Gene Summary

Gene:APOE; apolipoprotein E
Aliases: AD2, LPG, APO-E, ApoE4, LDLCQ5
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a major apoprotein of the chylomicron. It binds to a specific liver and peripheral cell receptor, and is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. This gene maps to chromosome 19 in a cluster with the related apolipoprotein C1 and C2 genes. Mutations in this gene result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:apolipoprotein E
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: APOE (cancer-related)

Sidaraite A, Vilkeviciute A, Glebauskiene B, et al.
Association of ApoE haplotype with clinical evidence of pituitary adenoma.
Gene. 2019; 706:154-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of the presence, invasiveness, hormonal activity and recurrence of pituitary adenoma (PA) with ApoE genotypes and alleles.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study group included 142 patients with PA and the control group included 256 healthy individuals. The genotyping of ApoE (rs7412 and rs429358) was performed using a real-time PCR method.
RESULTS: After statistical analysis we found that ApoE genotype E2/E3 was associated with 2.6-fold increased odds of active PA (OR = 2.609; 95%CI: 1.380-4.932; p = 0.003), while the presence of ApoE E3/E3 decreased odds of active PA by 65% (OR = 0.343; 95%CI: 0.205-0.575; p < 0.001). The frequency of the allele ε3 was lesser in the PA group (74.3% vs. 83%, p = 0.003) when compared to controls but it was statistically significantly more frequent in the invasive PA than in the noninvasive PA subgroup (80.4% vs. 65.5%, p = 0.005). The ApoE E2/E4 genotype was more frequent in the noninvasive PA subgroup (10.3% vs. 0%, p = 0.003) than in the invasive PA subgroup. The ApoE E4/E4 genotype was more frequent in the recurrent than in the non-recurrent PA subgroup (6.6% vs. 0%, p = 0.006). No associations between ApoE polymorphisms and Ki-67 labelling index were found.
CONCLUSION: The ApoE E2/E3 genotype is associated with the presence of PA while the ApoE genotype E2/E4 is associated with noninvasive PA development. The allele ε3 could possibly have a protective effect against PA. The genotype E4/E4 is associated with the development of recurrent PA.

Pang HH, Huang CY, Chou YW, et al.
Bioengineering fluorescent virus-like particle/RNAi nanocomplexes act synergistically with temozolomide to eradicate brain tumors.
Nanoscale. 2019; 11(17):8102-8109 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proof-of-concept strategy in this study based on biodegradable and biocompatible self-assembling fluorescent virus-like particle/RNAi nanocomplexes (VLP/RNAi) produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) followed by surface modification with a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and an apolipoprotein E peptide (ApoEP) (dP@VLP/RNAi), which can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to inhibit the DNA repair mechanism and act synergistically with temozolomide (TMZ) for promoting clinical chemotherapy has achieved good therapeutic effects towards malignant brain tumors. The synergistic value of this study's design was verified in intracranial mouse models of glioblastomas (GBMs). Intravenous administration of this formulation enhanced the curative efficacy of TMZ by downregulating the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) gene in GBM U87 cells. Furthermore, upon gene-chemotherapy, the methylated DNA in GBM U87 cells was significantly enhanced by inhibiting the DNA repair mechanism, leading to significant brain tumor suppression. The results of this study could be critical for the design of RNAi-based genetic therapeutics for promoting chemotherapy against brain tumors.

Zografos E, Anagnostopoulos AK, Papadopoulou A, et al.
Serum Proteomic Signatures of Male Breast Cancer.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Mar-Apr; 16(2):129-137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To date, the elucidation of serum protein alterations in male breast cancer (MBC) has not been extensively studied, due to the rarity of the disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present work, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were employed to detect differences in serum protein expression between patients with MBC and healthy controls.
RESULTS: A panel of differentially expressed serum proteins was identified, including proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle [e.g. cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (CDC7)], in mitochondrial function [e.g. mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and dimethyladenosine transferase 1 (TFB1M)], in lipid metabolism and transport [e.g. apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and E (APOE)], in apoptosis and immune response [e.g. CD5 antigen-like (CD5L), clusterin (CLUS) and C-C motif chemokine 14 (CCL14)], in transcription (e.g. protein SSX3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)], in invasion and metastasis (e.g. alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (FETUA)], in estrogen synthesis [aromatase (CYP19A1)] and other diverse biological roles [e.g. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 (ARPC4), dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MP2K4), ectoderm-neural cortex protein 1 (ENC1), and matrix metalloproteinase-27 (MMP27)].
CONCLUSION: These findings provide valuable insight into the distinct clinicopathological features of MBC and indicate that select serum proteomic markers may help improve MBC management.

