Gene Summary

Gene:AICDA; activation induced cytidine deaminase
Aliases: AID, ARP2, CDA2, HIGM2, HEL-S-284
Summary:This gene encodes a RNA-editing deaminase that is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. The protein is involved in somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class-switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive hyper-IgM immunodeficiency syndrome type 2 (HIGM2). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Risk Factors
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Skin Cancer
  • Cytidine Deaminase
  • Translocation
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Transcription
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Mutation
  • Viral Core Proteins
  • Xenograft Models
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Splenic Neoplasms
  • TNF
  • Messenger RNA
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Uridine
  • Pyrimidines
  • Twist-Related Protein 1
  • Uracil
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome 12
  • Transfection
  • Cancer RNA
  • Up-Regulation
  • VDJ Exons
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • Young Adult
  • p53 Protein
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AICDA (cancer-related)

Neill SG, Saxe DF, Rossi MR, et al.
Genomic Analysis in the Practice of Surgical Neuropathology: The Emory Experience.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2017; 141(3):355-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
The evaluation of central nervous system tumors increasingly relies on molecular genetic methods to aid in classification, offer prognostic information, and predict response to therapy. Available assays make it possible to assess genetic losses, amplifications, translocations, mutations, or the expression levels of specific gene transcripts or proteins. Current molecular diagnostics frequently use a panel-based approach and whole genome analysis, and generally rely either on DNA sequencing or on hybridization-based methodologies, such as those used in cytogenomic microarrays. In some cases, immunohistochemistry can be used as a surrogate for genetic analysis when the mutation of interest consistently results in overexpression or underexpression of a known protein product. In surgical neuropathology practice, the diagnostic workup of diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas, low-grade circumscribed gliomas, as well as other diseases, now routinely incorporates the results of genomic studies. Here we summarize our institution's current approach to diagnostic surgical neuropathology, using these contemporary molecular diagnostic applications.

Xu W, Zhao J, Zhu Y, Zhang W
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONAL: Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) is believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic disease, with disorders in multisystem organs. Its characteristic neurological disorders manifested on neuroimaging are a triad of leukoencephalopathy, intracranial calcifications, and parenchymal cysts. In this paper, we report a CRMCC patient with multisystem involvement, focusing on the neuroimaging features, to get a better understanding of the rare disease and improve our diagnostic ability.
PATIENT CONCERNS: The 23-year-old female patient firstly presented with an adolescence onset of ophthalmological manifestations. Four years later, hematological and neurological disorders occurred, the latter of which demonstrated a relatively slow progression in the following 7 years preceding her presentation to our hospital.
INTERVENTIONS: During hospitalization, disorders involving digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems were also detected. In addition, a more comprehensive depiction of neurological disorders on neuroimaging was also obtained.
DIAGNOSES: On the basis of multiple system disorders and the detection of mutations in conserved telomere maintenance component 1(CTC1) gene, a diagnosis of CRMCC was made.
OUTCOMES: After supportive therapy during her 4-week hospitalization, the patient's general condition improved and was released from the hospital.
LESSONS: CRMCC could be primarily diagnosed with the aid of its multiple system disorders and remarkable neuroimaging features. Cerebral micro hemorrhages determined by the combination of CT and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images in our case could provide some additional information for diagnosis. Furthermore, several other associated disorders were depicted for the first time in our case, expanding the clinical spectrum of CRMCC.

Paschke L, Jopek K, Szyszka M, et al.
ZFP91: A Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway Regulator with Oncogenic Properties Is Overexpressed in Prostate Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6963582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel molecular targets are being searched to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, ZFP91 zinc finger protein has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines. It is a potentially important oncogenic protein; however only limited data regarding its biological function and expression patterns are available. To date, ZFP91 has been shown to be a key factor in activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as well as to be involved in HIF-1α signaling in cancer cells. The present study aimed to characterize ZFP91 expression in prostate cancer specimens. Furthermore, since our earlier reports showed discrepancies between ZFP91 mRNA and protein levels, we studied this interrelationship in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines using siRNA mediated knockdown. QPCR analysis revealed marked upregulation of ZFP91 mRNA in the majority of prostate cancer specimens. Transfection of prostate cancer cells with ZFP91 siRNA resulted in a 10-fold decrease in mRNA levels. On a protein level, however, no inhibitory effect was observed over the time of the cell culture. We conclude that ZFP91 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and that potential accumulation of the ZFP91 protein in studied cells may be of importance in prostate cancer biology.

Koo KM, Wee EJ, Trau M
High-speed biosensing strategy for non-invasive profiling of multiple cancer fusion genes in urine.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2017; 89(Pt 2):715-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant chromosal rearrangements, such as the multiple variants of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene mutations in prostate cancer (PCa), are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers due to their specific expression in cancerous tissue only. Additionally, TMPRSS2:ERG variants are detectable in urine to provide non-invasive PCa diagnostic sampling as an attractive surrogate for needle biopsies. Therefore, rapid and simplistic assays for identifying multiple urinary TMPRSS2:ERG variants are potentially useful to aid in early cancer detection, immediate patient risk stratification, and prompt personalized treatment. However, current strategies for simultaneous detection of multiple gene fusions are limited by tedious and prolonged experimental protocols, thus limiting their use as rapid clinical screening tools. Herein, we report a simple and rapid gene fusion strategy which expliots the specificity of DNA ligase and the speed of isothermal amplification to simultaneously detect multiple fusion gene RNAs within a short sample-to-answer timeframe of 60min. The method has a low detection limit of 2 amol (1000 copies), and was successfully applied for non-invasive fusion gene profiling in patient urine samples with subsequent validation by a PCR-based gold standard approach.

