Gene Summary

Gene:COL4A2; collagen type IV alpha 2 chain
Aliases: ICH, POREN2
Summary:This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:collagen alpha-2(IV) chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: COL4A2 (cancer-related)

Ryu D, Lee C
Expression quantitative trait loci for PI3K/AKT pathway.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5817 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for the genes involved in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (PI3K/AKT) pathway.Data on mRNA expression of 341 genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 373 Europeans recruited by the 1000 Genomes Project using Illumina HiSeq2000 were utilized. We used their genotypes at 5,941,815 nucleotide variants obtained by Genome Analyzer II and SOLiD.The association analysis revealed 4166 nucleotide variants associated with expression of 85 genes (P < 5 × 10). A total of 73 eQTLs were identified as association signals for the expression of multiple genes. They included 9 eQTLs for both of the genes encoding collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) and integrin alpha 11 (ITGA11), which synthesize a major complex of plasma membrane. They also included eQTLs for type IV collagen molecules; 13 eQTLs for both collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) and collagen type IV alpha 2 (COL4A2) and 18 eQTLs for both collagen type IV alpha 5 (COL4A5) and collagen type IV alpha 6 (COL4A6). Some genes expressed by the eQTLs might induce expression of the genes encoding type IV collagen. One eQTL (rs16871986) was located in the promoter of palladin (PALLD) gene which might synthesize collagen by activating fibroblasts through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Another eQTL (rs34845474) was located in an enhancer of cadherin related family member 3 (CDHR3) gene which can mediate cell adhesion.This study showed a profile of eQTLs for the genes involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway using a healthy population, revealing 73 eQTLs associated with expression of multiple genes. They might be candidates of common variants in predicting genetic susceptibility to cancer and in targeting cancer therapy. Further studies are required to examine their underlying mechanisms for regulating expression of the genes.

Roy R, Singh R, Chattopadhyay E, et al.
MicroRNA and target gene expression based clustering of oral cancer, precancer and normal tissues.
Gene. 2016; 593(1):58-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Development of oral cancer is usually preceded by precancerous lesion. Despite histopathological diagnosis, development of disease specific biomarkers continues to be a promising field of study. Expression of miRNAs and their target genes was studied in oral cancer and two types of precancer lesions to look for disease specific gene expression patterns.
METHODS: Expression of miR-26a, miR-29a, miR-34b and miR-423 and their 11 target genes were determined in 20 oral leukoplakia, 20 lichen planus and 20 cancer tissues with respect to 20 normal tissues using qPCR assay. Expression data were, then, used for cluster analysis of normal as well as disease tissues.
RESULTS: Expression of miR-26a and miR-29a was significantly down regulated in leukoplakia and cancer tissues but up regulated in lichen planus tissues. Expression of target genes such as, ADAMTS7, ATP1B1, COL4A2, CPEB3, CDK6, DNMT3a and PI3KR1 was significantly down regulated in at least two of three disease types with respect to normal tissues. Negative correlations between expression levels of miRNAs and their targets were observed in normal tissues but not in disease tissues implying altered miRNA-target interaction in disease state. Specific expression profile of miRNAs and target genes formed separate clusters of normal, lichen planus and cancer tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that alterations in expression of selected miRNAs and target genes may play important roles in development of precancer to cancer. Expression profiles of miRNA and target genes may be useful to differentiate cancer and lichen planus from normal tissues, thereby bolstering their role in diagnostics.

Choquet H, Trapani E, Goitre L, et al.
Cytochrome P450 and matrix metalloproteinase genetic modifiers of disease severity in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation type 1.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 92:100-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformation type 1 (CCM1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1/CCM1) gene, and characterized by multiple brain lesions. CCM lesions manifest across a range of different phenotypes, including wide differences in lesion number, size and susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebrovascular disease pathogenesis, raising the possibility that inter-individual variability in genes related to oxidative stress may contribute to the phenotypic differences observed in CCM1 disease. Here, we investigated whether candidate oxidative stress-related cytochrome P450 (CYP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genetic markers grouped by superfamilies, families or genes, or analyzed individually influence the severity of CCM1 disease.
METHODS: Clinical assessment and cerebral susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWI) were performed to determine total and large (≥5mm in diameter) lesion counts as well as ICH in 188 Hispanic CCM1 patients harboring the founder KRIT1/CCM1 'common Hispanic mutation' (CCM1-CHM). Samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide LAT1 Human Array. We analyzed 1,122 genetic markers (both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions) grouped by CYP and MMP superfamily, family or gene for association with total or large lesion count and ICH adjusted for age at enrollment and gender. Genetic markers bearing the associations were then analyzed individually.
RESULTS: The CYP superfamily showed a trend toward association with total lesion count (P=0.057) and large lesion count (P=0.088) in contrast to the MMP superfamily. The CYP4 and CYP8 families were associated with either large lesion count or total lesion count (P=0.014), and two other families (CYP46 and the MMP Stromelysins) were associated with ICH (P=0.011 and 0.007, respectively). CYP4F12 rs11085971, CYP8A1 rs5628, CYP46A1 rs10151332, and MMP3 rs117153070 single SNPs, mainly bearing the above-mentioned associations, were also individually associated with CCM1 disease severity.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our candidate oxidative stress-related genetic markers set approach outlined CYP and MMP families and identified suggestive SNPs that may impact the severity of CCM1 disease, including the development of numerous and large CCM lesions and ICH. These novel genetic risk factors of prognostic value could serve as early objective predictors of disease outcome and might ultimately provide better options for disease prevention and treatment.

