Gene Summary

Gene:DAB2; DAB2, clathrin adaptor protein
Aliases: DOC2, DOC-2
Summary:This gene encodes a mitogen-responsive phosphoprotein. It is expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cells, but is down-regulated or absent from ovarian carcinoma cell lines, suggesting its role as a tumor suppressor. This protein binds to the SH3 domains of GRB2, an adaptor protein that couples tyrosine kinase receptors to SOS (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras), via its C-terminal proline-rich sequences, and may thus modulate growth factor/Ras pathways by competing with SOS for binding to GRB2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disabled homolog 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (37)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Signal Transduction
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • beta Catenin
  • DAB2
  • Cancer DNA
  • RNA Interference
  • Breast Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Disease Progression
  • Chromosome 5
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Carcinoma
  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • MicroRNAs
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Transfection
  • Apoptosis
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Epigenetics
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • DNA Methylation
  • Serine Endopeptidases
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DAB2 (cancer-related)

Wang P, Henning SM, Magyar CE, et al.
Green tea and quercetin sensitize PC-3 xenograft prostate tumors to docetaxel chemotherapy.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with docetaxel (Doc) remains the standard treatment for metastatic and castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the clinical success of Doc is limited by its chemoresistance and side effects. This study investigated whether natural products green tea (GT) and quercetin (Q) enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Doc in CRPC in mouse models.
METHODS: Male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (n = 10 per group) were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. When tumors were established the intervention started. Mice were administered with GT + Q, Doc 5 mg/kg (LD), GT + Q + LD Doc, Doc 10 mg/kg (HD) or control. The concentration of GT polyphenols in brewed tea administered as drinking water was 0.07% and Q was supplemented in diet at 0.4%. Doc was intravenously injected weekly for 4 weeks, GT and Q given throughout the study.
RESULTS: GT + Q or LD Doc slightly inhibited tumor growth compared to control. However, the combination of GT and Q with LD Doc significantly enhanced the potency of Doc 2-fold and reduced tumor growth by 62% compared to LD Doc in 7-weeks intervention. A decrease of Ki67 and increase of cleaved caspase 7 were observed in tumors by the mixture, along with lowered blood concentrations of growth factors like VEGF and EGF. The mixture significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressor mir15a and mir330 in tumor tissues. An increased risk of liver toxicity was only observed with HD Doc treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect of Doc in a less toxic manner.

Cheng Y, Guo Y, Zhang Y, et al.
MicroRNA-106b is involved in transforming growth factor β1-induced cell migration by targeting disabled homolog 2 in cervical carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-106b (miR-106b) was recently identified as an oncogene participating in cancer progression. Transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1) is an indispensable cytokine regulating the local microenvironment, thereby promoting cervical cancer progression. However, the roles of miR-106b in cervical carcinoma progression and TGF-β1-involvement in the tumorigenesis of cervical cancer remain unknown.
METHODS: The expression of miR-106b in human cervical specimens was detected by real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization assay. The effect of miR-106b on cell migration was analyzed by scratch and transwell assays. TGF-β1 was used to induce cell migration. The expression of the miR-106b target gene DAB2 in human cervical tissues and cell lines were measured by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify DAB2 as a miR-106b-directed target gene.
RESULTS: miR-106b was frequently up-regulated in human cervical carcinoma specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. Over-expression of miR-106b significantly promoted HeLa and SiHa cells migration. Likewise, inhibition of miR-106b decreased HeLa and SiHa cells migration. The multifunctional cytokine TGF-β facilitates metastasis in cervical carcinoma. miR-106b inhibitor treatment decreased the TGF-β1-stimulated migration of HeLa and SiHa cells. DAB2, a predicted target gene of miR-106b, was inhibited by TGF-β1 partly through miR-106b and was involved in TGF-β1-induced cervical cancer cell migration. The expression of DAB2 was low in cervical cancer tissues, and negatively correlated with miR-106b expression. Finally, DAB2 was identified as a miR-106b-directed target gene by dual-luciferase reporter assay.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the TGF-β1/miR-106b/DAB2 axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

Liu L, Xu C, Hsieh JT, et al.
DAB2IP in cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):3766-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DOC-2/DAB2 is a member of the disable gene family that features tumor-inhibiting activity. The DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein, DAB2IP, is a new member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein family. It interacts directly with DAB2 and has distinct cellular functions such as modulating different signal cascades associated with cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and metastasis. Recently, DAB2IP has been found significantly down regulated in multiple types of cancer. The aberrant alteration of DAB2IP in cancer is caused by a variety of mechanisms, including the aberrant promoter methylation, histone deacetylation, and others. Reduced expression of DAB2IP in neoplasm may indicate a poor prognosis of many malignant cancers. Moreover, DAB2IP stands for a promising direction for developing targeted therapies due to its capacity to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we summarize the present understanding of the tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in cancer progression; the mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of DAB2IP; the gene functional mechanism and the prospects of DAB2IP in the future cancer research.

