Gene Summary

Gene:ADAM17; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biologic processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme; binds mitotic arrest deficient 2 protein; and also plays a prominent role in the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADAM17 (cancer-related)

Liu J, Yan J, Zhou C, et al.
miR-1285-3p acts as a potential tumor suppressor miRNA via downregulating JUN expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(1):219-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the world, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and most lethal cancers. Currently, standard therapy for unresectable HCC is a local-regional therapy with transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). In this study, we sought to assess whether plasma circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used to predict the prognosis of HCC patients receiving the TACE treatment. Firstly, we systematically examined TACE therapeutic effectiveness-related circulating miRNAs through miRNA Profiling Chips. As a result, we identified 19 circulating miRNAs to be significantly differentially expressed between the TACE-response group and the TACE-nonresponse group. In the second stage, we performed quantitative analyses of these candidate miRNAs in additional HCC patients treated with TACE and validated two of the aforementioned 19 miRNAs (miR-1285-3p and miR-4741) as candidate biomarkers for predicting prognosis of TACE. Interestingly, we found that miR-1285-3p could directly repress JUN oncogene expression in HCC cells, indicating miR-1285-3p could act as a potential tumor suppressor. In conclusion, our data indicate that circulating miR-1285-3p and miR-4741 was predictive of response to TACE therapy in HCC.

Cruz JE, Saksena R, Jabbour SK, et al.
The power of genes: a case of unusually severe systemic toxicity after localized hepatic chemoembolization with irinotecan-eluted microspheres for metastatic colon cancer.
Ann Pharmacother. 2014; 48(12):1646-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of systemic irinotecan toxicity following regional transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads loaded with irinotecan (DEBIRI-TACE) in a patient later found to have a homozygous mutation for UGT1A1*28.
CASE SUMMARY: An 80-year-old woman presented with a cecal colon cancer with synchronous metastases to the liver. After resection of the primary tumor, the patient underwent DEBIRI-TACE with 100 mg of irinotecan to treat the residual disease in the liver. A week after this procedure, the patient developed grade 4 neutropenia, and later, alopecia. Eventually, it was found that the patient had a mutation of UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1), which provided a reasonable explanation for the observed reaction.
DISCUSSION: The toxic effects of irinotecan are well understood. Patients with genetic polymorphisms of the genes encoding for the enzyme UGT1A1 may have increased incidence of irinotecan-associated toxicities because of decreased clearance of the active metabolite SN38 via the glucuronidation pathway. To date, there have been limited publications describing systemic adverse events following TACE or DEBIRI-TACE and, based on a thorough literature search, none following these procedures in patients with UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Based on the scoring results of the Naranjo algorithm (7), we are confident in attributing the observed reaction to the patient's genetic polymorphism.
CONCLUSION: Although genetic testing prior to the initiation of irinotecan therapy is not currently recommended, assessment of UGT1A1 polymorphism is warranted when severe adverse events typical of systemic therapy manifest following DEBIRI-TACE.

Huang Y, Benaich N, Tape C, et al.
Targeting the sheddase activity of ADAM17 by an anti-ADAM17 antibody D1(A12) inhibits head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation and motility via blockage of bradykinin induced HERs transactivation.
Int J Biol Sci. 2014; 10(7):702-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) regulates key cellular processes including proliferation and migration through the shedding of a diverse array of substrates such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. ADAM17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancers such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). As a central mediator of cellular events, overexpressed EGFR is a validated molecular target in HNSCC. However, EGFR inhibition constantly leads to tumour resistance. One possible mechanism of resistance is the activation of alternative EGFR family receptors and downstream pathways via the release of their ligands. Here, we report that treating human HNSCC cells in vitro with a human anti-ADAM17 inhibitory antibody, D1(A12), suppresses proliferation and motility in the absence or presence of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib. Treatment with D1(A12) decreases both the endogenous and the bradykinin (BK)-stimulated shedding of HER ligands, accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling pathways including STAT3, AKT and ERK. Knockdown of ADAM17, but not ADAM10, also suppresses HNSCC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we show that heregulin (HRG) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) predominantly participate in proliferation and migration, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1(A12)-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling is achieved via reduced shedding of ADAM17 ligands. These findings underscore the importance of ADAM17 and suggest that D1(A12) might be an effective targeted agent for treating EGFR TKI-resistant HNSCC.