Jones TA, Jeyapalan JN, Forshew T, et al.
Molecular analysis of pediatric brain tumors identifies microRNAs in pilocytic astrocytomas that target the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015; 3:86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pilocytic astrocytomas are slow-growing tumors that usually occur in the cerebellum or in the midline along the hypothalamic/optic pathways. The most common genetic alterations in pilocytic astrocytomas activate the ERK/MAPK signal transduction pathway, which is a major driver of proliferation but is also believed to induce senescence in these tumors. Here, we have conducted a detailed investigation of microRNA and gene expression, together with pathway analysis, to improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in pilocytic astrocytomas.
RESULTS: Pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have distinctive microRNA and gene expression profiles compared to normal brain tissue and a selection of other pediatric brain tumors. Several microRNAs found to be up-regulated in pilocytic astrocytomas are predicted to target the ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways as well as genes involved in senescence-associated inflammation and cell cycle control. Furthermore, IGFBP7 and CEBPB, which are transcriptional inducers of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), were also up-regulated together with the markers of senescence and inflammation, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2A (p16) and IL1B.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide further evidence of a senescent phenotype in pilocytic astrocytomas. In addition, they suggest that the ERK/MAPK pathway, which is considered the major driver of these tumors, is regulated not only by genetic aberrations but also by microRNAs.

Warnecke-Eberz U, Metzger R, Hölscher AH, et al.
Diagnostic marker signature for esophageal cancer from transcriptome analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6349-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnostic markers are needed for achieving a cure in esophageal cancer detecting and treating tumor cells earlier. In patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), we profiled the gene expression of ESCC compared to corresponding normal biopsies for diagnostic markers by genome microarrays. Profiling of gene expression identified 4844 genes differentially expressed, 2122 upregulated and 2722 downregulated in ESCC. Twenty-three overexpressed candidates with best scores from significance analysis have been selected for further analysis by TaqMan low-density array-technique using a validation cohort of 40 patients. The verification rate was 100 % for ESCC. Twenty-two markers were additionally overexpressed in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC). The markers significantly overexpressed already in earlier tumor stages (pT1-2) of both histological subtypes (n = 19) have been clustered in a "diagnostic signature": PLA2G7, PRAME, MMP1, MMP3, MMP12, LIlRB2, TREM2, CHST2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, KCNJ8, EMILIN2, CTHRC1, EMR2, WDR72, LPCAT1, COL4A2, CCL4, and SNX10. The marker signature will be translated to clinical practice to prove its diagnostic impact. This diagnostic signature may contribute to the earlier detection of tumor cells, with the aim to complement clinical techniques resulting in the development of better detection of concepts of esophageal cancer for earlier therapy and more favorite prognosis.

Field AC, Qasim W
Engineered T cell therapies.
Expert Rev Mol Med. 2015; 17:e19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alongside advancements in gene therapy for inherited immune disorders, the need for effective alternative therapeutic options for other conditions has resulted in an expansion in the field of research for T cell gene therapy. T cells are easily obtained and can be induced to divide robustly ex vivo, a characteristic that allows them to be highly permissible to viral vector-mediated introduction of transgenes. Pioneering clinical trials targeting cancers and infectious diseases have provided safety and feasibility data and important information about persistence of engineered cells in vivo. Here, we review clinical experiences with γ-retroviral and lentiviral vectors and consider the potential of integrating transposon-based vectors as well as specific genome editing with designer nucleases in engineered T cell therapies.

Okunaga S, Takasu A, Meshii N, et al.
Entry of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus into Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Ultrasound.
Viruses. 2015; 7(10):5610-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-intensity ultrasound is a useful method to introduce materials into cells due to the transient formation of micropores, called sonoporations, on the cell membrane. Whether oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can be introduced into oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells through membrane pores remains undetermined. Human SCC cell line SAS and oncolytic HSV-1 RH2, which was deficient in the 134.5 gene and fusogenic, were used. Cells were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles. The increase of virus entry was estimated by plaque numbers. Viral infection was hardly established without the adsorption step, but plaque number was increased by the exposure of HSV-1-inoculated cells to ultrasound. Plaque number was also increased even if SAS cells were exposed to ultrasound and inoculated with RH2 without the adsorption step. This effect was abolished when the interval from ultrasound exposure to virus inoculation was prolonged. Scanning electron microscopy revealed depressed spots on the cell surface after exposure to ultrasound. These results suggest that oncolytic HSV-1 RH2 can be introduced into SAS cells through ultrasound-mediated pores of the cell membrane that are resealed after an interval.

