Gene Summary

Gene:CDCP1; CUB domain containing protein 1
Aliases: CD318, TRASK, SIMA135
Summary:This gene encodes a transmembrane protein which contains three extracellular CUB domains and acts as a substrate for Src family kinases. The protein plays a role in the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cellular events that are involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CUB domain-containing protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
CDCP1 is implicated in:
- extracellular region
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 02 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • CD Antigens
  • Breast Cancer
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Cell Movement
  • Down-Regulation
  • Staging
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • MicroRNAs
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Mutation
  • Membrane Proteins
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Up-Regulation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • RNA Interference
  • Chromosome 3
  • Transfection
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Antigens
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • siRNA
  • Transcription
  • Heterografts
  • Drug Resistance
  • Phosphorylation
  • Pancreatic Cancer
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDCP1 (cancer-related)

Cui YH, Kim H, Lee M, et al.
FBXL14 abolishes breast cancer progression by targeting CDCP1 for proteasomal degradation.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(43):5794-5809 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aggressive behavior and relapse of breast cancer may help in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), a transmembrane adaptor protein, is highly maintained and required in the context of cellular metastatic potential in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). For this reason, gene expression levels of CDCP1 have been considered as a prognostic marker in TNBC. However, not rarely, transcript levels of genes do not reflect always the levels of proteins, due to the post-transcriptional regulation. Here we show that miR-17/20a control the FBXL14 E3 ligase, establishing FBXL14 as an upstream regulator of the CDCP1 pathway. FBXL14 acts as an novel interaction partner of CDCP1, and facilitates its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation with an enhanced capacity to suppress CDCP1 protein stability that eventually prevents CDCP1 target genes involved in breast cancer metastasis. Our findings first time uncovers the regulatory mechanism of CDCP-1 protein stabilization, more predictable criteria than gene expression levels for prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Forte L, Turdo F, Ghirelli C, et al.
The PDGFRβ/ERK1/2 pathway regulates CDCP1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):586 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CDCP1, a transmembrane protein with tumor pro-metastatic activity, was recently identified as a prognostic marker in TNBC, the most aggressive breast cancer subtype still lacking an effective molecular targeted therapy. The mechanisms driving CDCP1 over-expression are not fully understood, although several stimuli derived from tumor microenvironment, such as factors present in Wound Healing Fluids (WHFs), reportedly increase CDCP1 levels.
METHODS: The expression of CDCP1, PDGFRβ and ERK1/2cell was tested by Western blot after stimulation of MDA-MB-231 cells with PDGF-BB and, similarly, in presence or not of ERK1/2 inhibitor in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Knock-down of PDGFRβ was established in MDA-MB-231 cells to detect CDCP1 upon WHF treatment. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of CDCP1 and PDGFRβ in TNBC clinical samples.
RESULTS: We discovered that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of PDGFRβ increases CDCP1 protein expression through the downstream activation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity reduced per se CDCP1 expression, evidence strengthening its role in CDCP1 expression regulation. Knock-down of PDGFRβ in TNBC cells impaired CDCP1 increase induced by WHF treatment, highlighting the role if this receptor as a central player of the WHF-mediated CDCP1 induction. A significant association between CDCP1 and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical staining was observed in TNBC specimens, independently of CDCP1 gene gain, thus corroborating the relevance of the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ axis in the modulation of CDCP1 expression.
CONCLUSION: We have identified PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ-mediated pathway as a novel player in the regulation of CDCP1 in TNCBs through ERK1/2 activation. Our results provide the basis for the potential use of PDGFRβ and ERK1/2 inhibitors in targeting the aggressive features of CDCP1-positive TNBCs.

Pollan SG, Huang F, Sperger JM, et al.
Regulation of inside-out β1-integrin activation by CDCP1.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(21):2817-2836 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor metastasis depends on the dynamic regulation of cell adhesion through β1-integrin. The Cub-Domain Containing Protein-1, CDCP1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein which regulates cell adhesion. Overexpression and loss of CDCP1 have been observed in the same cancer types to promote metastatic progression. Here, we demonstrate reduced CDCP1 expression in high-grade, primary prostate cancers, circulating tumor cells and tumor metastases of patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. CDCP1 is expressed in epithelial and not mesenchymal cells, and its cell surface and mRNA expression declines upon stimulation with TGFβ1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Silencing of CDCP1 in DU145 and PC3 cells resulted in 3.4-fold higher proliferation of non-adherent cells and 4.4-fold greater anchorage independent growth. CDCP1-silenced tumors grew in 100% of mice, compared to 30% growth of CDCP1-expressing tumors. After CDCP1 silencing, cell adhesion and migration diminished 2.1-fold, caused by loss of inside-out activation of β1-integrin. We determined that the loss of CDCP1 reduces CDK5 kinase activity due to the phosphorylation of its regulatory subunit, CDK5R1/p35, by c-SRC on Y234. This generates a binding site for the C2 domain of PKCδ, which in turn phosphorylates CDK5 on T77. The resulting dissociation of the CDK5R1/CDK5 complex abolishes the activity of CDK5. Mutations of CDK5-T77 and CDK5R1-Y234 phosphorylation sites re-establish the CDK5/CDKR1 complex and the inside-out activity of β1-integrin. Altogether, we discovered a new mechanism of regulation of CDK5 through loss of CDCP1, which dynamically regulates β1-integrin in non-adherent cells and which may promote vascular dissemination in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

