Gene Summary

Gene:ADAM17; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biologic processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. The encoded protease functions in the ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in which soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha is released from the membrane-bound precursor. This protease also functions in the processing of numerous other substrates, including cell adhesion proteins, cytokine and growth factor receptors and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands. The encoded protein also plays a prominent role in the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. Elevated expression of this gene has been observed in specific cell types derived from psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease patients, suggesting that the encoded protein may play a role in autoimmune disease. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADAM17 (cancer-related)

Park CS, Eom DW, Ahn Y, et al.
Can heme oxygenase-1 be a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma?
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(26):e16084 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an important catalytic enzyme in heme degradation, which increases during stressful conditions. It plays a major role in antioxidative and antiapoptotic processes and is associated with tumor growth and metastasis.This study aimed to evaluate the degree of HO-1 expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surgical specimens and the correlation between HO-1 expression and patient prognosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HCC tissue samples (n = 96) were included in the analysis, and the expression of HO-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. We reviewed clinical features of patients and evaluated the prognostic role of HO-1 in patient survival and recurrence.Positive HO-1 expression was identified in 43 cases (44.8%) and was frequently found in patients with advanced histology (Edmondson-Steiner [E-S] grade 2, 3, 4), α-fetoprotein (AFP) level of more than 200 IU/mL, and the presence of microvascular and capsular invasion (P < .05). In the univariate analysis, the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with HO-1-positive HCC were not statistically different from those with HO-1-negative HCC. Moreover, HO-1 expression was not associated with patient survival and recurrence based on the multivariate analysis. In the subgroup analysis of patients without preoperative transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (n = 61), HO-1 was not also associated with tumor recurrence (P = .681).The clinical implication of HO-1 activity is controversial in various malignancies. However, HO-1 expression did not seem to influence the prognosis of HCC patients.

Ning Q, Liu YF, Ye PJ, et al.
Delivery of Liver-Specific miRNA-122 Using a Targeted Macromolecular Prodrug toward Synergistic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(11):10578-10588 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a great threat to human health. The elegant combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy by nanocarriers has been repeatedly highlighted to realize enhanced therapeutic efficacy relative to monotreatment. However, the leading strategy to achieve the efficient codelivery of the gene and drug remains the electrostatic condensation with the nucleic acid and the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules by the nanocarriers, which suffers substantially from premature drug leakage during circulation and severe off-target-associated side effects. To address these issues, we reported in this study the codelivery of liver-specific miRNA-122 and anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) using a macromolecular prodrug approach, that is, electrostatic condensation with miRNA-122 using galactosylated-chitosan-5-fluorouracil (GC-FU). The delivery efficacy was evaluated comprehensively in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, the biocompatibility of GC-FU/miR-122 nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed by hemolysis activity analysis, BSA adsorption test, and cell viability assay in both normal liver cells (L02 cells) and endothelial cells. The resulting codelivery systems showed enhanced blood and salt stability, efficient proliferation inhibition of HCC cells, and further induction apoptosis of HCC cells, as well as downregulated expression of ADAM17 and Bcl-2. The strategy developed herein is thus a highly promising platform for an effective codelivery of miRNA-122 and 5-Fu with facile fabrication and great potential for the clinical translation toward HCC synergistic therapy.

Lautem A, Simon F, Hoppe-Lotichius M, et al.
Expression and prognostic significance of insulin‑like growth factor-2 receptor in human hepatocellular carcinoma and the influence of transarterial chemoembolization.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2299-2310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies, the incidence of which is growing worldwide. The prognosis of HCC is very poor and it is often accompanied by a high rate of recurrence. Conventional chemotherapeutic approaches are largely inefficient. In order to develop novel effective methods for the early detection and prognosis of HCC, novel markers and therapeutic targets are urgently required. The present study focused on the effects of the expression of the tumor suppressor gene insulin‑like growth factor‑2 receptor (IGF2R) on patient survival and tumor recurrence in patients with HCC; this study paid specific attention to the influence of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) prior to surgery. The mRNA expression levels of IGF2R were measured in primary human HCC and corresponding non‑neoplastic tumor‑surrounding tissue (TST) by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) (n=92). Subsequently, the associations between IGF2R expression and clinicopathological parameters, outcomes of HCC and TACE pretreatment prior to surgery were determined. Furthermore, the effects of the IGF2R gene polymorphisms rs629849 and rs642588 on susceptibility and on clinicopathological features of HCC were investigated. RT‑PCR demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of IGF2R were downregulated in HCC compared with in TST samples (P=0.004), which was associated with a worse recurrence‑free survival of patients with HCC (P=0.002) and a lower occurrence of cirrhosis (P=0.05). TACE‑pretreated patients with HCC (n=26) exhibited significantly higher IGF2R mRNA expression in tumor tissues (P=0.019). In addition, significantly more patients with HCC in the TACE‑pretreated group exhibited upregulated IGF2R mRNA expression compared with in the non‑treated patients (P=0.032). The IGF2R SNPs rs629849 and rs642588 were not significantly associated with HCC risk, whereas a homozygous IGF2R rs629849 GG genotype was associated with a significantly elevated risk of non‑viral liver cirrhosis (P=0.05). In conclusion, these data suggested an important role for IGF2R expression in HCC, particularly with regards to TACE treatment prior to surgery.

