ZFP36

Gene Summary

Gene:ZFP36; ZFP36 ring finger protein
Aliases: TTP, G0S24, GOS24, TIS11, NUP475, zfp-36, RNF162A
Location:19q13.2
Summary:-
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mRNA decay activator protein ZFP36
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (27)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Transfection
  • COX2 (PTGS2)
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Biological Models
  • RTPCR
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromosome 19
  • Western Blotting
  • Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Apoptosis
  • RNA Stability
  • ELAV Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Trans-Activators
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Protein Binding
  • Antigens, Surface
  • ELAV-Like Protein 1
  • Down-Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Cell Survival
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ZFP36 (cancer-related)

Yao J, Huang A, Zheng X, et al.
53BP1 loss induces chemoresistance of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil by inhibiting the ATM-CHK2-P53 pathway.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):419-431 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Loss of P53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) is considered a poor prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. However, its effect on chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the association of 53BP1 expression with chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 metastatic colorectal cancer samples to assess the associations of 53BP1 levels with clinical therapeutic effects. In vitro, IC50 values for 5-FU and 53BP1 levels were determined by MTT assay and Western blot in 5 colorectal cancer cell lines. Then, 53BP1 was silenced in HCT116 and HT29 cells, and cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated. Relative protein levels of ATM-CHK2-P53 pathway effectors and Bcl-2 family members were measured by Western blot. Finally, the effects of 53BP1 knockdown on tumor growth and 5-FU chemoresistance were investigated in vivo.
RESULTS: 53BP1 expression was closely related to time to progression (TTP) after first-line chemotherapy. Namely, 53BP1 downregulation resulted in reduced TTP. In addition, 53BP1 silencing increased proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and induced S phase arrest in HCT116 and HT29 cells after 5-FU treatment. Moreover, 53BP1 knockdown also reduced the protein levels of ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway effectors, caspase9 and caspase3, while increasing Bcl-2 expression. In vivo, 53BP1 silencing accelerated tumor proliferation in nude mice and enhanced resistance to 5-FU.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirmed that 53BP1 loss might be a negative factor for chemotherapy efficacy, promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis by suppressing ATM-CHK2-P53 signaling, and finally inducing 5-FU resistance.

Wang H, Ding N, Guo J, et al.
Dysregulation of TTP and HuR plays an important role in cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14451-14461 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the adenosine-uridine (AU)-rich elements (AREs), which mediate post-transcriptional regulation, play important roles in cancers. Both tristetraprolin (TTP, also known as TIS11 and ZFP36) and human antigen R (HuR, also known as ELAVL1) are two important and closely related AU-rich RNA-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). High-expression or aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of HuR and decreased TTP have been found in many types of cancers. TTP mediates the decay of target mRNAs, whereas HuR generally stabilizes target transcripts and promotes translation of certain mRNAs. Furthermore, thousands of overlapping binding sites of TTP and HuR were found in more than 1300 genes. RNA-IP experiments also indicated that TTP can bind directly to and destabilize HuR mRNA. The dysregulation of TTP and HuR has been found to play an important role in the progression of cancers, including inflammation-related cancer, as well as in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance. In this review, we provided an overview of the role of TTP and HuR, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the TTP-HuR axis in cancers.

Ravegnini G, Nannini M, Simeon V, et al.
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13413-13423 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA repair pathways play an essential role in cancer susceptibility by maintaining genomic integrity. This led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding repair pathway enzymes on gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 20 polymorphisms in 11 genes in 81 cases and 147 controls. The XPD rs13181 wild-type allele and hOGG1 rs1052133 and XPF rs1800067 minor alleles were significantly associated with disease susceptibility. XPA rs1800975 and rs2808668 were associated with tumour size (P = 0.018), metastatic status at onset (P = 0.035) and mitotic index (P = 0.002). With regards to outcome treatment, the XPD rs50872 minor allele had a significant favourable impact on time to progression (TTP). Similarly, the XPC rs2228000 minor allele was correlated with a longer TTP (P = 0.03). On the contrary, the XPC rs2228001 and hOGG1 rs1052133 minor alleles were associated with a diminished TTP (P = 0.005 and P = 0.01, respectively). Regarding OS, we found the presence of at least one hOGG1 (rs1052133) minor allele that had a 60 % lower risk to die compared to the wild-type carriers (P = 0.04). Furthermore, the XRCC3 rs861539 variant allele is associated with a hazard of early death compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.04). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, belonging to the different pathways, extensively evaluated in GIST patients. Through this multiple candidate gene approach, we report for the first time the significant associations between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, susceptibility, clinical pathological features and clinical outcome in GIST.

