Gene Summary

Gene:CLDN7; claudin 7
Aliases: CLDN-7, CEPTRL2, CPETRL2, Hs.84359, claudin-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins and components of tight junction strands. Tight junction strands serve as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space between epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, and also play critical roles in maintaining cell polarity and signal transductions. Differential expression of this gene has been observed in different types of malignancies, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, urinary tumors, prostate cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancers, thyroid carcinomas, etc.. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Claudins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Western Blotting
  • Lung Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Vimentin
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Tight Junctions
  • Chromosome 17
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
  • Zonula Occludens-2 Protein
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Transcription Factors
  • Biological Models
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Cell Movement
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Claudin-1
  • Gene Expression
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Claudin-3
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Claudin-4
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CLDN7 (cancer-related)

Lu J, Xu Y, Wei X, et al.
Emodin Inhibits the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug Signaling Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6253280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite the anticancer capabilities of emodin observed in many cancers, including EOC, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. A crucial link has been discovered between the acquisition of metastatic traits and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study aimed to determine whether emodin could inhibit the EMT of EOC cells and explore the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that emodin effectively repressed the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration in A2780 and SK-OV-3 cells. The Western blot showed that emodin upregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Claudin) while it downregulated mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin) and transcription factor (Slug) in a dose-dependent fashion. After transfection of siRNA-Slug, both Slug and N-cadherin were downregulated in EOC cells while E-cadherin was upregulated, which was intensified by emodin. Besides, emodin decreased the expression of ILK, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin, and Slug. Transfection of siRNA-ILK also achieved the same effects, which was further strengthened by following emodin treatment. Nevertheless, SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, could reverse the effects of emodin except for ILK expression. These findings suggest that emodin inhibited the EMT of EOC cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug signaling pathway.

Zhu YW, Yan JK, Li JJ, et al.
Knockdown of Radixin Suppresses Gastric Cancer Metastasis In Vitro by Up-Regulation of E-Cadherin via NF-κB/Snail Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2509-2521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Radixin has recently been shown to correlate with the metastasis of gastric cancer, but the pathogenesis is elusive. Adhesion proteins contribute to the regulation of metastasis, and thus this study sought to investigate the role of radixin in the migration, invasion and adhesion of gastric cancer cells, as well as its interaction with adhesion proteins in vitro.
METHODS: Radixin stable knockdown human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells were constructed. Alterations in the migration, invasion and adhesion ability were examined by matrigel-coated plate and transwell assays. The expression pattern of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin, β-catenin and claudin-1, was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Possible involvement of NF-κB/snail pathway was also evaluated.
RESULTS: Stable knockdown of radixin significantly suppressed migration and invasion, but enhanced adhesion in SGC-7901 cells. The expression of E-cadherin was manifestly increased in radixin knockdown cells, whereas the expression of β-catenin and claudin-1 was unchanged. The nuclear exclusion of NF-κB followed by conspicuous reduction of snail expression was involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Radixin knockdown suppresses the metastasis of SGC-7901 cells in vitro by up-regulation of E-cadherin. The NF-κB/snail pathway contributes to the regulation of E-cadherin in response to depletion of radixin.

Lian S, Shi R, Huang X, et al.
Artesunate attenuates glioma proliferation, migration and invasion by affecting cellular mechanical properties.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):984-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is one of the most common malignant brain tumors. Current chemotherapy is far from providing satisfactory clinical outcomes for patients with glioma. More efficient drugs are urgently needed. Artesunate (ART) is clinically used as an anti-malarial agent and exhibits potent antiproliferative activity as a traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, ART has been shown to exert a profound cytotoxic effect on various tumor cell lines, presenting a novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. However, its anticancer effect on glioma by altering cell biomechanical properties remains unclear. The present study aimed to identify the anticancer effects of ART on human glioma SHG44 cells by assessing cell proliferation, migration/invasion, the expression of claudin-1 and the biomechanical properties of ART-treated SHG44 cells. The proliferation of the SHG44 cells was assessed by MTT assay. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. For cell migration and invasion assays, the Transwell was used. The expression of the gene claudin-1 was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The cell membrane and biomechanical properties, as targets of ART action, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). ART significantly inhibited the proliferation of SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with 30 mg/l ART, the level of cell apoptosis was significantly increased (from 6.88±0.062 to 23.7±4.16%). Furthermore, the cell migration and invasion abilities of the SHG44 cells were markedly inhibited after treatment with 30 mg/l ART. Compared with the control group (0 mg/l ART), the SHG44 cells treated with 30 mg/l ART exhibited upregulated expression of claudin-1, increased adhesive force (from 2,400±300 to 3,600±500 pN), increased high connection among SHG44 cells, increased cytomembrane roughness (from 0.118±0.011 to 0.269±0.015 µm) and reduced elasticity (from 23±8 to 3.5±1.1 MPa). The present study demonstrated that ART could alter the biomechanical properties of the glioma cells to inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Wu Y, Liu Q, Yan X, et al.
Podoplanin-mediated TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its correlation with bHLH transcription factor DEC in TE-11 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2310-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Podoplanin is reported involved in the collective cell invasion, another tumor invasion style which is distinct from the single cell invasion, so-called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated the correlation between podoplanin and EMT-related markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and evaluated its linkage with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor differentiated embryonic chondrocyte (DEC) 1 and DEC2. Three ESCC cell lines and human squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells were subjected to western blot analyses for podoplanin and EMT markers, as well as the expression of DEC1 and DEC2. By RT-qPCR and western blotting, we found that TGF-β increased the expression of podoplanin and mensenchymal markers (e.g., N-cadherin and vimentin), while decreased the expression of epithelial markers (e.g., Claudin-4 and E-cadherin), accompanied by Smad2 phosphorylation and slug activation. Moreover, TGF-β has different effects on the expression of DEC1 and DEC2, that is, it upregulates DEC1, but downregulates DEC2. Capability of cell proliferation, invasion and migration were further analyzed using CCK-8 assay, Matrigel-invasion assay, and the wound-healing assay, respectively. The proliferation, invasion and migration ability were significantly lost in podoplanin-knockdown cells when compared with the scrambled siRNA group. In addition to these changes, the expression of Claudin-4, but not that of Claudin-1 or E-cadherin, was induced by the siRNA against podoplanin. On the contrary, overexpression of DEC1 and DEC2 exhibits opposite effects on podoplanin, but only slight effect on Claudin-4 was detected. These data indicated that podoplanin is significantly associated with EMT of TE-11 cells, and may be directly or indirectly regulated by bHLH transcription factors DEC1 and DEC2.

