Gene Summary

Gene:CDC6; cell division cycle 6
Aliases: CDC18L, HsCDC6, MGORS5, HsCDC18
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6, a protein essential for the initiation of DNA replication. This protein functions as a regulator at the early steps of DNA replication. It localizes in cell nucleus during cell cyle G1, but translocates to the cytoplasm at the start of S phase. The subcellular translocation of this protein during cell cyle is regulated through its phosphorylation by Cdks. Transcription of this protein was reported to be regulated in response to mitogenic signals through transcriptional control mechanism involving E2F proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell division control protein 6 homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC6 (cancer-related)

Chen ZX, Zou XP, Yan HQ, et al.
Identification of putative drugs for gastric adenocarcinoma utilizing differentially expressed genes and connectivity map.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):1004-1015 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is a challenging disease with dim prognosis even after surgery; hence, novel treatments for GAC are in urgent need. The aim of the present study was to explore new potential compounds interfering with the key pathways related to GAC progression. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GAC and adjacent tissues were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Genotype‑Tissue Expression (GTEx) database. Connectivity Map (CMap) was performed to screen candidate compounds for treating GAC. Subsequently, pathways affected by compounds were overlapped with those enriched by the DEGs to further identify compounds which had anti‑GAC potential. A total of 843 DEGs of GAC were identified. Via Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, 13 pathways were significantly enriched. Moreover, 78 compounds with markedly negative correlations with DEGs were revealed in CMap database (P<0.05 and Enrichment <0). Subpathways of cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways, and core genes of these compounds, cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and CDC6, were identified. This study further revealed seven compounds that may be effective against GAC; in particular methylbenzethonium chloride and alexidine have never yet been reported for GAC treatment. In brief, the candidate drugs identified in this study may provide new options to improve the treatment of patients with GAC. However, the biological effects of these drugs need further investigation.

Kim YH, Byun YJ, Kim WT, et al.
J Korean Med Sci. 2018; 33(47):e303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) is an essential regulator of DNA replication and plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle. CDC6 has been associated with oncogenic activities in human cancers; however, the clinical significance of CDC6 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether the
Methods: The study subjects included 121 PCa patients and 66 age-matched benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.

Zhuang L, Yang Z, Meng Z
Upregulation of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in Tumor Tissues Predicted Worse Overall Survival and Disease-Free Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:7897346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To evaluate the association between upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods: Using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets including GSE45436, GSE55092, GSE60502, GSE84402, and GSE17548, we detected upregulated DEGs in tumors. KEGG, GO, and Reactome enrichment analysis of the DEGs was conducted to clarify their function. The impact of the upregulated DEGs on patients' survival was analyzed based on TCGA profile.
Results: 161 shared upregulated DEGs were identified among GSE45436, GSE55092, GSE60502, and GSE84402 profiles. Cell cycle was the shared pathway/biological process in the gene sets investigation among databases of KEGG, GO, and Reactome. After being validated in GSE17548, 13 genes including BUB1B, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNE2, CDC20, CDC6, CDC7, CDK1, CDK4, CDKN2A, CHEK1, MAD2L1, and MCM3 in cell cycle pathway were shared in the three databases for enrichment. The expression of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 was upregulated in HCC tissues when compared with adjacent normal tissues in 6.67%, 7.5%, 8.06%, 5.56%, and 9.72% of HCC patients, respectively. Overexpression of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in HCC tissues accounted for poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients (all log rank
Conclusion: Correlated with advanced histologic grade and/or vascular invasion, upregulation of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in HCC tissues predicted worse OS and DFS in HCC patients. These genes could be novel therapeutic targets for HCC treatment.

Wen P, Chidanguro T, Shi Z, et al.
Identification of candidate biomarkers and pathways associated with SCLC by bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1538-1550 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the highly malignant tumors and a serious threat to human health. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of SCLC. mRNA microarray datasets GSE6044 and GSE11969 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal lung and SCLC samples were screened using GEO2R tool. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for common DEGs using the DAVID database, and the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network of common DEGs was constructed by the STRING database and visualized with Cytoscape software. In addition, the hub genes in the network and module analysis of the PPI network were performed using CentiScaPe and plugin Molecular Complex Detection. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of hub genes were validated in the Oncomine database. A total of 150 common DEGs with absolute fold‑change >0.5, including 66 significantly downregulated DEGs and 84 upregulated DEGs were obtained. The Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis suggested that common upregulated DEGs were primarily enriched in biological processes (BPs), including 'cell cycle', 'cell cycle phase', 'M phase', 'cell cycle process' and 'DNA metabolic process'. The common downregulated genes were significantly enriched in BPs, including 'response to wounding', 'positive regulation of immune system process', 'immune response', 'acute inflammatory response' and 'inflammatory response'. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified that the common downregulated DEGs were primarily enriched in the 'complement and coagulation cascades' signaling pathway; the common upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in 'cell cycle', 'DNA replication', 'oocyte meiosis' and the 'mismatch repair' signaling pathways. From the PPI network, the top 10 hub genes in SCLC were selected, including topoisomerase IIα, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, replication factor C subunit 4, checkpoint kinase 1, thymidylate synthase, minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM) 2, cell division cycle (CDC) 20, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 3, MCM3 and CDC6, the mRNA levels of which are upregulated in Oncomine SCLC datasets with the exception of MCM2. Furthermore, the genes in the significant module were enriched in 'cell cycle', 'DNA replication' and 'oocyte meiosis' signaling pathways. Therefore, the present study can shed new light on the understanding of molecular mechanisms of SCLC and may provide molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment and early diagnosis of SCLC.