Pu K, Li C, Zhang N, et al.
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule independent capture of non-small lung carcinoma cells with peptide modified microfluidic chip.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2017; 89(Pt 2):927-931 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) present in the blood of patients with non-hematological cancers are accessible sources for diagnosis and monitoring of cancers. By the aid of the ability of the anti-EpCAM antibody to recognize the epithelial cells, microsystem-based technologies provide robust means for effectively detecting CTCs in vitro. Considering the EpCAM expression is down-regulated during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, the amount of CTCs detected based on anti-EpCAM antibody is underestimated. In our study, the A549 cells targeting peptide (A-1 peptide), as the substitute of anti-EpCAM antibody, was introduced to microfluidic chip to capture A549 cells. Our results showed that both epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like A549 cells could efficiently be captured by the A-1 peptide modified microfluidic chip, and the capture efficiency for epithelial-like cells is comparable to that captured by the EpCAM antibody. Thus, we concluded that the peptide could be a better supplement to the EpCAM antibody for capturing CTCs in microfluidic system with broader spectrum.

Kumpiro S, Sriuranpong V, Areepium N
Impact of the Copper Transporter Protein 1 (CTR1) Polymorphism on Adverse Events among Advanced NonSmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with a Carboplatin/Gemcitabine Regimen.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(9):4391-4394 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based regimens are effective treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the five-year survival rate is still less than 20%. One possible factor appears to be resistance involving polymorphisms in the CTR1 gene which plays an importance role in accumulation of platinum in the cytoplasm.
PURPOSE: To establish both prevalence of CTR1 polymorphism and its impact on treatment related toxicity in Thai advanced NSCLC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two advanced NSCLC participants received carboplatin and gemcitabine during January to June 2016 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) were recruited for analysis of the CTR1 rs12686377 genotype. These participants were planning to be treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles.
RESULTS: Allele frequency of CTR1 polymorphism G?T was found to be 25%. The results showed that genetic polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 was associated with emesis side effects (P = 0.020) and neuropathic symptoms (P = 0.010). In addition, hematologic side effects in terms of anemia also tended to be related to this polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study suggesting that polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 may be associated with toxicity from platinum-based regimens. Therefore, it could be a factor to aid in treatment decision-making.

Pavlikova L, Seres M, Imrichova D, et al.
The expression of P-gp in leukemia cells is associated with cross-resistance to protein N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin.
Gen Physiol Biophys. 2016; 35(4):497-510 [PubMed] Related Publications
In P-gp-positive cell variants obtained from L1210 cells either by selection with vincristine (L1210/R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (L1210/T), we have previously described cross-resistance to tunicamycin (TNM), a protein N-glycosylation inhibitor. Here we studied whether this cross-resistance also underlies P-gp-positive variants of human acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML) derived from SKM-1 and MOLM-13 cells (SKM-1/VCR, SKM-1/LEN, MOLM-13/VCR) by selection with vincristine (VCR) and lenalidomide (LEN). While SKM-1/LEN cells were P-gp positive, no P-gp was detected in MOLM-13/LEN cells. P-gp-positive cells could be repeatedly passaged in medium containing TNM. In contrast, more than 90% of P-gp-negative cells were entering and progressing through cell death mechanisms after the third passage in medium containing TNM. Combined apoptosis/necrosis cell death was detected in L1210 cells after exposure to TNM. Passaging of P-gp-negative AML cells in medium containing TNM induced preferentially apoptosis. Damage to P-gp-negative cells induced with TNM was associated with arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. P-gp-positive leukemia cells differed from P-gp-negative cells in the composition of plasma membrane glycoproteins, which we monitored with the aid of different lectins. The application of TNM to cells induced additional changes in membrane-linked glycosides.

Kammerer S, Jahn SW, Winter E, et al.
Critical evaluation of KCNJ3 gene product detection in human breast cancer: mRNA in situ hybridisation is superior to immunohistochemistry.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(12):1116-1121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression levels of KCNJ3 have been correlated with lymph node metastases and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, suggesting a prognostic role of KCNJ3 We aimed to establish protocols for the detection of KCNJ3 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissue. Several antibodies were tested for sensitivity and specificity by western blot, followed by optimisation of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure and establishment of KCNJ3 mRNA in situ hybridisation (ISH). Methods were validated by processing 15 FFPE breast cancer samples for which microarray data were available. Spearman's rank correlation analysis resulted in borderline significant correlation for IHC versus ISH (rS: 0.625; p<0.05) and IHC versus microarray (rS: 0.668; p<0.01), but in significant correlation for ISH versus microarray (rS: 0.861; p<0.001). The ISH method was superior to IHC, regarding robustness, sensitivity and specificity and will aid to further study expression levels of KCNJ3 in both malignant and physiological conditions.

