CDC6

Gene Summary

Gene:CDC6; cell division cycle 6
Aliases: CDC18L, HsCDC6, MGORS5, HsCDC18
Location:17q21.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6, a protein essential for the initiation of DNA replication. This protein functions as a regulator at the early steps of DNA replication. It localizes in cell nucleus during cell cyle G1, but translocates to the cytoplasm at the start of S phase. The subcellular translocation of this protein during cell cyle is regulated through its phosphorylation by Cdks. Transcription of this protein was reported to be regulated in response to mitogenic signals through transcriptional control mechanism involving E2F proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell division control protein 6 homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Xenograft Models
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cell Cycle
  • DNA Replication
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transcription
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Liver Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Transcription Factors
  • Lung Cancer
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Breast Cancer
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Promoter Regions
  • RTPCR
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromosome 17
  • Case-Control Studies
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC6 (cancer-related)

Lang T, Nie Y
MiR-148a participates in the growth of RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells by regulating CDKN1B.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1967-1971 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the influence of miR-148a on cell proliferation and cell cycle of multiple myeloma (MM) cell line RPMI8226 and the related molecular mechanism.
METHODS: The expression of miR-148a and CDKN1B in MM cells and primary cells of normal bone marrow were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. The cell proliferation and cell cycle of miR-148a knockdown MM cells and normal MM cells were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of p-NPAT, p-Rb and p-CDC6 was determined in normal and miR-148a knockdown MM cells. Luciferase reported assay was used to explore the relationship between miR-148a and CDKN1B.
RESULTS: The level of miR-148a in MM cells was much higher than that in primary cells from healthy bone marrow samples, while the expression of CDKN1B was lower in MM cells. After knockdown of miR-148a, cell cycle mainly distributed at G0/G1 and the proliferation capacity of MM cells decreased. Knockdown of miR-148a significantly reduced protein expression of p-NPAT, p-Rb and p-CDC6. Luciferase reported assay showed that miR-148a could directly target CDKN1B at 3'-UTR.
CONCLUSIONS: High level of miR-148a inhibits CDK activity and promotes the proliferation of MM cells at least partly by downregulating CDKN1B.

Qiao W, Han Y, Jin W, et al.
Overexpression and biological function of TMEM48 in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2575-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transmembrane protein 48 (TMEM48), localized to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), has been reported crucial for NPC assembly. Alterations in NPC members have been reported in several malignancies. The present study was aimed to elucidate the expression and biological function of TMEM48 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Here, TMEM48 expression level was higher in NSCLC tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, higher TMEM48 expression was correlated with a more advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, bigger tumor size tumor stage, and shorter survival time. Knockdown of TMEM48 in NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H1299, inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased cells population in G1 phase. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that cell cycle pathway was correlative with the TMEM48 expression. Additionally, real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that several cell cycle and DNA replication genes, including Cyclin B1, CDK1, CDC6, PCNA, and RCF4, were reduced after TMEM48 knockdown. Additionally, inhibition of TMEM48 in NSCLC cells significantly stimulated cell apoptosis, while notably repressed cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Our data provide insight into the biological relevance of TMEM48 in NSCLC progression and highlight its usefulness as a prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.

Ferreira WA, Araújo MD, Anselmo NP, et al.
Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in the RB/E2F Pathway in Astrocytic Tumors.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0137259 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Astrocytic gliomas, which are derived from glial cells, are considered the most common primary neoplasias of the central nervous system (CNS) and are histologically classified as low grade (I and II) or high grade (III and IV). Recent studies have shown that astrocytoma formation is the result of the deregulation of several pathways, including the RB/E2F pathway, which is commonly deregulated in various human cancers via genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. On the basis of the assumption that the study of the mechanisms controlling the INK4/ARF locus can help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic tumors, identify diagnostic and prognostic markers, and help select appropriate clinical treatments, the present study aimed to evaluate and compare methylation patterns using bisulfite sequencing PCR and evaluate the gene expression profile using real-time PCR in the genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDC6, Bmi-1, CCND1, and RB1 in astrocytic tumors. Our results indicate that all the evaluated genes are not methylated independent of the tumor grade. However, the real-time PCR results indicate that these genes undergo progressive deregulation as a function of the tumor grade. In addition, the genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and RB1 were underexpressed, whereas CDC6, Bmi-1, and CCND1 were overexpressed; the increase in gene expression was significantly associated with decreased patient survival. Therefore, we propose that the evaluation of the expression levels of the genes involved in the RB/E2F pathway can be used in the monitoring of patients with astrocytomas in clinical practice and for the prognostic indication of disease progression.

Stangeland B, Mughal AA, Grieg Z, et al.
Combined expressional analysis, bioinformatics and targeted proteomics identify new potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma stem cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26192-215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumor. It is thought that GBM stem cells (GSCs) are critically important in resistance to therapy. Therefore, there is a strong rationale to target these cells in order to develop new molecular therapies.To identify molecular targets in GSCs, we compared gene expression in GSCs to that in neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adult human brain, using microarrays. Bioinformatic filtering identified 20 genes (PBK/TOPK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7/DLGAP5/HURP, KIF18A, EZH2, HMMR/RHAMM/CD168, NOL4, MPP6, MDM1, RAPGEF4, RHBDD1, FNDC3B, FILIP1L, MCC, ATXN7L4/ATXN7L1, P2RY5/LPAR6 and FAM118A) that were consistently expressed in GSC cultures and consistently not expressed in NSC cultures. The expression of these genes was confirmed in clinical samples (TCGA and REMBRANDT). The first nine genes were highly co-expressed in all GBM subtypes and were part of the same protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, their combined up-regulation correlated negatively with patient survival in the mesenchymal GBM subtype. Using targeted proteomics and the COGNOSCENTE database we linked these genes to GBM signalling pathways.Nine genes: PBK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7, KIF18A, EZH2 and HMMR should be further explored as targets for treatment of GBM.