Romero-Gavilán F, Araújo-Gomes N, García-Arnáez I, et al.
The effect of strontium incorporation into sol-gel biomaterials on their protein adsorption and cell interactions.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2019; 174:9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is known strontium can both inhibit the osteoclast formation and stimulate the osteoblast maturation, so biomaterials containing this element can favour bone structure stabilisation. The addition of Sr to biomaterials could affect their interactions with proteins and cells. Here, a silica-hybrid sol-gel network doped with different amounts of SrCl

Tan J, Qian X, Song B, et al.
Integrated bioinformatics analysis reveals that the expression of cathepsin S is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):111-122 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognosis of the majority of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is excellent, although there are patients who experience disease recurrence and progression. The aim of the present study was to identify potential prognostic risk markers in PTC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), identified from four Genome Expression Omnibus cohorts were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with Gene Ontology terms and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways. Hub genes, filtered from cytoHubba, were validated using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, and their associations with clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed. A total of 277 DEGs were identified following data preprocessing. DEGs were primarily enriched in 'small cell lung cancer', 'ECM-receptor interaction', 'pathways in cancer'and 'tyrosine metabolism'. Hub genes [APOE, cathepsin S (CTSS), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), KIT, LGALS3, RUNX2 and TGFBR1] were extracted from cytoHubba. Their expression in the TCGA cohort was consistent with that in the GEO cohorts. CTSS (P=0.006) and IRS1 (P=0.005) were associated with disease‑free survival, as determined using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTSS was an independent risk factor for poor disease‑free survival (HR, 2.649; 95% CI, 1.095-6.409; P=0.031). Patients with high expression of CTSS exhibited different histological types (increased tall-cell subtype and reduced follicular subtype; P<0.001), more frequent lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (P=0.049) compared with the low-expression group. High expression of CTSS was independently associated with lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.015; 95% CI, 1.225-3.315; P=0.006). Therefore, CTSS may serve as a predictive risk marker for the progression and prognosis of PTC.

Zhang R, Liu Q, Liu H, et al.
Effects of apoC1 genotypes on the hormonal levels, metabolic profile and PAF-AH activity in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Lipids Health Dis. 2018; 17(1):77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum levels of apolipoprotein (apo) C1 may be an early protein marker of metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is not clear, however, whether there are any relationships between the apoC1 rs4420638A/G and -317deletion (H1)/insertion (H2) polymorphisms and PCOS. We investigated the relationship between these two variants and the risk of PCOS, evaluated the genotypic effects on clinical, hormonal and metabolic indexes and plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, and defined the association of apoC1 gene variants with apoE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphisms.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 877 women with PCOS and 761 controls. The apoC1 rs4420638A/G genotype was determined by a Taqman real-time PCR allelic discrimination assay. The apoC1-317H1/H2 and apoE ε2/ε3/ε4 genotypes were measured using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters and PAF-AH activity were measured.
RESULTS: The frequencies of apoC1 rs4420638A/G and -317H1/H2 genotypes and alleles were similar between PCOS and control groups (P > 0.05). However, the rs4420638 G allele was related to increased serum luteinizing hormone, cholesterol and apoB levels, and the ratio of apoB to apoA1 (P < 0.05), and the -317H1H1 genotype was associated with a higher acne grade score and a higher ratio of apoB-PAF-AH to H-PAF-AH activity (P < 0.05) in patients with PCOS. We also demonstrated that the apoC1 rs4420638A/G and -317H1/H2 gene variants existed in moderate to reasonably high linkage disequilibrium with apoE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphisms in Chinese women.
CONCLUSION: The apoC1 rs4420638A/G and -317H1/H2 gene variants might be involved in endocrine abnormalities of reproductive axis, metabolic abnormalities and chronic inflammation in PCOS, although no association was observed between the apoC1 genetic variants and the risk of PCOS in Chinese women.

Khan N, Datta G, Geiger JD, Chen X
Apolipoprotein E isoform dependently affects Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation.
J Neuroinflammation. 2018; 15(1):91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation.
METHODS: Using U87MG glioblastoma cells expressing LTR-driven luciferase, we determined the extent to which LRP1 as well as ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation.
RESULTS: A specific LRP1 antagonist and siRNA knockdown of LRP1 both restricted significantly Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Of the three ApoEs, ApoE4 was the least potent and effective at preventing HIV-1 Tat internalization and at decreasing Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation. Further, Tat-mediated LTR transactivation was attenuated by an ApoE mimetic peptide, and ApoE4-induced restriction of Tat-mediated LTR transactivation was potentiated by an ApoE4 structure modulator that changes ApoE4 into an ApoE3-like phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings help explain observed differential effects of ApoEs on HIV-1 infectivity and the prevalence of HAND in people living with HIV-1 infection and suggest that ApoE mimetic peptides and ApoE4 structure modulator might be used as a therapeutic strategy against HIV-1 infection and associated neurocognitive disorders.