Cardoso F, van't Veer LJ, Bogaerts J, et al.
70-Gene Signature as an Aid to Treatment Decisions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(8):717-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The 70-gene signature test (MammaPrint) has been shown to improve prediction of clinical outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer. We sought to provide prospective evidence of the clinical utility of the addition of the 70-gene signature to standard clinical-pathological criteria in selecting patients for adjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS: In this randomized, phase 3 study, we enrolled 6693 women with early-stage breast cancer and determined their genomic risk (using the 70-gene signature) and their clinical risk (using a modified version of Adjuvant! Online). Women at low clinical and genomic risk did not receive chemotherapy, whereas those at high clinical and genomic risk did receive such therapy. In patients with discordant risk results, either the genomic risk or the clinical risk was used to determine the use of chemotherapy. The primary goal was to assess whether, among patients with high-risk clinical features and a low-risk gene-expression profile who did not receive chemotherapy, the lower boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the rate of 5-year survival without distant metastasis would be 92% (i.e., the noninferiority boundary) or higher.
RESULTS: A total of 1550 patients (23.2%) were deemed to be at high clinical risk and low genomic risk. At 5 years, the rate of survival without distant metastasis in this group was 94.7% (95% confidence interval, 92.5 to 96.2) among those not receiving chemotherapy. The absolute difference in this survival rate between these patients and those who received chemotherapy was 1.5 percentage points, with the rate being lower without chemotherapy. Similar rates of survival without distant metastasis were reported in the subgroup of patients who had estrogen-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, and either node-negative or node-positive disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Among women with early-stage breast cancer who were at high clinical risk and low genomic risk for recurrence, the receipt of no chemotherapy on the basis of the 70-gene signature led to a 5-year rate of survival without distant metastasis that was 1.5 percentage points lower than the rate with chemotherapy. Given these findings, approximately 46% of women with breast cancer who are at high clinical risk might not require chemotherapy. (Funded by the European Commission Sixth Framework Program and others; number, NCT00433589; EudraCT number, 2005-002625-31.).

Haque M, Kendal JK, MacIsaac RM, Demetrick DJ
WSB1: from homeostasis to hypoxia.
J Biomed Sci. 2016; 23(1):61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The wsb1 gene has been identified to be important in developmental biology and cancer. A complex transcriptional regulation of wsb1 yields at least three functional transcripts. The major expressed isoform, WSB1 protein, is a substrate recognition protein within an E3 ubiquitin ligase, with the capability to bind diverse targets and mediate ubiquitinylation and proteolytic degradation. Recent data suggests a new role for WSB1 as a component of a neuroprotective pathway which results in modification and aggregation of neurotoxic proteins such as LRRK2 in Parkinson's Disease, via an unusual mode of protein ubiquitinylation.WSB1 is also involved in thyroid hormone homeostasis, immune regulation and cellular metabolism, particularly glucose metabolism and hypoxia. In hypoxia, wsb1 is a HIF-1 target, and is a regulator of the degradation of diverse proteins associated with the cellular response to hypoxia, including HIPK2, RhoGDI2 and VHL. Major roles are to both protect HIF-1 function through degradation of VHL, and decrease apoptosis through degradation of HIPK2. These activities suggest a role for wsb1 in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. As well, recent work has identified a role for WSB1 in glucose metabolism, and perhaps in mediating the Warburg effect in cancer cells by maintaining the function of HIF1. Furthermore, studies of cancer specimens have identified dysregulation of wsb1 associated with several types of cancer, suggesting a biologically relevant role in cancer development and/or progression.Recent development of an inducible expression system for wsb1 could aid in the further understanding of the varied functions of this protein in the cell, and roles as a potential oncogene and neuroprotective protein.

Minciu R, Dumache R, Gheorghe P, et al.
Molecular Diagnostic of Prostate Cancer From Body Fluids Using Methylation-Specific PCR (MS-PCR) Method.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(6):1183-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Worldwide prostate cancer (PCa) represents the 2nd leading cause of cancer related deaths among men. Currently, the screening for early detection of PCa is based on determination of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. But this biomarker presents some disadvantages related to its specificity and sensitivity. In our study, we want to determine if methylation levels of the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene could be used as a new biomarker for the early detection of PCa and to distinguish between malignant and benign pros-tatic lesions.
METHODS: To determine the methylation levels of the GSTP1 gene, 31 men with histopathological diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma and 34 men with the histopathological diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as controls were included in the study group. The genomic DNA was extracted from urine samples. We analyzed the methylation levels of the GSTP1 gene by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) method.
RESULTS: In prostate cancer patients 27 of 31 (87%) presented hypermethylated levels of the GSTP1 gene, whereas 4 of 34 (11.8%) BPH patients had hypermethylated levels of the GSTP1 gene. Further, in the case of these four patients a second biopsy was done, which confirmed the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma. Using the receiver operating curve (ROC), we obtained a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 98% for the GSTP1 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that GSTP1 represents a new molecular biomarker which can aid in early detection of PCa and be used to discriminate between benign and malignant prostatic lesions from body fluids by noninvasive methods.