Majer A, Blanchard AA, Medina S, et al.
Claudin 1 Expression Levels Affect miRNA Dynamics in Human Basal-Like Breast Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(7):328-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deemed a putative tumor suppressor in breast cancer, the tight junction protein claudin 1 has now been shown to be highly expressed in the basal-like molecular subtype. Moreover, recent in vitro studies show that claudin 1 can regulate breast cancer cell motility and proliferation. Herein, we investigated whether microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with alterations in the level of claudin 1. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified seven miRNAs (miR-9-5p, miR-9-3p, let-7c, miR-127-3p, miR-99a-5p, miR-129-5p, and miR-146a-5p) that were deregulated as a consequence of claudin 1 overexpression in the MDA-MB231 human breast cancer (HBC) cell line. Most of these miRNAs have been associated with tumor suppression in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Moreover, through gene expression profiling analysis, we identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRB) and cadherin 1 (CDH1, E cadherin), whose downregulation correlated with claudin 1 overexpression. Collectively, we show for the first time that in HBC, claudin 1 can alter the dynamics of a number of miRNAs involved in tumor progression. Our data suggest that the dysregulated expression of these miRNAs, in conjunction with the high claudin 1 levels, could serve as a useful biomarker that identifies a subset of tumors within the poorly characterized basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of these miRNAs in facilitating the function of claudin 1 in breast cancer.

Shimobaba S, Taga S, Akizuki R, et al.
Claudin-18 inhibits cell proliferation and motility mediated by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(6 Pt A):1170-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal expression of claudin subtypes has been reported in various cancers. However, the pathological role of each claudin has not been clarified in detail. Claudin-18 was absent in human non-small cell and small cell lung cancers, although it is expressed in normal lung tissues. Here, we examined the effect of claudin-18 expression on the expression of junctional proteins, cell proliferation, and cell motility using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting showed that exogenous expression of claudin-18 had no effect on the expression of junctional proteins including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Claudin-18 was mainly distributed in cell-cell contact areas concomitant with ZO-1. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased at 48 and 72h after seeding of claudin 18-expressing cells. Claudin-18 suppressed cell motility, whereas it increased cell death in anoikis. Claudin-18 decreased phosphorylated (p)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and p-Akt levels without affecting p-epidermal growth factor receptor and p-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) levels. Furthermore, claudin-18 was bound with PDK1 and suppressed the nuclear localization of PDK1. We suggest that claudin-18 suppresses the abnormal proliferation and motility of lung epithelial cells mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling pathway.

