Gene Summary

Gene:CAMP; cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide
Aliases: LL37, CAP18, CRAMP, HSD26, CAP-18, FALL39, FALL-39
Summary:This gene encodes a member of an antimicrobial peptide family, characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal signal peptide containing a cathelin domain and a structurally variable cationic antimicrobial peptide, which is produced by extracellular proteolysis from the C-terminus. In addition to its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities, the encoded protein functions in cell chemotaxis, immune mediator induction, and inflammatory response regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CAMP (cancer-related)

Mehta A, Patel BM
Therapeutic opportunities in colon cancer: Focus on phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
Life Sci. 2019; 230:150-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite novel technologies, colon cancer remains undiagnosed and 25% of patients are diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer. Resistant to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major problems associated with treating colon cancer which creates the need to develop novel agents targeting towards newer targets. A phosphodiesterase is a group of isoenzyme, which, hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides and thereby lowers intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP leading to tumorigenic effects. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed increased PDE expression in different types of cancers including colon cancer. cAMP-specific PDE inhibitors increase intracellular cAMP that leads to activation of effector molecules-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, exchange protein activated by cAMP and cAMP gated ion channels. These molecules regulate cellular responses and exert its anticancer role through different mechanisms including apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, upregulating tumor suppressor genes and suppressing oncogenes. On the other hand, cGMP specific PDE inhibitors exhibit anticancer effects through cGMP dependent protein kinase and cGMP dependent cation channels. Elevation in cGMP works through activation of caspases, suppression of Wnt/b-catenin pathway and TCF transcription leading to inhibition of CDK and survivin. These studies point out towards the fact that PDE inhibition is associated with anti-proliferative, anti-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic pathways involved in its anticancer effects in colon cancer. Thus, inhibition of PDE enzymes can be used as a novel approach to treat colon cancer. This review will focus on cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways leading to tumorigenesis and the use of PDE inhibitors in colon cancer.

Zheng KB, Xie J, Li YT, et al.
Knockdown of CERB expression inhibits proliferation and migration of glioma cells line U251.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019; 120(4):309-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and accounts for almost 30 % of all brain and central nervous system tumors and 80 % of all malignant brain tumors. In this study, we investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the progression of glioma.
METHODS: Tissue samples from glioma patients were collected and examined for expression of CREB and its correlation with tumor grades. CREB was then knocked down via siRNA to see if reduced expression of CREB affects cell proliferation and migration. Factors involved in cell cycles, adhesion and apoptosis were examined as well. Moreover, CRESP/CAS9 mediated knockout of CREB was conducted and athymic Nude mice model was used to investigate CREB's role in vivo.
RESULTS: The evaluated expression level of CREB in glioma patients was correlated with tumor grades. Knockdown of CREB via siRNA in glioma cell line U251 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. Moreover, CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 expression were reduced, as well as phosphorylation of IRK1/2 and AKT. Additionally, knockout of CREB via CRESP/CAS9 inhibited tumor formation of U251 cells in athymic Nude mice model.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data suggest that over expression of CREB may contribute to progression of glioma and knockdown of CREB expression may serve as a novel target for therapy (Tab. 1, Fig. 6, Ref. 25).

Chen WC, Li QL, Pan Q, et al.
Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1) promotes progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) via activation of NF-κB signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), a previously identified cellular receptor for several murine leukemia viruses, plays a role in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of XPR1 in human cancers has not yet been characterized.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and western blotting assay were used to measure the expression of XPR1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) tissues. Expression of XPR1 and p65 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. The function of XPR1 on progression of TSCC was explored using in vitro and in vivo experiments. The molecular mechanism by which XPR1 helps to cancer progression was investigated by luciferase reporter activity, ELISA, PKA activity assay, immunofluorescence, western blotting and qPCR assay.
RESULTS: Herein, we find that XPR1 is markedly upregulated in TSCC tissues compared to normal tongue tissues. High expression of XPR1 significantly correlates with the malignant features and poor patient survival in TSCC. Ectopic expression of XPR1 increases, while silencing of XPR1 reduces the proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis capacities of TSCC cells. Importantly, silencing of XPR1 effectively inhibits the tumorigenecity of TSCC cells. Moreover, we identified that XPR1 increased the concentration of intracellular cAMP and activated PKA. Thus, XPR1 promoted phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB signaling, which is required for XPR1-mediated oncogenic roles and significantly correlates with XPR1 expression in clinical specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings uncover a critical role of XPR1 in TSCC progression via activation of NF-κB, and suggest that XPR1 might be a potential prognostic marker or therapeutic target.