Yang X, Zhang J, Chen L, et al.
Chitosan oligosaccharides enhance lipid droplets via down-regulation of PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 366(2):152-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), linear polymers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and deacetylated glucosamine, exhibit diverse pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we explored their hypocholesterolemic effects in vivo and the molecular mechanisms of COS in hepatic cells. Our in vivo study of dyslipidemic ApoE

Raza SK, Saleem M, Shamsi T, et al.
5D proteomic approach for the biomarker search in plasma: Acute myeloid leukaemia as a case study.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16440 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a type of cancer affecting all ages but it is more common in adults, as compared to children. Recent advancements in proteomics and mass spectrometry tools, offer a comprehensive solution to study the molecular complexity of diseases, such as cancers. This study is focused on the proteomic profiling of AML in comparison to healthy control for which, a systematic 5D proteomic approach for the fractionation of pooled plasma samples was used. Methodology includes depletion of Top-7 abundant proteins, ZOOM-isoelectric focusing (ZOOM-IEF), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis followed by the validation of identified biomarker proteins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up-/down-fold changes in concentration of proteins were observed in 2-DGE of AML in comparison with the healthy control and a total of 34 proteins were identified in fractioned plasma. Among them, fifteen proteins were significantly differentiated and five proteins; SAA1, complement factor C7, ApoE, plasminogen, and ApoA1 were later verified by ELISA in individual samples, which showed that SAA1 and plasminogen could be used as potential biomarker for AML.

Joshi PK, Pirastu N, Kentistou KA, et al.
Genome-wide meta-analysis associates HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA and lifestyle factors with human longevity.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.

Bobin-Dubigeon C, Chauvin A, Brillaud-Meflah V, et al.
Liver X Receptor (LXR)-regulated Genes of Cholesterol Trafficking and Breast Cancer Severity.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(10):5495-5498 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liver X receptor [LXR; nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 2 (NR1H2, alias LXRB)] can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Its relationship with disease severity is not known.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of LXRB, ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) were determined in 69 breast tumors and were related to clinical stages of the disease and tumor characteristics, as well as time to recurrence.
RESULTS: ABCG1 expression differed with the tumor Scarff Bloom and Richardson (SBR) status (p=0.02), with a lower expression in SBRIII than in SBRII and SBRI. ABCG1 expression was significantly higher in estrogen receptor-positive tumors (N=63) (p=0.02). APOE expression was significantly lower in progesterone receptor-positive tumors (N=55) (p=0.03). No relationship with time to recurrence was observed.
CONCLUSION: Expression of some LXR-dependent genes is related to breast tumor characteristics, but not time to recurrence. This may be due to a lack of study power or too short a follow-up time.

Jayakar SK, Loudig O, Brandwein-Gensler M, et al.
Apolipoprotein E Promotes Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(10):2259-2272 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients generally have a poor prognosis, because of the invasive nature of these tumors. In comparing transcription profiles between OSCC tumors with a more invasive (worst pattern of tumor invasion 5) versus a less invasive (worst pattern of tumor invasion 3) pattern of invasion, we identified a total of 97 genes that were overexpressed at least 1.5-fold in the more invasive tumor subtype. The most functionally relevant genes were assessed using in vitro invasion assays with an OSCC cell line (UM-SCC-1). Individual siRNA knockdown of 15 of these 45 genes resulted in significant reductions in tumor cell invasion compared to a nontargeting siRNA control. One gene whose knockdown had a strong effect on invasion corresponded to apolipoprotein E (APOE). Both matrix degradation and the number of mature invadopodia were significantly decreased with APOE knockdown. APOE knockdown also resulted in increased cellular cholesterol, consistent with APOE's role in regulating cholesterol efflux. APOE knockdown resulted in decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and phospho-cJun, as well as decreased activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), an AP-1 target, was also significantly decreased. Our findings suggest that APOE protein plays a significant role in OSCC tumor invasion because of its effects on cellular cholesterol and subsequent effects on cell signaling and AP-1 activity, leading to changes in the expression of invasion-related proteins, including MMP7.

Johns N, Stretch C, Tan BH, et al.
New genetic signatures associated with cancer cachexia as defined by low skeletal muscle index and weight loss.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017; 8(1):122-130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cachexia affects the majority with advanced cancer. Based on current demographic and clinical factors, it is not possible to predict who will develop cachexia or not. Such variation may, in part, be due to genotype. It has recently been proposed to extend the diagnostic criteria for cachexia to include a direct measure of low skeletal muscle index (LSMI) in addition to weight loss (WL). We aimed to explore our panel of candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) for association with WL +/- computerized tomography-defined LSMI. We also explored whether the transcription in muscle of identified genes was altered according to such cachexia phenotype METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used. Analysis explored associations of candidate SNPs with WL (n = 1276) and WL + LSMI (n = 943). Human muscle transcriptome (n = 134) was analysed using an Agilent platform.
RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the following genes showed association with WL alone: GCKR, LEPR, SELP, ACVR2B, TLR4, FOXO3, IGF1, CPN1, APOE, FOXO1, and GHRL. SNPs in LEPR, ACVR2B, TNF, and ACE were associated with concurrent WL + LSMI. There was concordance between muscle-specific expression for ACVR2B, FOXO1 and 3, LEPR, GCKR, and TLR4 genes and LSMI and/or WL (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The rs1799964 in the TNF gene and rs4291 in the ACE gene are new associations when the definition of cachexia is based on a combination of WL and LSMI. These findings focus attention on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system as biomarkers/mediators of muscle wasting in cachexia.