Wahdan-Alaswad R, Harrell JC, Fan Z, et al.
Metformin attenuates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediated oncogenesis in mesenchymal stem-like/claudin-low triple negative breast cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(8):1046-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem-like/claudin-low (MSL/CL) breast cancers are highly aggressive, express low cell-cell adhesion cluster containing claudins (CLDN3/CLDN4/CLDN7) with enrichment of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), immunomodulatory, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes. We examined the biological, molecular and prognostic impact of TGF-β upregulation and/or inhibition using in vivo and in vitro methods. Using publically available breast cancer gene expression databases, we show that upregulation and enrichment of a TGF-β gene signature is most frequent in MSL/CL breast cancers and is associated with a worse outcome. Using several MSL/CL breast cancer cell lines, we show that TGF-β elicits significant increases in cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and motility, whereas these effects can be abrogated by a specific inhibitor against TGF-β receptor I and the anti-diabetic agent metformin, alone or in combination. Prior reports from our lab show that TNBC is exquisitely sensitive to metformin treatment. Mechanistically, metformin blocks endogenous activation of Smad2 and Smad3 and dampens TGF-β-mediated activation of Smad2, Smad3, and ID1 both at the transcriptional and translational level. We report the use of ID1 and ID3 as clinical surrogate markers, where high expression of these TGF-β target genes was correlated to poor prognosis in claudin-low patients. Given TGF-β's role in tumorigenesis and immunomodulation, blockade of this pathway using direct kinase inhibitors or more broadly acting inhibitors may dampen or abolish pro-carcinogenic and metastatic signaling in patients with MCL/CL TNBC. Metformin therapy (with or without other agents) may be a heretofore unrecognized approach to reduce the oncogenic activities associated with TGF-β mediated oncogenesis.

Chang JH, Hwang YH, Lee DJ, et al.
MicroRNA-203 Modulates the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Malignant Glioma Cells.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016; 94(2):412-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated whether miR-203 could modulate the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and which target gene(s) could be involved.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines and normal human astrocytes were transfected with control microRNA, pre-miR-203, or antisense miR-203. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), clonogenic assays, immunofluorescence, and invasion/migration assays were performed. To predict the target(s), bioinformatics analyses using microRNA target databases were performed.
RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-203 increased the radiation sensitivity of all 3 human MG cell lines and prolonged radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that miR-203 could be involved in post-transcriptional control of DNA repair, PI3K/AKT, SRC, and JAK/STAT3 and the vascular signaling pathway. Western blot analysis validated the fact that miR-203 downregulated ATM, RAD51, SRC, PLD2, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT3, VEGF, HIF-1α, and MMP2. Overexpression of miR-203 inhibited invasion and migration potentials, downregulated SLUG and Vimentin, and upregulated Claudin-1 and ZO1.
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that miR-203 potentially controls DNA damage repair via the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathways and may collectively contribute to the modulation of radiation sensitivity in MG cells by inhibiting DNA damage repair, prosurvival signaling, and epithelium-mesenchyme transition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-203 could be a target for overcoming the radiation resistance of GBM.

Manku G, Hueso A, Brimo F, et al.
Changes in the expression profiles of claudins during gonocyte differentiation and in seminomas.
Andrology. 2016; 4(1):95-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men and their incidence has been steadily increasing for the past decades. TGCTs and their precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS) are thought to arise from the deficient differentiation of gonocytes, precursors of spermatogonial stem cells. However, the mechanisms relating failed gonocyte differentiation to CIS formation remain unknown. The goal of this study was to uncover genes regulated during gonocyte development that would show abnormal patterns of expression in testicular tumors, as prospective links between failed gonocyte development and TGCT. To identify common gene and protein signatures between gonocytes and seminomas, we first performed gene expression analyses of transitional rat gonocytes, spermatogonia, human normal testicular, and TGCT specimens. Gene expression arrays, pathway analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis identified cell adhesion molecules as a functional gene category including genes downregulated during gonocyte differentiation and highly expressed in seminomas. In particular, the mRNA and protein expressions of claudins 6 and 7 were found to decrease during gonocyte transition to spermatogonia, and to be abnormally elevated in seminomas. The dynamic changes in these genes suggest that they may play important physiological roles during gonocyte development. Moreover, our findings support the idea that TGCTs arise from a disruption of gonocyte differentiation, and position claudins as interesting genes to further study in relation to testicular cancer.