Chiang IT, Wang WS, Liu HC, et al.
Curcumin alters gene expression-associated DNA damage, cell cycle, cell survival and cell migration and invasion in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):1853-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality and new cases are on the increase worldwide. However, the treatment of lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Curcumin has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cells, including human lung cancer cells. However, the effects of curcumin on genetic mechanisms associated with these actions remain unclear. Curcumin (2 µM) was added to NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells and the cells were incubated for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from isolated cells for cDNA synthesis, labeling, microarray hybridization and flour‑labeled cDNA hybridized on chip. Localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules were detected and quantified using Expression Console software (Affymetrix) with default RMA parameters. GeneGo software was used for the key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways. The results showed that ~170 genes were significantly upregulated and 577 genes were significantly downregulated in curcumin‑treated cells. Specifically, the up‑ and downregulated genes included CCNE2, associated with DNA damage; ID3, associated with cell survival and 146 genes with a >2- to 3-fold change including the TP53INP1 gene, associated with DNA damage; CDC6, CDCA5, TAKMIP2, CDK14, CDK5, CDCA76, CDC25A, CDC5L and SKP2, associated with cell cycle; the CARD6, ID1 and ID2 genes, associated with cell survival and the BRMS1L, associated with cell migration and invasion. Additionally, 59 downregulated genes exhibited a >4-fold change, including the DDIT3 gene, associated with DNA damage; while 97 genes had a >3- to 4-fold change including the DDIT4 gene, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle and 321 genes with a >2- to 3-fold including the GADD45A and CGREF1 genes, associated with DNA damage; the CCPG1 gene, associated with cell cycle, the TNFRSF10B, GAS5, TSSC1 and TNFRSF11B gene, associated with cell survival and the ARHAP29 and CADM2 genes, associated with cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, gene alterations provide information regarding the cytotoxic mechanism of curcumin at the genetic level and provide additional biomarkers or targets for the treatment of human lung cancer.

Jian T, Chen Y
Regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors and target genes on gastric cancer by bioinformatics method.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):524-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal diseases and has caused a global health problem. We aimed to elucidate the major mechanisms involved in the gastric cancer progression.
METHODOLOGY: The expression profile GSE13911 was downloaded from GEO database, composing of 31 normal and 38 tumor samples. The transcription factor (TF)--target gene regulatory network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to gastric cancer were obtained from TRED and TRANSFAC databases. After combining the two networks, we constructed an integrated network.
RESULTS: In total, 5255 DEGs in tumor samples were identified, which were mainly enriched in 12 pathways including cell cycle. The integrated network of TF--target gene--protein interaction included 7 genes related to cell cycle, in which E2F1 was predicted to mediate the expression of MCM4, MCM5 and CDC6 through regulating the expression of its target gene MCM3.
CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer progression, E2F1 may play vital roles in the involvement of cell cycle pathway through regulating its target gene MCM3, which might interact with MCM4, MCM5 and MCM7. Besides, STAT1 was another potentially critical transcription factor which could regulate multiple target genes.

Sarkar D, Leung EY, Baguley BC, et al.
Epigenetic regulation in human melanoma: past and future.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(2):103-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The development and progression of melanoma have been attributed to independent or combined genetic and epigenetic events. There has been remarkable progress in understanding melanoma pathogenesis in terms of genetic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed a complex involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression, including methylation, chromatin modification and remodeling, and the diverse activities of non-coding RNAs. The roles of gene methylation and miRNAs have been relatively well studied in melanoma, but other studies have shown that changes in chromatin status and in the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs can lead to altered regulation of key genes. Taken together, they affect the functioning of signaling pathways that influence each other, intersect, and form networks in which local perturbations disturb the activity of the whole system. Here, we focus on how epigenetic events intertwine with these pathways and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma.

Young A, Berry R, Holloway AF, et al.
RNA-seq profiling of a radiation resistant and radiation sensitive prostate cancer cell line highlights opposing regulation of DNA repair and targets for radiosensitization.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:808 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a chosen treatment option for prostate cancer patients and while some tumours respond well, up to 50% of patients may experience tumour recurrence. Identification of functionally relevant predictive biomarkers for radioresponse in prostate cancer would enable radioresistant patients to be directed to more appropriate treatment options, avoiding the side-effects of radiotherapy.
METHODS: Using an in vitro model to screen for novel biomarkers of radioresistance, transcriptome analysis of a radioresistant (PC-3) and radiosensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell line was performed. Following pathway analysis candidate genes were validated using qRT-PCR. The DNA repair pathway in radioresistant PC-3 cells was then targeted for radiation sensitization using the PARP inhibitor, niacinimide.
RESULTS: Opposing regulation of a DNA repair and replication pathway was observed between PC-3 and LNCaP cells from RNA-seq analysis. Candidate genes BRCA1, RAD51, FANCG, MCM7, CDC6 and ORC1 were identified as being significantly differentially regulated post-irradiation. qRT-PCR validation confirmed BRCA1, RAD51 and FANCG as being significantly differentially regulated at 24 hours post radiotherapy (p-value =0.003, 0.045 and 0.003 respectively). While the radiosensitive LNCaP cells down-regulated BRCA1, FANCG and RAD51, the radioresistant PC-3 cell line up-regulated these candidates to promote cell survival post-radiotherapy and a similar trend was observed for MCM7, CDC6 and ORC1. Inhibition of DNA repair using niacinamide sensitised the radioresistant cells to irradiation, reducing cell survival at 2 Gy from 66% to 44.3% (p-value =0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the DNA repair candidates identified via RNA-seq hold potential as both targets for radiation sensitization and predictive biomarkers in prostate cancer.