Chen MK, Peng CC, Maner RS, et al.
Geniposide ameliorated fluoxetine-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is one of the most common psychiatric medications clinically prescribed; while over-produced serotonin may suppress neurite development. The role of major iridoids like geniposide (GPS) and genipin (GNP) from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (family Rubiaceae) in ameliorating the anti-neurite outgrowth effect of FXT is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of these iridoids on FXT-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated.
MAIN METHODS: Neuro2a cells were treated with FXT and GPS. The effect of GPS-FXT co-treatment on neurite outgrowth was observed using inverted phase-contrast microscope imaging system, while neurite outgrowth markers - microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) were analyzed using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The transcription factor-cAMP response element binding (CREB), and signaling pathways - mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) were also analyzed with the help of Western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that FXT decreased the neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells and also downregulated gene and protein expression of MAP2 and GAP43. It also downregulated the protein expression of phosphorylated-CREB, MAPK, and AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. In contrast, GPS counteracted the effects of FXT. GPS-FXT co-treatment increased the percentage of neurite-bearing cells by 3.6-fold at 200 μM as compared to FXT treatment only.
SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the possible molecular mechanism showing how FXT exerted its detrimental side-effects on the neurite differentiation, and via the same mechanism how GPS attenuated these side effects.

Ma S, Liu W, Zhang A, et al.
Identification of a PRKAR1A mutation (c.491_492delTG) in familial cardiac myxoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(11):e14866 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Cardiac myxoma is the most common cardiac neoplasm. Currently, there are not many reports on familial cardiac myxoma. Herein, we reported 2 first-degree relatives with left atrial myxoma.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-year-old female was admitted in our hospital for lapsing into a coma for 24 hours, and was diagnosed with recurrent left atrial cardiac myxoma. The patient's father also had a history of cardiac myxoma.
DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with left atrial myxoma using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified a p.Val164Aspfs (c.491-492delTG) mutation in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory (R) subunit 1 (PRKAR1A) gene for both the proband and her father, but not in her uncle and brother, who had not shown manifestation of cardiac myxoma by the time of this report.
INTERVENTIONS: The myxoma resection was performed following the standard procedure of open chest surgery.
OUTCOMES: The tumor was successfully removed along with the tuberculum. The patient recovered well and was discharged home. No recurrence occurred during 1-year follow-up.
LESSONS: Our findings suggest that PRKAR1A mutation (c.491_492delTG) may be associated with cardiac myxoma, and genetic counseling and specific locus mutation tests may contribute to assessing the risk of cardiac myxoma.

Kang M, Park SH, Park SJ, et al.
p44/42 MAPK signaling is a prime target activated by phenylethyl resorcinol in its anti-melanogenic action.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152877 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanin plays a crucial role in protecting human skin against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, its overproduction induces hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin.
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of phenylethyl resorcinol as one resorcinol derivative on melanogenesis and its mechanisms using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes.
METHODS: Effects of phenylethyl resorcinol on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i.e., cell survival, melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, real-time PCR analysis, luciferase-reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISAs for cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)).
RESULTS: Phenylethyl resorcinol reduced both melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells. Phenylethyl resorcinol also suppressed tyrosinase activity in cell-free tyrosinase enzyme assay. Although phenylethyl resorcinol decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, it did not affect mRNA levels of melanogenic gene microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF) or TRP-1. Phenylethyl resorcinol had no effects on cAMP signaling or NF-κB signaling based on results of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter assay, cAMP production, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, Western blot assays for phosphorylated CRE-binding protein (CREB), NF-κB-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot assays for phosphorylated NF-κB. However, phenylethyl resorcinol induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling. Specifically, phenylethyl resorcinol increased AP-1 reporter activity and increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MEK1/2 and Src, upstream molecules of p44/42 MAPK were also phosphorylated by phenylethyl resorcinol. In addition, phenylethyl resorcinol-induced decreases in melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and MITF protein levels were attenuated by PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the anti-melanogenic activity of phenylethyl resorcinol is mediated by activation of p44/42 MAPK, indicating that phenylethyl resorcinol may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