Madaras L, Balint N, Gyorffy B, et al.
BRCA Mutation-Related and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer: Blood Relatives or Stepsisters.
Pathobiology. 2016; 83(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BRCA mutation-associated (BRCAmut) breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group displaying certain molecular features. Claudin-low breast cancers (CLBC) overlap with characteristics of BRCAmut tumors; therefore, we have investigated whether these are identical subtypes.
METHODS: Using public gene expression data, CLDN, CDH1, 9-cell line claudin-low predictor (9CLCLP) and PAM50 expression was evaluated in BRCAmut and BRCA wild-type (BRCAwt) breast cancer cases focusing on their possible overlap with the CLBC subtype. A separate formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cohort of 22 BRCAmut and 19 BRCAwt tumor tissues was used for immunohistochemical examination of AR, CD24, CD44, CK5/6, claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, E-cadherin, EGFR, estrogen receptor (ER), EZH2, HER2, Ki67, p53, progesterone receptor (PgR) and vimentin expression.
RESULTS: In the data sets, CLDN1 (ROC = 0.785, p < 0.001), CDH1 (ROC = 0.785, p < 0.001), CLDN7 (ROC = 0.723, p < 0.001), CLDN3 (ROC = 0.696, p = 0.020) and CLDN4 (ROC = 0.685, p = 0.027) were expressed at higher level in BRCAmut than BRCAwt tumor tissue. The PAM50 subtype differed from the assigned immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based subtype in 30%. Based on accessible 9CLCLP predictor genes, BRCAmut breast cancer does not display the claudin-low phenotype. Utilizing FFPE samples, claudins were evidently expressed in both BRCAmut and BRCAwt cases. However, at the protein level, only claudin-3 expression was higher in BRCAmut tumors, while claudin-1, -4 and -7 and E-cadherin expression was lower compared to BRCAwt cases. A CD24low/CD44high phenotype was found in BRCAmut tumors upon comparison with BRCAwt cases (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: There is a prominent correlation between the genes under focus herein and BRCA mutation status. BRCAmut tumors bear stem cell characteristics displaying a distinct cell adhesion molecule profile characterized by high expression of CDH1 and CLDN4 according to public gene expression data set analysis, and higher claudin-3 expression as detected by IHC; thus, BRCAmut breast carcinomas are not identical with the previously identified claudin-low subtype of breast cancer.

Lu Y, Xiao L, Liu Y, et al.
MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(12):2213-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53(+/+) and TP53(-/-) HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT.

Hu WH, Hu Z, Shen X, et al.
C5a receptor enhances hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasiveness via activating ERK1/2-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(1):101-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
C5a and its receptor, C5a receptor (C5aR), play critical roles in tumor progression. However, mechanisms of C5a-C5aR axis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell invasiveness are not fully elucidated. In this study, we found that C5aR expression was highly expressed in HCC cell lines and tumor tissues, and associated with capsular invasion, tumor stage and some epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers. Activation of C5aR by C5a promoted HCC cell invasion and migration, whereas depletion of C5aR expression significantly impaired C5a-stimulated invasion and migration. Furthermore, we found that C5aR induced EMT in HCC cells, through downregulation of E-cadherin and Claudin-1 expression, and upregulation of Snail expression. Finally, we demonstrated that C5aR stimulated activation of ERK1/2, and ERK1/2 pathway was involved in C5aR-mediated EMT, cell invasion and migration of HCC cells. Thus, our data suggest that C5aR stimulates cell invasion and migration via ERK1/2-mediated EMT in HCC cells, and implicate that blocking C5aR expression has therapeutic promise to inhibit HCC invasiveness.

Li WJ, Zhang ZL, Yu XM, et al.
Expression of claudin-1 and its relationship with lymphatic microvessel generation in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):11814-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the relationship between claudin-1 and micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) by detecting claudin-1 and protein D2-40 expression in cancer tissue specimens obtained from 97 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). We also explored the correlation between the expression of these proteins and clinical tumor stage, pathological grading, and clinical prognosis in the patients. Moreover, we studied the mechanism of lymph node metastasis in HSCC, thereby providing information for treating HSCC and inhibiting lymph node metastasis. We detected levels of claudin-1 and protein D2-40 expression in cancer tissue from 97 patients with HSCC and para-tumor tissue from 90 patients by immunohistochemistry; we analyzed the correlation between markers and clinicopathological features by using the Pearson chi-square test and conducted survival analysis by the log-rank test. Claudin-1 expression was high in HSCC and was related to tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis; Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that claudin-1 expression was related to patient survival rate (P = 0.012). There was a significant relationship between MLVD in the tissues adjacent to the carcinoma and the indices of histopathological grade, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis. There was also a positive correlation between claudin-1 expression and MLVD. High expression of claudin-1 might induce the generation of tumor lymphatic vessels, which increases metastasis in the lymph node. Because claudin-1 is related to patient survival rate, it may be useful as a monitoring index for postoperative HSCC and might be a new target for treating the disease.

Jian Y, Chen C, Li B, Tian X
Delocalized Claudin-1 promotes metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 466(3):356-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tight junction proteins (TJPs) including Claudins, Occludin and tight junction associated protein Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), are the most apical component of junctional complex that mediates cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells. In human malignancies, TJPs are often deregulated and affect cellular behaviors of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated alternations of TJPs and related biological characteristics in human osteosarcoma (OS). Claudin1 was increased in the metastatic OS cells (KRIB and KHOS) compared with the normal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) or primary tumor cells (HOS and U2OS), whereas no significant difference was found in Occludin and ZO-1. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that Claudin1 was initially localized at cell junctions of normal osteoblasts, but substantially delocalized to the nucleus of metastatic OS cells. Phenotypically, inhibition of the nucleus Claudin1 expression compromised the metastatic potential of KRIB and KHOS cells. Moreover, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) but not PKA phosphorylation influenced Claudin1 expression and cellular functions, as PKC inhibitor (Go 6983 and Staurosporine) or genetic silencing of PKC reduced Claudin1 expression and decreased the motility of KRIB and KHOS cells. Taken together, our study implied that delocalization of claudin-1 induced by PKC phosphorylation contributes to metastatic capacity of OS cells.