Ilhan-Mutlu A, Siehs C, Berghoff AS, et al.
Expression profiling of angiogenesis-related genes in brain metastases of lung cancer and melanoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):1173-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common brain tumors of adults and are associated with fatal prognosis. Formation of new blood vessels, named angiogenesis, was proposed to be the main hallmark of the growth of BM. Previous preclinical evidence revealed that angiogenic blockage might be considered for treatment; however, there were varying responses. In this study, we aimed to characterize the expression pattern of angiogenesis-related genes in BM of lung cancer and melanoma, which might be of importance for the different responses against anti-angiogenic treatment. Fifteen snap-frozen tissues obtained from BM of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and melanoma patients were analyzed for angiogenesis-related genes using a commercially available gene expression kit. Epilepsy tissue was used as control. Expression values were analyzed using hierarchical clustering investigating relative fold changes and mapping to Omicsnet protein interaction network. CXCL10, CEACAM1, PECAM1, KIT, COL4A2, COL1A1, and HSPG2 genes were more than 50-fold up-regulated in all diagnosis groups when compared to control, whereas genes such as ANGPT4, PDGFRB, and SERPINF1 were down-regulated only in SCLC and melanoma groups, respectively. Using hierarchical clustering, 12 out of 15 cases were allocated to the correct histological primary tumor type. We identified genes with consistent up-regulation in BM of lung cancer and melanoma and other genes with differential expression across BM of these tumor types. Our data may be of relevance for targeted therapy or prophylaxis of BM using anti-angiogenic agents.

Giri A, Edwards TL, Motley SS, et al.
Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132028 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV). Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate SNPs (additive coding) in relation to natural-log transformed (log) PV. We compared SNP-PV results from biopsy-negative men to 442 men with low-grade prostate cancer with similar levels of obesity and PV. Beta-coefficients from the discovery and replication samples were then aggregated with fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. SNP rs11736129 (near the pseudo-gene LOC100131429) was significantly associated with log-PV (beta: 0.16, p-value 1.16x10(-8)) after adjusting for multiple testing. Other noteworthy SNPs that were nominally associated (p-value < 1x10(-4)) with log-PV included rs9583484 (intronic SNP in COL4A2), rs10146527 (intronic SNP in NRXN3), rs9909466 (SNP near RPL32P31), and rs2241606 (synonymous SNP in SLC12A7). We found several SNPs in metabolic loci associated with PV. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the mechanism between these genetic loci, PV, and clinical BPH.

Zhu J, Pan C, Jiang J, et al.
Six stroma-based RNA markers diagnostic for prostate cancer in European-Americans validated at the RNA and protein levels in patients in China.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(18):16757-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously analyzed human prostate tissue containing stroma near to tumor and from cancer-negative tissues of volunteers. Over 100 candidate gene expression differences were identified and used to develop a classifier that could detect nearby tumor with an accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) based on 364 independent test cases from primarily European American cases. These stroma-based gene signatures have the potential to identify cancer patients among those with negative biopsies. In this study, we used prostate tissues from Chinese cases to validate six of these markers (CAV1, COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, MAP1A and MCAM). In validation by real-time PCR, four genes (COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, and MAP1A) demonstrated significantly lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to normal stroma (p value ≤ 0.05). Next, we tested whether these expression differences could be extended to the protein level. In IHC assays, all six selected proteins showed lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to the normal stroma, of which COL4A2, HSPB1 and ITGB3 showed significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that biomarkers for diagnosing prostate cancer based on tumor microenvironment may be applicable across multiple racial groups.

Trapani E, Retta SF
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease: from monogenic forms to genetic susceptibility factors.
J Neurosurg Sci. 2015; 59(3):201-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a vascular disease of proven genetic origin, which may arise sporadically or can be inherited as autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity. CCM lesions manifest across a range of different phenotypes, including wide interindividual differences in lesion number, size and susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may remain asymptomatic during the host's lifetime or result in pathological conditions of various type and severity at any age, with symptoms ranging from relatively minor (but still disabling) headaches through to very severe neurological deficits, seizures, and stroke. Currently, surgical removal of accessible lesions is the only direct therapeutic approach for CCM disease. However, whereas little information is available on the natural history of risk for patients to develop serious complications, such as ICH, prognostic biomarkers remain to be identified in order to ensure timely and optimal clinical decision making. In recent years, it has become clear that the three known CCM genes play an important role in controlling signalling pathways involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, pointing to a novel pathogenic mechanism whereby the function of CCM genes may be relevant in preventing vascular dysfunctions triggered by oxidative stress events. In turn, these novel findings have raised the possibility that genetic susceptibility factors related to differences in sensitivity to oxidative stress, including genetic polymorphisms, may contribute to interindividual differences in CCM disease susceptibility and severity. This review discusses recent progress toward the understanding of molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and the identification of genetic susceptibility factors that could influence onset, progression and clinical severity of CCM disease, as well as consequent implications for the development of novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategies.

