Gene Summary

Gene:CSMD1; CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1
Aliases: PPP1R24
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CUB and sushi domain-containing protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
CSMD1 is implicated in:
- integral to membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CSMD1 (cancer-related)

Jung AR, Eun YG, Lee YC, et al.
Clinical Significance of CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 Inactivation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the genetic alteration of CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is known to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancers, there is a lack of clinical relevance in head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to offer insight into the clinical significance of CSMD1, utilizing a multimodal approach that leverages publicly available independent genome-wide expression datasets. CSMD1-related genes were found and analyzed to examine the clinical significance of CSMD1 inactivation in the HNSCC cohort of publicly available databases. We analyzed the frequency of somatic mutations, clinicopathologic characteristics, association with immunotherapy-related gene signatures, and the pathways of gene signatures. We found 363 CSMD1-related genes. The prognosis of the CSMD1-inactivated subgroup was poor.

Kayser K, Degenhardt F, Holzapfel S, et al.
Copy number variation analysis and targeted NGS in 77 families with suspected Lynch syndrome reveals novel potential causative genes.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2800-2813 [PubMed] Related Publications
In many families with suspected Lynch syndrome (LS), no germline mutation in the causative mismatch repair (MMR) genes is detected during routine diagnostics. To identify novel causative genes for LS, the present study investigated 77 unrelated, mutation-negative patients with clinically suspected LS and a loss of MSH2 in tumor tissue. An analysis for genomic copy number variants (CNV) was performed, with subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of selected candidate genes in a subgroup of the cohort. Genomic DNA was genotyped using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress Bead Array. After quality control and filtering, 25 deletions and 16 duplications encompassing 73 genes were identified in 28 patients. No recurrent CNV was detected, and none of the CNVs affected the regulatory regions of MSH2. A total of 49 candidate genes from genomic regions implicated by the present CNV analysis and 30 known or assumed risk genes for colorectal cancer (CRC) were then sequenced in a subset of 38 patients using a customized NGS gene panel and Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide variants were identified in 14 candidate genes from the CNV analysis. The most promising of these candidate genes were: (i) PRKCA, PRKDC, and MCM4, as a functional relation to MSH2 is predicted by network analysis, and (ii) CSMD1, as this is commonly mutated in CRC. Furthermore, six patients harbored POLE variants outside the exonuclease domain, suggesting that these might be implicated in hereditary CRC. Analyses in larger cohorts of suspected LS patients recruited via international collaborations are warranted to verify the present findings.

Kamal M, Holliday DL, Morrison EE, et al.
Loss of CSMD1 expression disrupts mammary duct formation while enhancing proliferation, migration and invasion.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(1):283-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene maps to chromosome 8p23, a region deleted in many cancers. Loss of CSMD1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer suggesting that it acts as a tumour suppressor in this cancer. However, the function of CSMD1 is largely unknown. Herein, we investigated CSMD1 functions in cell line models. CSMD1 expression was suppressed in MCF10A and LNCaP cells using short hairpin RNA. Functional assays were performed focusing on the 'normal' MCF10A cell line. Suppression of CSMD1 significantly increased the proliferation, cell migration and invasiveness of MCF10A cells compared to shcontrols. shCSMD1 cells also showed significantly reduced adhesion to Matrigel and fibronectin. In a three-dimensional Matrigel model of MCF10A cells, reduced CSMD1 expression resulted in the development of larger and more poorly differentiated breast acini-like structures that displayed impaired lumen formation. Loss of CSMD1 expression disrupts a model of mammary duct formation while enhancing proliferation, migration and invasion. Our data suggest that CSMD1 is involved in the suppression of a transformed phenotype.