Li W, Wang D, Sun X, et al.
ADAM17 promotes lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer via activation of the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(2):914-926 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing proteins (ADAMs) have been implicated in cell adhesion, signaling and migration. The aim of the present study was to identify key members of the ADAM protein family associated with the metastasis of gastric cancer and to evaluate their clinical significance. A total of 193 patients with gastric cancer and positive lymph node metastasis were enrolled. Key members of the ADAM family associated with lymph node metastasis were identified. The correlations between survival times and the clinicopathological features of patients were investigated. Furthermore, ADAM17 expression in gastric cancer cells with different metastatic potentials was determined. ADAM17 was overexpressed in BGC‑823 cells and suppressed in SGC‑7901 cells to further investigate its effects on cell viability and migration. The key pathways associated with ADAM17 were identified by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). It was found that ADAM9 and ADAM17 were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer and positive metastatic lymph node tissues. Further, there was a strong correlation between the survival times of patients and ADAM17 expression. ADAM17 was upregulated in gastric cancer cells with high metastatic potential. The viability of BGC‑823 cells significantly increased following ADAM17 overexpression, whereas the viability and migration of SGC‑7901 cells decreased following ADAM17 suppression. GSEA and western blot analysis revealed a positive correlation between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways with ADAM17 expression. In conclusion, the increased expression of ADAM17 promoted the progression of gastric cancer, potentially via Notch and/or Wnt signaling pathway activation, and ADAM17 may serve as a useful prognostic marker.

Khatoon J, Prasad KN, Rai RP, et al.
Expression levels of A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs), and Th17-related cytokines and their association with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastroduodenal diseases.
Pathog Dis. 2018; 76(8) [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression levels of A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) (10 and 17) and Th17-related cytokines [interleukin (IL) 17A, IL-17F, IL-33, IL-23, IL-23R] were investigated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in gastric biopsies of patients with different gastroduodenal pathologies in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients with gastric cancer (GC) (n = 70, intestinal-type 38 and diffuse type 32), peptic ulcer disease [n = 50, duodenal ulcer (DU) 16 and gastric ulcer (GU) 34] and functional dyspepsia (n = 120) were included in the study. Further, the expression levels of ADAMs and Th17 cytokines were correlated with H. pylori cytotoxin-associated genes pathogenicity island (cagPAI) status. Expression levels of ADAMs (10 and 17) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A, IL-23, IL-23R) were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive than in H. pylori-negative gastric biopsies. Significant increase in ADAM17 and Th17 cytokines (IL-17A and IL-23) expressions was observed in patients with GU and intestinal-type GC in the presence of H. pylori infection and in strains harbouring intact cagPAI. Expression levels of IL-17A, IL-23 and ADAM17 were strongly correlated with GU and intestinal-type GC and weakly with DU and diffuse-type GC in the presence of H. pylori infection. Higher expression levels of ADAM17 and Th17 cytokines (IL-17A and IL-23), and their strong correlation with GU and intestinal-type GC patients in the presence of H. pylori and its intact cagPAI status, suggest a possible role of strain specificity in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

Chen M, Wu L, Tu J, et al.
miR-590-5p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance by targeting YAP1 expression.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:142-154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment is a common phenomenon in cancers, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Hippo signaling pathway has been demonstrated to play a role in tumor initiation, development, and progression. However, little is known about its roles in the HCC chemoresistance.
METHODS: In this study, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to identify the expression profile of key components of Hippo signaling pathway between chemoresistant and chemosensitive HCC cell lines. In vitro and in vivo loss- and gain-of-function studies were performed to reveal the effects and related mechanism of microRNA-590-5p/YAP1 axis in the chemoresistant phenotype of HCC cells.
FINDINGS: We identified yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) as the major dysregulated molecules in adriamycin (ADR)-resistant HCC cells. YAP1 was profoundly implicated in the chemoresistant phenotype of HCC cells. Furthermore, microRNA-590-5p was revealed as a functional modulator of YAP1. Importantly, YAP1-mediated chemoresistant phenotype was closely related to increased expression of stemness markers and ATP-binding cassette transporters. HCC patients with poor response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment had higher protein level of YAP1 than that in the responsive patients.
INTERPRETATION: The microRNA-590-5p/YAP axis plays an important role in the chemotherapeutic resistance of HCC cells, suggesting new adjuvant chemotherapeutic directions in HCC. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Zhejiang Province Medical and Health Care Key Project, Experimental Animal Science and Technology Projects of Zhejiang Province, Public Welfare Technology Application Research Project of Lishui, Chinese Medicine Science and Technology Projects of Zhejiang Province.

Zhang Q, Wang C, Han X, et al.
Knockdown of ADAM17 inhibits cell proliferation and increases oxaliplatin sensitivity in HCT-8 colorectal cancer through EGFR-PI3K-AKT activation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2333-2339 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) in chemo resistance, and to clarify the mechanism underlying reverse of L-OHP resistance by knockdown of ADAM17. CRC tissues with corresponding adjacent normal tissues were collected. The mRNA and protein expression of ADAM17 in tissues were detected by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The prognostic impact of ADAM17 expression were then validated in TCGA database to confirm the results. Resistance to oxaliplatin was induced in HCT-8 (HCT-8/L-OHP) colorectal cancer cell line by exposing cell to increasing concentrations of L-OHP. MTT were used to evaluate the resistance to L-OHP. Subsequently, Knockdown of ADAM17 in HCT-8 and HCT-8/L-OHP cells to explore the mechanism through which ADAM17 shRNA reverses L-OHP resistance. Our result showed that ADAM17 was higher expression in the cancerous tissue and related to the chemosensitivity. Moreover, ADAM17 shRNA, AG1478 and LY294002 could inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and increase oxaliplatin sensitivity in HCT-8/L-OHP and parental colorectal cancer cell line, but nonsense shRNA did not show this effect. Western blot analysis further confirmed that EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in ADAM17 shRNA inhibiting proliferation and chemosensitivity of HCT-8/L-OHP and HCT-8 cells. The present study provides the evidence that downregulation of ADAM17 could increase the sensitivity to chemotherapy, inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and reverse oxaliplatin resistance via suppression of the EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in CRC.