Xie Y, Zhang Y, Jiang L, et al.
Disabled homolog 2 is required for migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells.
Front Med. 2015; 9(3):312-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disabled homolog 2 (DAB2) is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in many human cancer cells. Therefore, DAB2 has always been regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the role of DAB2 in tumor progression and metastasis remains unclear. In this study, DAB2 expression was upregulated along with human prostate cancer (PCa) progression. DAB2 overexpression or knockdown effects in LNCaP and PC3 cell lines were verified to address the biological functions of DAB2 in PCa progression and metastasis. LNCaP and PC3 cell lines were generated from human PCa cells with low and high metastatic potentials, respectively. The results showed that DAB2 shRNA knockdown can inhibit the migratory and invasive abilities of PC3 cells, as well as the tumorigenicity, whereas DAB2 overexpression enhanced LNCaP cell migration and invasion. Further investigation showed that DAB2 regulated the cell migration associated genes in PC3 cells, and the differential DAB2 expression between LNCaP and PC3 cells was partly regulated by histone 4 acetylation. Therefore, DAB2 may play an important role in PCa progression and metastasis.

Xu YF, Mao YP, Li YQ, et al.
MicroRNA-93 promotes cell growth and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting disabled homolog-2.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(2):146-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated to contribute to malignant progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We previously reported that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in NPC based on a microarray analysis. However, the potential role and mechanism of action of miR-93 in the initiation and progression of NPC remain largely unknown. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in NPC cell lines and clinical specimens. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, anchorage-independent growth, and Transwell migration and invasion assays showed that depletion of miR-93 inhibited NPC cell growth, invasion and migration in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Disabled homolog-2 (Dab2) was verified as a miR-93 target gene using Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting and was involved in miR-93-regulated NPC cell growth, invasion and migration. These results indicated that miR-93 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of NPC by targeting Dab2 and the miR-93/Dab2 pathway may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for NPC in the future.

Westcott JM, Prechtl AM, Maine EA, et al.
An epigenetically distinct breast cancer cell subpopulation promotes collective invasion.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(5):1927-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cells can engage in a process called collective invasion, in which cohesive groups of cells invade through interstitial tissue. Here, we identified an epigenetically distinct subpopulation of breast tumor cells that have an enhanced capacity to collectively invade. Analysis of spheroid invasion in an organotypic culture system revealed that these "trailblazer" cells are capable of initiating collective invasion and promote non-trailblazer cell invasion, indicating a commensal relationship among subpopulations within heterogenous tumors. Canonical mesenchymal markers were not sufficient to distinguish trailblazer cells from non-trailblazer cells, suggesting that defining the molecular underpinnings of the trailblazer phenotype could reveal collective invasion-specific mechanisms. Functional analysis determined that DOCK10, ITGA11, DAB2, PDFGRA, VASN, PPAP2B, and LPAR1 are highly expressed in trailblazer cells and required to initiate collective invasion, with DOCK10 essential for metastasis. In patients with triple-negative breast cancer, expression of these 7 genes correlated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate that spontaneous conversion of the epigenetic state in a subpopulation of cells can promote a transition from in situ to invasive growth through induction of a cooperative form of collective invasion and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of trailblazer cell invasion may help prevent metastasis.

Li C, Chen J, Chen T, et al.
Aberrant Hypermethylation at Sites -86 to 226 of DAB2 Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Am J Med Sci. 2015; 349(5):425-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is now the leading cause of malignant tumor-related deaths worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases. Human Disabled-2 (DAB2) was reported to act as a tumor suppressor gene and was found downregulated in numerous cancer types. However, the expression of DAB2 in NSCLC and the mechanism of DAB2 expression regulation remain unclear.
METHODS: DAB2 expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot in 20 paired primary NSCLC tissues and corresponding normal lung tissues. Immunohistochemistry assay was performed in paired NSCLC tissues from another 20 patients. Methylation status of DAB2 promoter was analyzed using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: DAB2 messenger RNA level was significantly lower in NSCLC tissues than normal tissues in 95.0% of the group of patients under investigation. In addition, NSCLC tissues showed a significant reduction in DAB2 protein when compared with normal tissues. Importantly, 85% of NSCLC tissues (17/20) had high methylation in DAB2 promoter when compared with normal tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: DAB2 expression is decreased in NSCLC, and the frequent methylation event at sites -86 to 226 of the DAB2 gene could contribute to the downregulation of DAB2.