Huang Y, Nie S, Zhou S, et al.
PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and circulating lipid levels connect with brain diseases in Han Chinese and suggest sex-dependent effects.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 70:7-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PPARD polymorphisms were shown to be associated with circulating lipoprotein metabolism in various diseases. We aimed to check the contribution of PPARD rs2016520 and lipid concentration to the risk of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) and brain tumors (BT) in Han Chinese. A total of 864 participants were included in the case-control study. The melting temperature shift (Tm-shift) method was used for rs2016520 genotyping. Under the recessive model, PPARD rs2016520 was shown to be associated with the risk of ICH (P=0.029, odds ratio (OR)=2.72), specifically in males (P=0.045, OR=3.98). Additionally, we also found that the levels of TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in participants with brain diseases than in the controls (TC: P<0.0001; LDL-C: P<0.0001). Significantly higher HDL-C and lower ApoA-I levels were observed in the male patients with brain diseases (HDL-C: P<0.0001; ApoA-I: P=0.008), in contrast of a higher TG level in female ICH (P=0.023). Subsequent interaction analysis between PPARD rs2016520 and lipoprotein metabolism showed that the LDL-C level was positively correlated with ICH in the rs2016520-AA carriers (P<0.0001), but not in the other genotype carriers (AG or GG, P=0.300). Our results showed that PPARD rs2016520 displayed a strong relationship with ICH risk in the male Han Chinese. The TC and LDL-C levels were positively higher in the patients with brain diseases than in the controls. The levels of TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I were shown to affect brain disease in a gender-dependent model. The genotype rs2016520-AA showed significant interaction with the circulating LDL-C levels in ICH.

Choquet H, Pawlikowska L, Nelson J, et al.
Polymorphisms in inflammatory and immune response genes associated with cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 severity.
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 38(6):433-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Familial cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 (CCM1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1/CCM1) gene, and characterized by multiple brain lesions that often result in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), seizures, and neurological deficits. Carriers of the same genetic mutation can present with variable symptoms and severity of disease, suggesting the influence of modifier factors. Evidence is emerging that inflammation and immune response play a role in the pathogenesis of CCM. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether common variants in inflammatory and immune response genes influence the severity of familial CCM1 disease, as manifested by ICH and greater brain lesion count.
METHODS: Hispanic CCM1 patients (n=188) harboring the founder Q455X 'common Hispanic mutation' (CHM) in the KRIT1 gene were analyzed at baseline. Participants were enrolled between June 2010 and March 2014 either through the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) study or through the Angioma Alliance organization. Clinical assessment and cerebral susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were performed to determine ICH as well as total and large (≥5 mm in diameter) lesion counts. Samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide LAT1 Human Array. We analyzed 830 variants in 56 inflammatory and immune response genes for association with ICH and residuals of log-transformed total or large lesion count adjusted for age at enrollment and gender. Variants were analyzed individually or grouped by sub-pathways or whole pathways.
RESULTS: At baseline, 30.3% of CCM1-CHM subjects had ICH, with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 60.1±115.0 (range 0-713) for total lesions and 4.9±8.7 (range 0-104) for large lesions. The heritability estimates explained by all autosomal variants were 0.20 (SE=0.31), 0.81 (SE=0.17), and 0.48 (SE=0.19), for ICH, total lesion count, and large lesion count, respectively. TGFBR2 rs9823731 was significantly associated with ICH as well as with the total and large lesion counts (p≤0.017). Further, IL-4 rs9327638, CD14 rs778588, IL-6R rs114660934 and MSR1 rs62489577 were associated with two markers of disease severity. Finally, the whole pathway was associated with total lesion count (p=0.005) with TLR-4 rs10759930, CD14 rs778588, IL-6R rs114660934 and IGH rs57767447 mainly bearing this association. Eicosanoid signaling, extracellular pattern recognition, and immune response sub-pathways were also associated with the total lesion count.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that polymorphisms in inflammatory and immune response pathways contribute to variability in CCM1 disease severity and might be used as predictors of disease severity. In particular, TGFBR2 rs9823731 was associated with all three markers of CCM1 disease severity tested, suggesting that TGFBR2 might be a key participant in the mechanism underlying CCM1 disease severity and phenotype variability. However, further longitudinal studies in larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

Igci M, Arslan A, Erturhan S, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 13q33-34 region and molecular analysis of ING1 and p53 genes in bladder carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2015; 42(2):507-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is a consequence of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the cell which can lead to activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Since members of ING family were discovered as TSGs in different cancer types, it was aimed to analyze the chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 and p53 genes in bladder cancer. 30 paired normal and tumor tissues were investigated in terms of microdeletion of chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 expression and mutation status of ING1 and p53 genes. Because there is no data available about the transcription factors which bind to ING1 promoter, the promoter sequence was analyzed via Genomatix-MatInspector and TFSEARCH softwares. Used DS markers were D13S285, D13S1315, D13S796, D13S278, D13S158, and D13S779 where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) results were as 23.3, 20, 6.7, 3.3, 6.7, and 0 %, respectively. The highest LOH scores were obtained with markers D13S285 and D13S1315 which are flanking the ING1. Seven of 30 cases showed alteration in expression (p > 0.05). However, no mutation was detected in the exons of ING1. One patient showed a two-nucleotide deletion in p53 gene. However no significant TSG activity of ING1 was observed while higher activity was reported in different cancer types. As for the LOH data 13q33-34 region may contain different candidate TSGs like COL4A1, COL4A2 and SOX1. As a result of computational promoter analysis, some factors like ABL, E2F, HIF1, SOX, P53, BPTF, NRSF, c-Rel and c-ETS were associated with the promoter region. Molecular analysis of ING1 promoter warrants further analysis.