Feldinger K, Generali D, Kramer-Marek G, et al.
ADAM10 mediates trastuzumab resistance and is correlated with survival in HER2 positive breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6633-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trastuzumab prolongs survival in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, resistance remains a challenge. We have previously shown that ADAM17 plays a key role in maintaining HER2 phosphorylation during trastuzumab treatment. Beside ADAM17, ADAM10 is the other well characterized ADAM protease responsible for HER ligand shedding. Therefore, we studied the role of ADAM10 in relation to trastuzumab treatment and resistance in HER2 positive breast cancer. ADAM10 expression was assessed in HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines and xenograft mice treated with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treatment increased ADAM10 levels in HER2 positive breast cancer cells (p ≤ 0.001 in BT474; p ≤ 0.01 in SKBR3) and in vivo (p ≤ 0.0001) compared to control, correlating with a decrease in PKB phosphorylation. ADAM10 inhibition or knockdown enhanced trastuzumab response in naïve and trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells. Trastuzumab monotherapy upregulated ADAM10 (p ≤ 0.05); and higher pre-treatment ADAM10 levels correlated with decreased clinical response (p ≤ 0.05) at day 21 in HER2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing a trastuzumab treatment window study. Higher ADAM10 levels correlated with poorer relapse-free survival (p ≤ 0.01) in a cohort of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Our studies implicate a role of ADAM10 in acquired resistance to trastuzumab and establish ADAM10 as a therapeutic target and a potential biomarker for HER2 positive breast cancer patients.

Xu W, Kwon JH, Moon YH, et al.
Influence of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on gene expression in the HIF-1α pathway in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(9):1507-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most common treatment option in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its clinical benefits remain still controversial. Since TACE induces hypoxic necrosis in tumors, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) could critically affect biology in residual tumors after TACE treatment and subsequent prognosis. However, HIF-1α and its prognostic relevance in TACE have rarely been examined in human specimens. In the current study, we investigated the prognosis and expression of genes regulated by HIF-1α in HCC patients receiving preoperative TACE for the first time.
METHODS: In total, 35 patients with HCC (10 patients undergoing preoperative TACE) were retrospectively studied. The prognostic significance of TACE was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Protein levels of HIF-1α and mRNA levels of HIF-1α-associated genes were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time RT-PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: Preoperative TACE was significantly associated with increased 2-year recurrence rate (80 vs. 36 %, P = 0.00402) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) time (11.9 vs. 35.7 months, P = 0.0182). TACE was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence (P = 0.007) and poor DFS (P = 0.010) in a multivariate analysis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed in vivo activation of HIF-1α in human specimens treated with TACE. Notably, protein levels of HIF-1α were significantly increased in TACE tissues demonstrated by IHC. Transcriptional targets of HIF-1α showed mRNA expression patterns consistent with activation of HIF-1α in TACE tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings collectively demonstrate that preoperative TACE confers poor prognosis in HCC patients through activation of HIF-1α.

Su Y, Wang Y, Zhou H, et al.
MicroRNA-152 targets ADAM17 to suppress NSCLC progression.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(10):1983-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play an essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that miR-152 is significantly downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-152 significantly reduces proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. In addition, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is identified as a target of miR-152 in NSCLC cells, and miR-152-induced suppression of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion is partially mediated by silencing of ADAM17 expression. Furthermore, ADAM17 inversely correlates with miR-152 in NSCLC tissues. Collectively, our findings indicate that miR-152 acts as tumor suppressor in NSCLC partially via targeting ADAM17.

Yuan P, Wang S, Zhou F, et al.
Functional polymorphisms in the NPAS2 gene are associated with overall survival in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization-treated hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(7):825-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The functional abnormality of circadian regulation genes is involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian gene NPAS2 and the overall survival of HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has never been investigated. Six functional SNPs in the NPAS2 gene were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX genotyping system in a cohort of 448 unresectable Chinese patients with HCC treated with TACE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for the prognosis analysis. We found that two SNPs, rs1053096 and rs2305160, in the NPAS2 gene showed significant associations with overall death risk in HCC patients in the recessive model (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.94; P = 0.004) and in the dominant model (HR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07; P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, we observed a cumulative effect of these two SNPs on HCC overall survival, indicating a significant trend of increasing death risk with increasing number of unfavorable genotypes (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with the patients without any unfavorable genotypes, the HRs for patients with one and two unfavorable genotypes were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82; P = 0.007) and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.46-2.97, P < 0.001), respectively. The haplotype and diplotype analyses further characterized the association between NPAS2 genotype and survival of HCC patients. Our results for the first time suggest that NPAS2 gene polymorphisms may serve as an independent prognostic marker for HCC patients treated with TACE.

Yu X, Ge N, Guo X, et al.
Genetic variants in the EPCAM gene is associated with the prognosis of transarterial chemoembolization treated hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93416 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of many malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of EPCAM have been reported to be with the risk and prognosis of several malignancies. However, the association of SNPs in EPCAM gene with the prognosis of HCC patients has never been investigated. In this study, two functional SNPs (rs1126497 and rs1421) in the EPCAM gene were selected and genotyped in a cohort of 448 unresectable Chinese HCC patients treated by TACE. The association of the two SNPs with the overall survival (OS) of patients was assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve. Our data showed that there was no significant association between either SNP and OS of patients. However, in the stratified analysis, the variant-containing genotypes (WV+VV) of SNP rs1126497 exhibited a significant association with poorer OS in HCC patients who had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) in multivariate analysis of Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.53, P = 0.007), and in Kaplan-Meier curve analysis (P = 0.023), comparing to those carrying wild-type genotype. Our results suggest that SNP rs1126497 in the EPCAM gene may serve as an independent prognosis biomarker for unresectable HCC patient with PVTT, which warranted further validating investigation.