He X, Zhang C, Shi C, Lu Q
Meta-analysis of mRNA expression profiles to identify differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma tissue from smokers and non-smokers.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(3):929-938 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared to other types of lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma patients with a history of smoking have a poor prognosis during the treatment of lung cancer. How lung adenocarcinoma-related genes are differentially expressed between smoker and non-smoker patients has yet to be fully elucidated. We performed a meta-analysis of four publicly available microarray datasets related to lung adenocarcinoma tissue in patients with a history of smoking using R statistical software. The top 50 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in smoking vs. non‑smoking patients are shown using heat maps. Additionally, we conducted KEGG and GO analyses. In addition, we performed a PPI network analysis for 8 genes that were selected during a previous analysis. We identified a total of 2,932 DEGs (1,806 upregulated, 1,126 downregulated) and five genes (CDC45, CDC20, ANAPC7, CDC6, ESPL1) that may link lung adenocarcinoma to smoking history. Our study may provide new insights into the complex mechanisms of lung adenocarcinoma in smoking patients, and our novel gene expression signatures will be useful for future clinical studies.

Komseli ES, Pateras IS, Krejsgaard T, et al.
A prototypical non-malignant epithelial model to study genome dynamics and concurrently monitor micro-RNAs and proteins in situ during oncogene-induced senescence.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(1):37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Senescence is a fundamental biological process implicated in various pathologies, including cancer. Regarding carcinogenesis, senescence signifies, at least in its initial phases, an anti-tumor response that needs to be circumvented for cancer to progress. Micro-RNAs, a subclass of regulatory, non-coding RNAs, participate in senescence regulation. At the subcellular level micro-RNAs, similar to proteins, have been shown to traffic between organelles influencing cellular behavior. The differential function of micro-RNAs relative to their subcellular localization and their role in senescence biology raises concurrent in situ analysis of coding and non-coding gene products in senescent cells as a necessity. However, technical challenges have rendered in situ co-detection unfeasible until now.
METHODS: In the present report we describe a methodology that bypasses these technical limitations achieving for the first time simultaneous detection of both a micro-RNA and a protein in the biological context of cellular senescence, utilizing the new commercially available SenTraGor
RESULTS: This experimental setting has three advantages that are presented and discussed: i) it covers a "gap" in the molecular carcinogenesis field, as almost all corresponding in vitro models are fibroblast-based, even though the majority of neoplasms have epithelial origin, ii) it recapitulates the precancerous and cancerous phases of epithelial tumorigenesis within a short time frame under the light of natural selection and iii) it uses as an oncogenic signal, the replication licensing factor CDC6, implicated in both DNA replication and transcription when over-expressed, a characteristic that can be exploited to monitor RNA dynamics.
CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, we demonstrate that our model is optimal for studying the molecular basis of epithelial carcinogenesis shedding light on the tumor-initiating events. The latter may reveal novel molecular targets with clinical benefit. Besides, since this method can be incorporated in a wide range of low, medium or high-throughput image-based approaches, we expect it to be broadly applicable.

Vermeulen MA, Doebar SC, van Deurzen CHM, et al.
Copy number profiling of oncogenes in ductal carcinoma
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018; 25(3):173-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
Characterizing male breast cancer (BC) and unraveling male breast carcinogenesis is challenging because of the rarity of this disease. We investigated copy number status of 22 BC-related genes in 18 cases of pure ductal carcinoma

