3p20 from HMGA2 mRNA 3'UTR Promotes the Growth of Hepatoma Cells by Upregulating HMGA2.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2070 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) plays a crucial role in the development of cancer. However, the mechanism by which HMGA2 promotes the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we explore the hypothesis that HMGA2 may enhance the growth of hepatoma cells through a fragment based on the secondary structure of HMGA2 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). Bioinformatics analysis showed that HMGA2 mRNA displayed a hairpin structure within its 3'UTR, termed HMGA2-sh. Mechanistically, RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that the microprocessor Drosha or DGCR8 interacted with HMGA2 mRNA in hepatoma cells. Then, Dicer contributes to the generation of the fragment HMGA2-sh-3p20 from the HMGA2-sh. HMGA2-sh-3p20 was screened by PCR analysis. Interestingly, HMGA2-sh-3p20 increased the expression of HMGA2 through antagonizing the tristetraprolin (TTP)-mediated degradation of HMGA2. HMGA2-sh-3p20 inhibited the expression of PTEN by targeting the 3'UTR of PTEN mRNA. In addition, the overexpression of PTEN could downregulate HMGA2 expression. Significantly, we documented the ability of HMGA2-sh-3p20 to promote the growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the fragment HMGA2-sh-3p20 from HMGA2 mRNA 3'UTR promotes the growth of hepatoma cells by upregulating HMGA2. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which HMGA2 enhances hepatocarcinogenesis.

Vo MT, Choi SH, Lee JH, et al.
Tristetraprolin inhibits mitochondrial function through suppression of α-Synuclein expression in cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):41903-41920 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial dynamics play critical roles in maintaining mitochondrial functions. Here, we report a novel mechanism for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics mediated by tristetraprolin (TTP), an AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein. Overexpression of TTP resulted in elongated mitochondria, down-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, reduced membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and increased apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. TTP overexpression inhibited the expression of α-Synuclein (α-Syn). TTP bound to the ARE within the mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of α-Syn and enhanced the decay of α-Syn mRNA. Overexpression of α-Syn without the 3'-UTR restored TTP-induced defects in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential, and apoptotic cell death. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TTP acts as a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics through enhancing degradation of α-Syn mRNA in cancer cells. This finding will increase understanding of the molecular basis of mitochondrial dynamics.

Ademuyiwa FO, Tao Y, Luo J, et al.
Differences in the mutational landscape of triple-negative breast cancer in African Americans and Caucasians.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 161(3):491-499 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs at higher frequency in African Americans compared with Caucasians. It is unclear if the biology of TNBC is different in African American versus Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate racial differences in the molecular pathology of TNBC.
METHODS: Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified TNBC patients with information on race. We analyzed differences in clinical characteristics, tumor somatic mutations, and gene expression patterns by race from whole exome and microarray data.
RESULTS: 1104 patients were identified, of which 178 had TNBC. TNBC was more frequent in African Americans than Caucasians (33.3 vs 14.9%). Although more African Americans than Caucasians overall were classified as basal-like from PAM50 gene expression (34.8 vs 16.1%), no differences in the TNBC cohort were observed. Median tumor somatic mutation counts were higher in African Americans versus Caucasians (39.5 vs 34), but no racial differences in the mutation counts in TNBC were observed. Somatic mutation analysis revealed racial differences in specific high prevalence genes in all patients (TP53 46% in African Americans vs 27% in Caucasians; PIK3CA 23% in African Americans vs 34% in Caucasians; and MLL3 12% in African Americans vs 6% in Caucasians). TNBC patients did not have any specific high prevalence genes associated with racial differences. There were no racial differences in gene expression patterns in selected genes involved in breast cancer biology. Overall, African Americans had shorter TTP and worse DFS. Racial differences in clinical outcomes were not observed in TNBC.
CONCLUSION: The mutational landscape of TNBC is similar between African Americans and Caucasians. The higher frequency of TNBC in African Americans is therefore not associated with a different genomic profile of commonly established tumor regulatory pathway genes. Other modifiable factors may exist that contribute to the racial disparity in TNBC.

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