Brooke MA, Etheridge SL, Kaplan N, et al.
iRHOM2-dependent regulation of ADAM17 in cutaneous disease and epidermal barrier function.
Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(15):4064-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
iRHOM2 is a highly conserved, catalytically inactive member of the Rhomboid family, which has recently been shown to regulate the maturation of the multi-substrate ectodomain sheddase enzyme ADAM17 (TACE) in macrophages. Dominant iRHOM2 mutations are the cause of the inherited cutaneous and oesophageal cancer-susceptibility syndrome tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC), suggesting a role for this protein in epithelial cells. Here, using tissues derived from TOC patients, we demonstrate that TOC-associated mutations in iRHOM2 cause an increase in the maturation and activity of ADAM17 in epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in significantly upregulated shedding of ADAM17 substrates, including EGF-family growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This activity is accompanied by increased EGFR activity, increased desmosome processing and the presence of immature epidermal desmosomes, upregulated epidermal transglutaminase activity and heightened resistance to Staphylococcal infection in TOC keratinocytes. Many of these features are consistent with the presence of a constitutive wound-healing-like phenotype in TOC epidermis, which may shed light on a novel pathway in skin repair, regeneration and inflammation.

Lv X, Li Y, Qian M, et al.
ADAM17 silencing suppresses the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(5):1935-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 has been implicated in the tumor progression of various types of solid tumor; however, little is known about its role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The present study evaluated whether the downregulation of ADAM17 affects cell proliferation, the cell cycle, cell migration and cell invasion in NSCLC. A recombinant lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector carrying ADAM17 was constructed and then infected into A549 cells, a human NSCLC cell line. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell migration and cell invasion were determined following the downregulation of ADAM17 by siRNA. It was revealed that downregulation of ADAM17 expression using an RNA silencing approach in A549 tumor cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. These data suggested that ADAM17 is an important regulator of the tumorigenic properties of human NSCLC and may be used as a potential anticancer therapeutic target in NSCLC.

Ng KT, Lo CM, Guo DY, et al.
Identification of transmembrane protein 98 as a novel chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(5):1285-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. To identify novel chemoresistance-associated targets in hepatocellular carcinoma, chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were established. By comparing the global gene expression profiles between chemoresistant and chemosensitive cell lines, eight novel chemoresistance-associated genes were identified to be significantly associated with the commonly augmented chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. One upregulated candidate named transmembrane protein 98 (TMEM98) was found to be overexpressed in 80 of 118 (67.80%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. TMEM98 mRNA in tumor tissues was significantly higher than nontumor tissues of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (P < 0.0001). Upregulation of TMEM98 was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.048), high incidence of early tumor recurrence (P = 0.005), poor overall survival (P = 0.029), and poor disease-free survival (P = 0.011) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. Importantly, upregulation of TMEM98 mRNA in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment was significantly higher than in patients without TACE treatment (P = 0.046). Moreover, patients with poor response to TACE treatment had higher degree of TMEM98 upregulation than the responsive patients. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that suppression of TMEM98 in chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells restored their chemosensitivity, while forced overexpression of TMEM98 enhanced their chemoresistance. The mechanism of TMEM98 in conferring chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma might be possibly through activation of the AKT pathway and deactivation of p53. In conclusion, we identified a panel of novel common chemoresistance-associated genes and demonstrated that TMEM98 is a chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nakao K, Miyaaki H, Ichikawa T
Antitumor function of microRNA-122 against hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastroenterol. 2014; 49(4):589-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a highly abundant and liver-specific miRNA, acts as a tumor suppressor against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Decreased expression of miR-122 in HCC is frequently observed and is associated with poor differentiation, larger tumor size, metastasis and invasion, and poor prognosis. Mutant mice with knockout (KO) of the miR-122 locus developed steatohepatitis due to increased triglyceride (TG) synthesis and decreased TG secretion from hepatocytes, and eventually developed HCC. Exogenic miR-122 introduction into miR-122 KO mice inhibited the development of HCC. Target genes of miR-122, including cyclin G1, a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10, serum response factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, ADAM17, transcription factor CUTL1, the embryonic isoform of pyruvate kinase (Pkm2), Wnt1, pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 binding factor, Cut-like homeobox 1, and c-myc, are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. MiR-122 expression is regulated by liver-enriched transcription factors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α. A positive feedback loop exists between C/EBPα and miR-122 and between HNF6 and miR-122, whereas a negative feedback loop exists between c-myc and miR-122. Since cotreatment of 5-Aza-Cd and histone deacetylase inhibitor restored miR-122 expression in HCC cells, epigenetic modulation of miR-122 expression is involved in the suppression of miR-122 in HCC. Several experiments suggest that increasing miR-122 levels in HCC with or without antitumor agents may be a promising strategy for HCC treatment.