Gao G, Johnson SH, Vasmatzis G, et al.
Common fragile sites (CFS) and extremely large CFS genes are targets for human papillomavirus integrations and chromosome rearrangements in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(1):59-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Common fragile sites (CFS) are chromosome regions that are prone to form gaps or breaks in response to DNA replication stress. They are often found as hotspots for sister chromatid exchanges, deletions, and amplifications in different cancers. Many of the CFS regions are found to span genes whose genomic sequence is greater than 1 Mb, some of which have been demonstrated to function as important tumor suppressors. CFS regions are also hotspots for human papillomavirus (HPV) integrations in cervical cancer. We used mate-pair sequencing to examine HPV integration events and chromosomal structural variations in 34 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We used endpoint PCR and Sanger sequencing to validate each HPV integration event and found HPV integrations preferentially occurred within CFS regions similar to what is observed in cervical cancer. We also found that many of the chromosomal alterations detected also occurred at or near the cytogenetic location of CFSs. Several large genes were also found to be recurrent targets of rearrangements, independent of HPV integrations, including CSMD1 (2.1Mb), LRP1B (1.9Mb), and LARGE1 (0.7Mb). Sanger sequencing revealed that the nucleotide sequences near to identified junction sites contained repetitive and AT-rich sequences that were shown to have the potential to form stem-loop DNA secondary structures that might stall DNA replication fork progression during replication stress. This could then cause increased instability in these regions which could lead to cancer development in human cells. Our findings suggest that CFSs and some specific large genes appear to play important roles in OPSCC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Escudero-Esparza A, Bartoschek M, Gialeli C, et al.
Complement inhibitor CSMD1 acts as tumor suppressor in human breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(47):76920-76933 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is a membrane-bound complement inhibitor suggested to act as a putative tumor suppressor gene, since allelic loss of this region encompassing 8p23 including CSMD1 characterizes various malignancies. Here, we assessed the role of CSMD1 as a tumor suppressor gene in the development of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that human breast tumor tissues expressed CSMD1 at lower levels compared to that in normal mammary tissues. The decreased expression of CSMD1 was linked to a shorter overall survival of breast cancer patients. We also revealed that expression of CSMD1 in human breast cancer cells BT-20 and MDA-MB-231 significantly inhibited their malignant phenotypes, including migration, adhesion and invasion. Conversely, stable silencing of CSMD1 expression in T47D cells enhanced cancer cell migratory, adherent and clonogenic abilities. Moreover, expression of CSMD1 in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells diminished their signaling potential as well as their stem cell-like properties as assessed by measurement of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. In a xenograft model, expression of CSMD1 blocked the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to secondary sites in vivo, likely via inhibiting local invasion but not the extravasation into distant tissues. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the role of CSMD1 as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer.

Zhu Q, Gong L, Wang J, et al.
miR-10b exerts oncogenic activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting expression of CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1).
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16(1):806 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease, while the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis remain to be defined. MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of non-coding small RNAs, can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Altered miRNA expression has been reported in HCCs. This study assessed expression and the oncogenic activity of miRNA-10b (miR-10b) in HCC.
METHODS: Forty-five paired human HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected for qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of miR-10b and CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1), respectively. We analyzed the clinicopathological data from these patients to further determine if there was an association between miR-10b and CSMD1. HCC cell lines were used to assess the effects of miR-10b mimics or inhibitors on cell viability, migration, invasion, cell cycle distribution, and colony formation. Luciferase assay was used to assess miR-10b binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CSMD1.
RESULTS: miR-10b was highly expressed in HCC tissues compared to normal tissues. In vitro, overexpression of miR-10b enhanced HCC cell viability, migration, and invasion; whereas, downregulation of miR-10b expression suppressed these properties in HCC cells. Injection of miR-10b mimics into tumor cell xenografts also promoted xenograft growth in nude mice. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that CSMD1 was the target gene of miR-10b. Immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, and qRT-PCR data indicated that miR-10b decreased CSMD1 expression in HCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that miR-10b is overexpressed in HCC tissues and miR-10b mimics promoted HCC cell viability and invasion via targeting CSMD1 expression. Our findings suggest that miR-10b acts as an oncogene by targeting the tumor suppressor gene, CSMD1, in HCC.

Royer-Bertrand B, Torsello M, Rimoldi D, et al.
Comprehensive Genetic Landscape of Uveal Melanoma by Whole-Genome Sequencing.
Am J Hum Genet. 2016; 99(5):1190-1198 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare intraocular tumor that, similar to cutaneous melanoma, originates from melanocytes. To gain insights into its genetics, we performed whole-genome sequencing at very deep coverage of tumor-control pairs in 33 samples (24 primary and 9 metastases). Genome-wide, the number of coding mutations was rather low (only 17 variants per tumor on average; range 7-28), thus radically different from cutaneous melanoma, where hundreds of exonic DNA insults are usually detected. Furthermore, no UV light-induced mutational signature was identified. Recurrent coding mutations were found in the known UM drivers GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, EIF1AX, and SF3B1. Other genes, i.e., TP53BP1, CSMD1, TTC28, DLK2, and KTN1, were also found to harbor somatic mutations in more than one individual, possibly indicating a previously undescribed association with UM pathogenesis. De novo assembly of unmatched reads from non-coding DNA revealed peculiar copy-number variations defining specific UM subtypes, which in turn could be associated with metastatic transformation. Mutational-driven comparison with other tumor types showed that UM is very similar to pediatric tumors, characterized by very few somatic insults and, possibly, important epigenetic changes. Through the analysis of whole-genome sequencing data, our findings shed new light on the molecular genetics of uveal melanoma, delineating it as an atypical tumor of the adult for which somatic events other than mutations in exonic DNA shape its genetic landscape and define its metastatic potential.