Zhou B, Blanchard A, Wang N, et al.
Claudin 1 promotes migration and increases sensitivity to tamoxifen and anticancer drugs in luminal-like human breast cancer cells MCF7.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(9):429-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of claudin 1, a critical tight junction protein, has been correlated with increased invasiveness in breast cancer. However, recent studies suggest that claudin 1 contributes to the progression of some molecular subtypes of breast cancer. In this study, claudin 1 promotes migration in luminal-like MCF7 human breast cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to tamoxifen, etoposide, and cisplatin. We also observed an inverse relationship between upregulation of claudin 1 and TGFβ. Collectively, our results suggest that claudin 1 has the potential to be used as a predictive marker for treatment efficacy for specific breast cancer patient subgroups.

Haraguchi M, Sato M, Ozawa M
CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Deletion of the Snail 1Gene (SNAI1) Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Morphology, Cell-Cell Interactions, and Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer (RMG-1) Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132260 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Snail1 is a transcription factor that induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions, reorganize their cytoskeletons, and reprogram gene expression. Although Snail1 is a prominent repressor of E-cadherin transcription, its precise roles in each of the phenomena of EMT are not completely understood, particularly in cytoskeletal changes. Previous studies have employed gene knockdown systems to determine the functions of Snail1. However, incomplete protein knockdown is often associated with these systems, which may cause incorrect interpretation of the data. To more precisely evaluate the functions of Snail1, we generated a stable cell line with a targeted ablation of Snail1 (Snail1 KO) by using the CRISPR/Cas9n system. Snail1 KO cells show increased cell-cell adhesion, decreased cell-substrate adhesion and cell migration, changes to their cytoskeletal organization that include few stress fibers and abundant cortical actin, and upregulation of epithelial marker genes such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudin-1. However, morphological changes were induced by treatment of Snail1 KO cells with TGF-beta. Other transcription factors that induce EMT were also induced by treatment with TGF-beta. The precise deletion of Snail1 by the CRISPR/Cas9n system provides clear evidence that loss of Snail1 causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton, decreases cell-substrate adhesion, and increases cell-cell adhesion. Treatment of RMG1 cells with TGF-beta suggests redundancy among the transcription factors that induce EMT.

Lee JH, Lee YK, Lim JJ, et al.
Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction Induces Claudin-1 Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Heat Shock Factor 1 Activation, Leading to Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(35):21421-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in tumor metastasis, it is unclear how it regulates tumor cell aggressiveness. We have reported previously that human hepatoma cells harboring mitochondrial defects have high tumor cell invasion activity via increased claudin-1 (Cln-1) expression. In this study, we demonstrated that mitochondrial respiratory defects induced Cln-1 transcription via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation, which contributed to hepatoma invasiveness. We first confirmed the inverse relationship between mitochondrial defects and Cln-1 induction in SNU hepatoma cells and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. We then examined five different respiratory complex inhibitors, and complex I inhibition by rotenone most effectively induced Cln-1 at the transcriptional level. Rotenone increased both mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS. In addition, rotenone-induced Cln-1 expression was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and exogenous H2O2 treatment was enough to increase Cln-1 transcription, implying the involvement of ROS. Next we found that ROS-mediated HSF1 activation via hyperphosphorylation was the key event for Cln-1 transcription. Moreover, the Cln-1 promoter region (from -529 to +53) possesses several HSF1 binding elements, and this region showed increased promoter activity and HSF1 binding affinity in response to rotenone treatment. Finally, we demonstrated that the invasion activity of SNU449 cells, which harbor mitochondrial defects, was blocked by siRNA-mediated HSF1 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiratory defects enhance Cln-1-mediated hepatoma cell invasiveness via mitochondrial ROS-mediated HSF1 activation, presenting a potential role for HSF1 as a novel mitochondrial retrograde signal-responsive transcription factor to control hepatoma cell invasiveness.

Guo X, Wang M, Zhao Y, et al.
Par3 regulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells via interaction with Tiam1.
Clin Exp Med. 2016; 16(3):357-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The conserved polarity complex, which comprises partitioning-defective proteins Par3, Par6, and the atypical protein kinase C, affects various cell-polarization events, including assembly of tight junctions. Control of tight junction assembly is closely related to invasion and migration potential. However, as the importance of conserved polarity complexes in regulating pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis is unclear, we investigated their role and mechanism in pancreatic cancers. We first detect that the key protein of the conserved polarity complex finds that only Par3 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues while Par6 and aPKC show no difference. What is more, Par3 tissues level was significantly and positively associated with patient overall survival. Knocking-down Par3 promotes pancreatic cancer cells invasion and migration. And Par3 requires interaction with Tiam1 to affect tight junction assembly, and then affect invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Then, we find that tight junction marker protein ZO-1 and claudin-1 are down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. And the relationship of the expression of Par3 and ZO-1 in pancreatic cancer tissue is linear correlation. We establish liver metastasis model of human pancreatic cancer cells in Balb/c nude mice and find that knocking down Par3 promotes invasion and metastasis and disturbs tight junction assembly in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par3 regulates invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancers by controlling tight junction assembly.