Jung SH, Choi HJ, Shin MG, et al.
Thalidomide-based induction regimens are as effective as bortezomib-based regimens in elderly patients with multiple myeloma with cereblon expression.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(10):1645-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cereblon (CRBN) has been identified as a primary target of immunomodulatory drugs and is considered a biomarker for the prediction of outcomes after thalidomide- or lenalidomide-based treatments. In this study, we evaluated CRBN expression in bone marrow (BM) tissue at diagnosis and investigated the relationship between CRBN expression and treatment outcomes after thalidomide- or bortezomib-based front-line therapies in 89 elderly patients with multiple myeloma (MM). CRBN expression at the time of diagnosis was evaluated with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for myeloma cells in paraffin wax-embedded BM tissue. CRBN-immunostained slides were scored by intensity and diffuseness, and a total score of >6 was defined as CRBN-positive (CRBN(+)). Thirty-eight patients (45.2 %) were CRBN(+). Among patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens, CRBN(+) patients showed a better treatment response than did CRBN-negative patients (35.0 vs. 11.8 % complete response rate, respectively; HR = 4.038, P = 0.137). During a median follow-up of 31.8 months, patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens had a longer time to progression (TTP) than did patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens (15.6 vs. 13.2 months, respectively; P = 0.047), but early mortality occurred frequently in patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens. Additionally, there was no significant difference in survival outcomes between thalidomide- and bortezomib-based regimens in CRBN(+) patients (median TTP, 13.8 vs. 15.6 months, respectively; P = 0.842 and median OS, 39.3 vs. 30.1 months, respectively; P = 0.074). These data suggest that thalidomide-based regimens are as effective as bortezomib-based regimens in elderly patients with MM who are CRBN(+). Thus, CRBN positivity, by IHC staining, may be useful in deciding appropriate treatment options in elderly patients with MM.

Li C, Tang C, He G
Tristetraprolin: a novel mediator of the anticancer properties of resveratrol.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol is a natural compound that exhibits anticancer properties. Previous studies have proved that it can inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines and upregulate some cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The initiation and progression of cancer are associated with the abnormal expression of multiple cytokines. Tristetraprolin (TTP), an mRNA-binding protein, is one of the key proteins that participate in regulating cytokine expression. Two different proliferation assays on MCF-7 cells showed that the cell proliferation rate significantly reduced following treatment with resveratrol. Most importantly, we found that resveratrol promoted TTP expression at both the mRNA and protein level in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of COX-2 and VEGF were significantly suppressed by resveratrol while that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was upregulated. Lastly, the effects of resveratrol on both MCF-7 proliferation and expression of COX-2, VEGF, and iNOS were significantly inhibited by TTP knockdown, indicating that TTP mediates the anticancer properties of resveratrol. In summary, we conclude that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by TTP upregulation, which is associated with downregulation of COX-2 and VEGF and upregulation of iNOS.

Smid D, Kulda V, Srbecka K, et al.
Tissue microRNAs as predictive markers for gastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2693-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have the potential to become valuable predictive markers for gastric cancer. Samples of biopsy tissue, routinely taken from gastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy, constitute suitable material for microRNA profiling with the aim of predicting the effect of chemotherapy. Our study group consisted of 54 patients, all of whom underwent palliative chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or 5-FU in combination with platinum derivatives between 2000 and 2013. The expression of 29 selected microRNAs and genes BRCA1, ERCC1, RRM1 and TS, in gastric cancer tissue macrodissected from FFPE tissue samples, was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The relationship between gene expression levels and time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was analysed. From the set of the 29 microRNAs of interest, we found high expression of miR-150, miR-342-3p, miR-181b, miR-221, miR-224 and low levels of miR-520h relate to shorter TTP. High levels of miR-150, miR-192, miR-224, miR-375 and miR-342-3p related to shorter OS. In routinely available FFPE tissue samples, we found 6 miRNAs with a relation to TTP, which may serve as predictors of the effectiveness of palliative treatment in gastric cancer patients. These miRNAs could also help in deciding whether to indicate palliative chemotherapy.

Börnigen D, Tyekucheva S, Wang X, et al.
Computational Reconstruction of NFκB Pathway Interaction Mechanisms during Prostate Cancer.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2016; 12(4):e1004820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular research in cancer is one of the largest areas of bioinformatic investigation, but it remains a challenge to understand biomolecular mechanisms in cancer-related pathways from high-throughput genomic data. This includes the Nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) pathway, which is central to the inflammatory response and cell proliferation in prostate cancer development and progression. Despite close scrutiny and a deep understanding of many of its members' biomolecular activities, the current list of pathway members and a systems-level understanding of their interactions remains incomplete. Here, we provide the first steps toward computational reconstruction of interaction mechanisms of the NFκB pathway in prostate cancer. We identified novel roles for ATF3, CXCL2, DUSP5, JUNB, NEDD9, SELE, TRIB1, and ZFP36 in this pathway, in addition to new mechanistic interactions between these genes and 10 known NFκB pathway members. A newly predicted interaction between NEDD9 and ZFP36 in particular was validated by co-immunoprecipitation, as was NEDD9's potential biological role in prostate cancer cell growth regulation. We combined 651 gene expression datasets with 1.4M gene product interactions to predict the inclusion of 40 additional genes in the pathway. Molecular mechanisms of interaction among pathway members were inferred using recent advances in Bayesian data integration to simultaneously provide information specific to biological contexts and individual biomolecular activities, resulting in a total of 112 interactions in the fully reconstructed NFκB pathway: 13 (11%) previously known, 29 (26%) supported by existing literature, and 70 (63%) novel. This method is generalizable to other tissue types, cancers, and organisms, and this new information about the NFκB pathway will allow us to further understand prostate cancer and to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Pandiri I, Chen Y, Joe Y, et al.
Tristetraprolin mediates the anti-proliferative effects of metformin in breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(1):57-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metformin, which is a drug commonly prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes, has anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. The aim is to investigate the role of tristetraprolin (TTP), an AU-rich element-binding protein, in anti-proliferative effects of metformin in cancer cells. p53 wild-type and p53 mutant breast cancer cells were treated with metformin, and expression of TTP and c-Myc was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blots, and promoter activity assay. Breast cancer cells were transfected with siRNA against TTP to inhibit TTP expression or c-Myc and, after metformin treatment, analyzed for cell proliferation by MTS assay. Metformin induces the expression of tristetraprolin (TTP) in breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Importantly, inhibition of TTP abrogated the anti-proliferation effect of metformin. We observed that metformin decreased c-Myc levels, and ectopic expression of c-Myc blocked the effect of metformin on TTP expression and cell proliferation. Our data indicate that metformin induces TTP expression by reducing the expression of c-Myc, suggesting a new model whereby TTP acts as a mediator of metformin's anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells.