Coimbra EC, DA Conceição Gomes Leitão M, Júnior MR, et al.
Expression Profile of MicroRNA-203 and its ΔNp63 Target in Cervical Carcinogenesis: Prospects for Cervical Cancer Screening.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3939-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Host molecules disturbed by human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers of cervical carcinogenesis and represent an alternative or supplementary aid to cytological testing and HPV detection. The miR-203 and one of its targets, ΔNp63, are known to be host molecules that interact with each other to control the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes; both have been found to be dysregulated in many cancers. As the role of p63 and miR-203 in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet well-understood, we have, thus, decided to evaluate the changes of expression of both in cervical carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out by obtaining quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data from cervical biopsies.
RESULTS: miR-203 and ΔNp63 displayed a similar expression pattern across cervical tissues and both targets showed statistically significant differences between low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) x high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); HSIL x Cancer. Additionally, we did not observe an inverse correlation between ΔNp63 mRNA and miR-203 levels as expected but, rather, a positive correlation between cervical tissues.
CONCLUSION: Although preliminary, the expression levels of ΔNp63 mRNA and miR-203 seem to be promising for cervical cancer screening. In addition, positive correlation between miR-203 and ΔNp63 expression suggests the possible existence of some indirect pathways. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of ΔNp63 and miR-203 in cervical carcinogenesis and, thus, determine how they can be applied in new strategies for diagnosis.

Park VY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, et al.
The thyroid imaging reporting and data system on US, but not the BRAFV600E mutation in fine-needle aspirates, is associated with lateral lymph node metastasis in PTC.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(29):e4292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have an excellent prognosis, but some show poorer outcomes and would benefit from adjunctive prognostic tools. The B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutation, either based on both its presence or its quantitative measurement, and ultrasound (US) features may serve as a prognostic marker. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the association between clinical-pathologic prognostic factors and the BRAF mutation found in fine-needle aspirates, based on both its presence and its corresponding cycle threshold (Ct) value, and (2) the association between prognostic factors and suspicious US features classified by the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) in PTC.Two-hundred fifty-eight consecutive patients with PTC > 1 cm and who underwent preoperative US-guided fine-needle aspiration were included in this retrospective study. Clinical-pathologic variables were compared between patients with and without the BRAF mutation. Multivariate analyses were performed to investigate (1) the association between clinical-pathologic prognostic factors and the BRAF mutation found in fine-needle aspirates, based on both its presence and corresponding Ct values, and (2) the association between prognostic factors and suspicious TIRADS US features.BRAF-positive patients had a higher proportion of multiple tumors (P = 0.017). The number of suspicious US features classified by the TIRADS was an independent factor for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis, both in all 258 patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.902, P = 0.005) and in 214 BRAF-positive patients (OR = 1.686, P = 0.037). The BRAF mutation status or BRAFCt values were not associated with any of the clinical-pathologic prognostic factors.In conclusion, a higher number of suspicious US features classified by the TIRADS, but not the BRAF mutation, are associated with lateral lymph node metastasis in patients with PTC, and can aid in the preoperative identification of patients at increased risk of lateral lymph node metastasis.

Sun W, Ma X, Shen J, et al.
Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed pathways related to the metastatic characteristics of osteosarcoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(2):466-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, gene expression data of osteosarcoma (OSA) were analyzed to identify metastasis-related biological pathways. Four gene expression data sets (GSE21257, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). An analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed using the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method. Gene expression levels were converted into scores of pathways by the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression (FAIME) algorithm and the differentially expressed pathways (DEPs) were then disclosed by a t-test. The distinguishing and prediction ability of the DEPs for metastatic and non-metastatic OSA was further confirmed using the principal component analysis (PCA) method and 3 gene expression data sets (GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) based on the support vector machines (SVM) model. A total of 616 downregulated and 681 upregulated genes were identified in the data set, GSE21257. The DEGs could not be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA, as shown by PCA. Thus, an analysis of DEPs was further performed, resulting in 14 DEPs, such as NRAS signaling, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulation of cytokines and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-mediated interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) activation. Cluster analysis indicated that these pathways could be used to distinguish between metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. The prediction accuracy was 91, 66.7 and 87.5% for the data sets, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673, respectively. The results of PCA further validated that the DEPs could be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. On the whole, several DEPs were identified in metastatic OSA compared with non-metastatic OSA. Further studies on these pathways and relevant genes may help to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis and may thus aid in the development of novel therapies.

Ribnikar D, Cardoso F
Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016; 35:e31-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe.