Lu Z, Kim DH, Fan J, et al.
A non-tight junction function of claudin-7-Interaction with integrin signaling in suppressing lung cancer cell proliferation and detachment.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Claudins are a family of tight junction (TJ) membrane proteins involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancer. Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a strong basolateral membrane distribution in epithelial cells and in tissues. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the functional significance of this non-TJ localization of claudin-7 in human lung cancer cells.
METHODS: Claudin-7 expression was suppressed or deleted by lentivirus shRNA or by targeted-gene deletion. Cell cycle analysis and antibody blocking methods were employed to assay cell proliferation and cell attachment, respectively. Electron microscopy and transepthelial electrical resistance measurement were performed to examine the TJ ultrastructure and barrier function. Co-immunolocalization and co-immunoprecipitation was used to study claudin-7 interaction with integrin β1. Tumor growth in vivo were analyzed using athymic nude mice.
RESULTS: Claudin-7 co-localizes and forms a stable complex with integrin β1. Both suppressing claudin-7 expression by lentivirus shRNA in human lung cancer cells (KD cells) and deletion of claudin-7 in mouse lungs lead to the reduction in integrin β1 and phospho-FAK levels. Suppressing claudin-7 expression increases cell growth and cell cycle progression. More significantly, claudin-7 KD cells have severe defects in cell-matrix interactions and adhere poorly to culture plates with a remarkably reduced integrin β1 expression. When cultured on uncoated glass coverslips, claudin-7 KD cells grow on top of each other and form spheroids while the control cells adhere well and grow as a monolayer. Reintroducing claudin-7 reduces cell proliferation, upregulates integrin β1 expression and increases cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin β1 transfection partially rescues the cell attachment defect. When inoculated into nude mice, claudin-7 KD cells produced significantly larger tumors than control cells.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified a previously unrecognized function of claudin-7 in regulating cell proliferation and maintaining epithelial cell attachment through engaging integrin β1.

Zhao X, Zou Y, Gu Q, et al.
Lentiviral Vector Mediated Claudin1 Silencing Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells.
Viruses. 2015; 7(6):2965-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate worldwide. Several viral vectors including lentiviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors have been used in gene therapy for various forms of human cancer, and have shown promising effects in controlling tumor development. Claudin1 (CLDN1) is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane protein family that plays a major role in tight junctions and is associated with tumor metastasis. However, the role of CLDN1 in breast cancer is largely unexplored. In this study, we tested the therapeutic potential of silencing CLDN1 expression in two breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) cell lines using lentiviral vector mediated RNA interference. We found that a CLDN1 short hairpin (shRNA) construct efficiently silenced CLDN1 expression in both breast cancer cell lines, and CLDN1 knockdown resulted in reduced cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Furthermore, silencing CLDN1 inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by upregulating the epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and downregulating mesenchymal markers, smooth muscle cell alpha-actin (SMA) and Snai2. Our data demonstrated that lentiviral vector mediated CLDN1 RNA interference has great potential in breast cancer gene therapy by inhibiting EMT and controlling tumor cell growth.

DE Vicente JC, Fernández-Valle Á, Vivanco-Allende B, et al.
The prognostic role of claudins -1 and -4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2949-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Claudin dysregulation has been described in various tumor types; however, its clinical relevance is poorly understood. We present a study in which we assessed the expression of claudin 1 (CLDN1) and CLDN4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as well as their prognostic relevance. Immunohistochemical analysis of CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression was carried out on tissue sections from 65 OSCCs. The presence of CLDN1 in the invasive front of tumor islands was associated with neck node metastasis, and the expression of CLDN4 was associated with higher histological grade, and tumor recurrence. Membranous staining for CLDN4 in tumor cells, and weak intensity of CLDN4 immunoexpression were predictive for poorer survival. In a multivariate analysis for disease recurrence, CLDN1 immunostaining was statistically significant. Specifically, CDLN1 expression in the tumor invasive front was associated with tumor recurrence. Our results indicate that CLDN4 expression is correlated with poor prognosis, and CLDN1 expression may be an indicator of recurrence of OSCC.