Karachaliou N, Chaib I, Cardona AF, et al.
Common Co-activation of AXL and CDCP1 in EGFR-mutation-positive Non-smallcell Lung Cancer Associated With Poor Prognosis.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 29:112-127 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutation-positive non-smallcell lung cancer (NSCLC) is incurable, despite high rates of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We investigated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Src family kinases and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as genetic modifiers of innate resistance in EGFR-mutation-positive NSCLC. We performed gene expression analysis in two cohorts (Cohort 1 and Cohort 2) of EGFR-mutation-positive NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. We evaluated the efficacy of gefitinib or osimertinib with the Src/FAK/Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor, TPX0005 in vitro and in vivo. In Cohort 1, CUB domain-containing protein-1 (CDCP1) was an independent negative prognostic factor for progression-free survival (hazard ratio of 1.79, p=0.0407) and overall survival (hazard ratio of 2.23, p=0.0192). A two-gene model based on AXL and CDCP1 expression was strongly associated with the clinical outcome to EGFR TKIs, in both cohorts of patients. Our preclinical experiments revealed that several RTKs and non-RTKs, were up-regulated at baseline or after treatment with gefitinib or osimertinib. TPX-0005 plus EGFR TKI suppressed expression and activation of RTKs and downstream signaling intermediates. Co-expression of CDCP1 and AXL is often observed in EGFR-mutation-positive tumors, limiting the efficacy of EGFR TKIs. Co-treatment with EGFR TKI and TPX-0005 warrants testing.

Chiu KL, Lin YS, Kuo TT, et al.
ADAM9 enhances CDCP1 by inhibiting miR-1 through EGFR signaling activation in lung cancer metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(29):47365-47378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous short noncoding RNAs, can regulate genes involved in important biological and pathological functions. Therefore, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a critical role in cancer progression. However, whether the aberrant expression of miRNAs is regulated by oncogenes remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 9 (ADAM9) promotes lung metastasis by enhancing the expression of a pro-migratory protein, CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1). In this study, we found that this process occurred via miR-1 down-regulation. miR-1 expression was down-regulated in lung tumors, but increased in ADAM9-knockdown lung cancer cells, and was negatively correlated with CDCP1 expression as well as the migration ability of lung cancer cells. Luciferase-based reporter assays showed that miR-1 directly bound to the 3'-untranslated region of CDCP1 and inhibited its translation. Treatment with a miR-1 inhibitor restored CDCP1 protein levels and enhanced tumor cell mobility. Overexpression of miR-1 decreased tumor metastases and increased the survival rate in mice. ADAM9 knockdown reduced EGFR signaling and increased miR-1 expression. These results revealed that ADAM9 down-regulates miR-1 via activating EGFR signaling pathways, which in turn enhances CDCP1 expression to promote lung cancer progression.

Zeng XJ, Wu YH, Luo M, et al.
Inhibition of pulmonary carcinoma proliferation or metastasis of miR-218 via down-regulating CDCP1 expression.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(7):1502-1508 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary carcinoma is one common malignant tumor with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common subtype. As one tumor biomarker, microRNA (miR) has tissue sensitivity and can facilitate oncogene or inhibit tumor suppressor gene. MiR-218 has abnormal expression and can work as one molecular marker for tumors. However, its expression and function mechanism in lung cancer cells have not been fully illustrated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro cultured pulmonary adenoma A549 cells and normal bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE were tested for miR-218 expression. A549 cells were transfected with miR-218 mimic or negative controls, followed by real-time PCR quantifying for miR-218. MTT method was used to test cell proliferation, whilst Transwell chamber was adopted for measuring cell invasion. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay (DLRGA) was used to test target relationship between miR-218 and CDCP1. Western blot was used to test CDCP1 expression.
RESULTS: MiR-218 was down-regulated in A549 cells compared to 16HBE (p<0.05). Transfection of miR-218 mimic significantly facilitated miR-218 expression, inhibited tumor proliferation or invasion. As the target gene of miR-218, CDCP1 expression was suppressed by miR-218 over-expression (p<0.05 compared to control group).
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-218 inhibits NSCLC proliferation or metastasis via down-regulating CDCP1, and can work as one novel molecular target for lung cancer diagnosis.

Kurosawa G, Sugiura M, Hattori Y, et al.
Classification of 27 Tumor-Associated Antigens by Histochemical Analysis of 36 Freshly Resected Lung Cancer Tissues.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In previous studies, we identified 29 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and isolated 488 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically bind to one of the 29 TAAs. In the present study, we performed histochemical analysis of 36 freshly resected lung cancer tissues by using 60 mAbs against 27 TAAs. Comparison of the staining patterns of tumor cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and normal pulmonary alveolus cells and interalveolar septum allowed us to determine the type and location of cells that express target molecules, as well as the degree of expression. The patterns were classified into 7 categories. While multiple Abs were used against certain TAAs, the differences observed among them should be derived from differences in the binding activity and/or the epitope. Thus, such data indicate the versatility of respective clones as anti-cancer drugs. Although the information obtained was limited to the lung and bronchial tube, bronchial epithelial cells represent normal growing cells, and therefore, the data are informative. The results indicate that 9 of the 27 TAAs are suitable targets for therapeutic Abs. These 9 Ags include EGFR, HER2, TfR, and integrin α6β4. Based on our findings, a pharmaceutical company has started to develop anti-cancer drugs by using Abs to TfR and integrin α6β4. HGFR, PTP-LAR, CD147, CDCP1, and integrin αvβ3 are also appropriate targets for therapeutic purposes.