Shafi O
Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.
BMC Neurol. 2016; 16(1):236 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD.
METHODS: PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This research explores inverse relationship between AD and cancer, also investigates other factors behind AD using several already published research literature to find the etiology of AD.
RESULTS: Cancer and Alzheimer's disease have inverse relationship in many aspects such as P53, estrogen, neurotrophins and growth factors, growth and proliferation, cAMP, EGFR, Bcl-2, apoptosis pathways, IGF-1, HSV, TDP-43, APOE variants, notch signals and presenilins, NCAM, TNF alpha, PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, telomerase, ROS, ACE levels. AD occurs when brain neurons have weakened growth, cell survival responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained. Evolutionarily conserved responses and maintenance mechanisms such as FOXO are impaired in AD. Countermeasures or compensatory mechanisms by AD affected neurons such as Tau, Beta Amyloid, S100, are last attempts for survival which may be protective for certain time, or can speed up AD in Alzheimer's microenvironment via C-ABL activation, GSK3, neuro-inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS: Alzheimer's disease and Cancer have inverse relationship; many factors that are upregulated in any cancer to sustain growth and survival are downregulated in Alzheimer's disease contributing to neuro-degeneration. When aged neurons or genetically susceptible neurons have weakened growth, cell survival and anti-stress responses, age related gene expression changes, altered regulation of cell death and maintenance mechanisms, they contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Countermeasures by AD neurons such as Beta Amyloid Plaques, NFTs, S100, are last attempts for survival and this provides neuroprotection for certain time and ultimately may become pathological and speed up AD. This study may contribute in developing new potential diagnostic tests, interventions and treatments.

Ganesh S, Koser ML, Cyr WA, et al.
Direct Pharmacological Inhibition of β-Catenin by RNA Interference in Tumors of Diverse Origin.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(9):2143-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is among the most frequently altered signaling networks in human cancers. Despite decades of preclinical and clinical research, efficient therapeutic targeting of Wnt/β-catenin has been elusive. RNA interference (RNAi) technology silences genes at the mRNA level and therefore can be applied to previously undruggable targets. Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) represent an elegant solution for the delivery of RNAi-triggering oligonucleotides to disease-relevant tissues, but have been mostly restricted to applications in the liver. In this study, we systematically tuned the composition of a prototype LNP to enable tumor-selective delivery of a Dicer-substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) targeting CTNNB1, the gene encoding β-catenin. This formulation, termed EnCore-R, demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in subcutaneous human tumor xenografts, orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors, disseminated hematopoietic tumors, genetically induced primary liver tumors, metastatic colorectal tumors, and murine metastatic melanoma. DsiRNA delivery was homogeneous in tumor sections, selective over normal liver and independent of apolipoprotein-E binding. Significant tumor growth inhibition was achieved in Wnt-dependent colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma models, but not in Wnt-independent tumors. Finally, no evidence of accelerated blood clearance or sustained liver transaminase elevation was observed after repeated dosing in nonhuman primates. These data support further investigation to gain mechanistic insight, optimize dose regimens, and identify efficacious combinations with standard-of-care therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2143-54. ©2016 AACR.

Poersch A, Grassi ML, Carvalho VP, et al.
A proteomic signature of ovarian cancer tumor fluid identified by highthroughput and verified by targeted proteomics.
J Proteomics. 2016; 145:226-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Tumor fluid samples have emerged as a rich source for the identification of ovarian cancer in the context of proteomics studies. To uncover differences among benign and malignant ovarian samples, we performed a quantitative proteomic study consisting of albumin immunodepletion, isotope labeling with acrylamide and in-depth proteomic profiling by LC-MS/MS in a pool of 10 samples of each histological type. 1135 proteins were identified, corresponding to 505 gene products. 223 proteins presented associated quantification and the comparative analysis of histological types revealed 75 differentially abundant proteins. Based on this, we developed a panel for targeted proteomic analysis using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for validation of 51 proteins in individual samples of high-grade serous ovarian tumor fluids (malignant) and benign serous cystadenoma tumor fluids. This analysis showed concordant results in terms of average amounts of proteins, and APOE, SERPINF2, SERPING1, ADAM17, CD44 and OVGP1 were statistically significant between benign and malignant group. The results observed in the MRM for APOE were confirmed by western blotting, where APOE was more abundant in malignant samples. This molecular signature can contribute to improve tumor stratification and shall be investigated in combination with current biomarkers in larger cohorts to improve ovarian cancer diagnosis.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Despite advances in cancer research, ovarian cancer has a high mortality and remains a major challenge due to a number of particularities of the disease, especially late diagnosis caused by vague clinical symptoms, the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of tumors, and the lack of effective treatment. Thus, efforts are directed to better understand this neoplasia, its origin, development and, particularly the identification and validation of biomarkers for early detection of the disease in asymptomatic stage. In the present work, we confirmed by MRM method in individual ovarian tumor fluid samples the regulation of 27 proteins out of 33 identified in a highthroughput study. We speculate that the presence and/or differential abundance observed in tumor fluid is a cooperation primarily of high rates of secretion of such tumor proteins to extra tumor environment that will at the end accumulate in plasma, and also the accumulation of acute-phase proteins throughout the entire body. On top of that, consideration of physiological influences in the interpretation of expression observed, including age, menopause status, route-of-elimination kinetics and metabolism of the tumor marker, coexisting disease, hormonal imbalances, life-style influences (smoking, alcoholism, obesity), among others, are mandatory to enable the selection of good protein tumor marker candidates for extensive validation.