Bouillez A, Gnemmi V, Gaudelot K, et al.
MUC1-C nuclear localization drives invasiveness of renal cancer cells through a sheddase/gamma secretase dependent pathway.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(3):754-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
MUC1 is a membrane-anchored mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (CT) can interact with many signaling pathways and act as a co-transcription factor to activate genes involved in tumor progression and metastasis. MUC1 is overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma with correlation to prognosis and has been implicated in the hypoxic pathway, the main renal carcinogenetic pathway. In this context, we assessed the effects of MUC1 overexpression on renal cancer cells properties. Using shRNA strategy and/or different MUC1 constructs, we found that MUC1-extracellular domain and MUC1-CT are involved in increase of migration, cell viability, resistance to anoikis and in decrease of cell aggregation in cancer cells. Invasiveness depends only on MUC1-CT. Then, by using siRNA strategy and/or pharmacological inhibitors or peptides, we showed that sheddases ADAM10, ADAM17 and gamma-secretase are necessary for MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) nuclear location and in increase of invasion property. Finally, MUC1 overexpression increases ADAM10/17 protein expression suggesting a positive regulatory loop. In conclusion, we report that MUC1 acts in renal cancer progression and MUC1-C nuclear localization drives invasiveness of cancer cells through a sheddase/gamma secretase dependent pathway. MUC1 appears as a therapeutic target by blocking MUC1 cleavage or nuclear translocation by using pharmacological approach and peptide strategies.

Simabuco FM, Kawahara R, Yokoo S, et al.
ADAM17 mediates OSCC development in an orthotopic murine model.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ADAM17 is one of the main sheddases of the cells and it is responsible for the cleavage and the release of ectodomains of important signaling molecules, such as EGFR ligands. Despite the known crosstalk between ADAM17 and EGFR, which has been considered a promising targeted therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of ADAM17 in OSCC development is not clear.
METHOD: In this study the effect of overexpressing ADAM17 in cell migration, viability, adhesion and proliferation was comprehensively appraised in vitro. In addition, the tumor size, tumor proliferative activity, tumor collagenase activity and MS-based proteomics of tumor tissues have been evaluated by injecting tumorigenic squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-9) overexpressing ADAM17 in immunodeficient mice.
RESULTS: The proteomic analysis has effectively identified a total of 2,194 proteins in control and tumor tissues. Among these, 110 proteins have been down-regulated and 90 have been up-regulated in tumor tissues. Biological network analysis has uncovered that overexpression of ADAM17 regulates Erk pathway in OSCC and further indicates proteins regulated by the overexpression of ADAM17 in the respective pathway. These results are also supported by the evidences of higher viability, migration, adhesion and proliferation in SCC-9 or A431 cells in vitro along with the increase of tumor size and proliferative activity and higher tissue collagenase activity as an outcome of ADAM17 overexpression.
CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to understand the role of ADAM17 in oral cancer development and as a potential therapeutic target in oral cancer. In addition, our study also provides the basis for the development of novel and refined OSCC-targeting approaches.

Berasain C, Avila MA
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014; 28:31-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiregulin (AREG) is a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a widely expressed transmembrane tyrosine kinase. AREG is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor protein that can engage in juxtacrine signaling on adjacent cells. Alternatively, after proteolytic processing by cell membrane proteases, mainly TACE/ADAM17, AREG is secreted and behaves as an autocrine or paracrine factor. AREG gene expression and release is induced by a plethora of stimuli including inflammatory lipids, cytokines, hormones, growth factors and xenobiotics. Through EGFR binding AREG activates major intracellular signaling cascades governing cell survival, proliferation and motility. Physiologically, AREG plays an important role in the development and maturation of mammary glands, bone tissue and oocytes. Chronic elevation of AREG expression is increasingly associated with different pathological conditions, mostly of inflammatory and/or neoplastic nature. Here we review the essential aspects of AREG structure, function and regulation, discuss the basis for its differential role within the EGFR family of ligands, and identify emerging aspects in AREG research with translational potential.