Spence T, Bruce J, Yip KW, Liu FF
MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Chin Clin Oncol. 2016; 5(2):17 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is becoming increasingly evident that aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for a number of disease processes, including cancer initiation and progression. miRNAs have been implicated as key players in numerous neoplasms, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Functionally, deregulation of miRNAs that act either as tumour suppressors or oncogenes results in numerous cancer-associated phenomena, including changes in proliferation, migration, and cell survival. Furthermore, miRNA expression has been associated with chemoresistant or radioresistant phenotypes; highlighting the importance of miRNAs in mediating oncogenic processes. Prognostic and predictive miRNA signatures have been defined for a variety of cancer types, including NPC, whereby these signatures offer a potentially important clinical tool for assessing the disease state, as well as predicting treatment response and clinical outcome. Therefore, further examination and validation of miRNAs that are deregulated in NPC will provide insight into the fundamental drivers of this disease, which will aid in the identification of novel targeted treatments. This review summarizes recent advances in the study of miRNAs in NPC, with specific discussion on the role of miRNAs in NPC pathogenesis and the potential utility of miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers. Our increasing understanding of the role of miRNAs in NPC tumorigenesis and their application as novel biomarkers will undoubtedly prove useful in the stratification of future patients into clinically relevant treatment classifications, thereby improving and personalizing disease management.

Deng D, Wang L, Chen Y, et al.
MicroRNA-124-3p regulates cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and bioenergetics by targeting PIM1 in astrocytoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):899-907 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PIM1 protein is an important regulator of cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism in various human cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful post-transcriptional gene regulators that function through translational repression or transcript destabilization. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether a close relationship exists between PIM1 and miRNAs. PIM1 protein levels and mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in astrocytoma tissues, indicating the oncogenic role of PIM1 in astrocytoma. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that miR-124-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of PIM1. We also observed an inverse correlation between the miR-124-3p levels and PIM1 protein or mRNA levels in astrocytoma samples. Next, we experimentally confirmed that miR-124-3p directly recognizes the 3'-UTR of the PIM1 transcript and regulates PIM1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we examined the biological consequences of miR-124-3p targeting PIM1 in vitro. We showed that the repression of PIM1 in astrocytoma cancer cells by miR-124-3p suppressed proliferation, invasion, and aerobic glycolysis and promoted apoptosis. We observed that the restoration or inhibition of PIM1 activity resulted in effects that were similar to those induced by miR-124-3p inhibitors or mimics in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of PIM1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-124-3p. In summary, these findings aid in understanding the tumor-suppressive role of miR-124-3p in astrocytoma pathogenesis through the inhibition of PIM1 translation.

Cheng SH, Horng CF, Huang TT, et al.
An Eighteen-Gene Classifier Predicts Locoregional Recurrence in Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 5:74-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously identified 34 genes of interest (GOI) in 2006 to aid the oncologists to determine whether post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is indicated for certain patients with breast cancer. At this time, an independent cohort of 135 patients having DNA microarray study available from the primary tumor tissue samples was chosen. Inclusion criteria were 1) mastectomy as the first treatment, 2) pathology stages I-III, 3) any locoregional recurrence (LRR) and 4) no PMRT. After inter-platform data integration of Affymetrix U95 and U133 Plus 2.0 arrays and quantile normalization, in this paper we used 18 of 34 GOI to divide the mastectomy patients into high and low risk groups. The 5-year rate of freedom from LRR in the high-risk group was 30%. In contrast, in the low-risk group it was 99% (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the 18-gene classifier independently predicts rates of LRR regardless of nodal status or cancer subtype.

Zhou T, Wang CH, Yan H, et al.
Inhibition of the Rac1-WAVE2-Arp2/3 signaling pathway promotes radiosensitivity via downregulation of cofilin-1 in U251 human glioma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):4414-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2)-actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) signaling pathway has been identified to be involved in cell migration and invasion in various types of cancer cell. Cofilin‑1 (CFL‑1), which is regulated by the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway, may promote radioresistance in glioma. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential role of the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway in radioresistance in U251 human glioma cells and elucidate its affect on CFL‑1 expression. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the protein expression of CFL‑1. In the present study, Rac1 was inhibited by NSC 23766, WAVE2 was inhibited by transfection with short hairpin (sh)RNA‑WAVE2 using Lipofectamine™ 2000 and Arp2/3 was inhibited by CK‑666. Cell viability was measured using the 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the cell migration ability was examined by a wound‑healing assay, and the cell invasion ability was assessed using a Transwell culture chamber system. The results showed that inhibition of the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway using NSC 23766, shRNA‑WAVE2 or CK‑666 reduced the cell viability, migration and invasion abilities in U251 human glioma cells, concordant with a reduced expression of CFL‑1. Furthermore, the expression of CFL‑1 was significantly increased in radioresistant U251 glioma cells when compared with normal U251 human glioma cells. These findings indicate that inhibition of the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway may promote radiosensitivity, which may partially result from the downregulation of CFL‑1 in U251 human glioma cells.