Yoon NA, Jo HG, Lee UH, et al.
Tristetraprolin suppresses the EMT through the down-regulation of Twist1 and Snail1 in cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(8):8931-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors Twist and Snail prevents tumor metastasis but enhances metastatic growth. Here, we report an unexpected role of a tumor suppressor tristetraprolin (TTP) in inhibiting Twist and Snail without enhancing cellular proliferation. TTP bound to the AU-rich element (ARE) within the mRNA 3'UTRs of Twist1 and Snail1, enhanced the decay of their mRNAs and inhibited the EMT of cancer cells. The ectopic expression of Twist1 or Snail1 without their 3'UTRs blocked the inhibitory effects of TTP on the EMT. We also observed that TTP overexpression suppressed the growth of cancer cells. Our data propose a new model whereby TTP down-regulates Twist1 and Snail1 and inhibits both the EMT and the proliferation of cancer cells.

Wang X, Harshman LC, Xie W, et al.
Association of SLCO2B1 Genotypes With Time to Progression and Overall Survival in Patients Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(4):352-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To validate the association of three previously demonstrated SLCO2B1 germline variants with time to progression (TTP) in patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), and to evaluate if the SLCO2B1 genetic variants impacted overall survival (OS) for prostate cancer (PC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), exonic SNP rs12422149 and intronic SNPs rs1789693 and rs1077858, were genotyped in an independent validation cohort of 616 patients with PC who were treated with ADT at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from 1996 to 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for known prognostic factors estimated the association of these genetic variants with TTP and OS in patients receiving ADT. The expression of SLCO2B1 was examined in prostatectomy samples, and the impact of SLCO2B1 expression level on DHEAS (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) uptake was evaluated in cell lines.
RESULTS: The association between exonic SNP rs12422149 and TTP in patients treated with ADT was confirmed in univariable (P = .019) and multivariable analyses (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.72 for GG v AA/AG; P = .049). Because OS had not been previously evaluated, we examined the association in the combined initial and validation cohorts (N = 1,094). The intronic SNP rs1077858 was associated with OS in both univariable (P = .009; Bonferroni's method adjusted P = .027) and multivariable analyses (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.71 for GG v AA/AG; P = .012). SLCO2B1 expression in normal prostate tissue and in 22RV1 cells carrying the major allele of SNP rs1077858 was significantly lower than in cells carrying the risk allele. We show in vitro that SLCO2B1 expression levels correlated with DHEAS uptake by PC cells.
CONCLUSION: The association of SNP rs1077858 with OS may be a result of differential SLCO2B1 expression and the consequent increased uptake of DHEAS and subsequent resistance to ADT, which, in turn, may contribute to decreased OS.

Rossi S, D'Argento E, Basso M, et al.
Different EGFR Gene Mutations in Exon 18, 19 and 21 as Prognostic and Predictive Markers in NSCLC: A Single Institution Analysis.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2016; 20(1):55-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predict longer overall survival (OS) and response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The clinical relevance of different mutations in terms of response to TKIs and prognosis is still unclear.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to assess the relationship between mutations in exon 18, 19 and 21 in patients treated with TKIs and their clinical outcomes, and evaluate the role of specific point mutations.
METHODS: We included in this analysis 55 patients with metastatic NSCLC and mutations in exon 18, 19 and 21, treated in our center between 2004 and 2014. All patients received treatment with TKIs in first and/or subsequent lines. Endpoints analyzed were OS (primary) and time to progression (TTP) (secondary), according to exon mutations and specific point mutations.
RESULTS: A strong negative prognostic association for OS (p = 0.02) and TTP (p = 0.03) was found for exon 18 mutations compared with exon 19 deletions . A trend toward a longer median OS was observed in exon 19 deletions versus exon 21 point mutations (+6.6 months), although more exon 19-mutated patients had brain metastases at diagnosis. Comparing each mutation, p.E746_A750del and p.E746_T751del of exon 19 and p.L858R mutation of exon 21, a trend toward improved OS in p.E746_A750del was found.
CONCLUSION: In this analysis, exon 19 deletions were associated with better outcomes, despite a higher percentage of brain metastases in this group. The prognostic relevance of p.E746_A750del requires further studies.