Arai J, Goto K, Tanoue Y, et al.
Enzymatic inhibition of MICA sheddase ADAM17 by lomofungin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(10):2575-2583 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility genes in chronic hepatitis patients, we identified the MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA). Natural killer cells eliminate various cancer cells, including HCC, by suppressing MICA shedding. Therefore, we investigated MICA sheddases and inhibitors for HCC immunotherapy. In this study, HepG2, PLC/PRF/5, and Hep3B were treated with the siRNA of a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) and matrix metalloproteases to measure the concentration of soluble MICA (sMICA) by ELISA to detect the therapeutic target. Furthermore, an FDA-approved drug library was tested for the enzymatic inhibition of the targeted enzyme in an in vitro drug screening assay system. ADAM17 knockdown reduced sMICA levels and increased membrane-bound MICA (mMICA) expression in HCC cells. In an in vitro drug screen using an FDA-approved drug library, lomofungin, an antifungal drug, was found to strongly decrease ADAM17 activity. In HCC cells, mMICA expression was induced and sMICA production was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were cancelled upon ADAM17 knockdown, suggesting that lomofungin targeted ADAM17. Analysis of lomofungin analogs revealed the responsible functional groups. In summary, we suggest lomofungin to be an attractive agent for the immunological control of HCC, via the suppression of ADAM17.

Jiao X, Yu W, Qian J, et al.
ADAM-17 is a poor prognostic indicator for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is regulated by FoxM1.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A-disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. Specific ADAMs are upregulated in human cancers and correlated with tumor progression and poor outcome, but rarely studied in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). This study aimed to explore the expression profiles of ADAMs and their potential underlying mechanisms promoting cancer progression.
METHODS: mRNA expression of ADAM-9, - 10, - 11, - 12, - 15, - 17, - 28, and - 33 was analyzed in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of ADAM-10, - 17, - 28, and FoxM1 in HC. The regulation of ADAM-17 by FoxM1 and their functional study was investigated in vivo and in vitro.
RESULTS: ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 were upregulated in tumors compared with matched non-cancerous tissues. IHC analysis revealed increased expression of ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 in HC cells, and ADAM17 seems to be an independent prognostic factor. ADAM-17 is regulated by FoxM1. A decrease in the expression of ADAM-17 by silencing FoxM1 led to an inhibition of cell proliferation, tumor growth, and the production of tumor necrosis factor α. IHC analysis showed co-expression of FoxM1 and ADAM-17 in HC specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study show an important role of the cross-talk among FoxM1, ADAM-17, and TNFa in HC development and progression.

Wang G, Bi C
Correlations of pri-Let-7 gene polymorphisms with the recurrence and metastasis of primary liver cancer after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(5):667-672 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNAs could change their production or affinity with target genes, thus leading to malignant diseases. This study aims to explore correlations of pri-let-7 gene polymorphisms with the recurrence and metastasis of primary liver cancer (PLC) after a transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) surgical procedure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 302 PLC patients treated with hepatoprotective therapies after TACE were selected to and assigned into recurrent and non-recurrent groups. Genotypes of pri-let-7a-1 rs1073997 and pri-let-7a-2 rs629367 were analyzed by Taqman assay. The relationship between PLC with the mutation of each SNP was determined by a multivariate logistic regression analyses. Moreover, the association between survival and pri-let-7 gene polymorphisms was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Progress Free Survival (PFS) curve, correlation of pri-let-7a-1 rs629367 with alcohol, HBsAg-positive and TNM III/IV were analyzed by a stratified analysis. Additionally, the risk factors for the recurrence of PLC were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Results showed that the allelic frequency of the pri-let-7a-2 rs629367 SNP in the recurrent group was higher than that of the non-recurrent group. The distribution of CC genotype was significantly higher than non-CC genotype in the recurrent group. Alcohol consumption, positive expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), AC + CC genotype of rs629367 and TNM III/IV were determined to be the risk factors for the recurrence and metastasis of PLC after TACE. We found a positive correlation between pri-let-7a-2 rs629367 with alcohol consumption, HBsAg-positive and TNM III/IV. The median PFS of HBsAg-positive and TNM III/IV patients with the AC + CC genotype of rs629367 was shorter than those with non-AC + CC genotype.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that patients with PLC that carry the AC + CC genotype of pri-let-7a-2 rs629367 after TACE have a worse prognosis than those who carry the AA genotype. We speculate that the pri-let-7 rs629367 SNP could be used as a predictor of recurrence and metastasis after TACE for patients with PLC.