Huan JL, Gao X, Xing L, et al.
Screening for key genes associated with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast via microarray data analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(3):7919-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify key genes related to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast by analyzing gene expression data with bioinformatic tools. Microarray data set GSE31138 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 3 breast cancer tissue samples and 3 normal controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between breast cancer and normal control were screened out (FDR < 0.05 and |logFC| > 2). Coexpression between genes was examined with String, and a network was then constructed. Relevant pathways and diseases were retrieved with KOBAS. A total of 56 DEGs were obtained in the IDC of the breast compared with normal controls. A gene coexpression network including 27 pairs of genes was constructed and all the genes in the network were upregulated. Further study indicated that most of the genes in the coexpression network were enriched in ECM-receptor interaction (COL4A2, FN1, and HMMR) and nucleotide excision repair (CETN2 and PCNA) pathways, and that the most significantly related disease was autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes. A number of DEGs were acquired through comparative analysis of gene expression data. These findings are beneficial in promoting the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in breast cancer. More importantly, some key genes were revealed via gene coexpression network analysis, which could be potential biomarkers for IDC of the breast.

Mathsyaraja H, Thies K, Taffany DA, et al.
CSF1-ETS2-induced microRNA in myeloid cells promote metastatic tumor growth.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(28):3651-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis of solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and bleak survival rates. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) are known to promote metastasis, but the mechanisms underlying their collaboration with tumor cells remain unknown. Here, we report an oncogenic role for microRNA (miR) in driving M2 reprogramming in TIMs, characterized by the acquisition of pro-tumor and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-142-3p and miR-223 increased in myeloid cells during tumor progression in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma metastasis. Further, we show that these miRs are regulated by the CSF1-ETS2 pathway in macrophages. A loss-of-function approach utilizing selective depletion of the miR-processing enzyme Dicer in mature myeloid cells blocks angiogenesis and metastatic tumor growth. Ectopic expression of miR-21 and miR-29a promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the downregulation of anti-angiogenic genes such as Col4a2, Spry1 and Timp3, whereas knockdown of the miRs impedes these processes. miR-21 and miR-29a are expressed in Csf1r+ myeloid cells associated with human metastatic breast cancer, and levels of these miRs in CD115+ non-classical monocytes correlates with metastatic tumor burden in patients. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells and the CSF1-ETS2 pathway upstream of the miRs serves as an attractive therapeutic target for the inhibition of M2 remodeling of macrophages during malignancy. In addition, miR-21 and miR-29a in circulating myeloid cells may potentially serve as biomarkers to measure therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies for CSF1 signaling.

Brown CW, Brodsky AS, Freiman RN
Notch3 overexpression promotes anoikis resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer via upregulation of COL4A2.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(1):78-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Ovarian cancer is a lethal disease with the majority of diagnosed women having distant metastases. Interestingly, although Notch3 overexpression has been correlated with poor survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), little is known about its mechanism of action. Data show that Notch3 specifically promotes anoikis resistance. In addition, data indicate a positive role for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as downstream signaling kinases such as Akt and Erk 1/2 in promoting anchorage-independent growth. Mechanistically, both mRNA transcript and protein levels of type IV collagen (COL4A2) are reduced when Notch3 levels are decreased and exogenous collagen IV supplementation reverses the anoikis sensitivity. Reduction of COL4A2 expression by RNAI-mediated knockdown induces cell death. Finally, elevated Notch3 expression levels correlate with higher COL4A2 expression in human ovarian tumor specimens.
IMPLICATIONS: These data highlight type IV collagen as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic EOC. Visual Overview:

Di Tommaso S, Tinelli A, Malvasi A, Massari S
Missense mutations in exon 2 of the MED12 gene are involved in IGF-2 overexpression in uterine leiomyoma.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2014; 20(10):1009-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyoma (UL), the most common benign tumour found in females, is associated with many recurrent genetic aberrations, such as translocations, interstitial deletions and specific germline mutations. Among these, mutations affecting exon 2 of the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene are commonly detected in the majority of ULs. Mutational analysis of the MED12 gene, performed on 36 UL samples, revealed that 12 leiomyomas (33.4%) exhibited heterozygous missense mutations in codon 44 of exon 2 of the MED12 gene, four leiomyomas (11.1%) showed internal in-frame deletions, and two leiomyomas (5.5%) exhibited deletions involving intron 1-exon 2 junction, which caused a predicted loss of the splice acceptor. No mutations were detected in uterine myometrium (UM) and pseudocapsule (PC) samples, including those from women with a MED12 mutation in UL. These data showed that the PC is a healthy tissue that surrounds the UL to maintain UM integrity. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and collagen type IV alpha 2 (COL4A2) mRNA expression levels in the same set of ULs revealed that only those with MED12 missense mutations expressed significantly higher levels of IGF-2 mRNA. In contrast, MED12 gene status does not appear to affect mRNA expression levels of the COL4A2 gene. On the basis of this finding, we suggest that the MED12 status stratifies the ULs into two mutually exclusive pathways of leiomyoma genesis, one with IGF-2 overexpression and the other with no IGF-2 activation. The occurrence of IGF-2 overexpression could be therapeutically targeted for the non-surgical treatment of leiomyomas.