Varghese RT, Liang Y, Guan T, et al.
Survival kinase genes present prognostic significance in glioblastoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(15):20140-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer biomarkers with a strong predictive power for diagnosis/prognosis and a potential to be therapeutic targets have not yet been fully established. Here we employed a loss-of-function screen in glioblastoma (GBM), an infiltrative brain tumor with a dismal prognosis, and identified 20 survival kinase genes (SKGs). Survival analyses using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets revealed that the expression of CDCP1, CDKL5, CSNK1E, IRAK3, LATS2, PRKAA1, STK3, TBRG4, and ULK4 stratified GBM prognosis with or without temozolomide (TMZ) treatment as a covariate. For the first time, we found that GBM patients with a high level of NEK9 and PIK3CB had a greater chance of having recurrent tumors. The expression of CDCP1, IGF2R, IRAK3, LATS2, PIK3CB, ULK4, or VRK1 in primary GBM tumors was associated with recurrence-related prognosis. Notably, the level of PIK3CB in recurrent tumors was much higher than that in newly diagnosed ones. Congruent with these results, genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway showed a significantly strong correlation with recurrence rate, further highlighting the pivotal role of PIK3CB in the disease progression. Importantly, 17 SKGs together presented a novel GBM prognostic signature. SKGs identified herein are associated with recurrence rate and present prognostic significance in GBM, thereby becoming attractive therapeutic targets.

Wheeler LA, Manzanera AG, Bell SD, et al.
Phase II multicenter study of gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy as adjuvant to surgical resection for newly diagnosed malignant glioma.
Neuro Oncol. 2016; 18(8):1137-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite aggressive standard of care (SOC) treatment, survival of malignant gliomas remains very poor. This Phase II, prospective, matched controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of aglatimagene besadenovec (AdV-tk) plus valacyclovir (gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy [GMCI]) in combination with SOC for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients.
METHODS: Treatment cohort patients received SOC + GMCI and were enrolled at 4 institutions from 2006 to 2010. The preplanned, matched-control cohort included all concurrent patients meeting protocol criteria and SOC at a fifth institution. AdV-tk was administered at surgery followed by SOC radiation and temozolomide. Subset analyses were preplanned, based on prognostic factors: pathological diagnosis (glioblastoma vs others) and extent of resection.
RESULTS: Forty-eight patients completed SOC + GMCI, and 134 met control cohort criteria. Median overall survival (OS) was 17.1 months for GMCI + SOC versus 13.5 months for SOC alone (P = .0417). Survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 67%, 35%, and 19% versus 57%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. The greatest benefit was observed in gross total resection patients: median OS of 25 versus 16.9 months (P = .0492); 1, 2, and 3-year survival of 90%, 53%, and 32% versus 64%, 28% and 6%, respectively. There were no dose-limiting toxicities; fever, fatigue, and headache were the most common GMCI-related symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: GMCI can be safely combined with SOC in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Survival outcomes were most notably improved in patients with minimal residual disease after gross total resection. These data should help guide future immunotherapy studies and strongly support further evaluation of GMCI for malignant gliomas.

Chiu KL, Kuo TT, Kuok QY, et al.
ADAM9 enhances CDCP1 protein expression by suppressing miR-218 for lung tumor metastasis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients due to the difficulty of controlling this complex process. MicroRNAs (miRNA), endogenous noncoding short RNAs with important biological and pathological functions, may play a regulatory role during cancer metastasis, but this role has yet to be fully defined. We previously demonstrated that ADAM9 enhanced the expression of the pro-migratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis; however, the regulatory process remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that endogenous miR-218, which is abundant in normal lung tissue but suppressed in lung tumors, is regulated during the process of ADAM9-mediated CDCP1 expression. Suppression of miR-218 was associated with high migration ability in lung cancer cells. Direct interaction between miR-218 and the 3'-UTR of CDCP1 mRNAs was detected in luciferase-based transcription reporter assays. CDCP1 protein levels decreased as expression levels of miR-218 increased, and increased in cells treated with miR-218 antagomirs. Induction of miR-218 inhibited tumor cell mobility, anchorage-free survival, and tumor-initiating cell formation in vitro and delayed tumor metastases in mice. Our findings revealed an integrative tumor suppressor function of miR-218 in lung carcinogenesis and metastasis.