Couto PP, Bastos-Rodrigues L, Schayek H, et al.
Spectrum of germline mutations in smokers and non-smokers in Brazilian non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(11):1112-1118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although smoking is the major risk factor, ~15% of all cases occur in never-smokers, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in LC predisposition. Indeed, germline mutations in the TP53 gene predispose to multiple cancer types, including LC. To date, few studies compared the somatic and germline mutational profiles of LC cases by smoking status, and none was reported in Brazilians. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on two pools (seven smokers and six non-smokers) of tumor-derived DNA using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Files from pools were analyzed separately using Ingenuity®Variant AnalysisTM and Mendel,MD. Validation of all candidate variants was performed by Sanger sequencing. Subsequently, validated mutations were analyzed in germline DNA from the same patients and in ethnically matched controls. In addition, a single recurring Brazilian TP53 germline mutation (R337H) was genotyped in 45 non-small-cell lung cancer patients.Four novel germline variants in the ATAD2, AURKA, PTPRD and THBS1 genes were identified exclusively in smoker patients, and four germline missense variants in PLCD1, RAD52, CP and CDC6 genes were identified solely in non-smokers. There were 4/45 (8.9%) germline carriers of the R337H TP53 mutation. In conclusion, the recurring Brazilian TP53 mutation should be genotyped in all non-small-cell lung cancer in Brazil, regardless of smoking status. Distinct pathogenic mutations and novel sequence variants are detected in Brazilian non-small-cell lung cancer patients, by smoking status. The contribution of these sequence variants to LC pathogenesis remains to be further explored.

Zhang JH, He YL, Zhu R, et al.
Deregulated expression of Cdc6 as BCR/ABL-dependent survival factor in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317713394 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia is characterized by the presence of the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) and the BCR/ABL oncogene. The BCR/ABL oncogene activates multiple signaling pathways and involves the dysregulation of oncogenes during the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia. The cell division cycle protein 6, an essential regulator of DNA replication, is elevated in some human cancer cells. However, the expression of cell division cycle protein 6 in chronic myeloid leukemia and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain to be elucidated. In this study, our data showed that cell division cycle protein 6 expression was significantly upregulated in primary chronic myeloid leukemia cells and the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells, as compared to the normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. BCR/ABL kinase inhibitor STI571 or BCR/ABL small interfering RNA could significantly downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 messenger RNA expression in K562 cells. Moreover, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway inhibitor AG490 could downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 expression in K562 cells, but not RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor PD98059 had such effect. Cell division cycle protein 6 gene silencing by small interfering RNA effectively resulted in decrease of proliferation, increase of apoptosis, and arrest of cell cycle in K562 cells. These findings have demonstrated that cell division cycle protein 6 overexpression may contribute to the high proliferation and low apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and can be regulated by BCR/ABL signal transduction through downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, suggesting cell division cycle protein 6 as a potential therapeutic target in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Mahadevappa R, Neves H, Yuen SM, et al.
The prognostic significance of Cdc6 and Cdt1 in breast cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):985 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA replication is a critical step in cell proliferation. Overexpression of MCM2-7 genes correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the roles of Cdc6 and Cdt1, which work with MCMs to regulate DNA replication, in breast cancers are largely unknown. In the present study, we have shown that the expression levels of Cdc6 and Cdt1 were both significantly correlated with an increasing number of MCM2-7 genes overexpression. Both Cdc6 and Cdt1, when expressed in a high level, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with poorer survival in the breast cancer patient cohort (n = 1441). In line with this finding, the expression of Cdc6 and Cdt1 was upregulated in breast cancer cells compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Expression of Cdc6 and Cdt1 was significantly higher in ER negative breast cancer, and was suppressed when ER signalling was inhibited either by tamoxifen in vitro or letrozole in human subjects. Importantly, breast cancer patients who responded to letrozole expressed significantly lower Cdc6 than those patients who did not respond. Our results suggest that Cdc6 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in breast cancer patients.

Karanika S, Karantanos T, Li L, et al.
Targeting DNA Damage Response in Prostate Cancer by Inhibiting Androgen Receptor-CDC6-ATR-Chk1 Signaling.
Cell Rep. 2017; 18(8):1970-1981 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, is implicated in regulating DNA replication and checkpoint mechanisms. CDC6 expression is increased during prostate cancer (PCa) progression and positively correlates with AR in PCa tissues. AR or CDC6 knockdown, together with AZD7762, a Chk1/2 inhibitor, results in decreased TopBP1-ATR-Chk1 signaling and markedly increased ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation, a biomarker of DNA damage, and synergistically increases treatment efficacy. Combination treatment with the AR signaling inhibitor enzalutamide (ENZ) and the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 demonstrates synergy with regard to inhibition of AR-CDC6-ATR-Chk1 signaling, ATM phosphorylation induction, and apoptosis in VCaP (mutant p53) and LNCaP-C4-2b (wild-type p53) cells. CDC6 overexpression significantly reduced ENZ- and AZD7762-induced apoptosis. Additive or synergistic therapeutic activities are demonstrated in AR-positive animal xenograft models. These findings have important clinical implications, since they introduce a therapeutic strategy for AR-positive, metastatic, castration-resistant PCa, regardless of p53 status, through targeting AR-CDC6-ATR-Chk1 signaling.