Li J, Feng D, Gao C, et al.
Isoforms S and L of MRPL33 from alternative splicing have isoform‑specific roles in the chemoresponse to epirubicin in gastric cancer cells via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1591-1600 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance is a major cause of cancer‑associated mortality. Epirubicin‑based chemotherapy initially benefits patients with metastatic or advanced gastric cancer; however, tumor recurrence can occur following several courses of treatment. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L33 (MRPL33)‑long (L) and MRPL33‑short (S), isoforms of MRPL33 that arise from AS, have been reported to regulate cell growth and apoptosis in cancer; however, few studies have evaluated the roles of MRPL33‑L and MRPL33‑S in gastric cancer. In the present study, MRPL33‑L was demonstrated to be significantly more abundant in gastric tumor tissues than the MRPL33‑S isoform. MRPL33‑S promoted chemosensitivity to epirubicin in gastric cancer as demonstrated by a chemoresponse assay; chemosensitivity was suppressed in response to MRPL33‑L. Gene microarray analysis was performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that overexpression of MRPL33‑L and MRPL33‑S served critical roles in transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. In particular, the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) signaling pathway was markedly regulated. A total of 36 target genes, including PIK3 regulatory subunit α, AKT2, cAMP response element‑binding protein (CREB) 1, forkhead box 3, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mammalian target of rapamycin, which are involved in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, were selected for further investigation via protein‑protein interaction network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that MRPL33‑S promoted the chemoresponse to epirubicin by deactivating PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling and inducing apoptosis, while MRPL33‑L had the opposite effects. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that isoforms S and L of MRPL33, which arise from alternative splicing, exhibited opposing roles in the chemoresponse to epirubicin in gastric cancer via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These findings may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for the resensitization of patients with gastric cancer to epirubicin treatment.

Yang Q, Yu W, Han X
Overexpression of microRNA‑101 causes anti‑tumor effects by targeting CREB1 in colon cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3159-3167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the initiation and progression of numerous types of human cancer. Although a number of miRNAs have been demonstrated to be associated with the diagnosis, progression and prognosis of colon cancer, the function of miRNA‑101 (miR‑101) in colon cancer remains unclear, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of miR‑101 in colon cancer require further investigation. The present study investigated the role of miR‑101 in colon cancer, and the results suggested that miR‑101 expression levels were significantly decreased in colorectal carcinoma tissues and in three types of colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑101 inhibited cell proliferation and migration in HT29 cells. The transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was identified to be a direct target of miR‑101 using a luciferase reporter assay, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blot assay. miR‑101 overexpression in tumor xenografts in vivo decreased the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and CREB1, and suppressed tumor growth. The present results suggested that miR‑101 may serve a role in colon cancer by directly targeting CREB1. Collectively, the present study may contribute to the development of improved diagnosis and prognostics for colon cancer.

Bai L, Zhang S, Zhou X, et al.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces thioredoxin-1 expression through TrkB/Akt/CREB pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.
Biochimie. 2019; 160:55-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophic factors that are vital to the survival and proliferation of neuron. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays various roles in regulating transcript factors and inhibiting apoptosis. It has been reported that Trx-1 is required for nerve growth factor-mediated signal transduction and neurite outgrowth, and is involved in synaptic protein expression induced by BDNF. However, the molecular mechanism on BDNF inducing Trx-1 expression has not been fully verified. The present study investigated the expression of Trx-1 after treatment with BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells. We first demonstrated that cell viability and the expression of Trx-1 were increased by BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells, which were inhibited by the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor, K252a, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, BDNF increased the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) through TrkB/PI3-K/Akt pathway. Whereas the expression of Trx-1 induced by BDNF was suppressed by CREB siRNA. Thus, our data suggest that BDNF induces the expression of Trx-1 through the TrkB/Akt/CREB pathway.

Ostrovskaya A, Hick C, Hutchinson DS, et al.
Expression and activity of the calcitonin receptor family in a sample of primary human high-grade gliomas.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain cancer. With median survival of less than 15 months, identification and validation of new GBM therapeutic targets is of critical importance.
RESULTS: In this study we tested expression and performed pharmacological characterization of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) as well as other members of the calcitonin family of receptors in high-grade glioma (HGG) cell lines derived from individual patient tumours, cultured in defined conditions. Previous immunohistochemical data demonstrated CTR expression in GBM biopsies and we were able to confirm CALCR (gene encoding CTR) expression. However, as assessed by cAMP accumulation assay, only one of the studied cell lines expressed functional CTR, while the other cell lines have functional CGRP (CLR/RAMP1) receptors. The only CTR-expressing cell line (SB2b) showed modest coupling to the cAMP pathway and no activation of other known CTR signaling pathways, including ERK
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that GPCR signaling can display significant variation depending on cellular system used, and effects seen in model recombinant cell lines or tumour cell lines are not always reproduced in a more physiologically relevant system and vice versa.