Mason CC, Khorashad JS, Tantravahi SK, et al.
Age-related mutations and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(4):906-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematologic malignancy nearly confined to the elderly. Previous studies to determine incidence and prognostic significance of somatic mutations in CMML have relied on candidate gene sequencing, although an unbiased mutational search has not been conducted. As many of the genes commonly mutated in CMML were recently associated with age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH) and aged hematopoiesis is characterized by a myelomonocytic differentiation bias, we hypothesized that CMML and aged hematopoiesis may be closely related. We initially established the somatic mutation landscape of CMML by whole exome sequencing followed by gene-targeted validation. Genes mutated in ⩾10% of patients were SRSF2, TET2, ASXL1, RUNX1, SETBP1, KRAS, EZH2, CBL and NRAS, as well as the novel CMML genes FAT4, ARIH1, DNAH2 and CSMD1. Most CMML patients (71%) had mutations in ⩾2 ARCH genes and 52% had ⩾7 mutations overall. Higher mutation burden was associated with shorter survival. Age-adjusted population incidence and reported ARCH mutation rates are consistent with a model in which clinical CMML ensues when a sufficient number of stochastically acquired age-related mutations has accumulated, suggesting that CMML represents the leukemic conversion of the myelomonocytic-lineage-biased aged hematopoietic system.

Zhu Q, Gong L, Liu X, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity at D8S262: an early genetic event of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factor, multi-step, multi-gene and complicated process resulting from the accumulation of sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations. An important change among them is from precancerous lesions to HCC. However, only few studies have been reported about the sequential genetic changes during hepatocarcinogenesis.
METHODS: We observed firstly molecular karyotypes of 10 matched HCC using Affymetrix single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 arrays, and found chromosomal fragments with high incidence (more than 70%) of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Then, we selected 28 microsatellite markers at some gene spanning these chromosomal fragments, and examined the frequency of LOH of 128 matched HCC and 43 matched precancerous lesions-dysplastic nodules (DN) by a PCR-based analysis. Finally, we investigated the expression of proteins encoded by these genes in HCC, DN and the surrounding hepatic tissues.
RESULTS: The result of Affymetrix SNP6.0 arrays demonstrated that more than 70% (7/10) cases had chromosomal fragment deletion on 4q13.3-35.1, 8p23.2-21.2, 16q11.2-24.3, and 17p13.3-12. Among 28 microsatellite markers selected, LOH frequencies at D8S262 for DN and HCC were found to be the highest, 51.2% and 72.7%, respectively. Immunohistochemically, the positive rate of its adjacent gene CSMD1 in HCC, DN, and the surrounding hepatic tissues were 27.3% (35/128), 75% (33/44), and 82% (105/128), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: LOH at D8S262 may be associated with an early genetic event of hepatocarcinogenesis, and a predictor for the monitor and prevention of HCC.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1557074981159099 .

Ali Hassan NZ, Mokhtar NM, Kok Sin T, et al.
Integrated analysis of copy number variation and genome-wide expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e92553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Zhang R, Song C
Loss of CSMD1 or 2 may contribute to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4419-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
CUB and sushi multiple domain protein 1 (CSMD1) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. The three members of CSMD family have very similar structures, each consisting of 14 CUB domains separated from one another by a sushi domain, an additional uninterrupted array of sushi domains, a single transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. In this work, we aimed to study the protein and mRNA levels of the CSMD1, CSMD2, and CSMD3 and evaluate their prognostic importance in colorectal cancer. Reduced expressions of these three proteins were detected in colorectal cancer tissues by comparing matched normal tissues. Low CSMD2 expression was significantly associated with differentiation, lymphatic invasion, and tumor size. CSMD3 was associated with differentiation and lymphatic invasion. CSMD1 and CSMD2 expressions were associated with overall survival. This study offers convincing evidence for the first time that the three genes of CSMD family were downregulated in the patients with colorectal cancer and may be used as predictors of colorectal cancer.

Kuusisto KM, Akinrinade O, Vihinen M, et al.
copy number variation analysis in familial BRCA1/2-negative Finnish breast and ovarian cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71802 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited factors predisposing individuals to breast and ovarian cancer are largely unidentified in a majority of families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). We aimed to identify germline copy number variations (CNVs) contributing to HBOC susceptibility in the Finnish population.
METHODS: A cohort of 84 HBOC individuals (negative for BRCA1/2-founder mutations and pre-screened for the most common breast cancer genes) and 36 healthy controls were analysed with a genome-wide SNP array. CNV-affecting genes were further studied by Gene Ontology term enrichment, pathway analyses, and database searches to reveal genes with potential for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. CNVs that were considered to be important were validated and genotyped in 20 additional HBOC individuals (6 CNVs) and in additional healthy controls (5 CNVs) by qPCR.
RESULTS: An intronic deletion in the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase was enriched in HBOC individuals (12 of 101, 11.9%) compared with controls (27 of 432, 6.3%) (OR = 1.96; P = 0.055). EPHA3 was identified in several enriched molecular functions including receptor activity. Both a novel intronic deletion in the CSMD1 tumor suppressor gene and a homozygous intergenic deletion at 5q15 were identified in 1 of 101 (1.0%) HBOC individuals but were very rare (1 of 436, 0.2% and 1 of 899, 0.1%, respectively) in healthy controls suggesting that these variants confer disease susceptibility.
CONCLUSION: This study reveals new information regarding the germline CNVs that likely contribute to HBOC susceptibility in Finland. This information may be used to facilitate the genetic counselling of HBOC individuals but the preliminary results warrant additional studies of a larger study group.