Shi J, Yang H, Duan X, et al.
Apolipoproteins as Differentiating and Predictive Markers for Assessing Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Yonsei Med J. 2016; 57(3):549-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the value of apolipoproteins, including ApoA-1, ApoC-III, and ApoE, in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung samples were collected from 89 patients with SCLC. Nineteen lung samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 12 normal lung tissues were used as controls. Expression profiles of ApoA-1, ApoC-III, and ApoE in different samples were examined using immunohistochemical methods, and the expression levels were correlated with cancer types, treatment, and outcomes using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests.
RESULTS: Expression of ApoA-1 and ApoC-III in SCLC was significantly different, compared with that in NSCLC and normal lung tissues, and was correlated with recurrence of SCLC. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery showed significantly reduced expression of ApoA-1 and increased expression of ApoC-III and ApoE. Nevertheless, the expression levels of ApoA-1, ApoC-III, and ApoE were not correlated with SCLC staging.
CONCLUSION: ApoA-1 and ApoC-III may be used as differentiating and predictive markers for SCLC. ApoA-1, ApoC-III, and ApoE may be used to monitor the efficacy of chemotherapy.

Yencilek F, Yilmaz SG, Yildirim A, et al.
Apolipoprotein E Genotypes in Patients with Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):707-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation, immune regulation and modulation of cell growth and differentiation; it also has a substantial role in antioxidant activity. ApoE has a potential role in prostate cancer progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ApoE genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for blood samples from a group of patients with prostate cancer (n=68) and a control group (n=78).
RESULTS: The frequency of the E3/E3 genotype was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p=0.004). E3/E3 genotype carriers were 3.6-fold more likely to be patients than controls (odds ratio=3.67, 95% confidence interval=1.451-9.155; p=0.004). Additionally, the patients with E3/E3 genotype had significantly higher Gleason score (p=0.017), and more patients with this genotype had a Gleason score higher than 7 (p=0.007). Individuals carrying the E4 allele were significantly more common in the control group (p=0.006). The frequency of the E3/E4 genotype was found to be significantly higher in controls compared to patients (p=0.007), and patients were significantly less likely to have this genotype than controls (odds ratio=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.833-0.967, p=0.007). Individuals carrying the E2/E3 genotype had a significantly lower Gleason score (p=0.049)-all of the patients with this genotype had a Gleason score lower than 7 (p=0.024).
CONCLUSION: E3/E3 genotype may be a potential risk factor for prostate cancer and high Gleason scoring. The E4 allele maybe a risk-reducing factor for prostate cancer.

Kang R, Li P, Wang T, et al.
Apolipoprotein E epsilon 2 allele and low serum cholesterol as risk factors for gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19930 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates lipid metabolism both in peripheral and in the brain. The human APOE gene has three polymorphic alleles that influence the risk for various types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A potential association between APOE allele and the risk for gastric cancer has been implicated, but the specific allele involved and potential associations with the subtype and the grade of cancer malignancy need further clarification. We screened the APOE genotype in 550 gastric cancer patients and 550 non-cancer control individuals and found that the presence of the APOE ε2 and lower serum total cholesterol are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer (all P ≤ 0.0005). Interestingly, APOE ε2 is also correlated with increased risk for both intestinal and diffuse histotypes but not with TN classification or stage in gastric cancer patients, suggesting that APOE polymorphic alleles are associated with the risk of development but unlikely the progression of gastric cancer. Since ε2 carriers have lower levels of serum total cholesterol than non-ε2 carriers, our findings suggest that the increased risk for gastric cancer by APOE ε2 allele might be mediated through lowered serum total cholesterol levels.

Roberts JL, He B, Erickson A, Moreau R
Improvement of mTORC1-driven overproduction of apoB-containing triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins by short-chain fatty acids, 4-phenylbutyric acid and (R)-α-lipoic acid, in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1861(3):166-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activation of hepatic kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. This study investigated the metabolic sequelae of mTORC1 hyperactivation in human hepatoma cells and the lipid-regulating mechanisms of two short-chain fatty acids: 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and (R)-α-lipoic acid (LA). We created three stable cell lines that exhibit low, normal, or high mTORC1 activity. mTORC1 hyperactivation induced the expression of lipogenic (DGAT1 and DGAT2) and lipoprotein assembly (MTP and APOB) genes, thereby raising cellular triacylglyceride (TG) and exacerbating secretion of apoB-containing TG-rich lipoproteins. LYS6K2, a specific inhibitor of the p70 S6 kinase branch of mTORC1 signaling, reversed these effects. PBA and LA decreased secreted TG through distinct mechanisms. PBA repressed apoB expression (both mRNA and protein) and lowered secreted TG without mitigation of mTORC1 hyperactivity or activation of AMPK. LA decreased cellular and secreted TG by attenuating mTORC1 signaling in an AMPK-independent manner. LA did not regulate apoB expression but led to the secretion of apoB-containing TG-poor lipoproteins by repressing the expression of lipogenic genes, FASN, DGAT1, and DGAT2. Our studies provide new mechanistic insight into the hypolipidemic activity of PBA and LA in the context of mTORC1 hyperactivation and suggest that the short-chain fatty acids may aid in the prevention and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