Hansen AG, Arnold SA, Jiang M, et al.
ALCAM/CD166 is a TGF-β-responsive marker and functional regulator of prostate cancer metastasis to bone.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(5):1404-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The dissemination of prostate cancer to bone is a common, incurable aspect of advanced disease. Prevention and treatment of this terminal phase of prostate cancer requires improved molecular understanding of the process as well as markers indicative of molecular progression. Through biochemical analyses and loss-of-function in vivo studies, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is actively shed from metastatic prostate cancer cells by the sheddase ADAM17 in response to TGF-β. Not only is this posttranslational modification of ALCAM a marker of prostate cancer progression, the molecule is also required for effective metastasis to bone. Biochemical analysis of prostate cancer cell lines reveals that ALCAM expression and shedding is elevated in response to TGF-β signaling. Both in vitro and in vivo shedding is mediated by ADAM17. Longitudinal analysis of circulating ALCAM in tumor-bearing mice revealed that shedding of tumor, but not host-derived ALCAM is elevated during growth of the cancer. Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. The reduced growth of ALCAM knockdown cells corresponded to an increase in apoptosis (caspase-3) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). Together, these data demonstrate that the ALCAM is both a functional regulator as well as marker of prostate cancer progression.

Xu X, Padilla MT, Li B, et al.
MUC1 in macrophage: contributions to cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(2):460-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Expression of the pro-oncogenic mucin MUC1 is elevated by inflammation in airway epithelial cells, but the contributions of MUC1 to the development of lung cancer are uncertain. In this study, we developed our finding that cigarette smoke increases Muc1 expression in mouse lung macrophages, where we hypothesized MUC1 may contribute to cigarette smoke-induced transformation of bronchial epithelial cells. In human macrophages, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) strongly induced MUC1 expression through a mechanism involving the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ. CSE-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was also required for MUC1 expression, but it had little effect on MUC1 transcription. RNA interference-mediated attenuation of MUC1 suppressed CSE-induced secretion of TNF-α from macrophages, by suppressing the activity of the TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE), arguing that MUC1 is required for CSE-induced and TACE-mediated TNF-α secretion. Similarly, MUC1 blockade after CSE induction through suppression of PPAR-γ or ERK inhibited TACE activity and TNF-α secretion. Conditioned media from CSE-treated macrophages induced MUC1 expression and potentiated CSE-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells in a TNF-α-dependent manner. Together, our results identify a signaling pathway involving PPAR-γ, ERK, and MUC1 for TNF-α secretion induced by CSE from macrophages. Furthermore, our results show how MUC1 contributes to smoking-induced lung cancers that are driven by inflammatory signals from macrophages.

Paryan M, Mohammadi-Yeganeh S, Samiee SM, et al.
Investigation of deregulated genes of Notch signaling pathway in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and clinical samples.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(10):5531-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
In diagnostic research challenges, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) has been widely utilized in gene expression analysis because of its sensitivity, accuracy, reproducibility, and most importantly, quantitativeness. Real-time PCR base kits are wildly applicable in cancer signaling pathways, especially in cancer investigations. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a type of leukemia that is more common in older children and teenagers. Deregulation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of the lymphoblastic T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Notch signaling activation on the expression of target genes using real-time QPCR and further use this method in clinical examination after validation. Two T-ALL cell lines, Jurkat and Molt-4, were used as models for activation of the Notch signaling via over-expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain. Expression analysis was performed for six downstream target genes (NCSTN, APH1, PSEN1, ADAM17, NOTCH1 and C-MYC) which play critical roles in the Notch signaling pathway. The results showed significant difference in the expression of target genes in the deregulated Notch signaling pathway. These results were also verified in 12 clinical samples bearing over-expression of the Notch signaling pathway. Identification of such downstream Notch target genes, which have not been studied inclusively, provides insights into the mechanisms of the Notch function in T cell leukemia, and may help identify novel diagnoses and therapeutic targets in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Hong KJ, Wu DC, Cheng KH, et al.
RECK inhibits stemness gene expression and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells by suppressing ADAM-mediated Notch1 activation.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(2):191-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Reversion-inducing Cysteine-rich Protein with Kazal Motifs (RECK) gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that exhibits strong inhibitory activity against various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). RECK functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, whether RECK can modulate the stem-like phenotypes of cancer cells is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that RECK is down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and is further reduced in CD133-positive cancer stem-like cells. Ectopic expression of RECK induces down-regulation of the expression of stemness genes including Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog and the cancer stem cell marker CD133. Treatment of DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) or TAPI-2 (a hydroxamate-based inhibitor of MMPs, tumor necrosis factor α converting enzyme and ADAM17) reduces Notch1 shedding and activation which results in attenuation of stemness genes and CD133. Our data show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are co-pulled down by RECK suggesting a physical interaction between RECK and ADAMs on cell surface. In addition, RECK suppresses sphere formation and sphere size of CD133-positive gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) or ADAM17 effectively reverse the inhibitory effect of RECK in CD133-positive cells. More importantly, RECK reduces tumorigenic activity of CD133-positive cells in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of RECK in non-tumorigenic GI2 cells increases stemness and CD133 expression and sphere forming ability. Collectively, these results indicate that RECK represses stemness gene expression and stem-like properties by inhibiting ADAM-mediated Notch1 shedding and activation.