Gamell C, Gulati T, Levav-Cohen Y, et al.
Reduced abundance of the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP contributes to decreased expression of the INK4/ARF locus in non-small cell lung cancer.
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(461) [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor p16

van Kempen LC, Redpath M, Elchebly M, et al.
The protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit PR70 is a gonosomal melanoma tumor suppressor gene.
Sci Transl Med. 2016; 8(369):369ra177 [PubMed] Related Publications
Male gender is independently and significantly associated with poor prognosis in melanoma of all clinical stages. The biological underpinnings of this sex difference remain largely unknown, but we hypothesized that gene expression from gonosomes (sex chromosomes) might play an important role. We demonstrate that loss of the inactivated X chromosome in melanomas arising in females is strongly associated with poor distant metastasis-free survival, suggesting a dosage benefit from two X chromosomes. The gonosomal protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B, beta (PPP2R3B) gene is located on the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X chromosome in females and the Y chromosome in males. We observed that, despite its location on the PAR that predicts equal dosage across genders, PPP2R3B expression was lower in males than in females and was independently correlated with poor clinical outcome. PPP2R3B codes for the PR70 protein, a regulatory substrate-recognizing subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. PR70 decreased melanoma growth by negatively interfering with DNA replication and cell cycle progression through its role in stabilizing the cell division cycle 6 (CDC6)-chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (CDT1) interaction, which delays the firing of origins of DNA replication. Hence, PR70 functionally behaves as an X-linked tumor suppressor gene.

Lang T, Nie Y
MiR-148a participates in the growth of RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells by regulating CDKN1B.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1967-1971 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the influence of miR-148a on cell proliferation and cell cycle of multiple myeloma (MM) cell line RPMI8226 and the related molecular mechanism.
METHODS: The expression of miR-148a and CDKN1B in MM cells and primary cells of normal bone marrow were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. The cell proliferation and cell cycle of miR-148a knockdown MM cells and normal MM cells were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of p-NPAT, p-Rb and p-CDC6 was determined in normal and miR-148a knockdown MM cells. Luciferase reported assay was used to explore the relationship between miR-148a and CDKN1B.
RESULTS: The level of miR-148a in MM cells was much higher than that in primary cells from healthy bone marrow samples, while the expression of CDKN1B was lower in MM cells. After knockdown of miR-148a, cell cycle mainly distributed at G0/G1 and the proliferation capacity of MM cells decreased. Knockdown of miR-148a significantly reduced protein expression of p-NPAT, p-Rb and p-CDC6. Luciferase reported assay showed that miR-148a could directly target CDKN1B at 3'-UTR.
CONCLUSIONS: High level of miR-148a inhibits CDK activity and promotes the proliferation of MM cells at least partly by downregulating CDKN1B.

Chen S, Chen X, Xie G, et al.
Cdc6 contributes to cisplatin-resistance by activation of ATR-Chk1 pathway in bladder cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(26):40362-40376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High activation of DNA damage response is implicated in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance which presents as a serious obstacle for bladder cancer treatment. Cdc6 plays an important role in the malignant progression of tumor. Here, we reported that Cdc6 expression is up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and is positively correlated to high tumor grade. Cdc6 depletion can attenuate the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells, including DNA replication, migration and invasion. Furthermore, higher levels of chromatin-binding Cdc6 and ATR were detected in CDDP-resistant bladder cancer cells than in the parent bladder cancer cells. Intriguingly, down-regulation of Cdc6 can enhance sensitivity to CDDP both in bladder cancer cells and CDDP-resistant bladder cancer cells. Cdc6 depletion abrogates S phase arrest caused by CDDP, leading to aberrant mitosis by inactivating ATR-Chk1-Cdc25C pathway. Our results indicate that Cdc6 may be a promising target for overcoming CDDP resistance in bladder cancer.

Yuan B, Wang X, Fan C, et al.
DHX33 Transcriptionally Controls Genes Involved in the Cell Cycle.
Mol Cell Biol. 2016; 36(23):2903-2917 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The RNA helicase DHX33 has been shown to be a critical regulator of cell proliferation and growth. However, the underlying mechanisms behind DHX33 function remain incompletely understood. We present original evidence in multiple cell lines that DHX33 transcriptionally controls the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle, notably cyclin, E2F1, cell division cycle (CDC), and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) genes. DHX33 physically associates with the promoters of these genes and controls the loading of active RNA polymerase II onto these promoters. DHX33 deficiency abrogates cell cycle progression and DNA replication and leads to cell apoptosis. In zebrafish, CRISPR-mediated knockout of DHX33 results in downregulation of cyclin A2, cyclin B2, cyclin D1, cyclin E2, cdc6, cdc20, E2F1, and MCM complexes in DHX33 knockout embryos. Additionally, we found the overexpression of DHX33 in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancers and in Ras-mutated human lung cancer cell lines. Forced reduction of DHX33 in these cancer cells abolished tumor formation in vivo Our study demonstrates for the first time that DHX33 acts as a direct transcriptional regulator to promote cell cycle progression and plays an important role in driving cell proliferation during both embryo development and tumorigenesis.