Cao M, Gao J, Zhou H, et al.
HIF-2α regulates CDCP1 to promote PKCδ-mediated migration in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):1651-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), a transmembrane glycoprotein and major substrate of Src family kinases (SFKs), always indicates unfavorable outcomes in various cancers. The characteristics of CDCP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been assessed. Most recently, CDCP1 was identified as a specific target gene of HIF-2α in clear cell renal carcinoma (CC-RCC). However, considering the role of HIF-2α in the progression of HCC is highly controversial, it is necessary to figure out whether HIF-2α and CDCP1 play a significant part in the metastasis of HCC. Our results showed that HIF-2α and CDCP1 were both induced by hypoxia, and the activation of CDCP1 was HIF-2α dependent. CDCP1 was governed by HIF-2α at mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. Moreover, knocking down of HIF-2α not only inhibited cell invasion but also impaired the expression of Tyr(311) phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) which is a downstream factor of CDCP1 and has been reported to induce malignant migration in various tumors. Analysis of human HCC samples showed a negative correlation of CDCP1 expression with disease-free survival, and CDCP1 was an independent prognostic factors of disease-free survival. Taken together, these data demonstrated that HIF-2α could promote HCC cell migration by regulating CDCP1, and targeting HIF-2α-CDCP1-PKCδ pathway might be effective to inhibit HCC metastasis.

Zarif JC, Lamb LE, Schulz VV, et al.
Androgen receptor non-nuclear regulation of prostate cancer cell invasion mediated by Src and matriptase.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(9):6862-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancers still depend on nuclear androgen receptor (AR) function despite their lack of dependence on exogenous androgen. Second generation anti-androgen therapies are more efficient at blocking nuclear AR; however resistant tumors still develop. Recent studies indicate Src is highly active in these resistant tumors. By manipulating AR activity in several different prostate cancer cell lines through RNAi, drug treatment, and the use of a nuclear-deficient AR mutant, we demonstrate that androgen acting on cytoplasmic AR rapidly stimulates Src tyrosine kinase via a non-genomic mechanism. Cytoplasmic AR, acting through Src enhances laminin integrin-dependent invasion. Active Matriptase, which cleaves laminin, is elevated within minutes after androgen stimulation, and is subsequently shed into the medium. Matriptase activation and shedding induced by cytoplasmic AR is dependent on Src. Concomitantly, CDCP1/gp140, a Matriptase and Src substrate that controls integrin-based migration, is activated. However, only inhibition of Matriptase, but not CDCP1, suppresses the AR/Src-dependent increase in invasion. Matriptase, present in conditioned medium from AR-stimulated cells, is sufficient to enhance invasion in the absence of androgen. Thus, invasion is stimulated by a rapid but sustained increase in Src activity, mediated non-genomically by cytoplasmic AR, leading to rapid activation and shedding of the laminin protease Matriptase.

Orchard-Webb DJ, Lee TC, Cook GP, Blair GE
CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) modulates adhesion and motility in colon cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:754 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulated expression of the transmembrane glycoprotein CDCP1 (CUB domain-containing protein-1) has been detected in several cancers including colon, lung, gastric, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. CDCP1 has been proposed to either positively or negatively regulate tumour metastasis. In this study we assessed the role of CDCP1 in properties of cells that are directly relevant to metastasis, namely adhesion and motility. In addition, association between CDCP1 and the tetraspanin protein CD9 was investigated.
METHODS: CDCP1 and CD9 protein expression was measured in a series of colon cancer cell lines by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Adhesion of Colo320 and SW480 cells was determined using a Matrigel adhesion assay. The chemotactic motility of SW480 cells in which CDCP1 expression had been reduced by RNA interference was analysed using the xCELLigence system Real-Time Cell Analyzer Dual Plates combined with 8 μm pore filters. Detergent-resistant membrane fractions were generated following density gradient centrifugation and the CDCP1 and CD9 protein composition of these fractions was determined by Western blotting. The potential association of the CDCP1 and CD9 proteins was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Engineered CDCP1 expression in Colo320 cells resulted in a reduction in cell adhesion to Matrigel. Treatment of SW480 cells with CDCP1 siRNA reduced serum-induced chemotaxis. CDCP1 and CD9 cell-surface protein and mRNA levels showed a positive correlation in colon cancer cell lines and the proteins formed a low-level, but detectable complex as judged by co-sedimentation of detergent lysates of HT-29 cells in sucrose gradients as well as by co-immunoprecipitation in SW480 cell lysates.
CONCLUSIONS: A number of recent studies have assigned a potentially important role for the cell-surface protein CDCP1 in invasion and metastasis of a several types of human cancer cells. In this study, CDCP1 was shown to modulate cell-substratum adhesion and motility in colon cancer cell lines, with some variation depending on the colon cancer cell type. CDCP1 and CD9 were co-expressed at the mRNA and protein level and we obtained evidence for the presence of a molecular complex of these proteins in SW480 colon cancer cells.

Lin CY, Chen HJ, Huang CC, et al.
ADAM9 promotes lung cancer metastases to brain by a plasminogen activator-based pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5229-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transmembrane cell adhesion protein ADAM9 has been implicated in cancer cell migration and lung cancer metastasis to the brain, but the underpinning mechanisms are unclear and clinical support has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that ADAM9 enhances the ability of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cleave and stimulate the function of the promigratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis. Blocking this mechanism of cancer cell migration prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice and cooperated with dexamethasone and dasatinib (a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor) treatment to enhance cytotoxic treatment. In clinical specimens, high levels of ADAM9 and CDCP1 correlated with poor prognosis and high risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, ADAM9 levels in brain metastases derived from lung tumors were relatively higher than the levels observed in primary lung tumors. Our results show how ADAM9 regulates lung cancer metastasis to the brain by facilitating the tPA-mediated cleavage of CDCP1, with potential implications to target this network as a strategy to prevent or treat brain metastatic disease.