Camp NJ, Madsen MJ, Herranz J, et al.
Re-interpretation of PAM50 gene expression as quantitative tumor dimensions shows utility for clinical trials: application to prognosis and response to paclitaxel in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):129-139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We recently showed PAM50 gene expression data can be represented by five quantitative, orthogonal, multi-gene breast tumor traits. These novel tumor 'dimensions' were superior to categorical intrinsic subtypes for clustering in high-risk breast cancer pedigrees, indicating potential to represent underlying genetic susceptibilities and biological pathways. Here we explore the prognostic and predictive utility of these dimensions in a sub-study of GEICAM/9906, a Phase III randomized prospective clinical trial of paclitaxel in breast cancer.
METHODS: Tumor dimensions, PC1-PC5, were calculated using pre-defined coefficients. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards (PH) models for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify associations between quantitative dimensions and prognosis or response to the addition of paclitaxel. Results were illustrated using Kaplan-Meier curves.
RESULTS: Dimensions PC1 and PC5 were associated with DFS (Cox PH p = 6.7 [Formula: see text] 10
CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-concept application of quantitative dimensions illustrated novel findings and clinical utility beyond standard clinical-pathological characteristics and categorical intrinsic subtypes for prognosis and predicting chemotherapy response. Consideration of expression data as quantitative tumor dimensions offers new potential to identify clinically important patient subsets in clinical trials and advance precision medicine.

Li Z, Yu D, Li H, et al.
Long non‑coding RNA UCA1 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer endocrinotherapy through regulation of the EZH2/p21 axis and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1033-1042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen is the gold standard for breast cancer endocrinotherapy. However, drug resistance remains a major limiting factor of tamoxifen treatment. Long non‑coding (lnc) RNA serves an important role in drug resistance; however, the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer endocrinotherapy are largely unclear. lncRNA urothelial cancer associated 1 (lncRNA UCA1, UCA1) has been proven to be dysregulated in human breast cancer and promotes cancer progression. In the present study, it was demonstrated that UCA1 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with healthy tissues. Furthermore, the expression level of UCA1 was significantly greater in tamoxifen‑resistant breast cancer cells (LCC2 and LCC9) when compared with those in the tamoxifen‑sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF‑7 and T47D). UCA1 silencing in LLC2 and LLC9 cells increased tamoxifen drug sensitivity by promoting cell apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Notably, the induced overexpression of UCA1 in MCF‑7 and T47D cells decreased the drug sensitivity of tamoxifen. The molecular mechanism involved in UCA1‑induced tamoxifen‑resistance was also investigated. It was identified that UCA1 was physically associated with the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which suppressed the expression of p21 through histone methylation (H3K27me3) on the p21 promoter. In addition, it was demonstrated that UCA1 expression was paralleled to the phosphorylation of CAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and AKT. When LCC2 cells were treated with the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002, the phosphorylation levels of CREB and AKT were significantly downregulated. Taken together, it was concluded that UCA1 regulates the EZH2/p21 axis and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in breast cancer, and may be a potential therapeutic target for solving tamoxifen resistance.

Yun SJ, Lee B, Komori K, et al.
Regulation of TIM-3 expression in a human T cell line by tumor-conditioned media and cyclic AMP-dependent signaling.
Mol Immunol. 2019; 105:224-232 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) expression increases in exhausted T cells, which inhibits T cell function. TIM-3 expression is supposedly up-regulated in tumor-bearing individuals via chronic antigenic stimulation of T cells. Considering the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment, we investigated whether tumor-secreted molecules might enhance TIM-3 expression in Jurkat T cells. We observed that TIM-3 expression was increased by the activation of prostaglandin (PG) E

Gibbs LD, Chaudhary P, Mansheim K, et al.
ANXA2 expression in African American triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(1):113-120 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine the role of Annexin A2 (AnxA2), which we have previously found to contribute to the aggressiveness of TNBC, with AA TNBC patients and clinical outcome.
METHODS: We analyzed TCGA breast cancer database (n = 1098) to observe AnxA2 expression within breast cancer subtypes and is correlation with overall survival. Further, we examined breast tissue specimens (n = 119) through chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and specimen were scored independently by two pathologists in a blinded study.
RESULTS: In our TCGA analysis, high expression of AnxA2 was correlated with poor survival in patients with TNBC. AnxA2 gene expression was not correlated with poor survival in other breast cancer subtypes. AnxA2 average CISH intensity score (CISH score = 0, null expression to 3, high expression) for TNBC was significantly higher in comparison to estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor positive, and non-malignant tissues. Furthermore, AnxA2 average score was significantly higher in AA TNBC patients (CISH average score = 2.45 ± 0.3266) in comparison to Caucasian TNBC patients (CISH average score = 1.1 ± 0.4069).
CONCLUSION: AnxA2 is overexpressed in TNBC, implicating AnxA2 as a contributor to the aggressive biology of TNBC in AA women.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Kamilaris CDC, Stratakis CA
An update on adrenal endocrinology: significant discoveries in the last 10 years and where the field is heading in the next decade.
Hormones (Athens). 2018; 17(4):479-490 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The last 10 years have produced an amazing number of significant discoveries in the field of adrenal endocrinology. The development of the adrenal gland was linked to specific molecules. Cortisol-producing lesions were associated mostly with defects of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway, whereas aldosterone-producing lesions were found to be the result of defects in aldosterone biosynthesis or the potassium channel KCNJ5 and related molecules. Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was linked to ARMC5 defects and new genes were found to be involved in adrenocortical cancer (ACC). The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme was proven to be the most important molecular pathway involved in pheochromocytomas, along with several other genes. Adrenomedullary tumors are now largely molecularly elucidated. Unfortunately, most of these important discoveries have yet to produce new therapeutic tools for our patients with adrenal diseases: ACC in its advanced stages remains largely an untreatable disorder and malignant pheochromocytomas are equally hard to treat. Thus, the challenge for the next 10 years is to translate the important discoveries of the previous decade into substantial advances in the treatment of adrenal disorders and tumors.