Peng H, Yang H, Song L, et al.
Sustained delivery of siRNA/PEI complex from in situ forming hydrogels potently inhibits the proliferation of gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In recent years, gene-based therapeutic strategies were confirmed promising in cancer inhibition and attracted great attention. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for gene therapy and has been widely employed to aid in treatment for various diseases, especially cancers. However, effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to target cells in vivo remains a challenge for that it is prone to degradation and only lasts a few days in rapidly dividing cells.
METHODS: Due to its biocompatibility and well-established safety profile, collagen represents a favourable matrix for in-site drug delivery. In the study, collagen hydrogel was used as carriers to test the feasibility of localized and sustained delivery of Id1-targeted siRNA for in vivo gastric cancer inhibition. To enhance the siRNA delivery, cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) was further emplored for scallold modification. The efficacy of siRNA delivery and cancer inhibition were evaluated with multimodality of mehods in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Our results showed that addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) to collagen can facilitate entry of Id1-siRNA into target cells, prolong the silencing effect, and further inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: This collagen-based delivery system may facilitate the pathogenesis elucidation and design of effective therapies against gastric cancer.

Mittal K, Choi da H, Klimov S, et al.
A centrosome clustering protein, KIFC1, predicts aggressive disease course in serous ovarian adenocarcinomas.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9:17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Amplified centrosomes are widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Although supernumerary centrosomes would be expected to compromise cell viability by yielding multipolar spindles that results in death-inducing aneuploidy, cancer cells suppress multipolarity by clustering their extra centrosomes. Thus, cancer cells, with the aid of clustering mechanisms, maintain pseudobipolar spindle phenotypes that are associated with low-grade aneuploidy, an edge to their survival. KIFC1, a nonessential minus end-directed motor of the kinesin-14 family, is a centrosome clustering molecule, essential for viability of extra centrosome-bearing cancer cells. Given that ovarian cancers robustly display amplified centrosomes, we examined the overexpression of KIFC1 in human ovarian tumors.
RESULTS: We found that in clinical epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) samples, an expression level of KIFC1 was significantly higher when compared to normal tissues. KIFC1 expression also increased with tumor grade. Our In silico analyses showed that higher KIFC1 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma (SOC) patients suggesting that an aggressive disease course in ovarian adenocarcinoma patients can be attributed to high KIFC1 levels. Also, gene expression levels of KIFC1 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) highly correlated with expression of genes driving centrosome amplification (CA), as examined in publically-available databases. The pathway analysis results indicated that the genes overexpressed in KIFC1 high group were associated with processes like regulation of the cell cycle and cell proliferation. In addition, when we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) for identifying the gene ontologies associated to KIFC1 high group, we found that the first 100 genes enriched in KIFC1 high group were from centrosome components, mitotic cell cycle, and microtubule-based processes. Results from in vitro experiments on well-established in vitro models of HGSOC (OVSAHO, KURAMOCHI), OVCAR3 and SKOV3) revealed that they display robust centrosome amplification and expression levels of KIFC1 was directly associated (inversely correlated) to the status of multipolar mitosis. This association of KIFC1 and centrosome amplification with HGSOC might be able to explain the increased aggressiveness in this disease.
CONCLUSION: These findings compellingly underscore that KIFC1 can be a biomarker that predicts an aggressive disease course in ovarian adenocarcinomas.

Deng K, Zhu H, Chen M, et al.
Prognostic Significance of Molecular Analysis of Peritoneal Fluid for Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accurately distinguishing serosal invasion in patients with gastric cancer (GC) prior to surgery can be difficult. Molecular analysis of peritoneal fluid (MAPF) for free cancer cells with higher sensitivity than other methods; however, its prognostic value for GC remains controversial, precluding its application in clinical practice.
METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were systematically searched. Thirty-one studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and peritoneal recurrence-free survival (PRF).
RESULTS: The current meta-analysis focused on patients with GC and negative cytological diagnoses. The results showed that positive MAPF status (MAPF+) led to poorer prognoses for OS (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.99-3.37), DFS (HR 4.92, 95% CI 3.28-7.37) and PRF (HR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.72) compared with negative MAPF status (MAPF-). Moreover, among the patients with GC who received curative treatment, the MAPF+ patients had poorer prognoses for OS (HR 3.27, 95% CI 2.49-4.29), DFS (HR 3.90, 95% CI 2.74-5.57) and PRF (HR 5.45, 95% CI 3.70-8.03). A meta-analysis of multivariate-adjusted HRs demonstrated that MAPF+ status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with GC who underwent curative treatment (OS: HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.47-3.28; PRF: HR 3.44, 95% CI 2.01-5.87). Using the identical target genes (CEA, CEA/CK20) as molecular markers, the patients with GC who were MAPF+ had significantly worse prognoses for OS (CEA: HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.29-4.01; CEA/CK20: HR 4.24, 95% CI 2.42-7.40), DFS (CEA: HR 3.99, 95% CI 2.24-7.12; CEA/CK20: HR 4.31, 95% CI 1.49-2.48) and PRF (CEA: HR 4.45, 95% CI 2.72-7.31; CEA/CK20: HR 6.46, 95% CI 3.62-11.55) than the patients who were MAPF-.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The above results demonstrate that MAPF could be a prognostic indicator for patients with GC who have a negative cytological diagnosis and/or are receiving curative treatment. MAPF could provide clinicians with additional prognostic information that could aid in developing individualized treatment plans prior to surgery. The widely used target genes CEA, CEA/CK20 were confirmed to be valuable MAPF markers for predicting the prognosis of GC.