Liu M, Zhu K, Qian X, Li W
Identification of miRNA/mRNA-Negative Regulation Pairs in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:2215-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy in South-East Asia. NPC is characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis. The pathophysiological mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unknown. This study aimed to identify the crucial miRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and their target genes, and to discover the potential mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development. MATERIAL AND METHODS Microarray expression profiling of miRNA and mRNA from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was downloaded, and we performed a significance analysis of differential expression. An interaction network of miRNAs and target genes was constructed. The underlying function of differentially expressed genes was predicted through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses. To validate the microarray analysis data, significantly different expression levels of miRNAs and target genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS We identified 27 differentially expressed miRNAs and 982 differentially expressed mRNAs between NPC and normal control tissues. 12 miRNAs and 547 mRNAs were up-regulated and 15 miRNAs and 435 mRNAs were down-regulated in NPC samples. We found a total of 1185 negative correlation pairs between miRNA and mRNA. Differentially expressed target genes were significantly enriched in pathways in cancer, cell cycle, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathways. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and genes, such as hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-18b, hsa-miR-632, hsa-miR-130a, hsa-miR-34b, PIGR, SMPD3, CD22, DTX4, and CDC6, may play essential roles in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-18b, hsa-miR-632, hsa-miR-130a, and hsa-miR-34b may be related to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by regulating the genes involved in pathways in cancer and cell cycle signaling pathways.

Wallace AS, Supnick HT, Bunaciu RP, Yen A
RRD-251 enhances all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):46401-46418 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is known to induce terminal granulocytic differentiation and cell cycle arrest of HL-60 cells. Responding to an RA-induced cytosolic signaling machine, c-Raf translocates to the nucleus, providing propulsion for RA-induced differentiation. This novel mechanism is not understood, but presumably reflects c-Raf binding with nuclear gene regulatory proteins. RRD-251 is a small molecule that prevents the interaction of c-Raf and RB, the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. The involvement of c-Raf and RB in RA-induced differentiation motivates interest in the effects of combined RA and RRD-251 treatment on leukemic cell differentiation. We demonstrate that RRD-251 enhances RA-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, we find that nuclear translocated c-Raf associates with pS608 RB. RA causes loss of pS608 RB, where cells with hypophosphorylated S608 RB are G0/G1 restricted. Corroborating the pS608 RB hypophosphorylation, RB sequestration of E2F increased with concomitant loss of cdc6 expression, which is known to be driven by E2F. Hypophosphorylation of S608 RB releases c-Raf from RB sequestration to bind other nuclear targets. Release of c-Raf from RB sequestration results in enhanced association with GSK-3 which is phosphorylated at its S21/9 inhibitory sites. c-Raf binding to GSK-3 is associated with dissociation of GSK-3 and RARα, thereby relieving RARα of GSK-3 inhibition. RRD-251 amplifies each of these RA-induced events. Consistent with the posited enhancement of RARα transcriptional activity by RRD-251, RRD-251 increases the RARE-driven CD38 expression per cell. The RA/c-Raf/GSK-3/RARα axis emerges as a novel differentiation regulatory mechanism susceptible to RRD-251, suggesting enhancing RA-effects with RRD-251 in therapy.

Saloura V, Vougiouklakis T, Zewde M, et al.
WHSC1L1 drives cell cycle progression through transcriptional regulation of CDC6 and CDK2 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):42527-42538 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wolf-Hisrchhorn Syndrome Candidate 1-Like 1 (WHSC1L1) is a protein lysine methyltransferase that is recurrently amplified (8p11.23) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). In this study, we investigated the oncogenic role of WHSC1L1 in SCCHN. Using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of patients with locoregionally advanced SCCHN, we found that WHSC1L1 is significantly overexpressed in patients with SCCHN, and is associated with poor grade and heavy smoking history. Knockdown of WHSC1L1 expression resulted in significant growth suppression and reduction of H3K36 dimethylation (H3K36me2) in SCCHN cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that WHSC1L1 and H3K36me2 are enriched in the gene bodies of the cell cycle-related genes CDC6 and CDK2, implying that WHSC1L1 directly regulates the transcription of these genes. According to the importance of CDC6 and CDK2 for G1 to S transition, WHSC1L1 knockdown induced strong G0/G1 arrest which was rescued by introduction of wild-type WHSC1L1 but not by that of enzyme-inactive WHSC1L1. Our results imply that WHSC1L1 and its product H3K36me2 are essential for the transition from G1 to S phase in SCCHN cells and that WHSC1L1 could serve as a rational target for anticancer drug development for patients with head and neck cancer.