Oktem G, Sercan O, Guven U, et al.
Cancer stem cell differentiation: TGFβ1 and versican may trigger molecules for the organization of tumor spheroids.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):641-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew similar to normal stem cells. This process is linked with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the present study, we constructed an in vitro differentiation model for CSCs. CSCs isolated and proliferated for one passage were maintained as monolayers or spheroid-forming cells with serum included media for differentiation process. Differentiation of adhesion molecules and cellular ultrastructural properties were investigated and compared in both monolayer and spheroid cultures. CD133+/CD44+ cancer-initiating cells were isolated from DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line monolayer cultures and propagated as tumor spheroids and compared with the remaining heterogeneous cancer cell bulk population. Microarray-based gene expression analysis was applied to determine genes with differential expression and protein expression levels of candidates were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy showed detailed analysis of morphology. TGFβ1 was found to be significantly upregulated in monolayer CSCs. High expression levels of VCAN, COL7A1, ITGβ3, MMP16, RPL13A, COL4A2 and TIMP1 and low expression levels of THBS1, MMP1 and MMP14 were detected when CSCs were maintained as serum-grown prostate CSC spheroids. Immunohistochemistry supported increased immunoreactivity of TGFβ1 in monolayer cultures and VCAN in spheroids. CSCs were found to possess multipotential differentiation capabilities through upregulation and/or downregulation of their markers. TGFβ1 is a triggering molecule, it stimulates versican, Col7A1, ITGβ3 and, most importantly, the upregulation of versican was only detected in CSCs. Our data support a model where CSCs must be engaged by one or more signaling cascades to differentiate and initiate tumor formation. This mechanism occurs with intracellular and extracellular signals and it is possible that CSCc themselves may be a source for extracellular signaling. These molecules functioning in tumor progression and differentiation may help develop targeted therapy.

Mitchell SM, Ross JP, Drew HR, et al.
A panel of genes methylated with high frequency in colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is accompanied by extensive epigenetic changes, including frequent regional hypermethylation particularly of gene promoter regions. Specific genes, including SEPT9, VIM1 and TMEFF2 become methylated in a high fraction of cancers and diagnostic assays for detection of cancer-derived methylated DNA sequences in blood and/or fecal samples are being developed. There is considerable potential for the development of new DNA methylation biomarkers or panels to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current cancer detection tests.
METHODS: Combined epigenomic methods - activation of gene expression in CRC cell lines following DNA demethylating treatment, and two novel methods of genome-wide methylation assessment - were used to identify candidate genes methylated in a high fraction of CRCs. Multiplexed amplicon sequencing of PCR products from bisulfite-treated DNA of matched CRC and non-neoplastic tissue as well as healthy donor peripheral blood was performed using Roche 454 sequencing. Levels of DNA methylation in colorectal tissues and blood were determined by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP).
RESULTS: Combined analyses identified 42 candidate genes for evaluation as DNA methylation biomarkers. DNA methylation profiles of 24 of these genes were characterised by multiplexed bisulfite-sequencing in ten matched tumor/normal tissue samples; differential methylation in CRC was confirmed for 23 of these genes. qMSP assays were developed for 32 genes, including 15 of the sequenced genes, and used to quantify methylation in tumor, adenoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue and from healthy donor peripheral blood. 24 of the 32 genes were methylated in >50% of neoplastic samples, including 11 genes that were methylated in 80% or more CRCs and a similar fraction of adenomas.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has characterised a panel of 23 genes that show elevated DNA methylation in >50% of CRC tissue relative to non-neoplastic tissue. Six of these genes (SOX21, SLC6A15, NPY, GRASP, ST8SIA1 and ZSCAN18) show very low methylation in non-neoplastic colorectal tissue and are candidate biomarkers for stool-based assays, while 11 genes (BCAT1, COL4A2, DLX5, FGF5, FOXF1, FOXI2, GRASP, IKZF1, IRF4, SDC2 and SOX21) have very low methylation in peripheral blood DNA and are suitable for further evaluation as blood-based diagnostic markers.

Yang FQ, Huang JH, Liu M, et al.
Argonaute 2 is up-regulated in tissues of urothelial carcinoma of bladder.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(1):340-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Argonaute 2 proteins (Ago2) have been demonstrated to be widely expressed and involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and play key roles in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been investigated.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to explore Ago2 expression in UCBs and normal bladder tissues. Moreover immunohistochemistry (ICH) was used to detect the expression of Ago2 in UCBs. Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: Up-regulated expression of Ago2 mRNA and protein was observed in the majority of UCBs by qRT-PCR and Western blot when compared with their paired normal bladder tissues. Clinic pathological analysis was showed a significant correlation existed between the higher expression of Ago2 protein with the Histological grade, lymph node metastasis and Distant metastasis (P<0.05); Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test demonstrated that elevated Ago2 expression in cancer tissue predicted poorer overall survival (OS) compared with group in lower expression (62.2% VS 86.3%, P<0.05). Notably, multivariate analyses by Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that expression of Ago2 was an independent prognostic factor in UCB.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the aberrant expression of Ago2 in human UCB is possibly involved with tumorigenesis and development, and the Ago2 protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of bladder cancer. Further studies on the cellular functions of Ago2 need to address these issues.