Zhang T, Shen Y, Chen Y, et al.
The ATM inhibitor KU55933 sensitizes radioresistant bladder cancer cells with DAB2IP gene defect.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2015; 91(4):368-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Our preliminary results showed that differentially expressed in ovarian cancer-2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interactive protein (DAB2IP), a putative tumor suppressor gene, is down-regulated in bladder cancer (BCa) with aggressive phenotypes. In this study, we investigated how DAB2IP knockdown influenced BCa cell response to ionizing radiation (IR) and discussed possible ways to enhance cell radiosensitivity.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The small interfering RNA (siRNA) system was implemented to inhibit endogenous DAB2IP expression in two human BCa cell lines, T24 and 5637. Cell sensitivity to IR alone or combined treatment was measured by a colony formation assay (CFA). Western blot was used to determine the phosphorylation levels of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and related DNA damage repair (DDR) proteins. Immunofluorescence as well as a flow cytometry assay were employed to detect DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and cell cycle distribution, respectively.
RESULTS: DAB2IP-knockdown of BCa cells (i.e., siDAB2IP) exhibit increased clonogenic survival in response to IR compared with control cells (i.e., siCON) expressing an endogenous level of DAB2IP. The mechanism in siDAB2IP cells could be explained by elevated ATM expression and activation, increased S phase cell distribution as well as faster DSB repair kinetics. 2-morpholin-4-yl-6-thianthren-1-yl-pyran-4-one (KU55933) significantly sensitized siDAB2IP cells to IR due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of ATM and its downstream targets following IR and slower DSB repair kinetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of DAB2IP expression in BCa cells signifies their radioresistance. KU55933, which suppresses ATM phosphorylation upon irradiation, could be applied in the radiotherapy of BCa patients with a DAB2IP gene defect.

Schimmer BP, Cordova M
Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 408:5-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

Gao S, Bajrami I, Verrill C, et al.
Dsh homolog DVL3 mediates resistance to IGFIR inhibition by regulating IGF-RAS signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5866-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drugs that inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFI) receptor IGFIR were encouraging in early trials, but predictive biomarkers were lacking and the drugs provided insufficient benefit in unselected patients. In this study, we used genetic screening and downstream validation to identify the WNT pathway element DVL3 as a mediator of resistance to IGFIR inhibition. Sensitivity to IGFIR inhibition was enhanced specifically in vitro and in vivo by genetic or pharmacologic blockade of DVL3. In breast and prostate cancer cells, sensitization tracked with enhanced MEK-ERK activation and relied upon MEK activity and DVL3 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that DVL3 is present in an adaptor complex that links IGFIR to RAS, which includes Shc, growth factor receptor-bound-2 (Grb2), son-of-sevenless (SOS), and the tumor suppressor DAB2. Dual DVL and DAB2 blockade synergized in activating ERKs and sensitizing cells to IGFIR inhibition, suggesting a nonredundant role for DVL3 in the Shc-Grb2-SOS complex. Clinically, tumors that responded to IGFIR inhibition contained relatively lower levels of DVL3 protein than resistant tumors, and DVL3 levels in tumors correlated inversely with progression-free survival in patients treated with IGFIR antibodies. Because IGFIR does not contain activating mutations analogous to EGFR variants associated with response to EGFR inhibitors, we suggest that IGF signaling achieves an equivalent integration at the postreceptor level through adaptor protein complexes, influencing cellular dependence on the IGF axis and identifying a patient population with potential to benefit from IGFIR inhibition.

Lai CH, Chang CS, Liu HH, et al.
Sensitization of radio-resistant prostate cancer cells with a unique cytolethal distending toxin.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(14):5523-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) produced by Campylobacter jejuni is a genotoxin that induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in mammalian cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that prostate cancer (PCa) cells can acquire radio-resistance when DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) is downregulated. In this study, we showed that CDT could induce cell death in DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells. A combination of CDT and radiotherapy significantly elicited cell death in DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells by inhibiting the repair of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) during G2/M arrest, which is triggered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. We also found that CDT administration significantly increased the efficacy of radiotherapy in a xenograft mouse model. These results indicate that CDT can be a potent therapeutic agent for radio-resistant PCa.