Ryu J, Yoon NA, Seong H, et al.
Resveratrol Induces Glioma Cell Apoptosis through Activation of Tristetraprolin.
Mol Cells. 2015; 38(11):991-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich elements (AREs)-binding protein, which regulates the decay of AREs-containing mRNAs such as proto-oncogenes, anti-apoptotic genes and immune regulatory genes. Despite the low expression of TTP in various human cancers, the mechanism involving suppressed expression of TTP is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, Res), a naturally occurring compound, induces glioma cell apoptosis through activation of tristetraprolin (TTP). Res increased TTP expression in U87MG human glioma cells. Res-induced TTP destabilized the urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor mRNAs by binding to the ARE regions containing the 3' untranslated regions of their mRNAs. Furthermore, TTP induced by Res suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in the human glioma cells. Because of its regulation of TTP expression, these findings suggest that the bioactive dietary compound Res can be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

Chamizo C, Zazo S, Dómine M, et al.
Thymidylate synthase expression as a predictive biomarker of pemetrexed sensitivity in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
BMC Pulm Med. 2015; 15:132 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although it has been suggested that a high level of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene expression in malignant tumors is related to reduced sensitivity to the antifolate drug pemetrexed, no direct evidence for such an association has been demonstrated in routine clinical samples from patients treated with the drug. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact of TYMS gene expression in tumor cells as a predictor of the efficacy of pemetrexed therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated at our institution.
METHODS: Sixty-two NSCLC patients were included in this study: 16 patients received platins-pemetrexed as first-line NSCLC, and 46 pemetrexed in monotherapy as second- or subsequent-line treatment. Total mRNA was isolated and the expression of TYMS was analyzed by RT-qPCR. TYMS levels were calibrated against expression in normal lung tissue.
RESULTS: TYMS overexpression was detected in 61 % of patients and low expression in 39 %. The response rate for patients with low TYMS expression was 0.29 compared with 0.03 in patients with overexpression (P = 0.025). A significant benefit was observed in patients with low expression both in time to progression (average TTP = 56 vs. 23 months, P = 0.001) and in overall survival (average OS = 60 vs. 25 months, P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: TYMS overexpression in tumor cells correlated with a reduced response to pemetrexed-containing chemotherapy and might be used as a predictive biomarker in advanced NSCLC patients.

Xu L, Ning H, Gu L, et al.
Tristetraprolin induces cell cycle arrest in breast tumor cells through targeting AP-1/c-Jun and NF-κB pathway.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41679-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The main characteristic of cancers, including breast cancer, is the ability of cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably. However, the underlying mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation, especially those regulated by the RNA binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP), are not completely understood. In this study, we found that TTP inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo through inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Our studies demonstrate that TTP inhibits c-Jun expression through the C-terminal Zn finger and therefore increases Wee1 expression, a regulatory molecule which controls cell cycle transition from the S to the G2 phase. In contrast to the well-known function of TTP in regulating mRNA stability, TTP inhibits c-Jun expression at the level of transcription by selectively blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Reconstitution of NF-κB p65 completely abolishes the inhibition of c-Jun transcription by TTP. Moreover, reconstitution of c-Jun in TTP-expressing breast tumor cells diminishes Wee1 overexpression and promotes cell proliferation. Our results indicate that TTP suppresses c-Jun expression that results in Wee1 induction which causes cell cycle arrest at the S phase and inhibition of cell proliferation. Our study provides a new pathway for TTP function as a tumor suppressor which could be targeted in tumor treatment.

Zabor EC, Heller G, Schwartz LH, Chapman PB
Correlating Surrogate Endpoints with Overall Survival at the Individual Patient Level in BRAFV600E-Mutated Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Vemurafenib.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(6):1341-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Surrogate endpoints are needed that correlate with overall survival (OS). We analyzed individual patient tumor data from a phase III trial of vemurafenib versus dacarbazine (BRIM3) to identify criteria for tumor measures that correlated with OS. Correlates were validated using a separate data set from a phase II trial of vemurafenib (BRIM2).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Deidentified tumor measurements and OS data from BRIM3 and from BRIM2 were analyzed. Target tumor measurement data and nontarget tumor data were available from pretreatment, weeks 6,12, and every 9 weeks thereafter. In the BRIM3 data set, associations of OS with both early tumor response (first 12 weeks) and time to progression (TTP) were assessed. Different definitions of response and progression were explored. Findings were validated using the BRIM2 data set.
RESULTS: Thresholds of early response were explored ranging from any degree of tumor shrinkage to 100% tumor shrinkage. Correlation was weak at all thresholds tested. TTP, however, was more strongly correlated with OS. The strongest correlation was seen when progression was defined as ≥50% increase in the sum of tumor diameters or appearance of new tumors. This was confirmed by similar analyses in the BRIM2 cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: TTP defined as ≥50% increase in the sum of tumor diameters or appearance of new tumors was more strongly associated with OS than early tumor shrinkage in melanoma patients treated with RAF inhibitor. In future trials, consideration should be given to replacing response rate with TTP or PFS as preferable clinical endpoints in early-phase studies.