Uekita T, Fujii S, Miyazawa Y, et al.
Oncogenic Ras/ERK signaling activates CDCP1 to promote tumor invasion and metastasis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(10):1449-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Involvement of Ras in cancer initiation is known, but recent evidence indicates a role in cancer progression, including metastasis and invasion; however, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, it was determined that human lung cancer cells with Ras mutations, among other popular mutations, showed significantly higher expression of CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) than those without. Furthermore, activated Ras clearly induced CDCP1, whereas CDCP1 knockdown or inhibition of CDCP1 phosphorylation by Src-directed therapy abrogated anoikis resistance, migration, and invasion induced by activated-Ras. Activation of MMP2 and secretion of MMP9, in a model of Ras-induced invasion, was found to be regulated through induction of phosphorylated CDCP1. Thus, CDCP1 is required for the functional link between Ras and Src signaling during the multistage development of human malignant tumors, highlighting CDCP1 as a potent target for treatment in the broad spectrum of human cancers associated with these oncogenes.
IMPLICATIONS: CDCP1 protein induced by oncogenic Ras/Erk signaling is essential for Ras-mediated metastatic potential of cancer cells.

Sawada G, Takahashi Y, Niida A, et al.
Loss of CDCP1 expression promotes invasiveness and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21 Suppl 4:S640-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human CDCP1 gene, located on chromosome 3p21.3, is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in epithelial tissues, and its role in cancer remains to be understood.
METHODS: Using microarray profiles of gene expression and copy number data from 69 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) samples, we performed informatics analyses to reveal the significance of CDCP1 expression. We also performed migration and invasion assays of siRNA-targeted CDCP1-transfected cells and CDCP1-overexpressing cell in vitro. Moreover, we evaluated the clinical magnitude of CDCP1 expression in esophageal squamous cell cancer cases.
RESULTS: Allelic loss of chromosome 3p was confirmed by copy number analysis. The expression level of CDCP1 in tumor tissue was significantly lower than that in corresponding normal tissue. siRNA targeting of CDCP1 promoted the migratory and invasive abilities of esophageal cancer cell lines, whereas both abilities were reduced in CDCP1-overexpressing cells. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that expression levels of CDCP1 were associated with tumor differentiation and metastasis, consistent with the result of clinicopathologic analyses. Finally, multivariate analysis revealed that the expression level of CDCP1 was an independent prognostic factor for survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of CDCP1 expression may be a novel indicator for biological aggressiveness in ESCC.

Miura S, Hamada S, Masamune A, et al.
CUB-domain containing protein 1 represses the epithelial phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 321(2):209-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is dismal due to the frequent metastasis and invasion to surrounding organs. Numerous molecules are involved in the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer cells, but the entire process remains unclear. Several reports have suggested that CUB-domain containing protein-1 (CDCP1) is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer, but its impact on the invasive growth and the upstream regulator remain elusive. To clarify the role of CDCP1 in pancreatic cancer, we here examined the effects of CDCP1 knockdown on the cell behaviors of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of CDCP1 expression in Panc-1 resulted in reduced cellular migration accompanied by the increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of N-cadherin. Knockdown of CDCP1 attenuated the spheroid formation and resistance against gemcitabine, which are some of the cancer stem cell-related phenotypes. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was found to induce CDCP1 expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway, suggesting that CDCP1 has a substantial role in the BMP4-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These results indicate that CDCP1 represses the epithelial phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells.

Fujiwara D, Kato K, Nohara S, et al.
The usefulness of three-dimensional cell culture in induction of cancer stem cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 434(4):773-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, research on resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer treatment has come under the spotlight, and researchers have also begun investigating the relationship between resistance and cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are assumed to be present in esophageal cancer, but experimental methods for identification and culture of these cells have not yet been established. To solve this problem, we created spheroids using a NanoCulture® Plate (NCP) for 3-dimensional (3-D) cell culture, which was designed as a means for experimentally reproducing the 3-D structures found in the body. We investigated the potential for induction of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cells. Using flow cytometry we analyzed the expression of surface antigen markers CD44, CD133, CD338 (ABCG2), CD318 (CDCP1), and CD326 (EpCAM), which are known cancer stem cell markers. None of these surface antigen markers showed enhanced expression in 3-D cultured cells. We then analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activity using the ALDEFLUOR reagent, which can identify immature cells such as stem cells and precursor cells. 3-D-cultured cells were strongly positive for ALDH enzyme activity. We also analyzed the expression of the stem cell-related genes Sox-2, Nanog, Oct3/4, and Lin28 using RT-PCR. Expression of Sox-2, Nanog, and Lin28 was enhanced. Analysis of expression of the hypoxic surface antigen marker carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA-9), which is an indicator of cancer stem cell induction and maintenance, revealed that CA-9 expression was enhanced, suggesting that hypoxia had been induced. Comparison of cancer drug resistance using cisplatin and doxorubicin in 3-D-cultured esophageal cancer cells showed that cancer drug resistance had increased. These results indicate that 3-D culture of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lines is a useful method for inducing cancer stem cells.