Dai X, North BJ, Inuzuka H
Negative regulation of DAB2IP by Akt and SCFFbw7 pathways.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3307-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), is a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein involved in coordinately regulating cell proliferation, survival and apoptotic pathways. DAB2IP is epigenetically down-regulated in a variety of tumors through the action of the histone methyltransferase EZH2. Although DAB2IP is transcriptionally down-regulated in a variety of tumors, it remains unclear if other mechanisms contribute to functional inactivation of DAB2IP. Here we demonstrate that DAB2IP can be functionally down-regulated by two independent mechanisms. First, we identified that Akt1 can phosphorylate DAB2IP on S847, which regulates the interaction between DAB2IP and its effector molecules H-Ras and TRAF2. Second, we demonstrated that DAB2IP can be degraded in part through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by SCF(Fbw7). DAB2IP harbors two Fbw7 phosho-degron motifs, which can be regulated by the kinase, CK1δ. Our data hence indicate that in addition to epigenetic down-regulation, two additional pathways can functional inactivate DAB2IP. Given that DAB2IP has previously been identified to possess direct causal role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data indicate that a variety of pathways may pass through DAB2IP to govern cancer development, and therefore highlight DAB2IP agonists as potential therapeutic approaches for future anti-cancer drug development.

Eskova A, Knapp B, Matelska D, et al.
An RNAi screen identifies KIF15 as a novel regulator of the endocytic trafficking of integrin.
J Cell Sci. 2014; 127(Pt 11):2433-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
α2β1 integrin is one of the most important collagen-binding receptors, and it has been implicated in numerous thrombotic and immune diseases. α2β1 integrin is a potent tumour suppressor, and its downregulation is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Currently, very little is known about the mechanism that regulates the cell-surface expression and trafficking of α2β1 integrin. Here, using a quantitative fluorescence-microscopy-based RNAi assay, we investigated the impact of 386 cytoskeleton-associated or -regulatory genes on α2 integrin endocytosis and found that 122 of these affected the intracellular accumulation of α2 integrin. Of these, 83 were found to be putative regulators of α2 integrin trafficking and/or expression, with no observed effect on the internalization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transferrin. Further interrogation and validation of the siRNA screen revealed a role for KIF15, a microtubule-based molecular motor, as a significant inhibitor of the endocytic trafficking of α2 integrin. Our data suggest a novel role for KIF15 in mediating plasma membrane localization of the alternative clathrin adaptor Dab2, thus impinging on pathways that regulate α2 integrin internalization.

Xu S, Zhu J, Wu Z
Loss of Dab2 expression in breast cancer cells impairs their ability to deplete TGF-β and induce Tregs development via TGF-β.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91709 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dab2 is a multifunctional adapter protein which is frequently under-expressed in a variety of cancers. It is implicated in many critical functions, including several signaling pathways, cell arrangement, differentiation of stem cells, and receptor endocytosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a secreted multifunctional protein that controls several developmental processes and pathogenesis of many diseases. It has been documented that Dab2 played an important role in TGF-β receptors endocytosis. Here, we present evidence that re-expression of Dab2 in SK-BR-3 cell partially restored its ability to deplete TGF-β in surrounding medium by normalizing the trafficking of TGF-β receptors. We also demonstrate that the difference in TGF-β depletions produced by Dab2 expression was sufficient to impact on the conversion of naive CD4+ T cells to regulatory T cells (Tregs), and thus inhibited the proliferation of T cells. This work revealed a critical result that breast cancer cell was deficient in Dab2 expression and related receptor endocytosis-mediated TGF-β depletion, which may contribute to the accumulation of TGF-β in tumor microenvironment and the induction of immune tolerance.

Zhang Z, Chen Y, Xie X, Tang J
The expression of disabled-2 is common reduced in meningiomas.
Neurol India. 2014 Jan-Feb; 62(1):57-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Disabled-2 (Dab2) is frequently down-regulated in several types of cancers. We examined the expression level of Dab2 in human meningiomas and meningioma cells, aimed to investigate its role in the oncogenesis and development of meningiomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analysis was employed to detect Dab2 expression in 90 fresh tissues of meningiomas, 10 leptomeninges and two kinds of human malignant meningioma cell lines. Independent samples t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson Chi-square test and likelihood ratio test were used to analyze the expression level of Dab2 and its relations to clinic-pathological characteristics of meningiomas.
RESULTS: Dab2 was significantly down-regulated in classic meningiomas than the atypical or anaplastic meningiomas. The reduced or loss of expression of Dab2 were significantly correlated with the lower classification of meningiomas and negatively correlated with the invasive ability of adjacent tissues. Furthermore, it was reduced or lost in malignant meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee and KT21-MG1). The lower classification of meningiomas correlated with previous comorbidities; not with the gender, age of patients and smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Dab2 is expressed at variable level in meningiomas with different grade of malignancy and probably plays a pivotal role in the early stage of oncogenesis of malignant meningiomas.