Sun XJ, Liu BY, Yan S, et al.
MicroRNA-29a Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Tristetraprolin.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 37(2):707-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The microRNA (miR) 29 family has been studied extensively for its involvement in several diseases, and aberrant expression of its members is associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of miR-29a in pancreatic cancer and the involvement of tristetraprolin (TTP).
METHODS: We monitored miR-29a and TTP expression in pancreatic cancer by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The effect of miR-29a on pancreatic cancer was determined through MTT assay and migration assay. The results were validated in the tumorigenesis model.
RESULTS: We found that miR-29a was up regulated in pancreatic tumor tissues and cell lines and positively correlated with metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-29a increased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, through down regulating TTP. TTP was down regulated in tumor tissues, and its ectopic expression decreased cell viability and migration in vitro, inhibited tumor growth and the EMT phenotype in vivo, and reversed the effect of miR-29a on tumor cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that miR-29a acts as an oncogene by down regulating TTP and provide the basis for further studies exploring the potential of miR-29a and TTP as biomarkers and targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Huang SC, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Frequent FOS Gene Rearrangements in Epithelioid Hemangioma: A Molecular Study of 58 Cases With Morphologic Reappraisal.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(10):1313-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is a unique benign vasoformative tumor composed of epithelioid endothelial cells. Although a small subset of EHs with atypical features harbor ZFP36-FOSB fusions, no additional genetic abnormalities have been found to date in the remaining cases. On the basis of a novel FOS-LMNA gene fusion identified by RNA sequencing in an index case of a skeletal EH with typical morphology, we sought to investigate the prevalence of FOS rearrangement in a large cohort of EHs. Thus 57 additional EH cases lacking FOSB rearrangements were studied for FOS gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and results were correlated with morphologic appearance and clinical presentation. The EHs were subclassified as typical (n=25), cellular (n=21), and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) (n=12) variants. The ALHE was defined as an EH with a vascular "blow-out" pattern associated with a variable degree of inflammation. There were 17 (29%) cases bearing FOS gene rearrangements among 58 cases tested, including 12 male and 5 female patients, with a mean age of 42 years. Most FOS-rearranged EHs occurred in the bone (10) and soft tissue (6), whereas only 1 case was cutaneous. The predominant anatomic site was the extremity (12), followed by trunk (3), head and neck (1), and penis (1). The incidence of FOS rearrangement was significantly higher in bone (59%, P=0.006) and lower in head and neck (5%, P=0.009). Twelve of the FOS-rearranged cases were cellular EH (P=0.001) associated with moderate mitotic activity (2 to 5/10 HPF) and milder inflammatory background. All 12 ALHE cases lacked FOS gene abnormalities, suggesting different pathogenesis. In conclusion, FOS rearrangement was present in a third of EHs across different locations and histologic variants; however, it was more prevalent in cellular EH and intraosseous lesions, compared with those in skin, soft tissue, and head and neck. This genetic abnormality can be useful in challenging cases, to distinguish cellular EHs from malignant epithelioid vascular tumors. These results also suggest that dysregulation of the FOS family of transcription factors through chromosomal translocation is as a key event in the tumorigenesis of EH except for the ALHE variant.

Dong Y, Liu JW, Gao YJ, et al.
Relationship between DNA repair gene XPD751 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and prognosis of colorectal cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):5390-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the relationships between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNA repair gene XPD751 and the efficacy and time to disease progression (TTP) in colorectal cancer patients after platinum-based chemotherapy. Ninety-eight patients diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer were subjected to oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil combination therapy. DNA was extracted from venous blood before chemotherapy. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect XPD751 SNPs. The relationship between genotypes and prognosis was compared. The frequencies of the XPD751 Lys/Lys, Lys/Gln, and Gln/Gln genotypes were 76 (77.55%), 17 (17.35%), and 5 (5.10%), respectively. The efficiency of XPD751 Lys/Lys, Lys/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes were 50.00, 29.41, and 20%, respectively. The efficiency rate between XPD751 Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln showed a significant difference (c² = 4.04, P < 0.05). After adjusting for gender, age, and metastasis location, chemotherapy failure in patients carrying XPD751 Lys/Gln was 3.404-fold higher than in patients carrying the Lys/Lys genotype. Median TTP was 304 days (10.1 months) and median TTP in patients with XPD751 Lys/Lys and ≥1 Gln genotype was 340 and 87 days. After comparing TTP in patients carrying Lys/Lys and patients carrying ≥1 Gln, the difference was significant. SNPs in the DNA repair gene XPD751 may be associated with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy sensitivity in colorectal cancer patients. These polymorphisms may be associated with TTP in patients with advanced colorectal cancer after first-line chemotherapy of oxaliplatin. XPD751 SNPs may be predictive factors of prognosis in colorectal cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