Dehghan Esmatabadi MJ, Farhangi B, Safari Z, et al.
Dendrosomal curcumin inhibits metastatic potential of human SW480 colon cancer cells through Down-regulation of Claudin1, Zeb1 and Hef1-1 gene expression.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(6):2473-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death worldwide. The prognosis for advanced colorectal cancers remains dismal, mainly due to the propensity for metastatic progression. Accordingly, there is a need for effective anti-metastasis therapeutic agents. Since a great body of research has indicated anticancer effects for curcumin, we investigated the effects of dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) on cellular migration and adhesion of human SW480 cells and possible molecular mechanisms involved. Different methods were applied in this study including MTT, Scratch and adhesion assays as well as real-time PCR and transwell chamber assays. Based on the results obtained, DNC inhibits metastasis by decreasing Hef 1, Zeb 1 and Claudin 1 mRNA levels and can reduce SW480 cell proliferation with IC50values of 15.9, 11.6 and 7.64 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Thus it might be considered as a safe formulation for therapeutic purpose in colorectal cancer cases.

Yang Y, Cheon S, Jung MK, et al.
Interleukin-18 enhances breast cancer cell migration via down-regulation of claudin-12 and induction of the p38 MAPK pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):379-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was recently reported to have a pro-tumor effect in various cancers. Increased IL-18 levels in the serum of cancer patients correlated with malignancy, and IL-18 acts a crucial factor for cell migration in gastric cancer and melanoma. Claudins, which are the most important tight junction proteins, are also linked with cancer progression and metastasis. However, the relationship between claudins and IL-18 is not well-understood. Here, we show that the migratory ability of MCF-7 cells was reduced when endogenous IL-18 expression was inhibited with IL-18 siRNA. Moreover, exogenous IL-18 enhanced breast cancer cell migration and suppressed the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-12 in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-12, but not claudin-1, increased breast cancer migration with maximal effects observed in claudin-12 siRNA-transfected cells. To investigate whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in IL-18-induced cell migration and claudin-12 expression, cells were pretreated with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) or PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK1/2) prior to the addition of IL-18. Although pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with SB203580 blocked both the enhanced cell migration and the decreased claudin-12 expression, PD98059 only blocked cell migration and did not affect claudin-12 expression. In addition, exogenous IL-18 induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that IL-18 is an important factor inducing breast cancer cell migration through down-regulation of claudin-12 and activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.

Iitaka D, Moodley S, Shimizu H, et al.
PKCδ-iPLA2-PGE2-PPARγ signaling cascade mediates TNF-α induced Claudin 1 expression in human lung carcinoma cells.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(3):568-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Claudin 1 (CLDN1) is a critical component of tight junction adhesion complexes that maintains the structural integrity of epithelial cell layers. Dysregulation of CLDN1 is associated with the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma. TNF-α treatment was previously shown to increase expression of CLDN1 that mediated lung cancer cell morphology changes and migration. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in TNF-α induced CLDN1 expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Chemical inhibition or siRNA downregulation of Src, PI3K, Akt, MAPKs, NFκB, caspase and PKC demonstrated that PKC, specifically PKCδ, is required for TNF-α induced CLDN1 expression. Further investigation of the PKC pathway revealed that CLDN1 expression is enhanced by the downstream molecules iPLA2, PGE2, 15-keto PGE2 and PPARγ. Conversely, inhibition of these molecules decreased CLDN1 expression. Additionally, a wound-healing assay demonstrated that TNF-α stimulation, PKC activation, prostaglandin treatment or PPARγ activation enhanced cell migration. In conclusion, TNF-α induced CLDN1 expression is regulated by the PKCδ-iPLA2-PGE2-PPARγ signaling cascade in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

Shiozaki A, Shimizu H, Ichikawa D, et al.
Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(47):17863-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics.
RESULTS: The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

Huang J, Zhang L, He C, et al.
Claudin-1 enhances tumor proliferation and metastasis by regulating cell anoikis in gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(3):1652-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is overexpressed in gastric cancer and correlated with tumor invasion, metastasis and poor outcome. Here, we both down and up regulated CLDN1 expression in gastric cancer cells to elucidate its role in gastric carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We found that deficiency of CLDN1 inhibited cells migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and tumorigenicity, metastasis in vivo. Also, CLDN1 promoted cell aggregation and increased anoikis resistance. Down or up regulation of CLDN1 was accompanied with changes of membrane β-catenin expression as well as Akt and Src activities. When β-catenin was up-regulated in CLDN1-KD cells, cell aggregation and anoikis resistance were restored, and Akt and Src signal pathways were re-activated. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLDN1 is oncogenic in gastric cancer and its malignant potential may be attributed in part to regulation of anoikis, by mediating membrane β-catenin-regulated cell-cell adhesion and cell survival.