Djiokeng Paka G, Doggui S, Zaghmi A, et al.
Neuronal Uptake and Neuroprotective Properties of Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles on SK-N-SH Cell Line: Role of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Polymeric Matrix Composition.
Mol Pharm. 2016; 13(2):391-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin, a neuroprotective agent with promising therapeutic approach has poor brain bioavailability. Herein, we demonstrate that curcumin-encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 50:50 nanoparticles (NPs-Cur 50:50) are able to prevent the phosphorylation of Akt and Tau proteins in SK-N-SH cells induced by H2O2 and display higher anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities than free curcumin. PLGA can display various physicochemical and degradation characteristics for controlled drug release applications according to the matrix used. We demonstrate that the release of curcumin entrapped into a PLGA 50:50 matrix (NPs-Cur 50:50) is faster than into PLGA 65:35. We have studied the effects of the PLGA matrix on the expression of some key antioxidant- and neuroprotective-related genes such as APOE, APOJ, TRX, GLRX, and REST. NPs-Cur induced the elevation of GLRX and TRX while decreasing APOJ mRNA levels and had no effect on APOE and REST expressions. In the presence of H2O2, both NPs-Cur matrices are more efficient than free curcumin to prevent the induction of these genes. Higher uptake was found with NPs-Cur 50:50 than NPs-Cur 65:35 or free curcumin. By using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the fluorescent dye Lumogen Red, we demonstrated that PLGA nanoparticles are indeed taken up by neuronal cells. These data highlight the importance of polymer composition in the therapeutic properties of the nanodrug delivery systems. Our study demonstrated that NPs-Cur enhance the action of curcumin on several pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overall, these results suggest that PLGA nanoparticles are a promising strategy for the brain delivery of drugs for the treatment of AD.

Uthaya Kumar DB, Chen CL, Liu JC, et al.
TLR4 Signaling via NANOG Cooperates With STAT3 to Activate Twist1 and Promote Formation of Tumor-Initiating Stem-Like Cells in Livers of Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2016; 150(3):707-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and alcohol consumption contribute to steatohepatitis, which increases the risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Mouse hepatocytes that express HCV-NS5A in liver up-regulate the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and develop liver tumors containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells (TICs) that express NANOG. We investigated whether the TLR4 signals to NANOG to promote the development of TICs and tumorigenesis in mice placed on a Western diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat (HCFD).
METHODS: We expressed HCV-NS5A from a transgene (NS5A Tg) in Tlr4-/- (C57Bl6/10ScN), and wild-type control mice. Mice were fed a HCFD for 12 months. TICs were identified and isolated based on being CD133+, CD49f+, and CD45-. We obtained 142 paraffin-embedded sections of different stage HCCs and adjacent nontumor areas from the same patients, and performed gene expression, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical analyses.
RESULTS: A higher proportion of NS5A Tg mice developed liver tumors (39%) than mice that did not express HCV NS5A after the HCFD (6%); only 9% of Tlr4-/- NS5A Tg mice fed HCFD developed liver tumors. Livers from NS5A Tg mice fed the HCFD had increased levels of TLR4, NANOG, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (pSTAT3), and TWIST1 proteins, and increases in Tlr4, Nanog, Stat3, and Twist1 messenger RNAs. In TICs from NS5A Tg mice, NANOG and pSTAT3 directly interact to activate expression of Twist1. Levels of TLR4, NANOG, pSTAT3, and TWIST were increased in HCC compared with nontumor tissues from patients.
CONCLUSIONS: HCFD and HCV-NS5A together stimulated TLR4-NANOG and the leptin receptor (OB-R)-pSTAT3 signaling pathways, resulting in liver tumorigenesis through an exaggerated mesenchymal phenotype with prominent Twist1-expressing TICs.