Fan X, Zhou Y, Chen JJ
Role of Cdc6 in re-replication in cells expressing human papillomavirus E7 oncogene.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(8):799-809 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types induces DNA re-replication that contributes to carcinogenesis; however, the mechanism is not fully understood. To better understand the mechanism by which E7 induces re-replication, we investigated the expression and function of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) in E7-expressing cells. Cdc6 is a DNA replication initiation factor and exhibits oncogenic activities when overexpressed. We found that in E7-expressing cells, the steady-state level of Cdc6 protein was upregulated and its half-life was increased. Cdc6 was localized to the nucleus and associated with chromatin, especially upon DNA damage. Importantly, downregulation of Cdc6 reduced E7-induced re-replication. Interestingly, the level of Cdc6 phosphorylation at serine 54 (S54P) was increased in E7-expressing cells. S54P was associated with an increase in the total amount of Cdc6 and chromatin-bound Cdc6. DNA damage-enhanced upregulation and chromatin binding of Cdc6 appeared to be due to downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) as Cdk1 knockdown increased Cdc6 levels. Furthermore, Cdk1 knockdown or inhibition led to re-replication. These findings shed light on the mechanism by which HPV induces genomic instability and may help identify potential targets for drug development.

Hitti E, Bakheet T, Al-Souhibani N, et al.
Systematic Analysis of AU-Rich Element Expression in Cancer Reveals Common Functional Clusters Regulated by Key RNA-Binding Proteins.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(14):4068-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in AU-rich elements (ARE)-mediated posttranscriptional control can lead to several abnormal processes that underlie carcinogenesis. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of ARE-mRNA expression across multiple cancer types. First, the ARE database (ARED) was intersected with The Cancer Genome Atlas databases and others. A large set of ARE-mRNAs was over-represented in cancer and, unlike non-ARE-mRNAs, correlated with the reversed balance in the expression of the RNA-binding proteins tristetraprolin (TTP, ZFP36) and HuR (ELAVL1). Serial statistical and functional enrichment clustering identified a cluster of 11 overexpressed ARE-mRNAs (CDC6, KIF11, PRC1, NEK2, NCAPG, CENPA, NUF2, KIF18A, CENPE, PBK, TOP2A) that negatively correlated with TTP/HuR mRNA ratios and was involved in the mitotic cell cycle. This cluster was upregulated in a number of solid cancers. Experimentally, we demonstrated that the ARE-mRNA cluster is upregulated in a number of tumor breast cell lines when compared with noninvasive and normal-like breast cancer cells. RNA-IP demonstrated the association of the ARE-mRNAs with TTP and HuR. Experimental modulation of TTP or HuR expression led to changes in the mitosis ARE-mRNAs. Posttranscriptional reporter assays confirmed the functionality of AREs. Moreover, TTP augmented mitotic cell-cycle arrest as demonstrated by flow cytometry and histone H3 phosphorylation. We found that poor breast cancer patient survival was significantly associated with low TTP/HuR mRNA ratios and correlated with high levels of the mitotic ARE-mRNA signature. These results significantly broaden the role of AREs and their binding proteins in cancer, and demonstrate that TTP induces an antimitotic pathway that is diminished in cancer. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4068-80. ©2016 AACR.

Liao YX, Zeng JM, Zhou JJ, et al.
Silencing of RTKN2 by siRNA suppresses proliferation, and induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(6):4872-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human bladder cancer is the most common urological malignancy in China. One of the causes of carcinogenesis in the cancer may be gene mutation. Therefore, the present study investigated the expression levels of Rhotekin 2 (RTKN2), a Rho effector protein, in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, and examined the effect of RTKN2 on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and invasion of human bladder cancer cell lines. The mRNA expression levels of RTKN2 in 30 human bladder cancer tissue samples were significantly higher, compared with those in 30 normal human bladder tissue samples. The protein expression levels of RTKN2 was markedly higher in T24 and 5637 cells, compared with those in four other human bladder cancer cell lines. The silencing of RTKN2 by small interfering (si)RNA inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle at the G1 phase, via reducing the expression levels of the MCM10, CDK2, CDC24A and CDC6 cell cycle‑associated proteins in the T24 and 5637 cells. Furthermore, RTKN2 knockdown in the cells led to cell apoptosis and the suppression of invasion. These results suggested that RTKN2 is involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of human bladder cancer, indicating that RTKN2 may be a molecular target in cancer therapy.