Ouban A, Ahmed A
Analysis of the distribution and expression of claudin-1 tight junction protein in the oral cavity.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015; 23(6):444-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Claudins are the main sealing proteins of the intercellular tight junctions and play an important role in cancer cell progression and dissemination. The authors have previously shown that overexpression of claudin-1 is associated with angiolymphatic and perineural invasion, consistent with aggressive tumor behavior and with advanced stage disease in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Our goal in this study was to examine claudin-1 expression in a tissue microarray of OSCCs taken from multiple sites within the oral cavity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined and compared the expression of claudin-1 by immunohistochemistry in 60 tissue samples (49 OSCCs and 10 cases of non-neoplastic tissue, single core per case) were analyzed for claudin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The tumors included SCCs from the tongue (n=28), the cheek (n=9), gingival (n=4), lip (n=3), and oral cavity (n=5). Nonmalignant normal oral mucosa from the tongue (unmatched cases, n=2). Cancer adjacent tissue samples were taken from the tongue (n=6), gingival (n=2), and palate (n=1).
RESULTS: This study demonstrates the expression of claudin-1 protein across a sample of OSCCs originating from multiple locations in the oral cavity. The highest expression of claudin-1 was observed in well-differentiated OSCCs, whereas poorly differentiated OSCCs exhibited mostly negative staining for claudin-1. In addition, we hereby report differential pattern of expression among tumors of different sites within the oral cavity, and between benign and cancerous samples. Our understanding of the exact function and role of claudin-1 in tumorigenesis is expanding exponentially.

Bhat AA, Pope JL, Smith JJ, et al.
Claudin-7 expression induces mesenchymal to epithelial transformation (MET) to inhibit colon tumorigenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(35):4570-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In normal colon, claudin-7 is one of the highly expressed claudin proteins and its knockdown in mice results in altered epithelial cell homeostasis and neonatal death. Notably, dysregulation of the epithelial homeostasis potentiates oncogenic transformation and growth. However, the role of claudin-7 in the regulation of colon tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Using a large colorectal cancer (CRC) patient database and mouse models of colon cancer, we found claudin-7 expression to be significantly downregulated in cancer samples. Most notably, forced claudin-7 expression in poorly differentiated and highly metastatic SW620 colon cancer cells induced epithelial characteristics and inhibited their growth in soft agar and tumor growth in vivo. By contrast, knockdown of claudin-7 in HT-29 or DLD-1 cells induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), colony formation, xenograft-tumor growth in athymic mice and invasion. Importantly, a claudin-7 signature gene profile generated by overlapping the DEGs (differentially expressed genes in a high-throughput transcriptome analysis using claudin-7-manipulated cells) with human claudin-7 signature genes identified high-risk CRC patients. Furthermore, Rab25, a colon cancer suppressor and regulator of the polarized cell trafficking constituted one of the highly upregulated DEGs in claudin-7 overexpressing cells. Notably, silencing of Rab25 expression counteracted the effects of claudin-7 expression and not only increased proliferation and cell invasion but also increased the expression of p-Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 that were suppressed upon claudin-7 overexpression. Of interest, CRC cell lines, which exhibited decreased claudin-7 expression, also exhibited promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed role of claudin-7 as a colon cancer suppressor and suggest that loss of claudin-7 potentiates EMT to promote colon cancer, in a manner dependent on Rab25.

Qiu Y, Li WH, Zhang HQ, et al.
P2X7 mediates ATP-driven invasiveness in prostate cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114371 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ATP-gated P2X7 has been shown to play an important role in invasiveness and metastasis of some tumors. However, the possible links and underlying mechanisms between P2X7 and prostate cancer have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that P2X7 was highly expressed in some prostate cancer cells. Down-regulation of P2X7 by siRNA significantly attenuated ATP- or BzATP-driven migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro, and inhibited tumor invasiveness and metastases in nude mice. In addition, silencing of P2X7 remarkably attenuated ATP- or BzATP- driven expression changes of EMT/invasion-related genes Snail, E-cadherin, Claudin-1, IL-8 and MMP-3, and weakened the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 in vitro. Similar effects were observed in nude mice. These data indicate that P2X7 stimulates cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer cells via some EMT/invasion-related genes, as well as PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. P2X7 could be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Monteagudo C, Llombart B, Burgués O, et al.
Biphasic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with a labyrinthine plexiform high-grade fibrosarcomatous transformation.
J Cutan Pathol. 2015; 42(3):206-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several variants of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, a low-grade superficial sarcoma, are well recognized. The most prognostically important is the fibrosarcomatous variant. We report a case of biphasic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in which the high-grade component exhibited a previously undescribed plexiform pattern. A clinicopathological study complemented with immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of this unique case. Histopathologically, a conventional low-grade dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans was admixed with intratumoral high-grade areas showing a striking labyrinthine plexiform pattern characterized by a higher cellularity of larger and slightly atypical tumor cells. CD34 expression was present in both components, while Ki-67 immunostaining was significantly higher in the plexiform high-grade areas. Focal epithelial membrane antigen and claudin-1 immunostaining was present at the interphase between high- and low-grade areas. COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts, with breakpoints at exon 25 of COL1A1 and exon 2 of PDGFB, were present in both components, being more numerous, as the extra copies of both genes, in the high-grade areas. A previously undescribed histopathologic pattern of high-grade sarcomatous transformation of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is reported: a biphasic tumor with a labyrinthine plexiform high-grade component.

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