Zhang S, Feng XL, Shi L, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(5):1819-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is one of the most common types of oral cancer; however, its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with methylation microarray analysis was performed to screen for aberrantly methylated genes in adjacent normal control and TSCC tissues from 9 patients. Roche NimbleGen Human DNA Methylation 385K Promoter Plus CpG Island Arrays were used to detect 28,226 CpG sites. A total of 1,269 hypermethylated CpG sites covering 330 genes and 1,385 hypomethylated CpG sites covering 321 genes were found in TSCC tissue, compared to the adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, we chose three candidate genes (FBLN1, ITIH5 and RUNX3) and validated the DNA methylation status by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and the mRNA expression levels by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In TSCC tissue, FBLN1 and ITIH5 were shown to be hypermethylated and their expression was found to be decreased, and RUNX3 was shown to be hypomethylated, however, its mRNA expression was found to be increased. In addition, another three genes (BCL2L14, CDCP1 and DIRAS3) were tested by RT-PCR. In TSCC tissue, BCL2L14 and CDCP1 expressions were markedly upregulated, and DIRAS3 expression was significantly downregulated. Our data demonstrated that aberrant DNA methylation is observed in TSCC tissue and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis, development and progression of TSCC.

Emerling BM, Benes CH, Poulogiannis G, et al.
Identification of CDCP1 as a hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) target gene that is associated with survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(9):3483-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in stem cells and frequently overexpressed and tyrosine-phosphorylated in cancer. CDCP1 promotes cancer cell metastasis. However, the mechanisms that regulate CDCP1 are not well-defined. Here we show that hypoxia induces CDCP1 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-, but not HIF-1α-, dependent fashion. shRNA knockdown of CDCP1 impairs cancer cell migration under hypoxic conditions, whereas overexpression of HIF-2α promotes the growth of tumor xenografts in association with enhanced CDCP1 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue microarray samples from tumors of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma shows that increased CDCP1 expression correlates with decreased overall survival. Together, these data support a critical role for CDCP1 as a unique HIF-2α target gene involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis, and suggest that CDCP1 is a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for metastatic cancers.

Thornley JA, Trask HW, Ringelberg CS, et al.
SMAD4-dependent polysome RNA recruitment in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(10):771-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States because most patients are diagnosed too late in the course of the disease to be treated effectively. Thus, there is a pressing need to more clearly understand how gene expression is regulated in cancer cells and to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Translational regulation is thought to occur primarily through non-SMAD directed signaling pathways. We tested the hypothesis that SMAD4-dependent signaling does play a role in the regulation of mRNA entry into polysomes and that novel candidate genes in pancreatic cancer could be identified using polysome RNA from the human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 with or without a functional SMAD4 gene. We found that (i) differentially expressed whole cell and cytoplasm RNA levels are both poor predictors of polysome RNA levels; (ii) for a majority of RNAs, differential RNA levels are regulated independently in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and polysomes; (iii) for most of the remaining polysome RNA, levels are regulated via a "tagging" of the RNAs in the nucleus for rapid entry into the polysomes; (iv) a SMAD4-dependent pathway appears to indeed play a role in regulating mRNA entry into polysomes; and (v) a gene list derived from differentially expressed polysome RNA in BxPC3 cells generated new candidate genes and cell pathways potentially related to pancreatic cancer.

Wei H, Ke HL, Lin J, et al.
MicroRNA target site polymorphisms in the VHL-HIF1α pathway predict renal cell carcinoma risk.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(1):1-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for ∼4% of all human malignancies and is the 9th leading cause of male cancer death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variation within microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites of genes in the VHL-HIF1α pathway on RCC risk. We identified 429 miRNA-binding site single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 pathway genes and assessed 53 tagging-SNPs for 31 of these genes for risk in a case-control study consisting of 894 RCC cases and 1,516 controls. Results showed that five SNPs were significantly associated with RCC risk. The most significant finding was rs743409 in MAPK1. Under the additive model, the variant was associated with a 10% risk reduction (OR: 0.90, 95% CI, 0.77-0.98). Other significant findings were for SNPs in CDCP1, TFRC, and DEC1. Cumulative effects analysis showed that subjects carrying four or five unfavorable genotypes had a 2.14-fold increase in risk (95% CI, 1.03-4.43, P = 0.04) than those with no unfavorable genotypes. Potential higher-order gene-gene interactions were identified and categorized subjects into different risk groups. The OR of the high-risk group defined by two SNPs: CDCP1:rs6773576 (GG) and DEC1:rs10982724 (GG) was 4.46 times higher than that of low-risk reference group (95% CI, 1.31-15.08). Overall, our study provides the first evidence supporting a connection between miRNA-binding site SNPs within the VHL-HIF1α pathway and RCC risk. These novel genetic risk factors might help identify individuals at high risk to enable detection of tumors at an early, curable stage.