Lau A, Kollara A, St John E, et al.
Altered expression of inflammation-associated genes in oviductal cells following follicular fluid exposure: implications for ovarian carcinogenesis.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014; 239(1):24-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence indicates that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) may originate from lesions within the distal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). Our previous studies indicate that fallopian tube epithelial cells from carriers of germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes exhibit a pro-inflammatory gene expression signature during the luteal phase, suggesting that delayed resolution of postovulatory inflammatory signaling may contribute to predisposition to this ovarian cancer histotype. To determine whether exposure of tubal epithelial cells to periovulatory follicular fluid alters expression of inflammation-associated genes, we used an ex vivo culture system of bovine oviductal epithelial cells. Oviductal cells grown on collagen IV-coated transwell membranes assumed a cobblestone appearance and immunocytochemistry for FoxJ1 and Pax8 indicated that both ciliated and secretory epithelial cells were maintained in the cultures. Oviductal cells were exposed to human follicular fluid or culture medium for 24 h following which total cellular RNA was extracted at various time points. Expression of genes associated with inflammation was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Exposure to follicular fluid transiently increased the transcript levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), and decreased the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2), and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL6 levels were also decreased while those of nicotinomide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were unaffected. This study demonstrates that periovulatory follicular fluid can act directly upon oviductal epithelial cells to alter gene expression that might contribute to early carcinogenic events. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the potential use of bovine oviductal cells to study signaling events implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Yan ZX, Wu LL, Xue K, et al.
MicroRNA187 overexpression is related to tumor progression and determines sensitivity to bortezomib in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):880-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in tumorigenesis by regulating tumor suppressor genes and/or oncogenes. MiR187 was overexpressed in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) and associated with high Ki67 expression, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, advanced International Prognostic Index and poor prognosis of patients. In vitro, ectopic expression of miR187 in T-lymphoma cell lines accelerated tumor cell proliferation, whereas treatment with miR187 inhibitor reduced cell growth. MiR187 downregulated tumor suppressor gene disabled homolog-2 (Dab2), decreased the interaction of Dab2 with adapter protein Grb2, resulting in Ras activation, phosphorylation/activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT, and subsequent stabilization of MYC oncoprotein. MiR187-overexpressing cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and gemcitabine, but sensitive to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Bortezomib inhibited T-lymphoma cell proliferation by downregulating miR187, dephosphorylating ERK and AKT and degrading MYC. In a murine xenograft model established with subcutaneous injection of Jurkat cells, bortezomib particularly retarded the growth of miR187-overexpressing tumors, consistent with the downregulation of miR187, Ki67 and MYC expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that miR187 was related to tumor progression in PTCL-NOS through modulating Ras-mediated ERK/AKT/MYC axis. Although potentially oncogenic, miR187 indicated the sensitivity of T-lymphoma cells to bortezomib. Cooperatively targeting ERK and AKT could be a promising clinical strategy in treating MYC-driven lymphoid malignancies.

González CA, Sala N, Rokkas T
Gastric cancer: epidemiologic aspects.
Helicobacter. 2013; 18 Suppl 1:34-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A multifactorial and multistep model of gastric cancer (GC) is currently accepted, according to which different environmental and genetic factors are involved at different stages in the cancer process. The aim of this article is to review the most relevant information published on the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Large meta-analyses confirmed the association between IL8, IL10, TNF-b, TP53 and PSCA, while genetic variation at different genes such as XPG, PLCE1, HFE, ERCC5, EZH2, DOC2, CYP19A1, ALDH2, and CDH1 have been reported to be associated with GC risk. Several microRNAs have also been associated with GC and their prognosis. Cohort studies have shown the association between GC and fruit, flavonoid, total antioxidant capacity, and green tea intake. Obesity was associated with cardia GC, heme iron intake from meat with GC risk. Several large meta-analyses have confirmed the positive association of GC with salt intake and pickled foods and the negative association with aspirin use.

Du L, Zhao Z, Ma X, et al.
miR-93-directed downregulation of DAB2 defines a novel oncogenic pathway in lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(34):4307-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The disabled homolog 2 (DAB2) gene was recently identified as a tumor suppressor gene with its expression downregulated in multiple cancer types. The role of DAB2 in lung tumorigenesis, however, is not fully characterized, and the mechanisms of DAB2 dysregulation in lung cancer are not defined. Here we show that low DAB2 levels in lung tumor specimens are significantly correlated with poor patient survival, and that DAB2 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth in cultured lung cancer cells, indicating its potent tumor suppressor function. We next identify that microRNA miR-93 functions as a potent repressor of DAB2 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of the DAB2 mRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that miR-93 overexpression has an important role in promoting lung cancer cell growth, and that its oncogenic function is primarily mediated by downregulating DAB2 expression. Our clinical investigations further indicate that high tumor levels of miR-93 are correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. The correlations of both low DAB2 and high miR-93 expression levels with poor patient survival strongly support the critical role of the miR-93/DAB2 pathway in determining lung cancer progression.