Schmidt S, Schumacher N, Schwarz J, et al.
ADAM17 is required for EGF-R-induced intestinal tumors via IL-6 trans-signaling.
J Exp Med. 2018; 215(4):1205-1225 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is treated with antibodies blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), but therapeutic success is limited. EGF-R is stimulated by soluble ligands, which are derived from transmembrane precursors by ADAM17-mediated proteolytic cleavage. In mouse intestinal cancer models in the absence of ADAM17, tumorigenesis was almost completely inhibited, and the few remaining tumors were of low-grade dysplasia. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated down-regulation of STAT3 and Wnt pathway components. Because EGF-R on myeloid cells, but not on intestinal epithelial cells, is required for intestinal cancer and because IL-6 is induced via EGF-R stimulation, we analyzed the role of IL-6 signaling. Tumor formation was equally impaired in IL-6

Hu B, Meng X, Zhang Y, et al.
Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of ADAM17 inhibits the growth of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells in vitro and in vivo and its mechanism of action.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1640-1648 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is highly expressed in many malignant tumors and is closely related to their development. We showed in a previous study that silencing of ADAM17 by siRNA inhibited the growth of MCF‑7 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ADAM17-short hairpin RNA (ADAM17‑shRNA) on MCF‑7 breast cancer cells and explored the potential action pathway. In vitro, transfection of shRNAs was performed using a lentivirus, and the effects of ADAM17‑shRNA on invasion, proliferation and cell cycle distribution of MCF‑7 cells were assessed by Boyden chamber method, real‑time cell analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. In vivo, MCF‑7 cells with different administrations were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice, and the effect of ADAM17‑shRNA on the growth of transplanted tumors was assessed. In addition, the morphological structures were observed by H&E staining, and the expression of ADAM17 and Ki‑67 was assessed by immunohistochemistry; expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p‑EGFR, AKT, p‑AKT, ERK and p‑ERK proteins was assessed by western blotting, respectively. Our data showed that ADAM17‑shRNA successfully inhibited ADAM17 mRNA expression, invasion and proliferation of MCF‑7 cells resulting in G0/G1 phase arrest, and significantly inhibited the growth of transplanted tumors with larger areas of necrosis, low expression of ADAM17 and Ki-67 and reduced protein expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p‑EGFR, AKT, p‑AKT, ERK, and p‑ERK in the tumor tissues. The present research suggests that ADAM17‑shRNA can inhibit MCF‑7 cell invasion and proliferation in vitro and inhibit MCF‑7 xenograft growth in vivo through the EGFR/PI3K/AKT and EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling pathways.

Walkiewicz K, Nowakowska-Zajdel E, Strzelczyk J, et al.
Serum levels of ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM17 AND ADAM28 in colorectal cancer patients.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 Oct-Dec; 31(4):929-934 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world. Our study analyzed the potential significance of serum levels of selected adamalysines (ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM17, ADAM28) in colorectal cancer patients. The study was performed on a group of 85 colorectal cancer patients (48 men, 37 women). Serum protein concentrations were measured by ELISA. The ADAMs serum level changes were analyzed according to selected clinical parameters (BMI, sex, age, clinical stage of disease). The following ranges of concentration of analyzed proteins were obtained: ADAM10 min=1.7, max=321.8 [ng/ml]; ADAM12 min=0.6, max=26.7 [ng/ml]; ADAM17 min=0.4, max=9.8 [ng/ml]; ADAM28 min=17.1, max=1545.8 [ng/ml]. In addition, it was stated that there is a relationship between the serum level of ADAM28 and the degree of the clinical stage (p less than 0.04). The obtained results could be the starting point for further research into the role of adamalysines in the development of colorectal cancer, as well as the potential predictive and prognostic value of these proteins.

Ni JY, Kong J, Sun HL, et al.
Prognostic Factors for Survival After Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Sorafenib in the Treatment of BCLC Stage B and C Hepatocellular Carcinomas.
Acad Radiol. 2018; 25(4):423-429 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for survival after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages B and C.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 198 patients with BCLC stage B and C HCCs who underwent TACE combined with sorafenib between June 2012 and January 2017 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Survival curves were detected using log-rank test. Univariate analysis was performed using log-rank test with respect to 11 prognostic factors potentially affecting survival. All statistically significant prognostic factors identified by univariate analysis were entered into a Cox proportion hazards regression model to identify independent predictors of survival. P values were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: By the end of this study, the median follow-up duration was 43.6 months. The median overall survival (OS) of the patients was 21.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.94-25.05), and the 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year OS rates were 72%, 43%, 28%, and 4%, respectively. Tumor size (χ
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that extrahepatic spread was a risk factor, and sorafenib treatment and superior BCLC stage were protective factors. Therefore, the study indicated that TACE combined with sorafenib was an effective and safe treatment for patients with BCLC stage B HCC without extrahepatic spread.

Gerlach JC, Foka HG, Thompson RL, et al.
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule fragments and signaling in primary human liver cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(6):4841-4851 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, is a trans-membrane glycoprotein expressed by multiple normal epithelia as well as carcinoma. Human hepatic stem cells and bile duct epithelium of the liver are EpCAM positive. In tumor cell lines, its intracellular domain can be released after cleavage of the extracellular domain. Within the cell nucleus, it induces cell proliferation, but cleavage depends on cell contact. Fragments of various lengths have been described in tumor cells. Despite its described important role in proliferation in tumor cells, there is not much known about the expression and role of EpCAM fragments in primary human liver cells. Here, we demonstrate that EpCAM protein fragments and function are considerable different between tumor cells, normal fetal and adult liver cells. Contrary to previously reported findings in tumor cells, gene knockdown or treatment with an inhibitor of the cleavage enzyme ADAM17 (TACE) rather increased cell numbers in primary human fetal liver-derived EpCAM-positive cells. EpCAM fragment sizes were not affected by treatment with inhibitor. Knockdown of EPCAM gene expression by siRNA in sorted cells did not significantly affect proliferation-associated genes or cell numbers. The intracellular domain could not be detected within cell nuclei of fetal and adult liver cells. In conclusion, signaling through the intracellular domain of EpCAM appears to be a mechanism that induces proliferation specifically in tumorigenic cells but not in normal primary EpCAM-positive liver cells.