Sandvig K, Llorente A
Proteomic analysis of microvesicles released by the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012; 11(7):M111.012914 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer biomarkers are invaluable tools for cancer detection, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, microvesicles have appeared as a novel source for cancer biomarkers. We present here the results from a proteomic analysis of microvesicles released to the extracellular environment by the metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Using nanocapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry 266 proteins were identified with two or more peptide sequences. Further analysis showed that 16% of the proteins were classified as extracellular and that intracellular proteins were annotated in a variety of locations. Concerning biological processes, the proteins found in PC-3 cell-released microvesicles are mainly involved in transport, cell organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, response to stimulus, and regulation of biological processes. Several of the proteins identified (tetraspanins, annexins, Rab proteins, integrins, heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins) have previously been found in microvesicles isolated from other sources. However, some of the proteins seem to be more specific to the vesicular population released by the metastatic prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. Among these proteins are the tetraspanin protein CD151 and the glycoprotein CUB domain-containing protein 1. Interestingly, our results show these proteins are promising biomarkers for prostate cancer and therefore candidates for clinical validation studies in biological fluids.

Park JJ, Jin YB, Lee YJ, et al.
KAI1 suppresses HIF-1α and VEGF expression by blocking CDCP1-enhanced Src activation in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KAI1 was initially identified as a metastasis-suppressor gene in prostate cancer. It is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane superfamily (TM4SF) of membrane glycoproteins. As part of a tetraspanin-enriched microdomain (TEM), KAI1 inhibits tumor metastasis by negative regulation of Src. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), which was previously known as tetraspanin-interacting protein in TEM, promoted metastasis via enhancement of Src activity. To better understand how KAI1 is involved in the negative regulation of Src, we here examined the function of KAI1 in CDCP1-mediated Src kinase activation and the consequences of this process, focusing on HIF-1 α and VEGF expression.
METHODS: We used the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 which was devoid of KAI1 expression. Vector-transfected cells (PC3-GFP clone #8) and KAI1-expressing PC3 clones (PC3-KAI1 clone #5 and #6) were picked after stable transfection with KAI1 cDNA and selection in 800 μg/ml G418. Protein levels were assessed by immunoblotting and VEGF reporter gene activity was measured by assaying luciferase activitiy. We followed tumor growth in vivo and immunohistochemistry was performed for detection of HIF-1, CDCP1, and VHL protein level.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and VEGF expression were significantly inhibited by restoration of KAI1 in PC3 cells. In response to KAI1 expression, CDCP1-enhanced Src activation was down-regulated and the level of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein was significantly increased. In an in vivo xenograft model, KAI1 inhibited the expression of CDCP1 and HIF-1α.
CONCLUSIONS: These novel observations may indicate that KAI1 exerts profound metastasis-suppressor activity in the tumor malignancy process via inhibition of CDCP1-mediated Src activation, followed by VHL-induced HIF-1α degradation and, ultimately, decreased VEGF expression.

Dong Y, He Y, de Boer L, et al.
The cell surface glycoprotein CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) contributes to epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated cell migration.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(13):9792-803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is an important mediator of cell migration, and aberrant signaling via this system promotes a number of malignancies including ovarian cancer. We have identified the cell surface glycoprotein CDCP1 as a key regulator of EGF/EGFR-induced cell migration. We show that signaling via EGF/EGFR induces migration of ovarian cancer Caov3 and OVCA420 cells with concomitant up-regulation of CDCP1 mRNA and protein. Consistent with a role in cell migration CDCP1 relocates from cell-cell junctions to punctate structures on filopodia after activation of EGFR. Significantly, disruption of CDCP1 either by silencing or the use of a function blocking antibody efficiently reduces EGF/EGFR-induced cell migration of Caov3 and OVCA420 cells. We also show that up-regulation of CDCP1 is inhibited by pharmacological agents blocking ERK but not Src signaling, indicating that the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is required downstream of EGF/EGFR to induce increased expression of CDCP1. Our immunohistochemical analysis of benign, primary, and metastatic serous epithelial ovarian tumors demonstrates that CDCP1 is expressed during progression of this cancer. These data highlight a novel role for CDCP1 in EGF/EGFR-induced cell migration and indicate that targeting of CDCP1 may be a rational approach to inhibit progression of cancers driven by EGFR signaling including those resistant to anti-EGFR drugs because of activating mutations in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway.

Chiocca EA, Aguilar LK, Bell SD, et al.
Phase IB study of gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy adjuvant to up-front surgery and intensive timing radiation for malignant glioma.
J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(27):3611-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite aggressive therapies, median survival for malignant gliomas is less than 15 months. Patients with unmethylated O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) fare worse, presumably because of temozolomide resistance. AdV-tk, an adenoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, plus prodrug synergizes with surgery and chemoradiotherapy, kills tumor cells, has not shown MGMT dependency, and elicits an antitumor vaccine effect.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma received AdV-tk at 3 × 10(10), 1 × 10(11), or 3 × 10(11) vector particles (vp) via tumor bed injection at time of surgery followed by 14 days of valacyclovir. Radiation was initiated within 9 days after AdV-tk injection to overlap with AdV-tk activity. Temozolomide was administered after completing valacyclovir treatment.
RESULTS: Accrual began December 2005 and was completed in 13 months. Thirteen patients were enrolled and 12 completed therapy, three at dose levels 1 and 2 and six at dose level 3. There were no dose-limiting or significant added toxicities. One patient withdrew before completing prodrug because of an unrelated surgical complication. Survival at 2 years was 33% and at 3 years was 25%. Patient-reported quality of life assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) was stable or improved after treatment. A significant CD3(+) T-cell infiltrate was found in four of four tumors analyzed after treatment. Three patients with MGMT unmethylated glioblastoma multiforme survived 6.5, 8.7, and 46.4 months.
CONCLUSION: AdV-tk plus valacyclovir can be safely delivered with surgery and accelerated radiation in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Temozolomide did not prevent immune responses. Although not powered for efficacy, the survival and MGMT independence trends are encouraging. A phase II trial is ongoing.