Kashkin K, Chernov I, Stukacheva E, et al.
Cancer specificity of promoters of the genes controlling cell proliferation.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(2):299-309 [PubMed] Related Publications
Violation of proliferation control is a common feature of cancer cells. We put forward the hypothesis that promoters of genes involved in the control of cell proliferation should possess intrinsic cancer specific activity. We cloned promoter regions of CDC6, POLD1, CKS1B, MCM2, and PLK1 genes into pGL3 reporter vector and studied their ability to drive heterologous gene expression in transfected cancer cells of different origin and in normal human fibroblasts. Each promoter was cloned in short (335-800 bp) and long (up to 2.3 kb) variants to cover probable location of core and whole promoter regulatory elements. Cloned promoters were significantly more active in cancer cells than in normal fibroblasts that may indicate their cancer specificity. Both versions of CDC6 promoters were shown to be most active while the activities of others were close to that of BIRC5 gene (survivin) gene promoter. Long and short variants of each cloned promoter demonstrated very similar cancer specificity with the exception of PLK1-long promoter that was substantially more specific than its short variant and other promoters under study. The data indicate that most of the important cis-regulatory transcription elements responsible for intrinsic cancer specificity are located in short variants of the promoters under study. CDC6 short promoter may serve as a promising candidate for transcription targeted cancer gene therapy.

Zhang X, Xiao D, Wang Z, et al.
MicroRNA-26a/b regulate DNA replication licensing, tumorigenesis, and prognosis by targeting CDC6 in lung cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(11):1535-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer is characterized by mutations, genome rearrangements, epigenetic changes, and altered gene expression that enhance cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. To accommodate deregulated cellular proliferation, many DNA replication-initiation proteins are overexpressed in human cancers. However, the mechanism that represses the expression of these proteins in normal cells and the cellular changes that result in their overexpression are largely unknown. One possible mechanism is through miRNA expression differences. Here, it is demonstrated that miR26a and miR26b inhibit replication licensing and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells by targeting CDC6. Importantly, miR26a/b expression is significantly decreased in human lung cancer tissue specimens compared with the paired adjacent normal tissues, and miR26a/b downregulation and the consequential upregulation of CDC6 are associated with poorer prognosis of patients with lung cancer. These results indicate that miR26a/b repress replication licensing and tumorigenesis by targeting CDC6.
IMPLICATIONS: The current study suggests that miR26a, miR26b, and CDC6 and factors regulating their expression represent potential cancer diagnostic and prognostic markers as well as anticancer targets.

Cheung IY, Farazi TA, Ostrovnaya I, et al.
Deep MicroRNA sequencing reveals downregulation of miR-29a in neuroblastoma central nervous system metastasis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(10):803-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly common site of isolated metastasis for patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. To explore the microRNA (miRNA) profile of this metastatic process, miRNA sequencing was performed to identify miRNA sequence families with differential expression between tumor pairs (pre-CNS primary and CNS metastasis) from 13 patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. Seven miRNA sequence families had distinct expression in CNS metastases when compared with their corresponding pre-CNS primaries. MiR-7 was upregulated (3.75-fold), and miR-21, miR-22, miR-29a, miR-143, miR-199a-1-3p, and miR-199a-1-5p were downregulated (3.5-6.1-fold), all confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. MiR-29a, previously shown to be downregulated in a broad spectrum of solid tumors including neuroblastoma, had the most significant decrease in all 13 CNS metastases (P = 0.001). Its known onco-targets CDC6, CDK6, and DNMT3A, as well as B7-H3, an inhibitory ligand for T cells, and natural killer cells, were found to have higher differential expression in these 13 CNS metastases when compared with their paired primaries. Additionally, miR-29a expression in primary tumors was significantly lower among patients who eventually relapsed in the CNS. Irrespective of the amplification status of MYCN, which is known to be associated with metastasis, pre-CNS primaries, and CNS metastases had significantly lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS primary tumors. Among MYCN amplified cell lines, those from CNS relapse also had lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS relapse. These findings raised the hypothesis that miR-29a could be a biomarker for neuroblastoma CNS metastasis, and its downregulation may play a pivotal role in CNS progression.