Hu Z, Huang P, Zhou Z, et al.
Aggressive intrahepatic therapies for synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2018; 20(6):729-739 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prognosis of synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with pulmonary metastasis (PM) was poor, while aggressive intrahepatic therapies remained controversial. This study aimed to investigate the significance of aggressive intrahepatic therapies for synchronous PM-HCC.
METHODS: Synchronous PM-HCC patients were retrospectively enrolled from Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University during January 2000 and December 2015. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to investigate the prognostic factors. Patients were grouped according to different HCC treatment modalities including liver resection (LR), ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), systemic therapy (ST, systemic chemotherapy or sorafenib) and supportive care (SC). Case control studies were achieved using propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to further investigate the significance of LR, ablation and TACE.
RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were enrolled, and the median overall survival (OS) was 4.5 months. Serum alpha fetal protein (AFP) ≥ 400 ng/ml, multiple HCC lesions and no intrahepatic therapies (LR/Ablation/TACE) were inferior independent prognostic factors. Patients were divided into LR group (n = 9), Ablation/TACE group (n = 24) and ST/SC group (n = 48). After PSM analysis, survival outcome was superior in LR group compared to Ablation/TACE group (19.6 vs. 6.9 months) (p = 0.023) or ST/SC group (19.6 vs. 2.8 months) (p = 0.034), while no significant difference was found between -Ablation/TACE and ST/SC group (5.1 vs. 3.2 months) (p = 0.338).
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of synchronous PM-HCC patients was poor. Serum AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml, multiple HCC lesions and no aggressive intrahepatic therapies were inferior prognostic factors. LR might provide survival benefits in well-selected patients, while the significance of ablation or TACE remained to be further investigated.

Wilson JL, Kefaloyianni E, Stopfer L, et al.
Functional Genomics Approach Identifies Novel Signaling Regulators of TGFα Ectodomain Shedding.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(1):147-161 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ectodomain shedding of cell-surface precursor proteins by metalloproteases generates important cellular signaling molecules. Of importance for disease is the release of ligands that activate the EGFR, such as TGFα, which is mostly carried out by ADAM17 [a member of the A-disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) domain family]. EGFR ligand shedding has been linked to many diseases, in particular cancer development, growth and metastasis, as well as resistance to cancer therapeutics. Excessive EGFR ligand release can outcompete therapeutic EGFR inhibition or the inhibition of other growth factor pathways by providing bypass signaling via EGFR activation. Drugging metalloproteases directly have failed clinically because it indiscriminately affected shedding of numerous substrates. It is therefore essential to identify regulators for EGFR ligand cleavage. Here, integration of a functional shRNA genomic screen, computational network analysis, and dedicated validation tests succeeded in identifying several key signaling pathways as novel regulators of TGFα shedding in cancer cells. Most notably, a cluster of genes with NFκB pathway regulatory functions was found to strongly influence TGFα release, albeit independent of their NFκB regulatory functions. Inflammatory regulators thus also govern cancer cell growth-promoting ectodomain cleavage, lending mechanistic understanding to the well-known connection between inflammation and cancer.

Ni JY, Sun HL, Chen YT, et al.
Drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment for unresectable soft tissue sarcoma refractory to systemic chemotherapy: a preliminary evaluation of efficacy and safety.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(1):157-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To preliminarily evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for unresectable soft tissue sarcoma refractory to systemic chemotherapy.
METHODS: Ten patients with refractory sarcoma who underwent DEB-TACE therapy between January 2015 and January 2017 were identified. Clinical information and radiological data were retrospectively collected to analyze tumor response, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival and adverse events (AEs). Tumor response to DEB-TACE was assessed with modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) guidelines applied to computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
RESULTS: All DEB-TACE procedures were successfully performed for ten patients with 15 tumor lesions. The median follow-up duration was 19 months and the median survival time was 21 months (range 11-30 months). The 1- and 2-year OS rate was 90 and 30%, respectively. According to the guidance of mRECIST, complete response, partial response, stable disease and progressive disease were noted in zero (0%), three (30%), four (40%) and three (30%) patients, respectively. The disease control rate and objective response rate was 70 and 30%, respectively. There were no serious AEs in patients after DEB-TACE.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that DEB-TACE was effective and safe for patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Therefore, DEB-TACE can be considered as an alternative treatment option for unresectable soft tissue sarcoma refractory to conventionally systemic chemotherapy.

Li YQ, Liu YS, Ying XW, et al.
Lentivirus-mediated disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 RNA interference reversed the acquired resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.
Biotechnol Prog. 2018; 34(1):196-205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of silencing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) gene expression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in the gefitinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells, and then to explore whether the recombinant lentivirus mediated ADAM17 RNAi reversed the acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinoma to gefitinib in vitro.
METHODS: The gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells were established and the mutations of EGFR were detected by gene sequencing. The ADAM17 shRNA expression vectors were constructed and packaged to recombinant lentivirus. The cell proliferation viability was detected by MTT, and cellular apotosis was analyzed by flow cytometry assay. The expression levels of ADAM17, EGFR and the phosphorylated EGFR were respectively detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. TGF-α production in the supernatant was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: The gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells in which mutated EGFR (exon 20) carried 790T > T/M mutation were established. When the concentrations of gefitinib were less than 10μmol/L, there were no significant changes in the apoptosis and cellular proliferation of RPC-9 with the dose-escalation of gefitinib. The cell proliferation viability of RPC-9 was significantly decreased by lentivirus mediated ADAM17 RNAi (P < 0.05). Gefitinib did not inhibit ADAM17 expression in both the gefitinib-sensitive PC-9 and gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells (P > 0.05). Gefitinib had no significant effects on TGF alpha production in the supernatants (P > 0.05). Gefitinib did not inhibit EGFR expression in gefitinib-sensitive PC-9 and gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells (P > 0.05). The phosphorylation of EGFR in gefitinib-sensitive PC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by gefitinib (P < 0.05), but that in gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 could not be inhibited by gefitinib (P > 0.05). Lentivirus mediated ADAM17 RNAi significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of ADAM17 in gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells (P < 0.05), as well as TGF alpha production in the supernatants (P < 0.05). Also, the phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in gefitinib-resistant RPC-9 cells by lentivirus mediated ADAM17 RNAi (P < 0.05); however, the mRNA and protein expression of EGFR could not be inhibited.
CONCLUSION: Lentivirus mediated ADAM17 RNAi may reverse the acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinoma to gefitinib via inhibiting the upstream of EGFR signal pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic target to solve the acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung adenocarcinoma. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:196-205, 2018.