Shull AY, Clendenning ML, Ghoshal-Gupta S, et al.
Somatic mutations, allele loss, and DNA methylation of the Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1) gene reveals association with early age of diagnosis in colorectal cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58731 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1) gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 8, codes for a type I transmembrane protein whose function is currently unknown. CSMD1 expression is frequently lost in many epithelial cancers. Our goal was to characterize the relationships between CSMD1 somatic mutations, allele imbalance, DNA methylation, and the clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer patients.
METHODS: We sequenced the CSMD1 coding regions in 54 colorectal tumors using the 454FLX pyrosequencing platform to interrogate 72 amplicons covering the entire coding sequence. We used heterozygous SNP allele ratios at multiple CSMD1 loci to determine allelic balance and infer loss of heterozygosity. Finally, we performed methylation-specific PCR on 76 colorectal tumors to determine DNA methylation status for CSMD1 and known methylation targets ALX4, RUNX3, NEUROG1, and CDKN2A.
RESULTS: Using 454FLX sequencing and confirming with Sanger sequencing, 16 CSMD1 somatic mutations were identified in 6 of the 54 colorectal tumors (11%). The nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation ratio of the 16 somatic mutations was 15:1, a ratio significantly higher than the expected 2:1 ratio (p = 0.014). This ratio indicates a presence of positive selection for mutations in the CSMD1 protein sequence. CSMD1 allelic imbalance was present in 19 of 37 informative cases (56%). Patients with allelic imbalance and CSMD1 mutations were significantly younger (average age, 41 years) than those without somatic mutations (average age, 68 years). The majority of tumors were methylated at one or more CpG loci within the CSMD1 coding sequence, and CSMD1 methylation significantly correlated with two known methylation targets ALX4 and RUNX3. C:G>T:A substitutions were significantly overrepresented (47%), suggesting extensive cytosine methylation predisposing to somatic mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Deep amplicon sequencing and methylation-specific PCR reveal that CSMD1 alterations can correlate with earlier clinical presentation in colorectal tumors, thus further implicating CSMD1 as a tumor suppressor gene.

Erben P, Nowak D, Sauer C, et al.
Molecular analysis of desmoid tumors with a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array identifies new molecular candidate lesions.
Onkologie. 2012; 35(11):684-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumors are neoplastic proliferations of connective tissues. The mutation status of the gene coding for catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1 (CTNNB1) and trisomy 8 on the chromosomal level have been described to have prognostic relevance.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to elucidate new molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors, we carried out a molecular analysis with a genome-wide human high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in 9 patients.
RESULTS: Single samples showed numerical aberrations on chromosomes (Chrs) 20 and 6 with either trisomy 20 or monosomy 6. No trisomy 8 could be detected. Recurrent heterozygous deletions were found in Chr 5q (including the APC gene locus, n = 3) and Chr 8p23 (n = 4, containing coding regions for the potential tumor suppressor gene CSMD1). This novel deletion in 8p23 showed an association with local recurrence. In addition, structural chromosomal changes (gain of Chrs 8 and 20) were found in a minority of cases.
CONCLUSION: The genomic alteration affecting the candidate gene CSMD1 could be important in the development of desmoid tumors.

Kim AH, Parker EK, Williamson V, et al.
Experimental validation of candidate schizophrenia gene ZNF804A as target for hsa-miR-137.
Schizophr Res. 2012; 141(1):60-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that mainly function as negative regulators of gene expression (Lai, 2002) and have been shown to be involved in schizophrenia etiology through genetic and expression studies (Burmistrova et al., 2007; Hansen et al., 2007a; Perkins et al., 2007; Beveridge et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2010). In a mega analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorders (BP), a polymorphism (rs1625579) located in the primary transcript of a miRNA gene, hsa-miR-137, was reported to be strongly associated with SZ. Four SZ loci (CACNA1C, TCF4, CSMD1, C10orf26) achieving genome-wide significance in the same study were predicted and later experimentally validated (Kwon et al., 2011) as hsa-miR-137 targets. Here, using in silico, cellular and luciferase based approaches we also provide evidence that another well replicated candidate schizophrenia gene, ZNF804A, is also target for hsa-miR-137.