Wang YZ, Qiu SC
Prediction of key genes in ovarian cancer treated with decitabine based on network strategy.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(6):3548-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the present study was to predict key genes in ovarian cancer before and after treatment with decitabine utilizing a network approach and to reveal the molecular mechanism. Pathogenic networks of ovarian cancer before and after treatment were identified based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) method. A weight was assigned to each gene in the pathogenic network and then candidate genes were evaluated. Topological properties (degree, betweenness, closeness and stress) of candidate genes were analyzed to investigate more confident pathogenic genes. Pathway enrichment analysis for candidate and seed genes were conducted. Validation of candidate gene expression in ovarian cancer was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. There were 73 nodes and 147 interactions in the pathogenic network before treatment, while 47 nodes and 66 interactions after treatment. A total of 32 candidate genes were identified in the before treatment group of ovarian cancer, of which 16 were rightly candidate genes after treatment and the others were silenced. We obtained 5 key genes (PIK3R2, CCNB1, IL2, IL1B and CDC6) for decitabine treatment that were validated by RT-PCR. In conclusion, we successfully identified 5 key genes (PIK3R2, CCNB1, IL2, IL1B and CDC6) and validated them, which provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of decitabine treatment and may be potential pathogenic biomarkers for the therapy of ovarian cancer.

Petrakis TG, Komseli ES, Papaioannou M, et al.
Exploring and exploiting the systemic effects of deregulated replication licensing.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2016; 37-38:3-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Maintenance and accurate propagation of the genetic material are key features for physiological development and wellbeing. The replication licensing machinery is crucial for replication precision as it ensures that replication takes place once per cell cycle. Thus, the expression status of the components comprising the replication licensing apparatus is tightly regulated to avoid re-replication; a form of replication stress that leads to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. In the present review we discuss the mechanistic basis of replication licensing deregulation, which leads to systemic effects, exemplified by its role in carcinogenesis and a variety of genetic syndromes. In addition, new insights demonstrate that above a particular threshold, the replication licensing factor Cdc6 acts as global transcriptional regulator, outlining new lines of exploration. The role of the putative replication licensing factor ChlR1/DDX11, mutated in the Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, in cancer is also considered. Finally, future perspectives focused on the potential therapeutic advantage by targeting replication licensing factors, and particularly Cdc6, are discussed.

Qiao W, Han Y, Jin W, et al.
Overexpression and biological function of TMEM48 in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2575-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transmembrane protein 48 (TMEM48), localized to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), has been reported crucial for NPC assembly. Alterations in NPC members have been reported in several malignancies. The present study was aimed to elucidate the expression and biological function of TMEM48 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Here, TMEM48 expression level was higher in NSCLC tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, higher TMEM48 expression was correlated with a more advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, bigger tumor size tumor stage, and shorter survival time. Knockdown of TMEM48 in NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H1299, inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased cells population in G1 phase. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that cell cycle pathway was correlative with the TMEM48 expression. Additionally, real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that several cell cycle and DNA replication genes, including Cyclin B1, CDK1, CDC6, PCNA, and RCF4, were reduced after TMEM48 knockdown. Additionally, inhibition of TMEM48 in NSCLC cells significantly stimulated cell apoptosis, while notably repressed cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Our data provide insight into the biological relevance of TMEM48 in NSCLC progression and highlight its usefulness as a prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.

Ferreira WA, Araújo MD, Anselmo NP, et al.
Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in the RB/E2F Pathway in Astrocytic Tumors.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0137259 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Astrocytic gliomas, which are derived from glial cells, are considered the most common primary neoplasias of the central nervous system (CNS) and are histologically classified as low grade (I and II) or high grade (III and IV). Recent studies have shown that astrocytoma formation is the result of the deregulation of several pathways, including the RB/E2F pathway, which is commonly deregulated in various human cancers via genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. On the basis of the assumption that the study of the mechanisms controlling the INK4/ARF locus can help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic tumors, identify diagnostic and prognostic markers, and help select appropriate clinical treatments, the present study aimed to evaluate and compare methylation patterns using bisulfite sequencing PCR and evaluate the gene expression profile using real-time PCR in the genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDC6, Bmi-1, CCND1, and RB1 in astrocytic tumors. Our results indicate that all the evaluated genes are not methylated independent of the tumor grade. However, the real-time PCR results indicate that these genes undergo progressive deregulation as a function of the tumor grade. In addition, the genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and RB1 were underexpressed, whereas CDC6, Bmi-1, and CCND1 were overexpressed; the increase in gene expression was significantly associated with decreased patient survival. Therefore, we propose that the evaluation of the expression levels of the genes involved in the RB/E2F pathway can be used in the monitoring of patients with astrocytomas in clinical practice and for the prognostic indication of disease progression.