Harada M, Kotake Y, Ohhata T, et al.
YB-1 promotes transcription of cyclin D1 in human non-small-cell lung cancers.
Genes Cells. 2014; 19(6):504-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin D1, an oncogenic G1 cyclin, and YB-1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth, are both over-expressed in several human cancers. In human lung cancer, the functional association between YB-1 and cyclin D1 has never been elucidated. In this study, we show YB-1 is involved in the transcription of cyclin D1 in human lung cancer. Depletion of endogenous YB-1 by siRNA inhibited progression of G1 phase and down-regulated both the protein and mRNA levels of cyclin D1 in human lung cancer cells. Forced over-expression of YB-1 with a cyclin D1 reporter plasmid increased luciferase activity, and ChIP assay results showed YB-1 bound to the cyclin D1 promoter. Moreover, the amount of YB-1 mRNA positively correlated with cyclin D1 mRNA levels in clinical non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis also indicated YB-1 expression correlated with cyclin D1 expression in NSCLC specimens. In addition, most of the cases expressing both cyclin D1 and CDC6, another molecule controlled by YB-1, had co-existing YB-1 over-expression. Together, our results suggest that aberrant expression of both cyclin D1 and CDC6 by YB-1 over-expression may collaboratively participate in lung carcinogenesis.

Liu Y, Gong Z, Sun L, Li X
FOXM1 and androgen receptor co-regulate CDC6 gene transcription and DNA replication in prostate cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(4):297-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
CDC6 is a key component of the DNA replication initiation machinery, and its transcription is regulated by E2F or androgen receptor (AR) alone or in combination in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Through both overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found that in addition to its effects on the E2F pathway, the cell proliferation specific transcription factor FOXM1 stimulated CDC6 transcription in cooperation with AR. We have identified a forkhead box motif in the CDC6 proximal promoter that is occupied by FOXM1 and is sufficient to drive FOXM1-regulated transcription. Indirectly, FOXM1 elevated AR protein levels and AR dependent transcription. Furthermore, FOXM1 and AR proteins physically interact. Using synchronized cultures, we observed that CDC6 expression is elevated near S phase of the cell cycle, at a time coinciding with elevated FOXM1 and AR expression and CDC6 promoter occupancy by both AR and FOXM1 proteins. Androgen increased the binding of AR protein to CDC6 promoter, and AR and FOXM1 knockdown decreased AR binding. These results provided new evidence for the regulatory mechanism of aberrant CDC6 oncogene transcription by FOXM1 and AR, two highly expressed transcription factors in PCa cells. Functionally, the cooperation of FOXM1 and AR accelerated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation by affecting CDC6 gene expression. Furthermore, siomycin A, a proteasome inhibitor known to inhibit FOXM1 expression and activity, inhibited PCa cell proliferation and its effect was additive to that of bicalutamide, an antiandrogen commonly used to treat PCa patients.

Poi MJ, Knobloch TJ, Sears MT, et al.
Alterations in RD(INK4/ARF) -mediated en bloc regulation of the INK4-ARF locus in human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(7):532-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The presence of RD(INK4/ARF) (RD) enhancer in the INK4-ARF locus provides a novel mechanism to simultaneously increase the transcription of p15(INK4b) (p15), p14ARF (p14), and p16(INK4a) (p16). While such upregulation can be repressed through interactions between RD and oncoproteins CDC6 and BMI1, little is known about the involvement of RD in cancer. In this study we investigated RD deletions in 30 squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and the patient-matched High At-Risk Mucosa specimens (HARM, "phenotypically normal" tissues neighboring SCCHN foci but beyond the surgical resection margin). RD was deleted (homozygously/heterozygously) in SCCHN and HARM at the incidence of 36.7% (11/30) and 13.3% (4/30), respectively. In comparison, no RD deletion was detected in 26 oral buccal brush biopsy specimens from healthy donors. Both p16 and p14 were lowly expressed in SCCHN and HARM, and their mRNA expression levels were positively associated with each other (P < 0.01). Moreover, BMI1 was highly expressed in both SCCHN and HARM, and BMI1 overexpression was associated with p16 downregulation in SCCHN (P < 0.05). These results indicate that RD deletion and BMI1 overexpression frequently occur in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis and BMI1 overexpression may downregulate the transcription of p16 and p14 through interfering with RD.

Qian L, Luo Q, Zhao X, Huang J
Pathways enrichment analysis for differentially expressed genes in squamous lung cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(1):197-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous lung cancer (SQLC) is a common type of lung cancer, but its oncogenesis mechanism is not so clear. The aim of this study was to screen the potential pathways changed in SQLC and elucidate the mechanism of it. Published microarray data of GSE3268 series was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Significance analysis of microarrays was performed using software R, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were harvested. The functions and pathways of DEGs were mapped in Gene Otology and KEGG pathway database, respectively. A total of 2961 genes were filtered as DEGs between normal and SQLC cells. Cell cycle and metabolism were the mainly changed functions of SQLC cells. Meanwhile genes such as MCM, RFC, FEN1, and POLD may induce SQLC through DNA replication pathway, and genes such as PTTG1, CCNB1, CDC6, and PCNA may be involved in SQLC through cell cycle pathway. It is demonstrated that pathway analysis is useful in the identification of target genes in SQLC.