Wang JH, Zhong XP, Zhang YF, et al.
Cezanne predicts progression and adjuvant TACE response in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(9):e3043 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously reported that Cezanne could be a prognostic biomarker for survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of Cezanne genes in HCC cells and its response to postoperative adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in HCC patients remains unknown. In this study, Cezanne expression was detected in human HCC using real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The function of Cezanne in HCC cells was determined by Transwell invasion assays and nude mice metastasis assay. The response of Cezanne in patients who received adjuvant TACE after hepatectomy was evaluated. Functional study demonstrated that interference of Cezanne expression promoted the migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and boosted metastasized HCC formation in mice. Upregulation of Cezanne diminished the adhesion and migration of hepatoma cells. Further study indicated that Cezanne might inhibit invasion of HCC cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, patients with low Cezanne expression had significant improvement in prognosis after receiving adjuvant TACE. In contrast, patients with high Cezanne expression had a poorer response to adjuvant TACE. Moreover, Cezanne status was associated with response to adjuvant TACE in patients subgroup stratified by vascular invasion, tumor size and tumor number. In conclusion, Cezanne may be a novel antioncogene that has a pivotal role in the invasion of HCC and contribute to the selection of patients who may benefit from adjuvant TACE to prevent recurrence.

Park GB, Kim D
Insulin-like growth factor-1 activates different catalytic subunits p110 of PI3K in a cell-type-dependent manner to induce lipogenesis-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the regulation of ADAM10 and ADAM17.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018; 439(1-2):199-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) is critical for the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The activation of intracellular lipogenesis provides proliferative and survival signals for cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the connection between lipogenesis-related EMT processes and IGF-1-mediated PI3K p110 isoform activation in primary (SW480 cells) and metastatic (SW620) colon carcinoma cells. We also examined the underlying signaling pathway that promotes fatty acid synthesis in IGF-1-activated colon cancer cells. IGF-1 stimulation upregulated the expression of lipogenic enzymes as well as the activation of Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase, NRD1) and its downstream targets, a disintegrin and metalloproteases 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17. The upregulation of the Lyn/Syk-mediated PI3K p110δ isoform in SW480 cells and the Lyn-dependent PI3K p110α isoform in SW620 cells triggered fatty acid production and cell motility in IGF-1-activated colon cancer cells. Pharmacological inhibition with A66 (PI3K p110α specific inhibitor) and CAL-101 (PI3K p110δ specific inhibitor) efficiently inhibited EMT in colon cancer cells by blocking the NRD1/ADAM family protein signaling pathway. Gene silencing of NRD1 and ADAM family proteins attenuated the generation of intracellular fatty acid and the migratory activity of colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that the different isoforms of the PI3K p110 subunit could be therapeutic targets for primary and metastatic colon cancer and that regulation of the NRD1/ADAM signaling pathway controls lipogenesis-mediated EMT in IGF-1-stimulated colon cancer cells.

Friedlander P, Wassmann K, Christenfeld AM, et al.
Whole-blood RNA transcript-based models can predict clinical response in two large independent clinical studies of patients with advanced melanoma treated with the checkpoint inhibitor, tremelimumab.
J Immunother Cancer. 2017; 5(1):67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tremelimumab is an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 and demonstrates clinical efficacy in a subset of advanced melanoma patients. An unmet clinical need exists for blood-based response-predictive gene signatures to facilitate clinically effective and cost-efficient use of such immunotherapeutic interventions.
METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected in PAXgene® tubes from 210 treatment-naïve melanoma patients receiving tremelimumab in a worldwide, multicenter phase III study (discovery dataset). A central panel of radiologists determined objective response using RECIST criteria. Gene expression for 169 mRNA transcripts was measured using quantitative PCR. A 15-gene pre-treatment response-predictive classifier model was identified. An independent population (N = 150) of refractory melanoma patients receiving tremelimumab after chemotherapy enrolled in a worldwide phase II study (validation dataset). The classifier model, using the same genes, coefficients and constants for objective response and one-year survival after treatment, was applied to the validation dataset.
RESULTS: A 15-gene pre-treatment classifier model (containing ADAM17, CDK2, CDKN2A, DPP4, ERBB2, HLA-DRA, ICOS, ITGA4, LARGE, MYC, NAB2, NRAS, RHOC, TGFB1, and TIMP1) achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.91, p < 0.0001) for objective response and 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.67, p = 0.0066) for one-year survival in the discovery set. This model was validated in the validation set with AUCs of 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.70 p = 0.0455) for objective response and 0.68 for one-year survival (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.75 p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest blood-based biomarker study of a checkpoint inhibitor, tremelimumab, which demonstrates a validated pre-treatment mRNA classifier model that predicts clinical response. The data suggest that the model captures a biological signature representative of genes needed for a robust anti-cancer immune response. It also identifies non-responders to tremelimumab at baseline prior to treatment.