Wang Y, Liu D, Jin X, et al.
Genome-wide characterization of aberrant DNA methylation patterns and the potential clinical implications in patients with endometrial cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):137-143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in the development of the majority of human cancers. However, the association of aberrant DNA methylation with the clinical characteristics of uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) has not been fully explored. We performed an integrative analysis in order to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profile and the gene expression profile of 432 UCEC samples and 46 normal tissue samples. A total of 793 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that were associated with 472 protein-coding genes were identified, including 622 hypermethylated DMRs and 171 hypomethylated DMRs. These DMRs were capable of differentiating UCEC from normal tissues with an accuracy of 99.07% using an unsupervised hierarchical clustering method. The genomic analysis suggested that the hypermethylated DMRs were located in CpG island regions nearer to the transcription start site (TSS) compared with the hypomethylated DMRs. Functional analysis for genes associated with DMRs revealed an enrichment of methylated genes that were involved in key cancer-related biological processes and pathways, such as cell adhesion, cell differentiation and the cAMP signaling pathway. Finally, we performed a correlation analysis of the methylation levels of DMRs and patient survival time, and identified 130 DMRs. These molecular markers could classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different overall survival. Taken together, the present study revealed the potential applications of the detection of aberrant DNA methylation as a valuable prognostic marker for UCEC. The current findings may aid the therapeutic exploitation of UCEC treatment strategies and improve our understanding regarding the regulation of methylation in UCEC.

Persaud L, Mighty J, Zhong X, et al.
IL-24 Promotes Apoptosis through cAMP-Dependent PKA Pathways in Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a tumor-suppressing protein, which inhibits angiogenesis and induces cancer cell-specific apoptosis. We have shown that IL-24 regulates apoptosis through phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cancer. Although multiple stresses converge on eIF2α phosphorylation, the cellular outcome is not always the same. In particular, ER stress-induced apoptosis is primarily regulated through the extent of eIF2α phosphorylation and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) action. Our studies show for the first time that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation is required for IL-24-induced cell death in a variety of breast cancer cell lines and this event increases ATF4 activity. We demonstrate an undocumented role for PKA in regulating IL-24-induced cell death, whereby PKA stimulates phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and upregulates extrinsic apoptotic factors of the Fas/FasL signaling pathway and death receptor 4 expression. We also demonstrate that phosphorylation and nuclear import of tumor suppressor TP53 occurs downstream of IL-24-mediated PKA activation. These discoveries provide the first mechanistic insights into the function of PKA as a key regulator of the extrinsic pathway, ER stress, and TP53 activation triggered by IL-24.

Chen C, Ge C, Liu Z, et al.
ATF3 inhibits the tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via upregulation of CYR61 expression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):263 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers with a high incidence and high mortality in East Asia. Identifying biomarkers and clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of HCC are of great importance. Herein, we report the role and mechanism of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein family of transcription factors in HCC.
METHODS: ATF3 overexpression vector and shRNAs were transfected into HCC cancer cells to upregulate or downregulate ATF3 expression. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the functional role of ATF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. RNA-Seq was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes downstream of ATF3. The dual-luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch-IP) analysis and functional rescue experiments were used to confirm the target gene regulated by ATF3. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) comprising 236 human primary HCC tissues were obtained and immunohistochemical staining were carried out to analyze the clinical significance of ATF3.
RESULTS: The results indicate that ATF3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and mobility of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is a key target for transcriptional regulation by ATF3. Both ATF3 and CYR61 were consistently downregulated in human HCC tissues, and their expression levels were significantly and positively correlated with each other.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that ATF3 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC through targeting and regulating CYR61.