Weeks HP, Sanders AJ, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG
The Association Between WAVE1 and -3 and the ARP2/3 Complex in PC 3 Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(3):1135-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Actin polymerisation is stimulated by the actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex and drives cell migration. This complex is activated by Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family (WASP) verprolin homologous protein (WAVE) proteins. WAVE1 and -3 have been implicated in the aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth, motility and invasion were analyzed in WAVE1- and WAVE3-knockdown PC-3 cells along with the ARP2/3 inhibitor, CK-0944636. Confocal microscopy was adopted to examine protein co-localisation. Immunoprecipitation approaches were used to determine protein tyrosine phosphorylation.
RESULTS: Cell growth suppression was observed with WAVE3 knockdown and ARP2/3 inhibition. Reduced cell invasion effects observed with WAVE1 knockdown appeared to be rescued by ARP2/3 inhibition. WAVE1 and WAVE3 and ARP2 co-localisation was lost in PC-3 WAVE-knockdown cells, while increased ARP2 tyrosine phosphorylation was observed with WAVE3 knockdown.
CONCLUSION: These results implicate a contributory role of WAVE1 and -3 to the metastatic phenotype of PC-3 cells through their interaction with the ARP2/3 complex.

Manji GA, Schwartz GK
Managing Liposarcomas: Cutting Through the Fat.
J Oncol Pract. 2016; 12(3):221-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liposarcomas are one of the most common of more than 50 histologic subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas that, themselves, are heterogeneous. Liposarcomas fall into four distinct histologic subtypes: atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, myxoid (round cell) liposarcoma, and pleomorphic liposarcoma. Definitive treatment remains surgical resection with negative margins for resectable disease. However, well-differentiated liposarcomas that are large or difficult to operate upon should be followed with close surveillance as long as there is no radiologic concern for a dedifferentiated component. In contrast, first-line chemotherapy with anthracycline with or without ifosfamide, or gemcitabine and docetaxel should be used for inoperable myxoid (round cell) or pleomorphic liposarcomas, which are relatively responsive to chemotherapy. In the second- and third-line setting, myxoid liposarcomas, in particular, seem to be sensitive to trabectedin, which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Eribulin offered a survival benefit when compared with dacarbazine in the third-line setting in liposarcomas (other than the well-differentiated subtype) and is now FDA approved. Recent studies have identified distinct genetic aberrations that not only aid in the diagnosis of liposarcoma subtypes but represent actionable targets. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and murine double minute 2 are overexpressed in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas and offer opportunities that are being pursued in clinical trials. It is critical that liposarcomas are not approached by oncologists as one disease entity but rather subclassified into distinct subtypes using histologic and molecular tools before formalizing a treatment plan.

Tan WJ, Cima I, Choudhury Y, et al.
A five-gene reverse transcription-PCR assay for pre-operative classification of breast fibroepithelial lesions.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast fibroepithelial lesions are biphasic tumors and include fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors. Preoperative distinction between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors is pivotal to clinical management. Fibroadenomas are clinically benign while phyllodes tumors are more unpredictable in biological behavior, with potential for recurrence. Differentiating the tumors may be challenging when they have overlapping clinical and histological features especially on core biopsies. Current molecular and immunohistochemical techniques have a limited role in the diagnosis of breast fibroepithelial lesions. We aimed to develop a practical molecular test to aid in distinguishing fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors in the pre-operative setting.
METHODS: We profiled the transcriptome of a training set of 48 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors and further designed 43 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to verify differentially expressed genes. Using machine learning to build predictive regression models, we selected a five-gene transcript set (ABCA8, APOD, CCL19, FN1, and PRAME) to discriminate between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors. We validated our assay in an independent cohort of 230 core biopsies obtained pre-operatively.
RESULTS: Overall, the assay accurately classified 92.6 % of the samples (AUC = 0.948, 95 % CI 0.913-0.983, p = 2.51E-19), with a sensitivity of 82.9 % and specificity of 94.7 %.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide a robust assay for classifying breast fibroepithelial lesions into fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, which could be a valuable tool in assisting pathologists in differential diagnosis of breast fibroepithelial lesions.

Wang W, Yuan P, Yu D, et al.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-UTR region of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is associated with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18984-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and high heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to screen patients for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the prognosis of TNBC. Database-derived SNPs (NextBio, Ensembl, NCBI and MirSNP) located in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer were selected. The possible associations between 111 SNPs and progression risk among 323 TNBC patients were investigated using a two-step case-control study with a discovery cohort (n=162) and a validation cohort (n=161). We identified the rs1054135 SNP in the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene as a predictor of TNBC recurrence. The G allele of rs1054135 was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression as well as a prolonged disease-free survival time (DFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in the combined sample of 0.269 [95%CI: 0.098-0.735;P=0.001]. Notably, for individuals having the rs1054135 SNP with the AA/AG genotype, the magnitude of increased tumour recurrence risk for overweight patients (BMI≥25kg/m2) was significantly elevated (HR2.53; 95%CI: 1.06-6.03). Immunohistochemical staining of adipocytes adjacent to TNBC tissues showed that the expression level of FABP4 was statistically significantly lower in patients with the rs1054135-GG genotype and those in the disease-free group (P=0.0004 and P=0.0091, respectively). These results suggested that the expression of a lipid metabolism-related gene and an important SNP in the 3'-UTR of FABP4 are associated with TNBC prognosis, which may aid in the screening of high-risk patients with TNBC recurrence and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents.