Ito K, Maruyama Z, Sakai A, et al.
Overexpression of Cdk6 and Ccnd1 in chondrocytes inhibited chondrocyte maturation and caused p53-dependent apoptosis without enhancing proliferation.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(14):1862-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell proliferation and differentiation are closely coupled. However, we previously showed that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk6) blocks chondrocyte differentiation without affecting cell-cycle progression in vitro. To investigate whether Cdk6 inhibits chondrocyte differentiation in vivo, we generated chondrocyte-specific Cdk6 transgenic mice using Col2a1 promoter. Unexpectedly, differentiation and cell-cycle progression of chondrocytes in the Cdk6 transgenic mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. Then, we generated chondrocyte-specific Ccnd1 transgenic mice and Cdk6/Ccnd1 double transgenic mice to investigate the possibility that Cdk6 inhibits chondrocyte differentiation through E2f activation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive chondrocytes and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive chondrocytes were increased in number, and chondrocyte maturation was inhibited only in Cdk6/Ccnd1 transgenic mice (K6(H)/D1(H) mice), which showed dwarfism. Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was highly phosphorylated but p107 was upregulated, and the expression of E2f target genes was dysregulated as shown by upregulation of Cdc6 but downregulation of cyclin E, dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), Cdc25a and B-Myb in chondrocytes of K6(H)/D1(H) mice. Similarly, overexpression of Cdk6/Ccnd1 in a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 highly phosphorylated pRb, upregulated p107, induced apoptosis, upregulated Cdc6 and downregulated cyclin E, dhfr and B-Myb and p107 small interfering RNA reversed the expression of downregulated genes. Further, introduction of kinase-negative Cdk6 and cyclin D1 abolished all effects by Cdk6/cyclin D1 in ATDC5 cells, indicating the requirement of the kinase activity on these effects. p53 deletion partially restored the size of the skeleton and almost completely rescued chondrocyte apoptosis, but failed to enhance chondrocyte proliferation in K6(H)/D1(H) mice. These findings indicated that Cdk6/Ccnd1 overexpression inhibited chondrocyte maturation and enhanced G1/S cell-cycle transition by phosphorylating pRb, but the chondrocytes failed to accomplish the cell cycle, and underwent p53-dependent apoptosis probably due to the dysregulation of E2f target genes. Our findings also indicated that p53 deletion in addition to the inactivation of Rb was not sufficient to accelerate chondrocyte proliferation, suggesting the resistance of chondrocytes to sarcomagenesis.

Qu F, Cui X, Hong Y, et al.
MicroRNA-185 suppresses proliferation, invasion, migration, and tumorigenicity of human prostate cancer cells through targeting androgen receptor.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 377(1-2):121-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) by several mechanisms. However, how AR is regulated has not been fully understood. In this study, miR-185 was found to be down-regulated in clinical CaP samples. Targets prediction revealed that AR had putative complementary sequences to miR-185, which was confirmed by the following dual luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-185 could reduce the expression of AR protein but not mRNA in LNCaP cells. The proliferation of LNCaP cells was inhibited by overexpression of miR-185. Cell cycle analysis revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The invasive and migration abilities of cells could also be suppressed by miR-185. Furthermore, miR-185 inhibited tumorigenicity in a CaP xenografts model. CDC6, one target of AR and an important regulatory molecule for cell cycle, was found to be down-regulated by overexpression of miR-185. Our findings suggest that miR-185 could function as a tumor-suppressor gene in CaP by directly targeting AR, and act as a potential therapeutic target for CaP.

Zimmerman KM, Jones RM, Petermann E, Jeggo PA
Diminished origin-licensing capacity specifically sensitizes tumor cells to replication stress.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(4):370-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that dormant licensed replication origins can be exploited to enhance recovery from replication stress. Since tumor cells express high levels of origin-licensing proteins, we examined whether depletion of such factors might specifically sensitize tumor versus nontumor cells. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that three tumor-derived cell lines overexpress ORC1, a licensing component, compared with four nontumor cell lines and that a greater level of ORC1 was required to maintain viability in the tumor cells. We determined siRNA-mediated knockdown conditions for each line that maximally reduced ORC1 but did not impact upon viability, which we considered would optimally deplete dormant origins. ORC1 depletion hypersensitized the tumor-derived cells to hydroxyurea and H202 but did not affect the sensitivity of the nontumor lines. Similar results were observed following depletion of ORC6 or CDC6. Furthermore, codepletion of p53 and ORC1 modestly impaired viability of 1BR3hTERT nontumor fibroblasts and more dramatically caused hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea. Finally, overexpression of the c-Myc oncogene combined with ORC1 depletion in nontumor BJhTERT cells diminished viability. Collectively, these findings suggest that tumor cells may have a reliance on origin-licensing capacity, suggesting that licensing factors could represent a target for drug-based cancer therapy.

Liu Y, Hock JM, Van Beneden RJ, Li X
Aberrant overexpression of FOXM1 transcription factor plays a critical role in lung carcinogenesis induced by low doses of arsenic.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(5):380-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Environmental or occupational exposure to low doses of arsenic induces a series of health problems including cancer. The molecular events in arsenic-induced carcinogenicity remain to be defined. In the NuLi-1 immortalized human lung epithelial cell line with p53 and pRb deficiency, exposure to low doses of arsenic trioxide for 72 h promoted cell proliferation and upregulated the gene transcription levels of FOXM1, CDC6, CDC25A, and cyclin D1, which are both critical cell cycle regulatory genes and proto-oncogenes. Continuous in vitro exposure to 1 µM arsenic trioxide for 34 wks induced malignant cell transformation, as evidenced by enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth. The expression of FOXM1, CDC6, CDC25A, and Cyclin D1 was dynamically elevated at the gene transcription and protein levels in the process of cell transformation. The carcinogenic ability of transformed cell colonies coincides with the expression levels of FOXM1 in in vitro anchorage-independent growth assays and in vivo tumor xenograft formation assays. In reverse, the knockdown of FOXM1 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells or arsenic-transformed NuLi-1 cells significantly decreased anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor xenograft formation. The transformed NuLi-1 cells showed genomic instability in the form of copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 1, 5, 6, 18, and 20, but not loss of heterozygosity (LOH). These results showed for the first time that chronic exposure to low doses of arsenic trioxide promoted lung carcinogenicity, in part by aberrantly upregulating FOXM1 and its associated oncogenes, when the tumor suppressor genes p53 and pRb were inactivated.