Naidoo J, Sima CS, Rodriguez K, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor exon 20 insertions in advanced lung adenocarcinomas: Clinical outcomes and response to erlotinib.
Cancer. 2015; 121(18):3212-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertions (exon20ins) represent approximately 10% of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, and are associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Clinical outcomes in comparison with patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations are not well established.
METHODS: Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR exon20ins were identified through routine molecular testing. Clinicopathologic data were collected. Overall survival (OS) was measured from the diagnosis of stage IV disease, and in patients treated with EGFR TKIs, the time to progression (TTP) on erlotinib was measured.
RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred and eighty-two patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas were identified: 46 patients had EGFR exon20ins (2%), and 258 patients had an EGFR exon 19 deletion (exon19del)/L858R point mutation (14%). Among 11 patients with lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR exon20ins who received erlotinib, 3 patients (27%) had a partial response (FQEA, 1; ASV, 1; and unknown variant, 1). TTP for patients with EGFR exon20ins and patients with EGFR exon19del/L858R on erlotinib were 3 and 12 months, respectively (P < .01). Responses to chemotherapy were similar for patients with lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR exon20ins and patients with lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR exon19del/L858R. Median OS from the diagnosis of stage IV disease for patients with EGFR exon20ins and patients with EGFR exon19del/L858R was 26 months (95% confidence interval, 19 months-not reached n = 46) and 31 months (95% confidence interval, 28-33 months; n = 258), respectively (P = .53).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR exon20ins do not respond to EGFR TKI therapy. Standard chemotherapy should be used as first-line therapy. These patients have an OS similar to that of patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations. Individuals with certain variants such as FQEA and ASV may respond to erlotinib.

Seo GS, Jiang WY, Chi JH, et al.
Heme oxygenase-1 promotes tumor progression and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19792-806 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is upregulated in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. However, the role of HO-1 in the metastatic potential of CRC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of HO-1 to control the antitumor immunity of CRC. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the immune surveillance system. Hemin-induced HO-1 expression suppressed the expression of ICAM-1 in human CRC cells. HO-1 regulated ICAM-1 expression via tristetraprolin, an mRNA-binding protein, at the posttranscriptional level in CRC cells. The upregulated HO-1 expression in CRC cells markedly decreased the adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBMLs) to CRC cells and PBML-mediated cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Production of CXCL10, an effector T cell-recruiting chemokine, was significantly reduced by the increased HO-1 expression. The expression of the CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, decreased significantly in PBMLs that adhered to CRC cells. HO-1 expression correlated negatively, although nonsignificantly, with ICAM-1 and CXCL10 expression in xenograft tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that HO-1 expression is functionally linked to the mediation of tumor progression and metastasis of CRC cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.

Artigalás O, Vanni T, Hutz MH, et al.
Influence of CYP19A1 polymorphisms on the treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Med. 2015; 13:139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials have shown the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the management of breast cancer (BC). There is growing evidence that CYP19A1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with clinical response (CR) and adverse effects (AEs) among BC patients treated with AIs. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between CYP19A1 polymorphisms and AI treatment in BC patients.
METHODS: A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the association between CYP19A1 variants and treatment response among BC patients.
RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in the final analysis. There was significant variation among the populations studied and the SNPs and outcomes investigated. A meta-analysis was only possible for the evaluation of SNP rs4646 vs. the wild-type variant with respect to time to progression (TTP) among metastatic BC patients treated with AI. TTP was significantly increased in patients with the rs4646 variant compared with the wild-type gene (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.78], P = 0.002). Seven studies analyzed the association between AEs with different polymorphisms of CYP19A1. Although there was a statistically significant association with musculoskeletal adverse events (rs934635, rs60271534, rs700518rs, and haplotype M_3_5) and with vasomotor symptoms (rs934635, rs1694189, rs7176005, and haplotype M_5_3) in individual studies, similar associations were not observed in further studies. No statistically significant association between musculoskeletal AEs and SNPs rs4646, rs10046, rs727479, and rs1062033 was found.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the presence of the rs4646 variant may be a predictive factor of the benefit of AI treatment for BC. The effects of CYP19A1 polymorphisms on clinical outcomes were most often detected in individual studies, suggesting that longer-term studies will better clarify these associations. Additional studies are needed to clarify the predictive value of other SNPs and whether CYP19A1 genotyping should be used to guide AI treatment.

Merhautova J, Hezova R, Poprach A, et al.
miR-155 and miR-484 Are Associated with Time to Progression in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Sunitinib.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:941980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background. Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The main difficulty related to the treatment is the development of drug resistance followed by rapid progression of the disease. We analyzed tumor tissue of sunitinib treated patients in order to find miRNAs associated with therapeutic response. Methods. A total of 79 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were included in our study. miRNA profiling in tumor tissue samples was performed by TaqMan Low Density Arrays and a group of selected miRNAs (miR-155, miR-374-5p, miR-324-3p, miR-484, miR-302c, and miR-888) was further validated by qRT-PCR. Normalized data were subjected to ROC and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. We reported decreased tissue levels of miR-155 and miR-484 as significantly associated with increased time to progression (miR-155: median TTP 5.8 versus 12.8 months, miR-484: median TTP 5.8 versus 8.9 months). Conclusion. miR-155 and miR-484 are potentially connected with sunitinib resistance and failure of the therapy. miR-155 is a known oncogene with direct influence on neovascularization. Biological role of miR-484 has to be clarified. Stratification of patients based on miRNA analysis would allow more personalized approach in therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Rocca A, Farolfi A, Maltoni R, et al.
Efficacy of endocrine therapy in relation to progesterone receptor and Ki67 expression in advanced breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 152(1):57-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
We assessed whether progesterone receptor (PgR) and Ki67 in primary tumors and/or matched metastases are predictors of clinical benefit from first-line endocrine therapy (ET) in advanced breast cancer. We evaluated patients treated at our institute with first-line ET (2002-2011), excluding those receiving concomitant chemotherapy or trastuzumab or pretreated with >2 lines of chemotherapy. A cut-off of 20 % immunostained cells was used for PgR and Ki67. The main endpoint was time-to-progression (TTP). Groups were compared by the log-rank test and Cox multivariate analysis. In the 135 assessable patients (93 % were receiving an aromatase inhibitor; biomarker assessment had been performed on primary tumors in 77 cases, on metastases in 23 and on both in 35), median TTP was 16 months (median follow-up 43 months). The overall discordance rate between primary tumors and metastases was 23 % for Ki67 and 31 % for PgR. A longer median TTP (24 vs. 12 months, P = 0.012) was seen for PgR >20 % in metastases. Ki67 showed a trend for TTP prediction in the entire case series (P = 0.062). Patients with high Ki67 and low PgR in metastases had a median TTP of only 5 months. High Ki67 in primary tumors (P = 0.026) or metastases (P = 0.01) predicted disease progression at the first evaluation. PgR in metastases remained a significant independent predictor of TTP at multivariate analysis (HR 2.45). In an ER-high population, PgR >20 % in metastases identified patients with a long TTP on endocrine treatment, while Ki67 >20 % was associated with an increased risk of non-response.