Otte A, Göhring G, Steinemann D, et al.
A tumor-derived population (SCCOHT-1) as cellular model for a small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(2):765-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) represents an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis predominantly affecting young women and so far, no cell line or animal model is available to investigate this devastating disease. Biopsy material from a recurrent SCCOHT was subjected to an explant culture to obtain an adherent and continuously proliferating cell population. Morphological and functional characterization revealed a heterogeneous population (SCCOHT-1) of about 13 µm in diameter and approximately 36 h of doubling time. Flow cytometric analysis of surface markers demonstrated the expression of CD15, CD29, CD44 and CD90 paralleled by the presence of cytokeratins and vimentin. Cytogenetic analysis and high-resolution oligo-array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) demonstrated a stable karyotype including deletions of the PARK2, CSMD1, GRIN2B and ATF7IP genes. Following lentiviral transduction with a GFP vector, the labeled SCCOHT-derived cells were subjected to CCE to separate distinct subpopulations as evidenced by cell cycle analysis. Subcutaneous injection of these subpopulations into NOD/SCID mice exhibited hypercalcemia and a tumor development in 100% of the mice. Re-cultivation of the mouse tumors revealed an outgrowth of SCCOHT-derived phenotypes and all cell populations expressed high telomerase activity. Moreover, histopathological evaluation demonstrated close similarities between the mouse tumors and the original patient tumor. In conclusion, SCCOHT-1 cells provide a study platform to investigate this rare disease and to examine effective and sufficient therapeutic strategies for this rather unknown type of cancer.

Lang MF, Yang S, Zhao C, et al.
Genome-wide profiling identified a set of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e36248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A major challenge in cancer research field is to define molecular features that distinguish cancer stem cells from normal stem cells. In this study, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in human glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells using combined microarray and deep sequencing analyses. These studies allowed us to identify a set of 10 miRNAs that are considerably up-regulated or down-regulated in glioblastoma stem cells. Among them, 5 miRNAs were further confirmed to have altered expression in three independent lines of glioblastoma stem cells by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, two of the miRNAs with increased expression in glioblastoma stem cells also exhibited elevated expression in glioblastoma patient tissues examined, while two miRNAs with decreased expression in glioblastoma stem cells displayed reduced expression in tumor tissues. Furthermore, we identified two oncogenes, NRAS and PIM3, as downstream targets of miR-124, one of the down-regulated miRNAs; and a tumor suppressor, CSMD1, as a downstream target of miR-10a and miR-10b, two of the up-regulated miRNAs. In summary, this study led to the identification of a set of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells. Characterizing the role of these miRNAs in glioblastoma stem cells may lead to the development of miRNA-based therapies that specifically target tumor stem cells, but spare normal stem cells.

Tang MR, Wang YX, Guo S, et al.
CSMD1 exhibits antitumor activity in A375 melanoma cells through activation of the Smad pathway.
Apoptosis. 2012; 17(9):927-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this work, we studied the effects of CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 gene (CSMD1) expression in A375 melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro. CSDM1 expression decreased proliferation and migration, and increased apoptosis and G(1) arrest in A375 cells in vitro. Expression of CSDM1 in established xenografted tumors decreased tumor size and weight, and decreased the density of intratumor microvessels. The survival rate of mice with tumors expressing CSMD1 was significantly higher than mice with tumors that did not express CSDM1. These results confirm the role of CSDM1 as a tumor suppressor gene in melanoma cells. Furthermore, we found that CSMD1 can interact with Smad3, activate Smad1, Smad2, and Smad3, and increase the expression of Smad4. These results might prove helpful for the development of novel therapies for melanoma treatment.

Frau M, Simile MM, Tomasi ML, et al.
An expression signature of phenotypic resistance to hepatocellular carcinoma identified by cross-species gene expression analysis.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(3):163-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocarcinogenesis is under polygenic control. We analyzed gene expression patterns of dysplastic liver nodules (DNs) and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) chemically-induced in F344 and BN rats, respectively susceptible and resistant to hepatocarcinogenesis.
METHODS: Expression profiles were performed by microarray and validated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed two distinctive gene expression patterns, the first of which included normal liver of both strains and BN nodules, and the second one F344 nodules and HCC of both strains. We identified a signature predicting DN and HCC progression, characterized by highest expression of oncosuppressors Csmd1, Dmbt1, Dusp1, and Gnmt, in DNs, and Bhmt, Dmbt1, Dusp1, Gadd45g, Gnmt, Napsa, Pp2ca, and Ptpn13 in HCCs of resistant rats. Integrated gene expression data revealed highest expression of proliferation-related CTGF, c-MYC, and PCNA, and lowest expression of BHMT, DMBT1, DUSP1, GADD45g, and GNMT, in more aggressive rat and human HCC. BHMT, DUSP1, and GADD45g expression predicted patients' survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results disclose, for the first time, a major role of oncosuppressor genes as effectors of genetic resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis. Comparative functional genomic analysis allowed discovering an evolutionarily conserved gene expression signature discriminating HCC with different propensity to progression in rat and human.