Wang Q, Jia J, Qin W, et al.
A Novel AβPP M722K Mutation Affects Amyloid-β Secretion and Tau Phosphorylation and May Cause Early-Onset Familial Alzheimer's Disease in Chinese Individuals.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015; 47(1):157-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations within exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) gene were the first known causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). Since the first AβPP mutation was reported, 39 different AβPP variations have been discovered in EOFAD.
OBJECTIVE: We described a novel AβPP M722K mutation found in a Chinese familial Alzheimer's disease pedigree and confirmed its effects on amyloid-β (Aβ) secretion and tau phosphorylation.
METHODS: We performed direct sequencing of exons 16 and 17 of the AβPP gene and coding exons 3-12 of the PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes for genetic analysis. N2a cells were transfected with wild-type AβPP, AβPP constructs harboring the M722K mutation, or AβPP constructs harboring the Swedish mutation to demonstrate the effects of the AβPP M722K mutation on Aβ secretion and tau phosphorylation.
RESULTS: Different phenotypes of patients carrying the AβPP M722K mutation maybe were related to different apolipoprotein E genotypes. The expression of AβPP M722K in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells induced a 1.7-fold increased ratio of Aβ 42 to Aβ 40 without changes in sAβPPα and sAβPPβ. Tau phosphorylation at the AT8 sites was also increased.
CONCLUSION: Maybe the AβPP M722K mutation contributed to the cause of EOFAD in this Chinese pedigree mediated by increased Aβ 42/Aβ 40. Further studies should be conducted to validate the pathogenicity of AβPP M722K and the interactions among γ-secretase, APOE, and AβPP.

Lv C, Bai Z, Liu Z, et al.
Renal cell carcinoma risk is associated with the interactions of APOE, VHL and MTHFR gene polymorphisms.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5781-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to explore the association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with VHL (rs779805), MTHFR (rs1801133) and APOE (rs8106822 and rs405509) polymorphisms, investigate the interactions among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and explore roles of the interactions in the pathogenesis of RCC in Chinese Han population.
METHODS: 81 RCC patients and 80 healthy controls were included in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing methods were used in the analysis on the genotypes of APOE, VHL and MTHFR gene polymorphisms. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was adopted to conduct gene-gene interaction analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were utilized to evaluate the correlation between gene-gene interactions and RCC risk.
RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between RCC risk and 3 SNPs (rs8106822, rs779805 and rs1801133). Genotype AA and allele A of APOE rs8106822 were significantly associated with RCC susceptibility (OR=2.65, 95% CI=1.05-6.69). Meanwhile, we found that the frequencies of genotype GG and allele G were much higher in case group, compared with controls (P<0.05 for both) and they appeared to be risk factors for RCC (OR=2.90, 95% CI=1.22-6.87; OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.14-2.27). While, allele T of MTHFR rs1801133 could decrease the risk of RCC (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.40-0.97). MDR analysis showed that gene-gene interactions among APOE, VHL and MTHFR SNPs were closely related with RCC susceptibility.
CONCLUSION: APOE, VHL and MTHFR gene polymorphisms were related to the risk of RCC. The interactions among APOE, VHL and MTHFR genes could increase the risk of RCC.

Uen YH, Liao CC, Lin JC, et al.
Analysis of differentially expressed novel post-translational modifications of plasma apolipoprotein E in Taiwanese females with breast cancer.
J Proteomics. 2015; 126:252-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
APOE ε2 or ε4 alleles being used as indicators of breast cancer risk are controversial in Taiwanese females. We provide a concept for relative comparisons of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plasma apolipoprotein E (ApoE) between normal controls and breast cancer patients to investigate the association of ApoE with breast cancer risk. APOE polymorphisms (ApoE isoforms) were not assessed in this study. The relative modification ratio (%) of 15 targeted and 21 modified peptides were evaluated by 1D SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, and label-free nano-LC/MS to compare normal controls with breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of the ApoE protein did not significantly differ between normal controls and breast cancer patients. Eleven sites with novel PTMs were identified from 7 pairs of differentially expressed targeted and modified peptides according to the relative modification ratio including methylation at the E3 (↑1.45-fold), E7 (↑1.45-fold), E11 (↑1.19-fold), E77 (↑2.02-fold), E87 (↑2.02-fold), and Q98 (↑1.62-fold) residues; dimethylation at the Q187 (↑1.44-fold) residue; dihydroxylation at the R92 (↑1.25-fold), K95 (↑1.25-fold), and R103 (↑1.25-fold) residues; and glycosylation at the S129 (↑1.14-fold) residue. The clustered methylation and dihydroxylation of plasma ApoE proteins may play a role in breast cancer.

Yang J, Yu L, Gaiteri C, et al.
Association of DNA methylation in the brain with age in older persons is confounded by common neuropathologies.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 67:58-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, cell differentiation and development. Previous studies have reported age-related alterations of methylation levels in the human brain across the lifespan, but little is known about whether the observed association with age is confounded by common neuropathologies among older persons. Using genome-wide DNA methylation data from 740 postmortem brains, we interrogated 420,132 CpG sites across the genome in a cohort of individuals with ages from 66 to 108 years old, a range of ages at which many neuropathologic indices become quite common. We compared the association of DNA methylation prior to and following adjustment for common neuropathologies using a series of linear regression models. In the simplest model adjusting for technical factors including batch effect and bisulfite conversion rate, we found 8156 CpGs associated with age. The number of CpGs associated with age dropped by more than 10% following adjustment for sex. Notably, after adjusting for common neuropathologies, the total number of CpGs associated with age was reduced by approximately 40%, compared to the sex-adjusted model. These data illustrate that the association of methylation changes in the brain with age is inflated if one does not account for age-related brain pathologies. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Epigenetics dynamics in development and disease.