Coskunpinar E, Oltulu YM, Orhan KS, et al.
Identification of a differential expression signature associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma.
Gene. 2014; 534(2):183-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Metastasis is the most significant prognostic factor for laryngeal carcinoma which necessitates the identification of molecular alterations associated with metastasis. The identification of such molecular alterations will not only prove useful in treatment but also provide insight into mechanisms of cancer metastasis. The studies conducted so far have not specifically focused on metastasis or invasion pathways. Therefore we investigated the expression profiles with a pathway focused approach.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from 36 laryngeal tumors and paired cancer free tissue. Expression levels of 88 genes were determined using a PCR array system following cDNA synthesis. Obtained data was used for the calculation of altered expression levels, facilitating relevant algorithms. Significant alterations were determined according to their p-value obtained by Student's t-test.
RESULTS: Sixteen genes have shown altered expression when compared with adjacent cancer-free tissue. 2 of these 16 genes have shown differential expression in tumors with neck metastasis in respect to non-metastatic tumors.
CONCLUSION: We found that TGFB1, TIMP1, c-Myc, SPARC, COL4A2 and SOX4 show altered expression in laryngeal tumors. c-Myc and SOX4 expression is decreased as laryngeal tumors switch to metastatic phenotype.

Maekawa R, Sato S, Yamagata Y, et al.
Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis reveals a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis and development of uterine leiomyomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66632 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas, the most common benign tumor in women, remains unclear. Since acquired factors such as obesity, hypertension and early menarche place women at greater risk for uterine leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas may be associated with epigenetic abnormalities that are caused by unfavorable environmental exposures.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Profiles of genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression were investigated in leiomyomas and in myometrium with and without leiomyomas. Profiles of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in the myometrium with and without leiomyomas were quite similar while those in leiomyomas were distinct. We identified 120 genes whose DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns differed between leiomyomas and the adjacent myometrium. The biological relevance of the aberrantly methylated and expressed genes was cancer process, including IRS1 that is related to transformation, and collagen-related genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2 and COL6A3. We also detected 22 target genes of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, including apoptosis-related genes, that have aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter, suggesting that the aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes contributes to the aberrant response to estrogen.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation and its related transcriptional aberration were associated with cancer processes, which may represent a critical initial mechanism that triggers transformation of a single tumor stem cell that will eventually develop into a monoclonal leiomyoma tumor. The aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes also may contribute to the aberrant response to estrogen, which is involved in the development of uterine leiomyomas after menarche.

Hirashima K, Iyama K, Baba Y, et al.
Differential expression of basement membrane type IV collagen α2 and α6 chains as a prognostic factor in patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol. 2013; 107(4):402-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The destruction of the basement membrane (BM) is the first step in cancer invasion and metastasis. Type IV collagen is a major component of the BM, and is composed of six genetically distinct α(IV) chains; α1(IV) to α6(IV). The loss of α5(IV) and α6(IV) chains from the epithelial BM at the early stage of cancer invasion has been reported in several types of cancers. However, the expression of α5(IV) and α6(IV) chains in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (EBDC) remains unclear.
METHODS: We examined the expression of α(IV) chains by immunohistochemistry using 71 resected EBDC specimens. Prognostic significance of α(IV) chains was examined by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses.
RESULTS: In the invasive cancer, the expression of α6(IV) chain in the BM was lost partially or completely preceded by the loss of α2(IV) chain. The loss of α6(IV) chain in the BM of the invasive cancer was related to the tumor classification, TNM stages, and the expression of α2(IV) chain. The patients with α2(IV)-negative and α6(IV)-negative chains had significantly poorer prognosis than those with α2(IV)-positive and α6(IV)-positive/negative chains (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The loss of α2(IV) and α6(IV) chains might be a useful prognostic factor in patients with EBDC.

Gilden M, Malik M, Britten J, et al.
Leiomyoma fibrosis inhibited by liarozole, a retinoic acid metabolic blocking agent.
Fertil Steril. 2012; 98(6):1557-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of liarozole on leiomyoma cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression in immortalized leiomyoma cells.
DESIGN: Laboratory study.
SETTING: University hospital.
INTERVENTION(S): Tissue culture, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Proliferation, messenger RNA (mRNA), and ECM protein expression.
RESULT(S): Proliferation of leiomyoma cells was inhibited by treatment with liarozole at suprapharmacologic concentrations. The mRNA and protein expression of COL1A1, COL4A2, versican, fibromodulin, and fibronectin was increased in untreated leiomyoma cells compared with untreated patient-matched myometrial cells. Extracellular matrix mRNA expression was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in leiomyoma cells treated with pharmacologic concentrations of liarozole. In addition, myometrial cells treated with liarozole demonstrated no statistically significant alteration in ECM regulation.
CONCLUSION(S): Liarozole inhibited ECM protein production at pharmacologic concentrations in immortalized human leiomyoma cells. Retinoic acid metabolic blocking agents represent a potential therapeutic drug family for human leiomyomas.