Molenaar JJ, Koster J, Zwijnenburg DA, et al.
Sequencing of neuroblastoma identifies chromothripsis and defects in neuritogenesis genes.
Nature. 2012; 483(7391):589-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The pathogenesis has for a long time been quite enigmatic, as only very few gene defects were identified in this often lethal tumour. Frequently detected gene alterations are limited to MYCN amplification (20%) and ALK activations (7%). Here we present a whole-genome sequence analysis of 87 neuroblastoma of all stages. Few recurrent amino-acid-changing mutations were found. In contrast, analysis of structural defects identified a local shredding of chromosomes, known as chromothripsis, in 18% of high-stage neuroblastoma. These tumours are associated with a poor outcome. Structural alterations recurrently affected ODZ3, PTPRD and CSMD1, which are involved in neuronal growth cone stabilization. In addition, ATRX, TIAM1 and a series of regulators of the Rac/Rho pathway were mutated, further implicating defects in neuritogenesis in neuroblastoma. Most tumours with defects in these genes were aggressive high-stage neuroblastomas, but did not carry MYCN amplifications. The genomic landscape of neuroblastoma therefore reveals two novel molecular defects, chromothripsis and neuritogenesis gene alterations, which frequently occur in high-risk tumours.

Hogan LE, Meyer JA, Yang J, et al.
Integrated genomic analysis of relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia reveals therapeutic strategies.
Blood. 2011; 118(19):5218-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite an increase in survival for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the outcome after relapse is poor. To understand the genetic events that contribute to relapse and chemoresistance and identify novel targets of therapy, 3 high-throughput assays were used to identify genetic and epigenetic changes at relapse. Using matched diagnosis/relapse bone marrow samples from children with relapsed B-precursor ALL, we evaluated gene expression, copy number abnormalities (CNAs), and DNA methylation. Gene expression analysis revealed a signature of differentially expressed genes from diagnosis to relapse that is different for early (< 36 months) and late (≥ 36 months) relapse. CNA analysis discovered CNAs that were shared at diagnosis and relapse and others that were new lesions acquired at relapse. DNA methylation analysis found increased promoter methylation at relapse. There were many genetic alterations that evolved from diagnosis to relapse, and in some cases these genes had previously been associated with chemoresistance. Integration of the results from all 3 platforms identified genes of potential interest, including CDKN2A, COL6A2, PTPRO, and CSMD1. Although our results indicate that a diversity of genetic changes are seen at relapse, integration of gene expression, CNA, and methylation data suggest a possible convergence on the WNT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

Kamal M, Shaaban AM, Zhang L, et al.
Loss of CSMD1 expression is associated with high tumour grade and poor survival in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 121(3):555-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
CUB and SUSHI multiple domain protein 1 (CSMD1) is a candidate tumour suppressor gene that maps to chromosome 8p23, a region deleted in many tumour types including 50% of breast cancers. CSMD1 has homologies to proteins implicated in carcinogenesis. We aimed to study the expression pattern of the CSMD1 protein and evaluate its prognostic importance in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). An anti-CSMD1 antibody was developed and validated. The expression pattern of CSMD1 in normal breast and IDC samples was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 275 patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. In normal breast duct epithelial cells, luminal, membranous and cytoplasmic CSMD1 staining was identified. Reduced expression of CSMD1 was detected in 79/275 (28.7%) of IDC cases. Low CSMD1 expression was significantly associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.003). CSMD1 expression was associated with overall survival (OS; HR = 0.607, 95%CI: 0.4-0.91, P = 0.018) but not with disease-free survival (DFS; HR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.46-1.43, P = 0.48). Multivariate analysis showed that CSMD1, together with Nottingham Prognostic Index, was considered an independent predictor of OS (HR = 0.607, 95%CI: 0.4-0.91, P = 0.018) but not DFS (HR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.46-1.5, P = 0.573). Reduction of CSMD1 expression was significantly associated with high tumour grade and decreased OS. Therefore, our results support the idea that CSMD1 is a tumour suppressor gene and suggest its possible use as a new prognostic biomarker. The membrane expression pattern of CSMD1 suggests that it may be a receptor or co-receptor involved in the process of signal transduction.