Covell DG, Wallqvist A, Kenney S, Vistica DT
Bioinformatic analysis of patient-derived ASPS gene expressions and ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript levels identify potential therapeutic targets.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48023 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene expression data, collected from ASPS tumors of seven different patients and from one immortalized ASPS cell line (ASPS-1), was analyzed jointly with patient ASPL-TFE3 (t(X;17)(p11;q25)) fusion transcript data to identify disease-specific pathways and their component genes. Data analysis of the pooled patient and ASPS-1 gene expression data, using conventional clustering methods, revealed a relatively small set of pathways and genes characterizing the biology of ASPS. These results could be largely recapitulated using only the gene expression data collected from patient tumor samples. The concordance between expression measures derived from ASPS-1 and both pooled and individual patient tumor data provided a rationale for extending the analysis to include patient ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript data. A novel linear model was exploited to link gene expressions to fusion transcript data and used to identify a small set of ASPS-specific pathways and their gene expression. Cellular pathways that appear aberrantly regulated in response to the t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation include the cell cycle and cell adhesion. The identification of pathways and gene subsets characteristic of ASPS support current therapeutic strategies that target the FLT1 and MET, while also proposing additional targeting of genes found in pathways involved in the cell cycle (CHK1), cell adhesion (ARHGD1A), cell division (CDC6), control of meiosis (RAD51L3) and mitosis (BIRC5), and chemokine-related protein tyrosine kinase activity (CCL4).

Li J, Knobloch TJ, Poi MJ, et al.
Genetic alterations of RD(INK4/ARF) enhancer in human cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(3):211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent identification of an enhancer element, RD(INK4/ARF) (RD), in the prominent INK4/ARF locus provides a novel mechanism to simultaneously regulate the transcription of p15(INK4B) (p15), p14(ARF) , and p16(INK4A) (p16) tumor suppressor genes. While genetic inactivation of p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in human tumors has been extensively studied, little is known about genetic alterations of RD and its impact on p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in human cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential existence of genetic alterations of RD in human cancer cells. DNAs extracted from 17 different cancer cell lines and 31 primary pheochromocytoma tumors were analyzed for deletion and mutation of RD using real-time PCR and direct DNA sequencing. We found that RD was deleted in human cancer cell lines and pheochromocytoma tumors at frequencies of 41.2% (7/17) and 13.0% (4/31), respectively. While some of these RD deletion events occurred along with deletions of the entire INK4/ARF locus, other RD deletion events were independent of genetic alterations in p15, p14(ARF) , and p16. Furthermore, the status of RD was poorly associated with the expression of p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in tested cancer cell lines and tumors. This study demonstrates for the first time that deletion of the RD enhancer is a prevalent event in human cancer cells. Its implication in carcinogenesis remains to be further explored.

Feng CJ, Lu XW, Luo DY, et al.
Knockdown of Cdc6 inhibits proliferation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 12(2):173-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of Cdc6 downregulation on the proliferation of Tca8113 cells. Two lentiviral vectors (KD1 and KD2) expression cdc6 siRNA were constructed and then infected into Tca8113 cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Cdc6. MTT assays were employed to delineate the growth curves, and flow cytometry was performed to assess cell-cycle progression and apoptosis in Tca8113 cells. Following infection with the lentiviral vectors, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that Cdc6 expression was markedly suppressed in Tca8113 cells. When compared with the negative control group, the mRNA expression of Cdc6 was reduced by 50% and 65% and the protein expression by 65.87% and 79.38% in cells harboring KD1 or KD2, respectively. Cell growth was slowed, and the growth inhibition rate was 25.84% and 30.34% in Tca8113 cells following infection with KD1 or KD2, respectively. In addition, cell-cycle progression was altered. In KD- infected Tca8113 cells, the proportion of cells in the S phase was markedly reduced, but the proportion in the G1 phase was significantly increased; this was accompanied by an increase in cell apoptosis. Downregulation of Cdc6 effectively inhibited the proliferation of Tca8113 cells.

Mackintosh C, García-Domínguez DJ, Ordóñez JL, et al.
WEE1 accumulation and deregulation of S-phase proteins mediate MLN4924 potent inhibitory effect on Ewing sarcoma cells.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(11):1441-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor of children and young adults in which finding effective new targeted therapies is imperative. Here, we report an in-depth preclinical study of the investigational cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) inhibitor MLN4924 in ES, as we have recently demonstrated the implication of a CRL component in the ES pathogenesis. First, our results support a high sensitivity of ES cells to MLN4924 growth inhibition both in vitro (14 ES cell lines tested, median IC50=81 nM) and in tumor xenografts (tumor regression achieved with 60 mg/kg BID, subcutaneously, n=9). Second, we report a dual mechanism of action of MLN4924 in ES cells: while a wide range of MLN4924 concentrations (∼30-300 nM) trigger a G2 arrest that can only be rescued by WEE1 kinase inhibition or depletion, saturating doses of the drug (>300 nM) cause a delay in S-phase progression concomitant with unbalanced CDK2-Cyclin E and CDK2-Cyclin A relative levels (accumulation of the first and depletion of the latter). The aberrant presence of CDC6 in the nucleus at late S-phase cell cycle stage confirmed the loss of CDK2-Cyclin A-specific functions. Remarkably, other mechanisms explored (P27 accumulation and DNA damage signaling pathways) were found unable to explain MLN4924 effects, strengthening the specificity of our findings and suggesting the absence of functionality of some CRL substrates accumulated in response to MLN4924. This study renders a rationale for clinical trials and contributes molecular mechanisms for a better understanding of this promising antitumoral agent.