Wang C, Gao C, Zhuang JL, et al.
A combined approach identifies three mRNAs that are down-regulated by microRNA-29b and promote invasion ability in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(12):2127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Our previous study found that miR-29b strongly regulates the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Here, we aimed to identify the mRNAs targeted by miR-29b.
METHODS: We used microarray experiments in conjunction with computational methods to identify the mRNAs that were most susceptible to miR-29b-mediated repression. We further confirmed the activities of three target genes, C1QTNF6, SPARC, and COL4A2, by luciferase reporter analyses and invasion assays.
RESULTS: We evaluated the impact of miR-29b on global mRNA expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through microarray analysis and further analyzed four genes that were at least twofold down-regulated and predicted as miR-29b targets by at least two of the four widely used miRNA target prediction algorithms. We also analyzed one mRNA that was down-regulated by 1.8-fold but was predicted to have significant interactions with miR-29b in pathway analysis and was predicted as a miR-29b target by all four algorithms. Luciferase reporter and invasion assays revealed that C1QTNF6, SPARC, and COL4A2 were targeted by miR-29b and that the degradation of any one of these mRNAs could promote invasion in MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: C1QTNF6, SPARC, and COL4A2 are targeted by miR-29b, and the down-regulation of these three mRNAs can contribute to the invasion ability of MCF-7 cells.

Manzl C, Peintner L, Krumschnabel G, et al.
PIDDosome-independent tumor suppression by Caspase-2.
Cell Death Differ. 2012; 19(10):1722-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PIDDosome, a multiprotein complex constituted of the 'p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD), 'receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-associated ICH-1/CED-3 homologous protein with a death domain' (RAIDD) and pro-Caspase-2 has been defined as an activating platform for this apoptosis-related protease. PIDD has been implicated in p53-mediated cell death in response to DNA damage but also in DNA repair and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer (NF-κB) activation upon genotoxic stress, together with RIP-1 kinase and Nemo/IKKγ. As all these cellular responses are critical for tumor suppression and deregulated expression of individual PIDDosome components has been noted in human cancer, we investigated their role in oncogenesis induced by DNA damage or oncogenic stress in gene-ablated mice. We observed that Pidd or Caspase-2 failed to suppress lymphoma formation triggered by γ-irradiation or 3-methylcholanthrene-driven fibrosarcoma development. In contrast, Caspase-2 showed tumor suppressive capacity in response to aberrant c-Myc expression, which did not rely on PIDD, the BH3-only protein Bid (BH3 interacting domain death agonist) or the death receptor ligand Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), but associated with reduced rates of p53 loss and increased extranodal dissemination of tumor cells. In contrast, Pidd deficiency associated with abnormal M-phase progression and delayed disease onset, indicating that both proteins are differentially engaged upon oncogenic stress triggered by c-Myc, leading to opposing effects on tumor-free survival.

Yin H, Liu Z, Zhang A, et al.
Intracellular expression and purification of the Canstatin-N protein in Pichia pastoris.
Gene. 2012; 504(1):122-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Canstatin-N DNA fragment amplified from human genome was inserted into the MCS of pGAP9K*, an intracellular expression vector of Pichia pastoris, to generate pGAP9K*-can-N which was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. A transformant was chosen as an engineering strain from the plate containing G418 (700 μg/ml). D-sorbitol was selected as the only carbon source. The fermentation was carried out in a 50 L bioreactor at a 20 L working volume. After 48 h fermentation with continuous feeding of 25% (w/v) D-sorbitol and 0.8% PTM4, the cell grew to A(600)=178 and intracellularly expressed Canstatin-N reached 780 mg/L. Snail enzyme was combined with water to crack P. pastoris and to release intracellular proteins. The purified recombinant Canstatin-N inhibited CAM angiogenesis and induced significant apoptosis of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EVC340).

Xing YN, Liang HW, Zhao L, Xu HM
The antitumor activity of exogenous and endogenous canstatin on colorectal cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(10):2713-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy and the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the last several years, recombinant DNA technology has made cancer gene therapy feasible in the clinic. In our studies, we used both exogenous and endogenous canstatin, a type IV collagen genetically distinct product. We detected the effects of canstatin on colorectal cancer cells HCT-15 and HCT-116. DAPI staining, FCM and migration analyse were used to detect the apoptotic cells, cell cycle and mobility. As shown in the results, the apoptotic cell numbers (p<0.05) and G1 arrest cell numbers (p<0.05) were higher than in the non- treatment case. The mobility of the cells was also decreased obviously (p<0.05). Simultaneously, combination effects of exogenous and endogenous canstatin were identified.

Graziosi L, Mencarelli A, Santorelli C, et al.
Mechanistic role of p38 MAPK in gastric cancer dissemination in a rodent model peritoneal metastasis.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2012; 674(2-3):143-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peritoneal dissemination is a highly frequent complication of poorly differentiated gastric cancers for which no effective therapies are available. Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades is recognized as a causative factor in the malignant transformation of several carcinoma cell types. In the present study we provide evidence that p38 MAPK inhibition protects against gastric cancer cells dissemination in a mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Administering mice with ML3403 and SB203580, potent and selective p38 MAPK inhibitors, attenuate the formation of neoplastic foci induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of gastric cancer cells. By gene array analysis we found that such a protective effect correlates with a robust downregulation in the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4), the non-receptor spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the collagen α2(IV) (COL4A2) in neoplasic foci. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in vivo increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin and associated with a robust downregulation in the expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-1, a well defined marker of resistance to chemotherapy. In summary, p38 MAPK inhibition by a small molecule is beneficial in preventing the peritoneal dissemination of poorly differentiated gastric cancer cells by acting at multiple check-points in the process of attachment and diffusion of tumor cells in the peritoneum.

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