Beuten J, Gelfond JA, Martinez-Fierro ML, et al.
Association of chromosome 8q variants with prostate cancer risk in Caucasian and Hispanic men.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(8):1372-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genotyping of a 615 kb region within 8q24 with 49 haplotype-tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2109 samples (797 cases and 1312 controls) of two ethnic/racial groups found SNPs that are significantly associated with the risk for prostate cancer (PCa). The highest significance in Caucasian men was found for rs6983267; the AA genotype reduced the risk for PCa [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.35-0.65, P = 2.74 x 10(-6)]. This SNP also had a significant independent effect from other SNPs in the region in this group. In Hispanic men, rs7837328 and rs921146 showed independent effects (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51-4.31, P = 4.33 x 10(-4), OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.40-3.12, P = 3.13 x 10(-4), respectively). Significant synergist effects for increasing numbers of high-risk alleles were found in both ethnicities. Haplotype analysis revealed major haplotypes, containing the non-risk alleles, conferred protection against PCa. We found high linkage disequilibrium between significant SNPs within the region and SNPs within the CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 gene (CSMD1), on the short arm of chromosome 8 in both ethnicities. These data suggest that multiple interacting SNPs within 8q24, as well as different regions on chromosome 8 far beyond this 8q24 candidate region, may confer increased risk of PCa. This is the first report to investigate the involvement of 8q24 variants in the susceptibility for PCa in Hispanic men.

Kuo KT, Guan B, Feng Y, et al.
Analysis of DNA copy number alterations in ovarian serous tumors identifies new molecular genetic changes in low-grade and high-grade carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(9):4036-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common and lethal type of ovarian cancer, is thought to develop from two distinct molecular pathways. High-grade (HG) serous carcinomas contain frequent TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade (LG) carcinomas arise from serous borderline tumors (SBT) and harbor mutations in KRAS/BRAF/ERBB2 pathway. However, the molecular alterations involved in the progression from SBT to LG carcinoma remain unknown. In addition, the extent of deletion of tumor suppressors in ovarian serous carcinomas has not been well studied. To further address these two issues, we assessed DNA copy number changes among affinity-purified tumor cells from 37 ovarian serous neoplasms including SBT, LG, and HG tumors using high-density 250K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Chromosomal instability index as measured by changes in DNA copy number was significantly higher in HG than in LG serous carcinomas. Hemizygous ch1p36 deletion was common in LG serous carcinomas but was rarely seen in SBT. This region contains several candidate tumor suppressors including miR-34a. In contrast, in HG serous carcinomas, significant numbers of amplifications and deletions, including homozygous deletions, were identified. Among homozygous deletions, loci containing Rb1, CDKN2A/B, CSMD1, and DOCK4 were most common, being present in 10.6%, 6.4%, 6.4%, and 4.3%, respectively, in independent 47 affinity-purified HG serous carcinomas. Except for the CDKN2A/B region, these homozygous deletions were not present in either SBT or LG tumors. Our study provides a genome-wide homozygous deletion profile in HG serous carcinomas, which can serve as a molecular foundation to study tumor suppressors in ovarian cancer.

Sheffer M, Bacolod MD, Zuk O, et al.
Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: a genomic exploration of colorectal cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106(17):7131-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
During disease progression the cells that comprise solid malignancies undergo significant changes in gene copy number and chromosome structure. Colorectal cancer provides an excellent model to study this process. To indentify and characterize chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer, we performed a statistical analysis of 299 expression and 130 SNP arrays profiled at different stages of the disease, including normal tissue, adenoma, stages 1-4 adenocarcinoma, and metastasis. We identified broad (> 1/2 chromosomal arm) and focal (< 1/2 chromosomal arm) events. Broad amplifications were noted on chromosomes 7, 8q, 13q, 20, and X and broad deletions on chromosomes 4, 8p, 14q, 15q, 17p, 18, 20p, and 22q. Focal events (gains or losses) were identified in regions containing known cancer pathway genes, such as VEGFA, MYC, MET, FGF6, FGF23, LYN, MMP9, MYBL2, AURKA, UBE2C, and PTEN. Other focal events encompassed potential new candidate tumor suppressors (losses) and oncogenes (gains), including CCDC68, CSMD1, POLR1D, and PMEPA1. From the expression data, we identified genes whose expression levels reflected their copy number changes and used this relationship to impute copy number changes to samples without accompanying SNP data. This analysis provided the statistical power to show that deletions of 8p, 4p, and 15q are associated with survival and disease progression, and that samples with simultaneous deletions in 18q, 8p, 4p, and 15q have a particularly poor prognosis. Annotation analysis reveals that the oxidative phosphorylation pathway shows a strong tendency for decreased expression in the samples characterized by poor prognosis.