Xie XM, Zhang ZY, Yang LH, et al.
Aberrant hypermethylation and reduced expression of disabled-2 promote the development of lung cancers.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1636-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disabled-2 (Dab2) is considered a tumor suppressor and is downregulated in cancers. We examined the promoter methylation status and expression levels of Dab2, and investigated their roles in the development of lung cancers. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to analyze the methylation status of Dab2 in 100 lung cancer tissues. The cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of the Dab2 protein was determined using western blot analysis. Demethylation treatment using 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) was performed in three lung cancer cell lines. Dab2 expression was upregulated by Dab2 transfection or interrupted by Dab2 siRNA in lung cancer cells. Proliferative and invasive ability tests were performed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTS) and a Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The methylation rate of Dab2 was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared to normal lung tissues. Dab2 methylation correlated with the reduced nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Dab2, as well as the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis of lung cancers. Treatment with 5-Aza-dC was able to eliminate the hypermethylation of Dab2, enhance Dab2 expression, and inhibit β-catenin expression, and the proliferative and invasive ability of lung cancer cells. Upregulation of Dab2 expression reduced β-catenin expression and proliferation and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. However, interruption of Dab2 expression induced the opposite results. Dab2 methylation is common in lung cancers, and is one of the most important factors responsible for the reduced expression of Dab2. Aberrant hypermethylation and reduced expression of Dab2 promote the development of lung cancers.

Yang J, Du X
Genomic and molecular aberrations in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and their roles in personalized target therapy.
Surg Oncol. 2013; 22(3):e53-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are malignant tumors with a high rate of local recurrence and a significant tendency to metastasize. Its dismal outcome points to the urgent need to establish better therapeutic strategies for patients harboring MPNSTs. The investigations of genomic and molecular aberrations in MPNSTs which detect many chromosomal aberrations, pathway abnormalities, and specific molecular aberrant events would supply multiple potential therapy targets and contribute to achievement of personalized medicine. The involved genes in the significant gains aberrations include BIRC5, CCNE2, DAB2, DDX15, EGFR, DAB2, MSH2, CDK6, HGF, ITGB4, KCNK12, LAMA3, LOXL2, MET, and PDGFRA. The involved genes in the significant deletion aberrations include CDH1, GLTSCR2, EGR1, CTSB, GATA3, SULT2A1, GLTSCR2, HMMR/RHAMM, LICAM2, MMP13, p16/INK4a, RASSF2, NM-23H1, and TP53. These genetic aberrations involve in several important signaling pathways such as TFF, EGFR, ARF, IGF1R signaling pathways. The genomic and molecular aberrations of EGFR, IGF1R, SOX9, EYA4, TOP2A, ETV4, and BIRC5 exhibit great promise as personalized therapeutic targets for MPNST patients.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Yu L, Tumati V, Tseng SF, et al.
DAB2IP regulates autophagy in prostate cancer in response to combined treatment of radiation and a DNA-PKcs inhibitor.
Neoplasia. 2012; 14(12):1203-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiation therapy (RT) is an effective strategy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa) as well as local invasion. However, some locally advanced cancers develop radiation resistance and recur after therapy; therefore, the development of radiation-sensitizing compounds is essential for treatment of these tumors. DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP), which is a novel member of the Ras-GTPase activating protein family and a regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt activity, is often downregulated in aggressive PCa. Our previous studies have shown that loss of DAB2IP results in radioresistance in PCa cells primarily because of accelerated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair kinetics, robust G(2)/M checkpoint control, and evasion of apoptosis. A novel DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 can significantly enhance the effect of radiation in DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells. This enhanced radiation sensitivity after NU7441 treatment is primarily due to delayed DNA DSB repair. More significantly, we found that DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells show dramatic induction of autophagy after treatment with radiation and NU7441. However, restoring DAB2IP expression in PCa cells resulted in decreased autophagy-associated proteins, such as LC3B and Beclin 1, as well as decreased phosphorylation of S6K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, the presence of DAB2IP in PCa cells can lead to more apoptosis in response to combined treatment of NU7441 and ionizing radiation. Taken together, NU7441 is a potent radiosensitizer in aggressive PCa cells and DAB2IP plays a critical role in enhancing PCa cell death after combined treatment with NU7441 and radiation.