Lopez FJ, Cuadros M, Cano C, et al.
Biomedical application of fuzzy association rules for identifying breast cancer biomarkers.
Med Biol Eng Comput. 2012; 50(9):981-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current breast cancer research involves the study of many different prognosis factors: primary tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, tumor receptor status, p53, and ki67 levels, among others. High-throughput microarray technologies are allowing to better understand and identify prognostic factors in breast cancer. But the massive amounts of data derived from these technologies require the use of efficient computational techniques to unveil new and relevant biomedical knowledge. Furthermore, integrative tools are needed that effectively combine heterogeneous types of biomedical data, such as prognosis factors and expression data. The objective of this study was to integrate information from the main prognostic factors in breast cancer with whole-genome microarray data to identify potential associations among them. We propose the application of a data mining approach, called fuzzy association rule mining, to automatically unveil these associations. This paper describes the proposed methodology and illustrates how it can be applied to different breast cancer datasets. The obtained results support known associations involving the number of copies of chromosome-17, HER2 amplification, or the expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer patients. They also confirm the correspondence between the HER2 status predicted by different testing methodologies (immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization). In addition, other interesting rules involving CDC6, SOX11, and EFEMP1 genes are identified, although further detailed studies are needed to statistically confirm these findings. As part of this study, a web platform implementing the fuzzy association rule mining approach has been made freely available at: http://www.genome2.ugr.es/biofar .

Steckel M, Molina-Arcas M, Weigelt B, et al.
Determination of synthetic lethal interactions in KRAS oncogene-dependent cancer cells reveals novel therapeutic targeting strategies.
Cell Res. 2012; 22(8):1227-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncogenic mutations in RAS genes are very common in human cancer, resulting in cells with well-characterized selective advantages, but also less well-understood vulnerabilities. We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function screen to identify genes that are required by KRAS-transformed colon cancer cells, but not by derivatives lacking this oncogene. Top-scoring genes were then tested in a larger panel of KRAS mutant and wild-type cancer cells. Cancer cells expressing oncogenic KRAS were found to be highly dependent on the transcription factor GATA2 and the DNA replication initiation regulator CDC6. Extending this analysis using a collection of drugs with known targets, we found that cancer cells with mutant KRAS showed selective addiction to proteasome function, as well as synthetic lethality with topoisomerase inhibition. Combination targeting of these functions caused improved killing of KRAS mutant cells relative to wild-type cells. These observations suggest novel targets and new ways of combining existing therapies for optimal effect in RAS mutant cancers, which are traditionally seen as being highly refractory to therapy.

Kornegoor R, Moelans CB, Verschuur-Maes AH, et al.
Oncogene amplification in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 135(1):49-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene amplification is an important mechanism for oncogene activation, a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Compared to female breast cancer, little is known on the genetic makeup of male breast cancer, because large series are lacking. Copy number changes of 21 breast cancer related genes were studied in 110 male breast cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A ratio of >1.3 was regarded indicative for gene copy number gain and a ratio >2.0 for gene amplification. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features, prognosis and 17 genes were compared with a group of female breast cancers. Gene copy number gain of CCND1, TRAF4, CDC6 and MTDH was seen in >40 % of the male breast cancer cases, with also frequent amplification. The number of genes with copy number gain and several single genes were associated with high grade, but only CCND1 amplification was an independent predictor of adverse survival in Cox regression (p = 0.015; hazard ratio 3.0). In unsupervised hierarchical clustering a distinctive group of male breast cancer with poor prognosis (p = 0.009; hazard ratio 3.4) was identified, characterized by frequent CCND1, MTDH, CDC6, ADAM9, TRAF4 and MYC copy number gain. Compared to female breast cancers, EGFR (p = 0.005) and CCND1 (p = 0.041) copy number gain was more often seen in male breast cancer, while copy number gain of EMSY (p = 0.004) and CPD (p = 0.001) and amplification in general was less frequent. In conclusion, several female breast cancer genes also seem to be important in male breast carcinogenesis. However, there are also clear differences in copy number changes between male and female breast cancers, pointing toward differences in carcinogenesis between male and female breast cancer and emphasizing the importance of identifying biomarkers and therapeutic agents based on research in male breast cancer. In addition CCND1 amplification seems to be an independent prognosticator in male breast cancer.