Ma C, Quesnelle KM, Sparano A, et al.
Characterization CSMD1 in a large set of primary lung, head and neck, breast and skin cancer tissues.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2009; 8(10):907-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains-1 (CSMD1) is a tumor suppressor gene on 8p23.2, where allelic loss is both frequent and associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To understand the extent of CSMD1 aberrations in vivo, we characterized 184 primary tumors from the head and neck, lung, breast and skin for gene copy number and analyzed expression in our HNSCCs and lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). We detected loss of CSMD1 in a large proportion of HNSCCs (50%), lung (46%) and breast cancers (55%), and to a lesser extent in cutaneous SCCs (29%) and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, 17%) using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Studying the region more closely with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the loss of CSMD1 increased to 80% in HNSCCs and 93% in lung SCCs. CSMD1 expression was decreased in tumors compared to adjacent benign tissue (65%, 13/20) and was likely due to gene loss in 45% of cases (9/20). We also identified truncated transcripts lacking exons due to DNA copy number loss (30%, 5/17) or aberrant splicing (24%, 4/17). We show loss of CSMD1 in primary HNSCC tissues, and document for the first time that CSMD1 is lost in breast, lung and cutaneous SCCs. We also show that deletions of CSMD1 and aberrant splicing contribute to altered CSMD1 function in vivo.

Midorikawa Y, Yamamoto S, Tsuji S, et al.
Allelic imbalances and homozygous deletion on 8p23.2 for stepwise progression of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology. 2009; 49(2):513-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) originates from the hepatocytes of chronic liver disease and develops into classical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To identify sequential genetic changes in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, we analyzed molecular karyotypes using oligonucleotide genotyping 50K arrays. First, 1q21.3-44 gain and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p36.21-36.32 and 17p13.1-13.3 were frequently observed in eHCC, but not in chronic liver diseases, suggesting that such chromosomal aberrations are early, possibly causative events in liver cancer. Next, we detected 25 chromosomal loci associated with liver cancer progression in five HCCs with nodule-in-nodule appearance, in which the inner nodule develops within eHCC lesion. Using these chromosomal regions as independent variables, decision tree analysis was applied on 14 early and 25 overt HCCs, and extracted combination of chromosomal gains on 5q11.1-35.3 and 8q11.1-24.3 and LOH on 4q11-34.3 and 8p11.21-23.3 as distinctive attributes, which can classify early and overt HCCs recursively. In these four altered regions identified as late events of hepatocarcinogenesis, two tumors in 32 overt HCCs analyzed in the present study and one in a set of independent samples of 36 overt HCCs in our previous study harbored a homozygous deletion near the CSMD1 locus on 8p23.2. CSMD1 messenger RNA expression was decreased in HCC without 8p23.2 deletion, possibly due to hypermethylation of the CpG islands in its promoter region.
CONCLUSION: 1q gain and 1p and 17p LOH are early molecular events, whereas gains in 5q and 8q and LOH on 4q and 8p only occur in advanced HCC, and inactivation of the putative suppressor gene, CSMD1, may be the key event in progression of liver cancer.

Farrell C, Crimm H, Meeh P, et al.
Somatic mutations to CSMD1 in colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2008; 7(4):609-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The short arm of chromosome 8 is frequently deleted in advanced human colorectal cancers, suggesting the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes having a major role in tumor progression and metastasis. Comprehensive sequencing of over 18,000 genes in colon and breast cancers identified somatic mutations in CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 Gene (CSMD1)which is located on the p arm of chromosome 8. In this report, we describe a novel, robust, high-throughput gene mutation profiling strategy based on massively parallel picotiter plate pyrosequencing and have used this approach to identify additional somatic mutations to CSMD1 in early and late stage colorectal cancers. Using this strategy, we identified five nonsynonymous somatic mutations in CSMD1 among 26 colorectal cancers. Interestingly, these mutations occurred predominantly in advanced colorectal tumors,suggesting a role for CSMD1 in the development of late-stage metastatic disease.

Hornstein M, Hoffmann MJ, Alexa A, et al.
Protein phosphatase and TRAIL receptor genes as new candidate tumor genes on chromosome 8p in prostate cancer.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2008 Mar-Apr; 5(2):123-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Allelic losses on chromosome 8p are common in prostate carcinoma, but it is not known exactly how they contribute to cancer development and progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 12 genes located across chromosome 8p, including established tumor suppressor candidates (CSMD1, DLC1, NKX3.1), and others from a new microarray-based comparison was studied by quantitative RT-PCR in 45 M0 prostate carcinomas and 13 benign prostate tissues.
RESULTS: Significantly reduced expression was observed for two protein phosphatase subunit genes (PPP2CB, PPP3CC) and two TRAIL decoy receptors (TNFRSF10C/DcR1, TNFRSF10D/DcR2), but not for the three established candidates nor for TRAIL death receptor genes. Low expression of PPP3CC and TNFRSF10C located at 8p21.3 was highly significantly associated with tumor recurrence. In addition to allele loss, down-regulation of TNFRSF10C and TNFRSF10D was found to be associated with hypermethylation, although bisulfite sequencing usually revealed it to be partial.
CONCLUSION: Our data strongly support a recent proposal that a segment at 8p21.3 contains crucial prostate cancer tumor suppressors. In addition, they raise the paradoxical issue of why TRAIL decoy receptors rather than death receptors are down-regulated in aggressive prostate cancer.

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