Sen A, Nelson TJ, Alkon DL
ApoE4 and Aβ Oligomers Reduce BDNF Expression via HDAC Nuclear Translocation.
J Neurosci. 2015; 35(19):7538-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a major genetic risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epigenetic dysregulation, including aberrations in histone acetylation, is also associated with AD. We show here for the first time that ApoE4 increases nuclear translocation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human neurons, thereby reducing BDNF expression, whereas ApoE3 increases histone 3 acetylation and upregulates BDNF expression. Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, which have been implicated in AD, caused effects similar to ApoE4. Blocking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor with receptor-associated protein (RAP) or LRP-1 siRNA abolished the ApoE effects. ApoE3 also induced expression of protein kinase C ε (PKCε) and PKCε retained HDACs in the cytosol. PKCε activation and ApoE3 supplementation prevented ApoE4-mediated BDNF downregulation. PKCε activation also reversed Aβ oligomer- and ApoE4-induced nuclear import of HDACs, preventing the loss in BDNF. ApoE4 induced HDAC6-BDNF promoter IV binding, which reduced BDNF exon IV expression. Nuclear HDAC4 and HDAC6 were more abundant in the hippocampus of ApoE4 transgenic mice than in ApoE3 transgenic mice or wild-type controls. Nuclear translocation of HDA6 was also elevated in the hippocampus of AD patients compared with age-matched controls. These results provide new insight into the cause of synaptic loss that is the most important pathologic correlate of cognitive deficits in AD.

Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Kip KE, et al.
Moderating Effects of Genetic Polymorphisms on Improvements in Cognitive Impairment in Breast Cancer Survivors Participating in a 6-Week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program.
Biol Res Nurs. 2015; 17(4):393-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) survivors often report cognitive impairment, which may be influenced by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The purpose of this study was to test whether particular SNPs were associated with changes in cognitive function in BC survivors and whether these polymorphisms moderated cognitive improvement resulting from the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR[BC]) program. BC survivors recruited from Moffitt Cancer Center and the University of South Florida's Breast Health Program, who had completed adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment, were randomized to either the 6-week MBSR(BC) program (n = 37) or usual care (UC; n = 35) group. Measures of cognitive function and demographic and clinical history data were attained at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. A total of 10 SNPs from eight genes known to be related to cognitive function were analyzed using blood samples. Results showed that SNPs in four genes (ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1], apolipoprotein E [APOE], methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR], and solute carrier family 6 member 4 [SLC6A4]) were associated with cognitive impairment. Further, rs1800497 in ANKK1 was significantly associated with improvements in cognitive impairment in response to MBSR(BC). These results may help to identify individuals who would be better served by MBSR(BC) or other interventions.

Yang C, Tian G, Mi J, et al.
Causal relevance of circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cancer: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9495 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We summarized published data on the associations of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism with both cancer risk and circulating lipid profiles, aiming to examine the causal relevance between lipids and cancer risk. Article identification and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two authors. Data were analyzed by STATA software. Twenty-five articles that examined the associations of APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism with either cancer risk (n = 22) or circulating lipid changes (n = 4) were eligible. The presence of ε2 and ε4 alleles showed no overall associations with overall cancer risk when compared with ε3 allele. The ε4 allele was significantly associated with 1.40-fold (odds ratio or OR = 1.40; 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.00-1.94; P = 0.047) increased risk of developing cancer in Asian populations, and the presence of heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 37.6%). Carriers of ε3/ε4 genotype had a significant reduction in circulating HDL-C (WMD = -2.62; 95% CI: -4.19 to -1.04; P = 0.001) without heterogeneity (I(2) = 16.6%). The predicted odds of having cancer for 1 mg/dL reduction in circulating HDL-C was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.89). The findings of this Mendelian randomization meta-analysis demonstrate that reduced circulating HDL-C might be a potentially causal risk factor for the development of overall cancer in Asians.

Ivanova TI, Krikunova LI, Ryabchenko NI, et al.
Association of the apolipoprotein E 2 allele with concurrent occurrence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015; 2015:593658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes encoding proteins with antioxidant properties may influence susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial carcinoma (ECa). Patients with EH (n = 89), EH concurrent with ECa (n = 76), ECa (n = 186), and healthy controls (n = 1110) were genotyped for five polymorphic variants in the genes involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (APOE Cys112Arg and Arg158Cys), iron (HFE Cys282Tyr and His63Asp), and catecholamines (COMT Val158Met). Patients and controls were matched by ethnicity (all Caucasians), age, body mass index (BMI), and incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The frequency of the APOE E 2 allele (158Cys) was higher in patients with EH + ECa than in controls (P = 0.0012, P(Bonferroni) = 0.018, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.49-4.45). The APOE E 4 allele (112Arg) was more frequently found in patients with EH than in controls and HFE minor allele G (63Asp) had a protective effect in the ECa group, though these results appeared to be nonsignificant after correction for multiple comparisons. The results of the study indicate that E 2 allele might be associated with concurrent occurrence of EH and ECa.

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