He B, Chang Y, Yang C, et al.
Adenylate cyclase 7 regulated by miR-192 promotes ATRA-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 506(3):543-547 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenylate cyclase 7 (AC7) has been reported to participate in various biological processes during cancer progression. However, the roles of AC7 in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells are still unknown. In this study, firstly, our results showed that AC7 affected intracellular cAMP level and influenced ATRA-induced differentiation of APL cells. Secondly, we revealed that miR-192 could directly target AC7 expression and knockdown of miR-192 promoted ATRA-induced APL cell differentiation by regulating AC7 expression. Furthermore, we found that AC7 expression was lower in patients with relapsed APL than that in patients with newly diagnosed APL, while miR-192 expression was relatively higher in patients with relapsed APL. Taken together, our results show that miR-192-mediated AC7 could play important roles in differentiation of APL cells, AC7 and miR-192 might be new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for patients with relapsed APL.

Ma R, Zhai X, Zhu X, Zhang L
LINC01585 functions as a regulator of gene expression by the CAMP/CREB signaling pathway in breast cancer.
Gene. 2019; 684:139-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. Nowadays, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified and emerged as critical bio-markers in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. However, only a handful of lncRNAs which are implicated in BC have been characterized. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown.
METHODS: In this study, we explored 12 nominated lncRNAs at breast cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies to contribute to the risk and effects of breast cancer. We then analyzed these lncRNAs in a total of 132 pairs of breast cancer tissues and surrounding non-tumor tissues from southern China population.
RESULTS: Here, we report a novel lncRNA, LINC01585, is aberrantly down regulated during breast cancer (BC). Next, to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of LINC01585, we identified LINC01585 binding protein by RNA pull-down experiments. Functionally, we found that LINC01585 overexpression inhibited breast cancer proliferation and growth by prototypical experiments. Mechanistically, LINC01585 was located in nuclear and binding with NONO protein. Interestingly, when LINC01585 was down-expressed, NONO separated from LINC01585 and then interacted with CRTC. The complex promotes CAMP/CREB target gene transcription and thus promotes the growth of breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: A series of discoveries suggest to us that LINC01585 has a potential value in anti-carcinoma therapy and deserves further investigation.

Oh J, Kim Y, Baek D, Ha Y
Malignant gliomas can be converted to non‑proliferating glial cells by treatment with a combination of small molecules.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):361-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas, the most highly malignant central nervous system tumors, are associated with an extremely poor patient survival rate. Given that gliomas are derived from mutations in glial precursor cells, a considerable number of them strongly react with glial precursor cell‑specific markers. Thus, we investigated whether malignant gliomas can be converted to glial cells through the regulation of endogenous gene expression implicated in glial precursor cells. In the present study, we used three small‑molecule compounds, [cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enhancer, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, and a bromodomain and extra‑terminal motif (BET) inhibitor] for glial reprogramming. Small‑molecule‑induced gliomas (SMiGs) were not only transformed into exhibiting a glial‑specific morphology, but also showed positive reactions with glial‑specific markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), 2',3'‑cyclic nucleotide 3'‑phosphohydrolase (CNP) and anti‑oligodendrocyte (RIP). A microarray analysis indicated that SMiGs exhibited a marked increase in specific gene levels, whereas that of a malignant cancer‑specific gene was greatly decreased. Moreover, proliferation of the cells was markedly suppressed after the conversion of malignant glioma cells into glial cells. Our findings confirmed that malignant gliomas can be reprogrammed to non‑proliferating glial cells, using a combination of small molecules, and their proliferation can be regulated by their differentiation. We suggest that our small‑molecule combination (with forskolin, rapamycin and I‑BET151) may be the next generation of anticancer agents that act by reprogramming malignant gliomas to differentiate into glial cells.

Walory J, Mielczarek L, Jarończyk M, et al.
Oncotoxic Properties of Serotonin Transporter Inhibitors and 5-HT
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The cytotoxic activity of several serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors and subtype of serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT

Zhu F, Huang R, Li J, et al.
Identification of Key Genes and Pathways Associated with RUNX1 Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using Bioinformatics Analysis.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:7100-7108 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND RUNXl plays a key regulatory role in the process of hematopoiesis and is a common target for multiple chromosomal translocations in human acute leukemia. Mutations of RUNX1 gene can lead to acute leukemia and affect the prognosis of AML patients. We aimed to identify pivotal genes and pathways involved in RUNX1-mutated patients of with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to explore possible molecular markers for novel therapeutic targets of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS The RNA sequencing datasets of 151 cases of AML were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using edgeR of the R platform. PPI (protein-protein interaction) network clustering modules were analyzed with ClusterONE, and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analyses for modules were performed. RESULTS A total of 379 genes were identified as DEGs. The KEGG enrichment analysis of DEGs showed significantly enriched pathways in cancer, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathway, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. The top 10 genes ranked by degree were PRKACG, ANKRD7, RNFL7, ROPN11, TEX14, PRMT8, OTOA, CFAP99, NRXN1, and DMRT1, which were identified as hub genes from the protein-protein interaction network (PPI). Statistical analysis revealed that RUNX1-mutated patients with AML had a shorter median survival time (MST) with poor clinical outcome and an increased risk of death when compared with those without RUNX1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS DEGs and pathways identified in the present study will help understand the molecular mechanisms underlying RUNX1 mutations in AML and develop effective therapeutic strategies for RUNX1-mutation AML.