Franzini A, Baty F, Macovei II, et al.
Gene Expression Signatures Predictive of Bevacizumab/Erlotinib Therapeutic Benefit in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients (SAKK 19/05 trial).
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(23):5253-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify gene expression signatures associated with angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways with predictive value for treatment response to bevacizumab/erlotinib (BE) of nonsquamous advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Whole-genome gene expression profiling was performed on 42 biopsy samples (from SAKK 19/05 trial) using Affymetrix exon arrays, and associations with the following endpoints: time-to-progression (TTP) under therapy, tumor-shrinkage (TS), and overall survival (OS) were investigated. Next, we performed gene set enrichment analyses using genes associated with the angiogenic process and hypoxia response to evaluate their predictive value for patients' outcome.
RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that both the angiogenic and hypoxia response signatures were enriched within the genes predictive of BE response, TS, and OS. Higher gene expression levels (GEL) of the 10-gene angiogenesis-associated signature and lower levels of the 10-gene hypoxia response signature predicted improved TTP under BE, 7.1 months versus 2.1 months for low versus high-risk patients (P = 0.005), and median TTP 6.9 months versus 2.9 months (P = 0.016), respectively. The hypoxia response signature associated with higher TS at 12 weeks and improved OS (17.8 months vs. 9.9 months for low vs. high-risk patients, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to identify gene expression signatures derived from the angiogenesis and hypoxia response pathways with predictive value for clinical outcome in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC patients. This could lead to the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers, which will allow for selecting the subset of patients who benefit from the treatment and predict drug response.

Davis SJ, Sheppard KE, Anglesio MS, et al.
Enhanced GAB2 Expression Is Associated with Improved Survival in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer and Sensitivity to PI3K Inhibition.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(6):1495-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of genomic alterations defining ovarian carcinoma subtypes may aid the stratification of patients to receive targeted therapies. We characterized high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) for the association of amplified and overexpressed genes with clinical outcome using gene expression data from 499 HGSC patients in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis cohort for 11 copy number amplified genes: ATP13A4, BMP8B, CACNA1C, CCNE1, DYRK1B, GAB2, PAK4, RAD21, TPX2, ZFP36, and URI. The Australian Ovarian Cancer Study and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets were also used to assess the correlation between gene expression, patient survival, and tumor classification. In a multivariate analysis, high GAB2 expression was associated with improved overall and progression-free survival (P = 0.03 and 0.02), whereas high BMP8B and ATP13A4 were associated with improved progression-free survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02). GAB2 overexpression and copy number gain were enriched in the AOCS C4 subgroup. High GAB2 expression correlated with enhanced sensitivity in vitro to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PF-04691502 and could be used as a genomic marker for identifying patients who will respond to treatments inhibiting PI3K signaling.

Curigliano G, Bagnardi V, Bertolini F, et al.
Antiangiogenic therapy in recurrent breast cancer with lymphangitic spread to the chest wall: A randomized phase II trial of bevacizumab with sequential or concurrent oral vinorelbine and capecitabine.
Breast. 2015; 24(3):263-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy of bevacizumab in combination with oral chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer with lymphangitic spread to the chest wall (LBC). To identify surrogate biomarkers of response to bevacizumab.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned patients to receive bevacizumab plus either sequential or concurrent oral vinorelbine and capecitabine every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was time to ultimate progression (TTP); the response rate and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. We performed gene expression profiling on baseline tissue samples collected from triple negative LBC. We assessed circulating endothelial cells (CEC), circulating endothelial progenitors (CEP) and circulating pericyte progenitors (CPP).
RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were enrolled. There was no difference in TTP (median TTP 5.3 vs. 4.8 months, p = 0.21) and in OS (median OS 15.8 vs 11.9 months; p = 0.25) when comparing concurrent vs sequential treatment, respectively. Response rate was 25% vs 28% in the concurrent vs sequential arm (p = 1.00), respectively. A set of 16 genes predictive of response to bevacizumab was identified. The counts of CEPs and viable CECs below the median value were associated with an improved overall survival: 26.6 vs 9.5 months for CEPs and 22.6 vs 11.0 months for viable CECs, respectively (p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Oral chemotherapy and bevacizumab (BEVIX) is an active regimen in patients with LBC. We support the importance of using LBC as a biological model for investigating angiogenesis inhibitors. CECs and CEPs biomarkers have been identified as predictive markers of outcome and warrant further investigation.