Xu S, Zhou Y, Du WD, et al.
Association of the variant rs2243421 of human DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein gene (hDAB2IP) with gastric cancer in the Chinese Han population.
Gene. 2013; 515(1):200-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (hDAB2IP) gene is a novel member of the Ras GTPase-activating family and has been demonstrated to be a tumor-suppressor gene that inhibits cell survival and proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. It was reported that the expression level of hDAB2IP in gastric cancer tissue was highly correlated with tumor progression, however, whether hDAB2IP genetic variants are associated with the risk of gastric cancer remains yet unknown. In this case-control study, we conducted a genetic analysis for hDAB2IP variants in 311 patients with gastric cancer and 425 controls from the Chinese Han population. We found that the SNP rs2243421 of hDAB2IP gene with the minor allele C significantly revealed strong association with decreased gastric cancer susceptibility (P=0.007, adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.734, 95%CI=0.586-0.919). Haplotypes rs2243421 and rs10985332 (HaploType: CC, P=0.012, aOR=0.760) and haplotypes rs2243421 and rs555996 (HaploType: CG, P=0.034, aOR=0.788) represented the decreased risk of gastric cancer, respectively. On the contrary, rs2243421 and rs555996 showed an elevated susceptibility (HaploType: TG, P=0.010, aOR=1.320). Our results for the first time provided new insight into susceptibility factors of hDAB2IP gene variants in carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.

Preet R, Mohapatra P, Das D, et al.
Lycopene synergistically enhances quinacrine action to inhibit Wnt-TCF signaling in breast cancer cells through APC.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(2):277-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that quinacrine (QC) has anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of QC and its ability to inhibit Wnt-TCF signaling in two independent breast cancer cell lines. QC altered Wnt-TCF signaling components by increasing the levels of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), DAB2, GSK-3β and axin and decreasing the levels of β-catenin, p-GSK3β (ser 9) and CK1. QC also reduced the activity of the Wnt transcription factor TCF/LEF and its downstream targets cyclin D1 and c-MYC. Using a luciferase-based Wnt-TCF transcription factor assay, it was shown that APC levels were inversely associated with TCF/LEF activity. Induction of apoptosis and DNA damage was observed after treatment with QC, which was associated with increased expression of APC. The effects induced by QC depend on APC because the inhibition of Wnt-TCF signaling by QC is lost in APC-knockdown cells, and consequently, the extent of apoptosis and DNA damage caused by QC is reduced compared with parental cells. Because we previously showed that QC inhibits topoisomerase, we examined the effect of another topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, on Wnt signaling. Interestingly, etoposide treatment also reduced TCF/LEF activity, β-catenin and cyclin D1 levels commensurate with induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. Lycopene, a plant-derived antioxidant, synergistically increased QC activity and inhibited Wnt-TCF signaling in cancer cells without affecting the MCF-10A normal breast cell line. Collectively, the data suggest that QC-mediated Wnt-TCF signal inhibition depends on APC and that the addition of lycopene synergistically increases QC anticancer activity.

Xu HT, Xie XM, Li QC, et al.
Atonal homolog 1 expression in lung cancer correlates with inhibitors of the Wnt pathway as well as the differentiation and primary tumor stage.
APMIS. 2013; 121(2):111-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is crucial to the differentiation of many cell types and participates in tumorigenesis and progression. This study investigated the role of Atoh1 in lung cancer development and its correlation with key members of the Wnt pathway. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expressions of Atoh1, β-catenin, Axin, chibby, and Disabled-2 (Dab2) in 118 samples of lung cancer. We also detected the cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of Atoh1 in lung cancer tissues using western blot. Atoh1 nuclear expression was negatively correlated with differentiation level (p = 0.004) and primary tumor stage (p = 0.044) of lung cancer. Nuclear Atoh1 expression was positively correlated with nuclear expression of chibby (p < 0.001) and Dab2 (p < 0.001). Cytoplasmic Atoh1 expression was positively correlated with the cytoplasmic expression of Axin (p = 0.028), chibby (p < 0.001), and Dab2 (p < 0.001). We conclude that the nuclear expression of Atoh1 was inversely correlated with the differentiation and primary tumor stage of lung cancers. The expression and localization of Atoh1 correlated with Axin, chibby, or Dab2. Atoh1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of growth and progression of lung cancers.

Dang X, Ma A, Yang L, et al.
MicroRNA-26a regulates tumorigenic properties of EZH2 in human lung carcinoma cells.
Cancer Genet. 2012; 205(3):113-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-23 nucleotide RNA molecules that play critical roles in the regulation of various cancers, including human lung cancer. Among them, miR-26a has been identified as a tumor-related regulator in several cancers, but its pathophysiologic properties and correlation with the development of human lung cancer remain unclear. In this study, it was determined that miR-26a expression is clearly down-regulated in human lung cancer tissues relative to normal tissues. Meanwhile, the overexpression of miR-26a in the A549 human lung cancer cell line dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, blocked G1/S phase transition, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell metastasis and invasion in vitro. In contrast, a miR-26a inhibitor was used to transfect A549 cells, and the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted cell metastasis and invasion. In addition, miR-26a expression inhibited the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and transactivated downstream target genes, including disabled homolog 2 (Drosophila) interacting protein gene (DAB2IP) and human Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which suggests that EZH2 is a potential target of miR-26a as previously reported. In conclusion, miR-26a plays an important role as an anti-oncogene in the molecular mechanism of human lung cancer and could potentially be used for the treatment of lung cancer.