Bredemeier M, Edimiris P, Mach P, et al.
Gene Expression Signatures in Circulating Tumor Cells Correlate with Response to Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Clin Chem. 2017; 63(10):1585-1593 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are thought to be an ideal surrogate marker to monitor disease progression in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We investigated the prediction of treatment response in CTCs of MBC patients on the basis of the expression of 46 genes.
METHODS: From 45 MBC patients and 20 healthy donors (HD), 2 × 5 mL of blood was collected at the time of disease progression (TP0) and at 2 consecutive clinical staging time points (TP1 and TP2) to proceed with the AdnaTest
RESULTS: The CTC positivity was defined by the four-gene signature (

Cao Y, Shi H, Ren F, et al.
Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 promotes metastasis and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 359(1):185-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we reported that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CCAT1 was upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues, and was associated with FIGO stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of EOC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CCAT1 was an independent prognostic indicator. While CCAT1 downregulation inhibited EOC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion, CCAT1 upregulation promoted EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. We further identified and confirmed that miR-152 and miR-130b were the targets of CCAT1, and CCAT1 functioned by targeting miR-152 and miR-130b. Subsequently, ADAM17 and WNT1, and STAT3 and ZEB1 were confirmed to be the targets of miR-152 and miR-130b, respectively, and could be regulated by CCAT1 in EOC cells. Knockdown of anyone of these four proteins inhibited EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study first revealed a critical role of CCAT1-miR-152/miR-130b-ADAM17/WNT1/STAT3/ZEB1 regulatory network in EOC cell metastasis. These findings provide great insights into EOC initiation and progression, and novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis for EOC.

Yang S, Wang XQ
XLF-mediated NHEJ activity in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy resistance.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):344 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA repair pathways are used by cancer cells to overcome many standard anticancer treatments, causing therapy resistance. Here, we investigated the role of XRCC4-like factor (XLF), a core member of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, in chemoresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis and western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of genes and proteins related to NHEJ. NHEJ repair capacity was assessed in vitro (cell-free) and in vivo by monitoring the activity of the NHEJ pathway. Cell viability and IC50 assays were used to measure sensitivity to drug therapy. A xenograft HCC model was used to develop methods of targeting XLF-induced chemosensitization. Clinicopathological analysis was conducted on patients with HCC treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
RESULTS: Many conventional cancer chemotherapeutics induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). HCC cells respond to these breaks by increasing their NHEJ activity, resulting in resistance. XLF-knockdown cells show an inhibition of NHEJ activity in both cell-free and live-cell assays as well as a high level of unrepaired cellular DSBs. These results indicate that XLF facilitates DNA end-joining and therefore promotes NHEJ activity in cancer cells. Consequently, knockdown of XLF significantly chemosensitized resistant cells both in vitro and in xenograft tumors. A low rate of XLF genomic alteration was found in patients with primary HCC, but XLF expression was induced after drug treatment. Clinically, a high level of XLF expression is significantly associated with advanced HCC and shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-induced overexpression of XLF and XLF-mediated enhancements in NHEJ activity contribute to chemoresistance in HCC cells and patients with HCC. Targeting XLF to modulate DSB repair could enhance drug sensitivity and may be a therapeutically useful addition to conventional therapy.

Zhao ZW, Fan XX, Song JJ, et al.
ShRNA knock-down of CXCR7 inhibits tumour invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(9):1989-1999 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To investigate the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated shRNA suppressing CXCR7 on tumour invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). HCCLM3 cell lines were cultured and assigned into the CXCR7-shRNA, negative control (NC) and blank groups. The qRT-PCR and Western blotting were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR7, CXCR4 and MMP-2 in HCCLM3 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated by MTT and Transwell assays. A Buffalo rat model of HCC was established. Fifty model rats were divided into the CXCR7-shRNA + TACE, CXCR7-shRNA, TACE, NC and control groups. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expressions of CXCR7, MMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intratumoral CD31-positive vessel count in tumour tissues of mice. Compared with the blank and NC groups, the mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR7 and MMP-2 were decreased in the CXCR7-shRNA group. The cell proliferation and invasion rates of the CXCR7-shRNA group were lower than the blank and NC groups. At the 4th week after TACE, tumour weight of the CXCR7-shRNA + TACE group increased continuously. The CXCR7-shRNA + TACE group showed longer survival time and smaller tumour sizes than other groups. Compared with other groups, the CXCR7-shRNA + TACE and CXCR7-shRNA groups had less number of lung metastatic nodules and lower expressions of CXCR7, MMP-2, VEGF and CD31-positive vessel count. CXCR7-shRNA inhibits tumour invasion and metastasis to improve the efficacy of TACE in HCC by reducing the expressions of CXCR7, MMP-2 and VEGF.