Zhao X, Ren Y, Cui N, et al.
Identification of key microRNAs and their targets in exosomes of pancreatic cancer using bioinformatics analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(39):e12632 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal tumors, due to late diagnosis and limited surgical strategies. It has been reported that serum exosomal microRNAs (S-Exo-miRNAs) play a pivotal role as signaling molecules and serve as noninvasive diagnosis methods for PC. The combination of S-Exo-miRNAs with the corresponding target also plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment.Here we investigated S-Exo-miRNAs involved in PC. The gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The analysis was carried out using GEO2R. The targets of differentially expressed serum exosomal miRNAs (DE-S-Exo-miRNAs) were predicted by 4 bioinformatic algorithms (miRanda, miRDB, miRWalk, and Targetscan). Further analysis with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed with Cytoscape software version 3.4.0. Subsequently, the interaction regulatory network of target genes was performed with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database ( and visualized using Cytoscape software.We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE50632, which was based on an Agilent microarray GPL17660 platform containing 4 eligible samples. In total 467 DE-S-Exo-miRNAs were obtained, including 7 overexpressed miRNAs (1.50%), and 460 remaining underexpressed miRNAs (98.50%). The databases miRWalk, miRDB, miRanda, and TargetScan were used to predict their potential targets, which were subsequently submitted to Cytoscape software version 3.4.0 ( Next the functional and pathway enrichment analysis were used for the KEGG pathway and GO categories analysis. The enrichment analysis identified the genes involved in such processes as developmental and negative regulation of multicellular organismal processes, regulation of anatomical structure morphogenesis, regulation of cell death, apoptotic processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, transforming growth factor - beta (TGF -β) signaling pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway. Subsequently according to the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, the top 10 genes were obtained. The enrichment analyses of the genes involved in a significant module revealed that these genes were related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. After reviewing the literature, we identified the apoptosis genes, and their corresponding miRNAs that have a relationship with apoptosis of the tumor.This analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the roles of S-Exo-miRNAs and the related targets in the development of PC. Additionally, the present study provides promising candidate targets for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. However, these predictions require further experimental validation in future studies.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

Zhu R, Yang X, Xue X, et al.
Neuroendocrine differentiation contributes to radioresistance development and metastatic potential increase in non-small cell lung cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(12):1878-1890 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation treatment induces neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 and H157 cells, so higher NE-like features in radioresistant A549 (A549R26-1) and H157 (H157R24-1) cells are observed than in parental cells. We detected higher NED marker expressions in A549R26-1 cell-derived tumors than in A549 cell-derived tumors. In mechanism studies, we found that NED induction in A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 cells was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP and IL-6 levels. Treatment of radioresistant lung cancer cells with the inhibitor (SQ22536) of adenylate cyclase (AC) which is the enzyme responsible for the cAMP production, or the neutralizing antibody (Ab) of IL-6, resulted in decreased NE-like features in radioresistant lung cancer cells. In addition, we found MEK/Erk is the signaling pathway that triggers the cAMP- and IL-6-mediated NED induction in radioresistant lung cancer cells. Also, we found that MEK/Erk signaling pathway inhibition decreased NED in radioresistant cells. Radioresistant lung cancer cells exhibiting high NE-like features also showed higher radioresistance and higher metastatic potential than parental cells. When we inhibited cAMP-, or IL-6-mediated pathways, or the downstream MEK/Erk signaling pathway, radiosensitivity of radioresistant lung cancer cells was significantly increased and their metastatic potential was significantly reduced. In in vivo mouse studies, reducing NED by treating mice with the MEK/Erk inhibitor increased radiosensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues lowered expressions of the NED/epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/metastatic markers when mice were treated with the MEK/Erk inhibitor.