Liu XB, Cheng Q, Geng W, et al.
Enhancement of cisplatin-based TACE by a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier in an orthotopic rat HCC model.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2014; 42(4):229-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic tumor cells are more resistant to standard chemotherapies. A number of studies indicated that improving oxygenation inside the tumor could serve as a potential strategy to target hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. In this study, we examined whether a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (OC89) could increase tumor oxygenation and thus enhance the efficiency of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in an orthotopic rat HCC model.
METHODS: Efficiency of the hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (OC89) in improving tumor oxygenation was examined by OxyLab pO2. Sensitization of chemotherapy (cisplatin) in TACE by OC89 was evaluated in four different therapeutic regimens including cisplatin (1 mg/kg)+OC89 (0.2 g/kg), cisplatin (1 mg/kg)+OC89 (0.4 g/kg), cisplatin (3 mg/kg)+OC89 (0.2 g/kg), cisplatin (3 mg/kg)+OC89 (0.4 g/kg). For all the therapeutic regimens, a single delivery of OC89 via the tail vein was performed 1 h before TACE.
RESULTS: Compared with Ringer's buffer, systemic delivery of OC89 (0.4 g/kg) attenuated tumor hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) fraction of low readings (0-10 mmHg) inside the tumor decreased from 74.1% to 24.6% after OC89 delivery, while pO2 fraction of high readings (15-25 mmHg) increased from 22.2% to 41.5%. When cisplatin was combined with OC89, regimen cisplatin (3 mg/kg)+OC89 (0.4 g/kg) resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth at Day 21 after therapy (p<0.05). Further investigation indicated that OC89 delivery influenced anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic balance of the UPR pathway in the tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that targeting tumor hypoxia with the hemoglobin-based O2 carrier serves as a promising approach to enhance the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in HCC.

Chen YJ, Chang LS
Hydroquinone-induced miR-122 down-regulation elicits ADAM17 up-regulation, leading to increased soluble TNF-α production in human leukemia cells with expressed Bcr/Abl.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 86(5):620-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies on HQ-treated human leukemia K562 (Bcr/Abl-positive) cells were conducted to address the hydroquinone (HQ) mechanism that promotes soluble TNF-α (sTNF-α) production. HQ post-translationally down-regulated cell surface TNF-α expression increases the release of sTNF-α into K562 cell culture medium. Meanwhile, HQ increased ADAM17 mRNA stability, leading to ADAM17 up-regulation in HQ-treated cells. Knock-down of ADAM17 abrogated HQ-induced sTNF-α secretion. HQ-evoked miR-122 down-regulation was proven to promote ADAM17 mRNA stability and up-regulate ADAM17 expression. HQ-induced p38 MAPK and JNK activation were responsible for suppression of miR-122 promoter luciferase activity and miR-122 expression. Activation of p38 MAPK and JNK elicited phosphorylation of c-Jun, ATF-2 and c-Fos, and knock-down of c-Jun, ATF-2 and c-Fos restored miR-122 expression in HQ-treated cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitating and DNA affinity purification assay revealed c-Jun, ATF-2 and c-Fos binding to the miR-122 gene promoter region. Moreover, HQ-induced sTNF-α production in Bcr/Abl-positive leukemia cell lines KU812 and MEG-01 was also connected with miR-122 down-regulation and ADAM17 up-regulation, while HQ was unable to affect miR-122 and ADAM-17 expression on Bcr/Abl-negative leukemia U937 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that HQ induces down-regulation of miR-122 expression, leading to ADAM17 up-regulation and ADAM17-mediated TNF-α shedding. Consequently, HQ treatment increases the production of sTNF-α in leukemia cells with expressed Bcr/Abl.

Giricz O, Calvo V, Peterson EA, et al.
TACE-dependent TGFα shedding drives triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(11):2587-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and is a marker of poor prognosis in this patient population. Because activating mutations in this kinase are very rare events in breast cancer, we screened breast tumor gene expression profiles to examine the distribution of EGFR ligand expression. Of the six known EGFR ligands, transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) was expressed more highly in triple-negative breast tumors than in tumors of other subtypes. TGFα is synthesized as a transmembrane precursor requiring tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE)/ADAM17-dependent proteolytic release to activate its receptor. In our study, we show that an inhibitor of this proteolytic release blocks invasion, migration and colony formation by several TNBC cell lines. Each of the effects of the drug was reversed upon expression of a soluble TGFα mutant that does not require TACE activity, implicating this growth factor as a key metalloproteinase substrate for these phenotypes. Together, these data demonstrate that TACE-dependent TGFα shedding is a key process driving EGFR activation and subsequent proliferation and invasion in TNBC cell lines.