Raneros AB, Minguela A, Rodriguez RM, et al.
Increasing TIMP3 expression by hypomethylating agents diminishes soluble MICA, MICB and ULBP2 shedding in acute myeloid leukemia, facilitating NK cell-mediated immune recognition.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):31959-31976 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease with great morphological and genetic heterogeneity, which complicates its prognosis and treatment. The hypomethylating agents azacitidine (Vidaza®, AZA) and decitabine (Dacogen®, DAC) have been approved for the treatment of AML patients, but their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the recognition of AML blasts through the interaction of the activating NKG2D receptor with its ligands (NKG2DL: MICA/B and ULBPs1-3). However, soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) can be released from the cell surface, impairing immune recognition. Here, we examined whether hypomethylating agents modulate the release of sNKG2DL from AML cells. Results demonstrated that AZA- and DAC-treated AML cells reduce the release of sNKG2DL, preventing downregulation of NKG2D receptor on the cell surface and promoting immune recognition mediated by NKG2D-NKG2DL engagement. We show that the shedding of MICA, MICB and ULBP2 is inhibited by the increased expression of TIMP3, an ADAM17 inhibitor, after DAC treatment. The TIMP3 gene is highly methylated in AML cells lines and in AML patients (25.5%), in which it is significantly associated with an adverse cytogenetic prognosis of the disease. Overall, TIMP3 could be a target of the demethylating treatments in AML patients, leading to a decrease in MICA, MICB and ULBP2 shedding and the enhancement of the lytic activity of NK cells through the immune recognition mediated by the NKG2D receptor.

Ishimoto T, Miyake K, Nandi T, et al.
Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Signaling in Gastric Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Increases Their Motility, via Expression of Rhomboid 5 Homolog 2, and Ability to Induce Invasiveness of Gastric Cancer Cells.
Gastroenterology. 2017; 153(1):191-204.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns.
METHODS: We isolated CAFs and adjacent non-cancer fibroblasts (NFs) from 110 gastric cancer (GC) tissues from patients who underwent gastrectomy in Japan from 2008 through 2016. Cells were identified using specific markers of various cell types by immunoblot and flow cytometry. We selected pairs of CAFs and NFs for whole-exome and RNA sequencing analyses, and compared expression of specific genes using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Protein levels and phosphorylation were compared by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses. Rhomboid 5 homolog 2 (RHBDF2) was overexpressed from a transgene in fibroblasts or knocked down using small interfering RNAs. Motility and invasiveness of isolated fibroblasts and GC cell lines (AGS, KATOIII, MKN45, NUGC3, NUGC4, OCUM-2MD3 and OCUM-12 cell lines) were quantified by real-time imaging analyses. We analyzed 7 independent sets of DNA microarray data from patients with GC and associated expression levels of specific genes with patient survival times. Nude mice were given injections of OCUM-2MD3 in the stomach wall; tumors and metastases were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Many of the genes with increased expression in CAFs compared with NFs were associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) activity. When CAFs were cultured in extracellular matrix, they became more motile than NFs; DGC cells incubated with CAFs were also more motile and invasive in vitro than DGC cells not incubated with CAFs. When injected into nude mice, CAF-incubated DGC cells invaded a greater number of lymphatic vessels than NF-incubated DGC cells. We identified RHBDF2 as a gene overexpressed in CAFs compared with NFs. Knockdown of RHBDF2 in CAFs reduced their elongation and motility in response to TGFB1, whereas overexpression of RHBDF2 in NFs increased their motility in extracellular matrix. RHBDF2 appeared to regulate oncogenic and non-canonical TGFB1 signaling. Knockdown of RHBDF2 in CAFs reduced cleavage of the TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) by ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17 or TACE) and reduced expression of genes that regulate motility. Incubation of NFs with in interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A), IL1B or tumor necrosis factor, secreted by DGCs, increased fibroblast expression of RHBDF2. Simultaneous high expression of these cytokines in GC samples was associated with shorter survival times of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In CAFs isolated from human DGCs, we observed increased expression of RHBDF2, which regulates TGFB1 signaling. Expression of RHBDF2 in fibroblasts is induced by inflammatory cytokines (such as IL1A, IL1B, and tumor necrosis factor) secreted by DGCs. RHBDF2 promotes cleavage of TGFBR1 by activating TACE and motility of CAFs in response to TGFB1. These highly motile CAFs induce DGCs to invade extracellular matrix and lymphatic vessels in nude mice.

Verset L, Tommelein J, Decaestecker C, et al.
ADAM-17/FHL2 colocalisation suggests interaction and role of these proteins in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317695024 [PubMed] Related Publications
FHL2 is a multifunctional scaffolding protein; its expression is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. ADAM-17 is a metalloprotease implicated in ectodomain shedding. FHL2 regulates ADAM-17 plasma membrane localisation, and FHL2 deficiency leads to decreased activity of ADAM-17 in mouse macrophages. Presence and relationship of the ADAM-17/FHL2 complex with colorectal cancer progression is unknown. We studied FHL2 and ADAM-17 expression in several colon cancer cell lines by immunocytochemistry and western blot. To highlight the interaction between both molecules, we used the Duolink

Ma S, Yang J, Song C, et al.
Expression quantitative trait loci for PAX8 contributes to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0173700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paired-box family member PAX8 encodes a transcription factor that has a role in cell differentiation and cell growth and may participate in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By bioinformatics analysis, we identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a newly identified long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) AC016683.6 as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for PAX8. Hence, we hypothesized that PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 may influence the HCC prognosis. We then performed a case-only study to assess the association between the two SNPs as well as the prognosis of HCC in 331 HBV-positive HCC patients without surgical treatment. Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis with adjustments for the age, gender, smoking status, drinking status, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and chemotherapy or TACE (transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization) status. We found that the G allele of rs1110839 and the T allele of rs4848320 in PAX8was significantly associated with a better prognosis compared with the T allele of rs1110839 and the C allele of rs4848320 (adjusted HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91, P = 0.004 for rs1110839 and adjusted HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54-0.94, P = 0.015 for rs4848320 in the additive model). Furthermore, the combined effect of the variant genotypes for these two SNPs was more prominent in patients with the BCLC-C stage orpatients with chemotherapy or TACE. Although the exact biological function remains to be explored, our findings suggest a possible association of PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 with the HCC prognosis inthe Chinese population. Further large and functional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

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