Alvendal C, Kamolvit W, Wagner S, et al.
Expression of Psoriasin in Human Papillomavirus-Induced Cervical High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2019; 23(1):33-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus causes cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). The role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in premalignant and malignant transformation is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the expression of human β-defensin 1 (HBD-1), HBD-2, HBD-3, LL37, psoriasin, and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in women with HSIL before and 6 months after surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies and secretion samples from the cervical canal were collected from 19 patients with HSIL and 14 healthy controls. The mRNA expression of HBD-1, HBD-2, HBD-3, LL37, psoriasin, and IL-8 was analyzed before and 6 months after surgery excision using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. For protein analyses, ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used for psoriasin and ELISA for IL-8.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of psoriasin was lower in patients before treatment compared with healthy controls (p = .05). After surgery, when the infection was cleared, psoriasin increased on mRNA (p = .04) and protein (p = .03) levels compared with before treatment. Immunostaining for psoriasin after treatment was prominent and localized in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. After treatment, IL-8 mRNA was reduced compared with before treatment (p = .05), but not on the protein level. No changes in mRNA expression of the other AMPs analyzed were observed in pretreatment and posttreatment samples.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of AMP expression in human papillomavirus-induced HSIL, we observed lower psoriasin levels before surgery compared with after treatment, when both mRNA and protein levels were similar to healthy controls. Interleukin 8, on the other hand, was increased before treatment, indicating an inflammatory response.

Sengupta P, Banerjee N, Roychowdhury T, et al.
Site-specific amino acid substitution in dodecameric peptides determines the stability and unfolding of c-MYC quadruplex promoting apoptosis in cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(19):9932-9950 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
c-MYC proto-oncogene harbours a transcription-inhibitory quadruplex-forming scaffold (Pu27) upstream P1 promoter providing anti-neoplastic therapeutic target. Previous reports showed the binding profile of human Cathelicidin peptide (LL37) and telomeric G-quadruplex. Here, we truncated the quadruplex-binding domain of LL37 to prepare a small library of peptides through site-specific amino acid substitution. We investigated the intracellular selectivity of peptides for Pu27 over other oncogenic quadruplexes and their role in c-MYC promoter repression by dual-luciferase assays. We analysed their thermodynamics of binding reactions with c-MYC quadruplex isomers (Pu27, Myc22, Pu19) by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. We discussed how amino acid substitutions and peptide helicity enhanced/weakened their affinities for c-MYC quadruplexes and characterized specific non-covalent inter-residual interactions determining their selectivity. Solution NMR structure indicated that KR12C, the best peptide candidate, selectively stabilized the 5'-propeller loop of c-MYC quadruplex by arginine-driven electrostatic-interactions at the sugar-phosphate backbone while KR12A peptide destabilized the quadruplex inducing a single-stranded hairpin-like conformation. Chromatin immunoprecipitations envisaged that KR12C and KR12A depleted and enriched Sp1 and NM23-H2 (Nucleoside diphosphate kinase) occupancy at Pu27 respectively supporting their regulation in stabilizing and unfolding c-MYC quadruplex in MCF-7 cells. We deciphered that selective arresting of c-MYC transcription by KR12C triggered apoptotic-signalling pathway via VEGF-A-BCL-2 axis.

Wang WJ, Li HT, Yu JP, et al.
Identification of key genes and associated pathways in KIT/PDGFRA wild‑type gastrointestinal stromal tumors through bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(5):4499-4515 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common type of mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to identify the potential candidate biomarkers that may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of v‑kit Hardy‑Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT)/platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) wild‑type GISTs. A joint bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in wild‑type GIST samples compared with KIT/PDGFRA mutant GIST samples. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and KEGG Orthology‑Based Annotation System (KOBAS) online tools, respectively. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online tool and Cytoscape, and divided into sub‑networks using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug‑in. Furthermore, enrichment analysis of DEGs in the modules was analyzed with KOBAS. In total, 546 DEGs were identified, including 238 upregulated genes primarily enriched in 'cell adhesion', 'biological adhesion', 'cell‑cell signaling', 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway' and 'ECM‑receptor interaction', while the 308 downregulated genes were predominantly involved in 'inflammatory response', 'sterol metabolic process' and 'fatty acid metabolic process', 'small GTPase mediated signal transduction', 'cAMP signaling pathway' and 'proteoglycans in cancer'. A total of 25 hub genes were obtained and four modules were mined from the PPI network, and sub‑networks also revealed these genes were primarily involved in significant pathways, including 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway', 'proteoglycans in cancer', 'pathways in cancer', 'Rap1 signaling pathway', 'ECM‑receptor interaction', 'phospholipase D signaling pathway', 'ras signaling pathway' and 'cGMP‑PKG signaling pathway'. These results suggested that several key hub DEGs may serve as potential candidate biomarkers for wild‑type GISTs, including phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase, catalytic subunit γ, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, hepatocyte growth factor, thrombospondin 1, Erb‑B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 and matrix metallopeptidase 2. However, further experiments are required to confirm these results.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CAMP, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999