Gao MQ, Kim BG, Kang S, et al.
Human breast cancer-associated fibroblasts enhance cancer cell proliferation through increased TGF-α cleavage by ADAM17.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 336(1):240-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We demonstrate here increased expression of ADAM17 protein in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) extracted from human breast carcinomas compared with donor-matched normal fibroblasts, and TGF-α secretion positively correlates with ADAM17 expression in these cells. In SK-BR-3 cells co-cultured with CAFs, CAF-secreted TGF-α promotes cell proliferation by activation of EGFR, Akt, and ERK, but it does not promote cell migration. Furthermore, anti-TGF-α neutralizing antibodies antagonize the CAF-dependent increase in proliferation and activation of EGFR, Akt and ERK. Thus, pharmacologic inhibition of ADAM17 and TGF-α may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast cancer when fibroblast-directed therapy is considered.

Cireap N, Narita D
Molecular profiling of ADAM12 and ADAM17 genes in human malignant melanoma.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2013; 19(4):755-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAM12 and ADAM17 proteins belong to a family of transmembrane disintegrin-containing metalloproteinases (ADAMs) involved in the proteins ectodomain shedding and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the specific biological functions of ADAMs are still unclear and, until now, these proteins were not investigated yet in melanoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the splicing variants of ADAM12 (L and S) and ADAM17 gene expression in melanoma at transcriptional and translational level in comparison with control (non-tumor) tissues. Taking in account that ADAM17 sheddase is involved in the modulation of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha), we analyzed also this cytokine in the plasma of the same patients before any treatment, and we compared the results with healthy controls. Quantitative-RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze ADAM12 and ADAM17 genes expression and the analysis of TNF-α expression was carried out in the plasma using ELISA. We demonstrated that ADAM12L splicing variant together with ADAM17 gene are strongly overexpressed in melanomas, whereas ADAM12S, although up-regulated when compared with the non-tumor controls, the difference was not statistically significant. When we compared the levels of expression for the ADAMs genes according to the tumor stage, we observed that all three investigated genes were significantly overexpressed in advanced stage in comparison with early stage melanomas. In the plasma of the same patients, the expression of TNF-α was up-regulated and significantly correlated with the expression of ADAM17 and respectively, with the advanced tumor stage.

Wang XJ, Feng CW, Li M
ADAM17 mediates hypoxia-induced drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through activation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 380(1-2):57-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is a member of the metalloproteinase superfamily and involved in the cleavage of ectodomain of many transmembrane proteins. ADAM17 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, which is associated with tumor development and progression. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression and function of ADAM17 in hypoxia-treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression of ADAM17 in HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HepG2 cells). Annexin V/PI double staining was performed to analyze the effects of ADAM17 on hypoxia-mediated cisplatin resistance. ADAM17 expression was upregulated by hypoxia treatment in HCC cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of ADAM17 reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, accompanies by less cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Forced expression of ADAM17 enhanced the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt without affecting the expression of total EGFR and Akt. Pretreatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 rescued ADAM17-mediated cisplatin resistance of HCC cells. ADAM17 silencing attenuated hypoxia-induced cisplatin resistance and enhanced the accumulation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. Western blot analysis showed that overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor, upregulated the expression of ADAM17 and HIF-1α silencing downregulated the expression of ADAM17 in hypoxia-treated HCC cells, indicating the regulation of ADAM17 by HIF-1α. Taken together, our results indicated that ADAM17 is upregulated by hypoxia and contributes to hypoxia-induced cisplatin resistance via EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway.

Bergbold N, Lemberg MK
Emerging role of rhomboid family proteins in mammalian biology and disease.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1828(12):2840-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
From proteases that cleave peptide bonds in the plane of the membrane, rhomboids have evolved into a heterogeneous superfamily with a wide range of different mechanistic properties. In mammals 14 family members have been annotated based on a shared conserved membrane-integral rhomboid core domain, including intramembrane serine proteases and diverse proteolytically inactive homologues. While the function of rhomboid proteases is the proteolytic release of membrane-tethered factors, rhomboid pseudoproteases including iRhoms and derlins interact with their clients without cleaving them. It has become evident that specific recognition of membrane protein substrates and clients by the rhomboid fold reflects a spectrum of cellular functions ranging from growth factor activation, trafficking control to membrane protein degradation. This review summarizes recent progress on rhomboid family proteins in the mammalian secretory pathway and raises the question whether they can be seen as new drug targets for inflammatory diseases and cancer. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases.