Wang Y, Zhang J, Xiao X, et al.
The identification of age-associated cancer markers by an integrative analysis of dynamic DNA methylation changes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22722 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As one of the most widely studied epigenetic modifications, DNA methylation has an important influence on human traits and cancers. Dynamic variations in DNA methylation have been reported in malignant neoplasm and aging; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. By constructing an age-associated and cancer-related weighted network (ACWN) based on the correlation of the methylation level and the protein-protein interaction, we found that DNA methylation changes associated with age were closely related to the occurrence of cancer. Additional analysis of 102 module genes mined from the ACWN revealed discrimination based on two main patterns. One pattern involved methylation levels that increased with aging and were higher in cancer patients compared with normal controls (HH pattern). The other pattern involved methylation levels that decreased with aging and were lower in cancer compared with normal (LL pattern). Upon incorporation with gene expression levels, 25 genes were filtered based on negative regulation by DNA methylation. These genes were regarded as potential cancer risk markers that were influenced by age in the process of carcinogenesis. Our results will facilitate further studies regarding the impact of the epigenetic effects of aging on diseases and will aid in the development of tailored cancer preventive strategies.

Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Donson AM, Richmond AM, et al.
SOX10 Distinguishes Pilocytic and Pilomyxoid Astrocytomas From Ependymomas but Shows No Differences in Expression Level in Ependymomas From Infants Versus Older Children or Among Molecular Subgroups.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016; 75(4):295-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SOX10 is important in nonneoplastic oligodendroglial development, but mRNA transcripts and protein expression are identified in a wider variety of CNS glial neoplasms than oligodendrogliomas. We previously demonstrated high levels of SOX10 mRNA and protein in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) but not ependymomas (EPNs). We now extend these studies to investigate subsets of these 2 tumors that affect infants, pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) and infant (<1 year) ependymomas (iEPNs). By gene expression microarray analysis, we found that iEPNs and all EPNs in older children showed very low SOX10 expression levels, on average 7.1-fold below normal control tissues. EPN groups showed no significant difference in SOX10 expression between iEPN and EPN. PAs/PMAs had 24.1/29.4-fold higher transcript levels, respectively, than those in normal tissues. Using immunohistochemical analysis of adult, pediatric, and infantile EPNs and of PAs/PMAs, we found that EPNs from multiple anatomical locations and both age groups (n = 228) never showed 3+ diffuse nuclear immunostaining for SOX10; the majority were scored at 0 or 1+. Conversely, almost all pediatric and adult PAs and PMAs (n = 47) were scored as 3+. These results suggest that in select settings, SOX10 immunohistochemistry can supplement the diagnosis of PMA and PA and aid in distinguishing them from EPNs.

Sapoznik S, Bahar-Shany K, Brand H, et al.
Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Links Ovulation-Induced Inflammation and Serous Carcinogenesis.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(2):90-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
In recent years, the notion that ovarian carcinoma results from ovulation-induced inflammation of the fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) has gained evidence. However, the mechanistic pathway for this process has not been revealed yet. In the current study, we propose the mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a link between ovulation-induced inflammation in FTECs and genotoxic damage leading to ovarian carcinogenesis. We show that AID, previously shown to be functional only in B lymphocytes, is expressed in FTECs under physiological conditions, and is induced in vitro upon ovulatory-like stimulation and in vivo in carcinoma-associated FTECs. We also report that AID activity results in epigenetic, genetic and genomic damage in FTECs. Overall, our data provides new insights into the etiology of ovarian carcinogenesis and may set the ground for innovative approaches aimed at prevention and early detection.

Bi DP, Yin CH, Zhang XY, et al.
MiR-183 functions as an oncogene by targeting ABCA1 in colon cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(5):2873-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death, indicating that a proportion of cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of the disease will aid in the further understanding of the pathogenesis and progression and offer new targets for effective therapies. In the present study, we initially confirmed that ABCA1 was aberrantly expressed in colon cancer tissues and colon cancer cells. Its overexpression inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells while silencing of ABCA1 promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of colon cancer LDL1 cells. Upregulation of specific miRNAs can contribute to the downregulation of tumor-suppressive genes. Thus, we aimed to ascertain whether ABCA1 is downregulated by overexpression of a specific miRNA in colon cancer. We screened microRNAs that may target ABCA1 by miRanda which is a commonly used prediction algorithm. We found that miR-183 targets the 3'UTR of ABCA1 mRNA. Subsequent experiments confirmed that miR-183 degraded ABCA1 mRNA in the colon cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-183 promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Thus, we conclude that miR-183 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by degrading ABCA1 in colon cancer.

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