Khan R, Apewokin S, Grazziutti M, et al.
Renal insufficiency retains adverse prognostic implications despite renal function improvement following Total Therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1195-201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal insufficiency (RI) is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma (MM) with negative consequences for patient survival. The improved clinical outcome with successive Total Therapy (TT) protocols was limited to patients without RI. We therefore performed a retrospective analysis of overall survival, progression-free survival and time to progression (TTP) of patients enrolled in TT2 and TT3 in relationship to RI present at baseline and pre-transplant. Glomerular filtration rate was graded in four renal classes (RCs), RC1-RC4 (RC1 ⩾90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RC2 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RC3 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and RC4 <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). RC1-3 had comparable clinical outcomes while RC4 was deleterious, even after improvement to better RC after transplant. Among the 85% of patients with gene expression profiling defined low-risk MM, Cox regression modeling of baseline and pre-transplant features, which also took into consideration RC improvement and MM complete response (CR), identified the presence of metaphase cytogenetic abnormalities and baseline RC4 as independent variables linked to inferior TTP post-transplant, while MM CR reduced the risk of progression and TTP by more than 60%. Failure to improve clinical outcomes despite RI improvement suggested MM-related causes. Although distinguishing RC4 from RC<4, 46 gene probes bore no apparent relationship to MM biology or survival.

Paff M, Alexandru-Abrams D, Hsu FP, Bota DA
The evolution of the EGFRvIII (rindopepimut) immunotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme patients.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(11):3322-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of brain tumor and it is uniformly fatal. The community standard of treatment for this disease is gross or subtotal resection of the tumor, followed by radiation and temozolomide. At recurrence bevacizumab can be added for increased progression free survival. Many challenges are encountered while trying to devise new drugs to treat GBM, such as the presence of the blood brain barrier which is impermeable to most drugs. Therefore in the past few years attention was turned to immunological means for the treatment of this devastating disease. EGFRvIII targeting has proven a good way to attack glioblastoma cells by using the immune system. Although in still in development, this approach holds the promise as a great first step toward immune-tailored drugs for the treatment of brain cancers.

Costa DB, Shaw AT, Ou SH, et al.
Clinical Experience With Crizotinib in Patients With Advanced ALK-Rearranged Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(17):1881-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Crizotinib is an oral kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical benefits of crizotinib in patients with brain metastases have not been previously studied.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC enrolled onto clinical trial PROFILE 1005 or 1007 (randomly assigned to crizotinib) were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients with asymptomatic brain metastases (nontarget or target lesions) were allowed to enroll. Tumor assessments were evaluated every 6 weeks using RECIST (version 1.1).
RESULTS: At baseline, 31% of patients (275 of 888) had asymptomatic brain metastases; 109 had received no prior and 166 had received prior brain radiotherapy as treatment. Among patients with previously untreated asymptomatic brain metastases, the systemic disease control rate (DCR) at 12 weeks was 63% (95% CI, 54% to 72%), the intracranial DCR was 56% (95% CI, 46% to 66%), and the median intracranial time to progression (TTP) was 7 months (95% CI, 6.7 to 16.4). Among patients with previously treated brain metastases, the systemic DCR was 65% (95% CI, 57% to 72%), the intracranial DCR was 62% (95% CI, 54% to 70%), and the median intracranial TTP was 13.2 months (95% CI, 9.9 to not reached). Patients with systemic disease control were also likely to experience intracranial disease control at 12 weeks (correlation coefficient, 0.7652; P < .001). Among patients without baseline brain metastases who developed progressive disease (n = 253) after initiation of crizotinib, 20% were diagnosed with brain metastases.
CONCLUSION: Crizotinib was associated with systemic and intracranial disease control in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who were ALK inhibitor naive and had brain metastases. However, progression of preexisting or development of new intracranial lesions while receiving therapy was a common manifestation of acquired resistance to crizotinib.

Kim DH, Oh SY, Kim SY, et al.
DNA ligase4 as a prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(24):10985-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The capability for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair is crucial for inherent radiosensitivity of tumor and normal cells. We have investigated the clinicopathologic significance of DNA repair gene expression in nasopharyngeal (NP) carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 NP cancer patients who received radiotherapy were included. The immunopositivity to Ku 70, DNA-PKcs, MRN, RAD50, XRCC4, and LIG4 were examined in all tumor tissues.
RESULTS: The patients comprised 42 males and 23 females, with a median age of 56 years (range, 18-84). The expression levels of RAD50 (0,+1,+2,+3) were 27.7%, 32.3%, 21.5%, and 18.5%. LIG4 (±) were 43.1% and 56.9% respectively. The 5-year OS rate of patients with LIG4 (±) were 90% and 67.9%, respectively (p=0.035). The 5-year TTP rate of patients with LIG4 (±) were 75.9%, 55.5%, respectively (P=0.039).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the possibility of predicting the radiosensitivity of NP cancer by performing immunohistochemical analysis of LIG4.

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