Yu CC, Tsai LL, Wang ML, et al.
miR145 targets the SOX9/ADAM17 axis to inhibit tumor-initiating cells and IL-6-mediated paracrine effects in head and neck cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(11):3425-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALDH1(+)CD44(+) cells are putative tumor-initiating cells (TIC) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNC). miR-145 regulates tumorigenicity in various cancers but the breadth of its mechanistic contributions and potential therapeutic applications are not completely known. Here, we report that ALDH1(+)CD44(+)-HNC cells express reduced levels of miR145. SPONGE-mediated inhibition of miR-145 (Spg-miR145) was sufficient to drive tumor-initiating characteristics in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44-negative HNC cells. Mechanistic analyses identified SOX9 and ADAM17 as two novel miR145 targets relevant to this process. miR-145 expression repressed TICs in HNC in a manner associated with SOX9 interaction with the ADAM17 promoter, thereby activating ADAM17 expression. Notably, the SOX9/ADAM17 axis dominated the TIC-inducing activity of miR-145. Either miR-145 suppression or ADAM17 overexpression in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC cells increased expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble-IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Conversely, conditioned medium from Spg-miR145-transfected non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC cells was sufficient to confer tumor-initiating properties in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC and this effect could be abrogated by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. We found that curcumin administration increased miR-145 promoter activity, thereby decreasing SOX9/ADAM17 expression and eliminating TICs in HNC cell populations. Delivery of lentivral-miR145 or orally administered curcumin blocked tumor progression in HNC-TICs in murine xenotransplant assays. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses of patient specimens confirmed that an miR-145(low)/SOX9(high)/ADAM17(high) phenotype correlated with poor survival. Collectively, our results show how miR-145 targets the SOX9/ADAM17 axis to regulate TIC properties in HNC, and how altering this pathway may partly explain the anticancer effects of curcumin. By inhibiting IL-6 and sIL-6R as downstream effector cytokines in this pathway, miR-145 seems to suppress a paracrine signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment that is vital to maintain TICs in HNC.

Doberstein K, Steinmeyer N, Hartmetz AK, et al.
MicroRNA-145 targets the metalloprotease ADAM17 and is suppressed in renal cell carcinoma patients.
Neoplasia. 2013; 15(2):218-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is a metalloprotease that is overexpressed in many cancer types, including renal cancers. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM17 in cancer development and progression are poorly understood. In the present work, we provide evidence using overexpression and inhibition of microRNA 145 (miR-145) that miR-145 negatively regulates ADAM17 expression. Furthermore, we show that ADAM17 negatively regulates miR-145 through tumor necrosis factor-α, resulting in a reciprocal negative feedback loop. In this study, the expression of ADAM17 and miR-145 correlated negatively in renal cancer tumor tissues and cell lines, suggesting an important regulatory mechanism. Additionally, we showed that the regulation of ADAM17 is partly involved in the effects of miR-145 on proliferation and migration, whereas no involvement in chemosensitivity was observed. Importantly, in the healthy kidney, miR-145 was detected in different cell types including tubular cells, which are considered the origin of renal cancer. In renal cancer cell lines, miR-145 expression was strongly suppressed by methylation. In summary, miR-145 is downregulated in renal cancer patients, which leads to the up-regulation of ADAM17 in renal cancer. Importantly, miR-145 and ADAM17 are regulated in a reciprocal negative feedback loop.

Rose-John S
ADAM17, shedding, TACE as therapeutic targets.
Pharmacol Res. 2013; 71:19-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAM17 has been molecularly cloned as the enzyme responsible for cleavage of the transmembrane protein TNFα (TNFα converting enzyme, TACE). Later it was realized that ADAM17 was also responsible for the processing of cell adhesion proteins, cytokine and growth factor receptors and many ligands of the EGF receptor. Since TNFα is a target of anti-inflammatory therapies, it was speculated that inhibition of ADAM17 might be a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammation or inflammation associated cancer. Meanwhile it has been recognized that ADAM17 governs many vital functions in the body and loss of ADAM17 leads to severe defects in the skin and to high susceptibility of the intestine to inflammation. Here I summarize data on the physiologic role of ADAM17 and the feasibility of specific blockade of this enzyme.

Chen X, Chen L, Zhang R, et al.
ADAM17 regulates self-renewal and differentiation of U87 glioblastoma stem cells.
Neurosci Lett. 2013; 537:44-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) play an important role in the progression and recurrence of malignant glioblastoma because of their potential for self-renewal, multilineage differentiation and tumor initiation. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of Notch within its extracellular domain leading to the activation of Notch signaling, which is involved in the formation and maintenance of GSCs. Here, we show that glioma cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133 coexpress higher levels of ADAM17 than matched CD133-glioma cells. Knockdown of the ADAM17 gene in U87 GSCs down-regulated the expression of CD133, inhibited secondary neurosphere formation and induced multi-lineage differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ADAM17 inhibited Hes1 and Hes5 and activated Notch1 expression, which may explain the ADAM17 shRNA-induced suppression of self-renewal and differentiation of U87 GSCs. Our results suggest that ADAM17 may maintain the stemness of GSCs by promoting their self-renewal and inhibiting their differentiation via Notch signaling.

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