Pandey V, Kumar V
HBx protein of hepatitis B virus promotes reinitiation of DNA replication by regulating expression and intracellular stability of replication licensing factor CDC6.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(24):20545-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prevention of re-replication via negative regulation of replication initiator proteins, such as CDC6, is key to maintenance of genomic integrity, whereas their up-regulation is generally associated with perturbation in cell cycle, genomic instability, and potentially, tumorigenesis. The HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus is well known to deregulate cell cycle and has been intricately linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite a clear understanding of the proliferative effects of HBx on cell cycle, a mechanistic link between HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis and host cell DNA replication remains poorly perused. Here we show that HBx overexpression in both the cellular as well as the transgenic environment resulted in the accumulation of CDC6 through transcriptional and post-translational up-regulation. The HBx-mediated increase in CDK2 activity altered the E2F1-Rb (retinoblastoma) balance, which favored CDC6 gene expression by E2F1. Besides, HBx impaired the APC(Cdh1)-dependent protein degradation pathway and conferred intracellular stability to CDC6 protein. Increase in CDC6 levels correlated with increase in CDC6 occupancy on the β-globin origin of replication, suggesting increment in origin licensing and re-replication. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest a novel role for CDC6 in abetting the oncogenic sabotage carried out by HBx and support the paradigm that pre-replicative complex proteins have a role in oncogenic transformation.

Dai Y, Tang Y, He F, et al.
Screening and functional analysis of differentially expressed genes in EBV-transformed lymphoblasts.
Virol J. 2012; 9:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) can transform human B lymphocytes making them immortalized and inducing tumorigenic ability in vitro, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to detect and analyze differentially expressed genes in two types of host cells, normal human lymphocytes and coupled EBV-transformed lymphoblasts in vitro using gene chips, and to screen the key regulatory genes of lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus.
METHODS: Fresh peripheral blood samples from seven healthy donors were collected. EBV was used to transform lymphocytes in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from 7 cases of the normal lymphocytes and transformed lymphoblasts respectively, marked with dihydroxyfluorane after reverse transcription, then hybridized with 4 × 44 K Agilent human whole genome microarray. LIMMA, String, Cytoscape and other softwares were used to screen and analyze differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR was applied to verify the result of gene expression microarrays.
RESULTS: There were 1745 differentially expressed genes that had been screened, including 917 up-regulated genes and 828 down-regulated genes. According to the results of Generank, String and Cytoscape analyses, 38 genes may be key controlled genes related to EBV-transformed lymphocytes, including 22 up-regulated genes(PLK1, E2F1, AURKB, CDK2, PLCG2, CD80, PIK3R3, CDC20, CDC6, AURKA, CENPA, BUB1B, NUP37, MAD2L1, BIRC5, CDC25A, CCNB1, RPA3, HJURP, KIF2C, CDK1, CDCA8) and 16 down-regulated genes(FYN, CD3D, CD4, CD3G, ZAP70, FOS, HCK, CD247, PRKCQ, ITK, LCP2, CXCL1, CD8A, ITGB5, VAV3, CXCR4), which primarily control biological processes such as cell cycle, mitosis, cytokine-cytokine pathway, immunity response and so on.
CONCLUSIONS: Human lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus is a complicated process, involving multiple-genes and -pathways in virus-host interactions. Global gene expression profile analysis showed that EBV may transform human B lymphocytes by promoting cell cycle and mitosis, inhibiting cell apoptosis, hindering host immune function and secretion of cytokines.

Andriani F, Roz E, Caserini R, et al.
Inactivation of both FHIT and p53 cooperate in deregulating proliferation-related pathways in lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2012; 7(4):631-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: FHIT and p53 are the two most commonly altered tumor suppressor genes in lung cancer, and their molecular status regulates sensitivity to anticancer drugs. Although their functions are independent, there is evidence that their pathways might be interconnected, but little is known at the molecular level.
METHODS: Microarray profiling of FHIT-transduced lung cancer cells and modulation of FHIT levels by RNA interference in human bronchial cells were used to generate a signature of FHIT-regulated transcripts. Expression of these genes was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 55 primary lung cancer samples characterized for FHIT and p53 expression by immunehistochemistry.
RESULTS: A signature of FHIT-transcripts, particularly enriched in genes involved in cell cycle control, was identified. This signature showed overlap with p53-regulated genes, indicating possible crosstalk between these proteins. Consistently, transcriptional deregulation after FHIT modulation was higher in p53-negative cells. In primary lung cancers, inactivation of either gene was detected in 48 of 55 cases (87%) and both genes in 23 of 55 (42%) cases, confirming the central role of these pathways. Primary tumors with inactivation of both FHIT and p53 displayed the strongest deregulation of growth-related pathways with high levels of expression of CCNB1, BUB1, CDC6, TOP2A, MCM6, and CENPF.
CONCLUSIONS: FHIT and p53 seem to rely on common mediators, and inactivation of both genes results in prominent deregulation of growth-related pathways in lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors. This reveals crosstalk between these proteins and suggests a possible distinctive phenotype for tumors with inactivation of both genes.

Li R, Pang XQ, Chen WC, et al.
Gastric cancer cell lines AGS before and after CD40 signal activating.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(6):6615-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumour effects of CD40L through analysing the change of genes expression profile in AGS using Affymetrix Gene Chip. Human gastric carcinoma AGS cells were first incubated with 2 μg/ml sCD40L or equal volume of medium (control) in F12 medium. RNA was isolated from AGS and were reverse transcribed, labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP, and then hybridized with Clontech Atlas mouse cDNA expression arrays for comparison. Performing clustering analysis, we found that 7 detected genes were down-regulated and 38 were upregulated as the sCD40L acted on AGS. To further verify the results of gene chip screening, Gene Database was searched, finding that the most significantly up-regulated genes were Gadd45a, c-Jun and Bcl-2, and the most significantly down-regulated genes were Cyclin D1, CDC6, TNFR10B, c-IAP2 and ORC5L. Based upon these findings, the signalling pathways that possibly mediate CD40-induced apoptosis are proposed.

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