Zhang X, Li N, Li X, et al.
Low expression of DAB2IP contributes to malignant development and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 27(6):1117-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein gene (DAB2IP) is a novel member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein family and plays a tumor suppressive role in cancer progression, but its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This aims of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of DAB2IP expression in HCC, and to determine the effect of DAB2IP on HCC cell behaviors in vitro.
METHODS: The expression of DAB2IP was detected in hepatocyte cell line and HCC cell lines by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. DAB2IP expression was then examined in 120 cases of clinical paraffin-embedded HCC tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC). 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method and in vitro invasive assay were finally performed to evaluate the effect of DAB2IP depletion on cell proliferation or invasion of HCC cells.
RESULTS: DAB2IP expression was lower in HCC cell lines or tissues than in hepatocyte cell lines, adjacent cirrhotic livers or normal livers (P < 0.05). Its expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.01). Patients with lower DAB2IP expression had shorter overall survival time (P = 0.013). DAB2IP suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells in vitro.
CONCLUSION: DAB2IP is a valuable marker for progression of HCC patients. Downregulation of DAB2IP is associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. DAB2IP silence alone is sufficient to promote HCC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro.

Yang L, Li Y, Ling X, et al.
A common genetic variant (97906C>A) of DAB2IP/AIP1 is associated with an increased risk and early onset of lung cancer in Chinese males.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26944 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) is a novel identified tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and facilitates cell apoptosis. One genetic variant in DAB2IP gene was reported to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer recently. Since DAB2IP involves in the development of lung cancer and low expression of DAB2IP are observed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that the variations in DAB2IP gene can increase the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. In a case-control study of 1056 lung cancer cases and 1056 sex and age frequency-matched cancer-free controls, we investigated the association between two common polymorphisms in DAB2IP gene (-1420T>G, rs7042542; 97906C>A, rs1571801) and the risk of lung cancer. We found that compared with the 97906CC genotypes, carriers of variant genotypes (97906AC+AA) had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04-1.70, P = 0.023) and the number of variant (risk) allele worked in a dose-response manner (P(trend) = 0.0158). Further stratification analysis showed that the risk association was more pronounced in subjects aged less than 60 years old, males, non-smokers, non-drinkers, overweight groups and in those with family cancer history in first or second-degree relatives, and the 97906A interacted with overweight on lung cancer risk. We further found the number of risk alleles (97906A allele) were negatively correlated with early diagnosis age of lung cancer in male patients (P = 0.003). However, no significant association was observed on the -1420T>G polymorphism. Our data suggested that the 97906A variant genotypes are associated with the increased risk and early onset of lung cancer, particularly in males.

Boulkroun S, Samson-Couterie B, Golib-Dzib JF, et al.
Aldosterone-producing adenoma formation in the adrenal cortex involves expression of stem/progenitor cell markers.
Endocrinology. 2011; 152(12):4753-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) is the most common form of surgically curable hypertension. To further understand mechanisms involved in APA formation, we investigated the expression of molecules linked to adrenal stem/precursor cells [β-catenin, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), CD56], and nuclear receptors that play key roles in adrenocortical development and function steroidogenic factor 1, dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1) in six control adrenal glands and 14 adrenals with APA and compared their expression with that of specific markers of zona glomerulosa (ZG) [CYP11B2, Disabled 2 (Dab2)]. Both Dab2 and CD56 were expressed in ZG. Although Dab2 associates uniquely with differentiated ZG cells and its expression is lost when cells transdifferentiate to zona fasciculata (ZF) cells, CD56 was also expressed in ZF and in aldosterone-producing cell clusters, confirming that these structures possess an intermediate phenotype between ZG and ZF cells. Shh was barely detectable in cells located to the outer part of the ZG in the control adrenal; in contrast, its expression was detected in the entire APA and was dramatically increased in the hyperplastic peritumoral ZG. Transcriptome profiling revealed differential expression of components of Shh signaling pathway in a subgroup of APA. Similarly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in the majority of APA as well as in the entire peritumoral adrenal cortex; however, no mutation was identified in the CTNNB1 gene that could account for β-catenin activation. Our data suggest that both APA and adjacent ZG present characteristics of stem/precursor cells; the reexpression of genes involved in fetal adrenal development could underlie excessive ZG cell proliferation and APA formation.

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