Stangeland B, Mughal AA, Grieg Z, et al.
Combined expressional analysis, bioinformatics and targeted proteomics identify new potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma stem cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26192-215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumor. It is thought that GBM stem cells (GSCs) are critically important in resistance to therapy. Therefore, there is a strong rationale to target these cells in order to develop new molecular therapies.To identify molecular targets in GSCs, we compared gene expression in GSCs to that in neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adult human brain, using microarrays. Bioinformatic filtering identified 20 genes (PBK/TOPK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7/DLGAP5/HURP, KIF18A, EZH2, HMMR/RHAMM/CD168, NOL4, MPP6, MDM1, RAPGEF4, RHBDD1, FNDC3B, FILIP1L, MCC, ATXN7L4/ATXN7L1, P2RY5/LPAR6 and FAM118A) that were consistently expressed in GSC cultures and consistently not expressed in NSC cultures. The expression of these genes was confirmed in clinical samples (TCGA and REMBRANDT). The first nine genes were highly co-expressed in all GBM subtypes and were part of the same protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, their combined up-regulation correlated negatively with patient survival in the mesenchymal GBM subtype. Using targeted proteomics and the COGNOSCENTE database we linked these genes to GBM signalling pathways.Nine genes: PBK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7, KIF18A, EZH2 and HMMR should be further explored as targets for treatment of GBM.

Chiang IT, Wang WS, Liu HC, et al.
Curcumin alters gene expression-associated DNA damage, cell cycle, cell survival and cell migration and invasion in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):1853-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality and new cases are on the increase worldwide. However, the treatment of lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Curcumin has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cells, including human lung cancer cells. However, the effects of curcumin on genetic mechanisms associated with these actions remain unclear. Curcumin (2 µM) was added to NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells and the cells were incubated for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from isolated cells for cDNA synthesis, labeling, microarray hybridization and flour‑labeled cDNA hybridized on chip. Localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules were detected and quantified using Expression Console software (Affymetrix) with default RMA parameters. GeneGo software was used for the key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways. The results showed that ~170 genes were significantly upregulated and 577 genes were significantly downregulated in curcumin‑treated cells. Specifically, the up‑ and downregulated genes included CCNE2, associated with DNA damage; ID3, associated with cell survival and 146 genes with a >2- to 3-fold change including the TP53INP1 gene, associated with DNA damage; CDC6, CDCA5, TAKMIP2, CDK14, CDK5, CDCA76, CDC25A, CDC5L and SKP2, associated with cell cycle; the CARD6, ID1 and ID2 genes, associated with cell survival and the BRMS1L, associated with cell migration and invasion. Additionally, 59 downregulated genes exhibited a >4-fold change, including the DDIT3 gene, associated with DNA damage; while 97 genes had a >3- to 4-fold change including the DDIT4 gene, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle and 321 genes with a >2- to 3-fold including the GADD45A and CGREF1 genes, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle, the TNFRSF10B, GAS5, TSSC1 and TNFRSF11B gene, associated with cell survival and the ARHAP29 and CADM2 genes, associated with cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, gene alterations provide information regarding the cytotoxic mechanism of curcumin at the genetic level and provide additional biomarkers or targets for the treatment of human lung cancer.

Jian T, Chen Y
Regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors and target genes on gastric cancer by bioinformatics method.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):524-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal diseases and has caused a global health problem. We aimed to elucidate the major mechanisms involved in the gastric cancer progression.
METHODOLOGY: The expression profile GSE13911 was downloaded from GEO database, composing of 31 normal and 38 tumor samples. The transcription factor (TF)--target gene regulatory network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to gastric cancer were obtained from TRED and TRANSFAC databases. After combining the two networks, we constructed an integrated network.
RESULTS: In total, 5255 DEGs in tumor samples were identified, which were mainly enriched in 12 pathways including cell cycle. The integrated network of TF--target gene--protein interaction included 7 genes related to cell cycle, in which E2F1 was predicted to mediate the expression of MCM4, MCM5 and CDC6 through regulating the expression of its target gene MCM3.
CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer progression, E2F1 may play vital roles in the involvement of cell cycle pathway through regulating its target gene MCM3, which might interact with MCM4, MCM5 and MCM7. Besides, STAT1 was another potentially critical transcription factor which could regulate multiple target genes.

Sarkar D, Leung EY, Baguley BC, et al.
Epigenetic regulation in human melanoma: past and future.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(2):103-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The development and progression of melanoma have been attributed to independent or combined genetic and epigenetic events. There has been remarkable progress in understanding melanoma pathogenesis in terms of genetic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed a complex involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression, including methylation, chromatin modification and remodeling, and the diverse activities of non-coding RNAs. The roles of gene methylation and miRNAs have been relatively well studied in melanoma, but other studies have shown that changes in chromatin status and in the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs can lead to altered regulation of key genes. Taken together, they affect the functioning of signaling pathways that influence each other, intersect, and form networks in which local perturbations disturb the activity of the whole system. Here, we focus on how epigenetic events intertwine with these pathways and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma.

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