Uekita T, Sakai R
Roles of CUB domain-containing protein 1 signaling in cancer invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Sci. 2011; 102(11):1943-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is a complex multistep process by which cells from the primary tumor invade tissues, move through the vasculature, settle at distant sites and eventually grow to form secondary tumors. Altered tyrosine phosphorylation signals in cancer cells contribute to a number of aberrant characteristics involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is a substrate of Src family kinases and has been shown to regulate anoikis resistance, migration and matrix degradation during tumor invasion and metastasis in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Knockdown of CDCP1 blocks tumor metastasis or peritoneal dissemination in vivo, without significantly affecting cell proliferation. Moreover, expression levels of CDCP1 are of prognostic value in several cancers. Here, we summarize the studies on CDCP1, focusing on structure and signal transduction, to gain insight into its role in cancer progression. Understanding the signaling pathways regulated by CDCP1 could help establish novel therapeutic strategies against the progression of cancer.

Gioia R, Leroy C, Drullion C, et al.
Quantitative phosphoproteomics revealed interplay between Syk and Lyn in the resistance to nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Blood. 2011; 118(8):2211-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we have addressed how Lyn kinase signaling mediates nilotinib-resistance by quantitative phospho-proteomics using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acid in Cell culture. We have found an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of 2 additional tyrosine kinases in nilotinib-resistant cells: the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk and the UFO family receptor tyrosine kinase Axl. This increased tyrosine phosphorylation involved an interaction of these tyrosine kinases with Lyn. Inhibition of Syk by the inhibitors R406 or BAY 61-3606 or by RNA interference restored the capacity of nilotinib to inhibit cell proliferation. Conversely, coexpression of Lyn and Syk were required to fully induce resistance to nilotinib in drug-sensitive cells. Surprisingly, the knockdown of Syk also strongly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn and Axl, thus uncovering interplay between Syk and Lyn. We have shown the involvement of the adaptor protein CDCP-1 in resistance to nilotinib. Interestingly, the expression of Axl and CDCP1 were found increased both in a nilotinib-resistant cell line and in nilotinib-resistant CML patients. We conclude that an oncogenic signaling mediated by Lyn and Syk can bypass the need of Bcr-Abl in CML cells. Thus, targeting these kinases may be of therapeutic value to override imatinib or nilotinib resistance in CML.

Sasaroli D, Gimotty PA, Pathak HB, et al.
Novel surface targets and serum biomarkers from the ovarian cancer vasculature.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2011; 12(3):169-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular phenotype of tumor vasculature is different from normal vasculature, offering new opportunities for diagnosis and therapy of cancer, but the identification of tumor-restricted targets remains a challenge. We investigated 13 tumor vascular markers (TVMs) from 50 candidates identified through expression profiling of ovarian cancer vascular cells and selected to be either transmembrane or secreted, and to be either absent or expressed at low levels in normal tissues while overexpressed in tumors, based on analysis of 1,110 normal and tumor tissues from publicly available Affymetrix microarray data. Tumor-specific expression of each TVM was confirmed at the protein level in tumor tissue and/or in serum. Among the 13 TVMs, 11 were expressed on tumor vascular endothelium; the remaining 2 TVMs were expressed by tumor leukocytes. Our results demonstrate that certain transmembrane TVMs such as ADAM12 and CDCP1 are selectively expressed in tumor vasculature and represent promising targets for vascular imaging or anti-vascular therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer, while secreted or shed molecules such as TNFRSF21/DR6 can function as serum biomarkers. We have identified novel tumor-specific vasculature markers which appear promising for cancer serum diagnostics, molecular imaging and/or therapeutic targeting applications and warrant further clinical development.

Razorenova OV, Finger EC, Colavitti R, et al.
VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC{delta}-driven migration.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(5):1931-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A common genetic mutation found in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) is the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, which results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in prostate cancer. In this study, we established a molecular mechanism linking VHL loss to induction of the CDCP1 gene through the HIF-1/2 pathway in renal cancer. Also, we report that Fyn, which forms a complex with CDCP1 and mediates its signaling to PKCδ, is a HIF-1 target gene. Mechanistically, we found that CDCP1 specifically regulates phosphorylation of PKCδ, but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKCδ leads to its activation, increasing migration of CC-RCC. Furthermore, patient survival can be stratified by CDCP1 expression at the cell surface of the tumor. Taken together, our data indicates that CDCP1 protein might serve as a therapeutic target for CC-RCC.

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