Gene Summary

Gene:DDR2; discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2
Aliases: TKT, WRCN, MIG20a, NTRKR3, TYRO10
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the discoidin domain receptor subclass of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) protein family. RTKs play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. The encoded protein is a collagen-induced receptor that activates signal transduction pathways involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. This protein is expressed in numerous cell types and may alos be involved in wound repair and regulate tumor growth and invasiveness. Mutations in this gene are the cause of short limb-hand type spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:discoidin domain-containing receptor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DDR2 (cancer-related)

Deng L, Liu G, Zheng C, et al.
Circ-LAMP1 promotes T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma progression via acting as a ceRNA for miR-615-5p to regulate DDR2 expression.
Gene. 2019; 701:146-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) act as pivotal functions in tumor progression. Nevertheless, the functions and mechanism of circRNAs in T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) remain unclear. In this work, we first screened the differentially expressed circRNAs between T-LBL tissues and normal infantile thymus and circ-LAMP1 was identified the highest expressed circRNA in cancerous tissues. qRT-PCR further verified its upregulation in T-LBL tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) experiment proved the cell proliferation-promoting role of circ-LAMP1. This effect is partially dependent on its inhibition on cell apoptosis proved by flow cytometric assay. Dual-luciferase reporter system further identified that miR-615-5p could be sponged by circ-LAMP1 and discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2) 3'-UTR is the direct target of miR-615-5p. Rescue assays demonstrated that the biological function of circ-LAMP1 is partly attributed to the modulation of miR-615-5p/DDR2 signaling. In summary, these findings documented that circ-LAMP1 might be an oncogene in T-LBL, which might be useful in developing promising therapies for T-LBL.

Quaas A, Heydt C, Waldschmidt D, et al.
Alterations in ERBB2 and BRCA and microsatellite instability as new personalized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinomas of the small bowel are rare tumors usually with dismal prognosis. Most recently, some potentially treatable molecular alterations were described. We emphasize the growing evidence of individualized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
METHODS: We performed a DNA- based multi-gene panel using ultra-deep sequencing analysis (including 14 genes with up to 452 amplicons in total; KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, DDR2, ERBB2, KEAP1, NFE2L2, PIK3CA, PTEN, RHOA, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53) as well as an RNA-based gene fusion panel including ALK, BRAF, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, MET, NRG1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, RET and ROS1 on eleven formalin fixed and paraffin embedded small bowel carcinomas. Additionally, mismatch-repair-deficiency was analyzed by checking the microsatellite status using the five different mononucleotide markers BAT25, BAT26, NR-21, NR-22 and NR-27 and loss of mismatch repair proteins using four different markers (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2).
RESULTS: In five out of eleven small bowel carcinomas we found potentially treatable genetic alterations. Three patients demonstrated pathogenic (class 5) BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations - one germline-related in a mixed neuroendocrine-non neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Two additional patients revealed an activating ERBB2 mutation or PIK3CA mutation. Furthermore two tumors were highly microsatellite-instable (MSI-high), in one case associated to Lynch-syndrome. We did not find any gene fusions.
CONCLUSION: Our results underscore, in particular, the relevance of potentially treatable molecular alterations (like ERBB2, BRCA and MSI) in small bowel carcinomas. Further studies are needed to proof the efficacy of these targeted therapies in small bowel carcinomas.

Smolle MA, Kashofer K, Riedl JM, et al.
Genetic Analysis Using a Gene Panel in 87 Caucasian Patients With Colorectal Cancer: Own Results and Review of Literature.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):847-852 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. The prognosis between left- and right-sided CRC differs, partly due to baseline differences as vascular supply. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there are genetic differences between left- and right-sided CRC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with CRC (mean age: 61 years) were retrospectively included in the study. Blood samples were used for genetic analysis, by applying the sequencing research panel Ion AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer Research Panel V2. Statistical analyses included Chi-square tests, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and univariate/multivariate Cox-regression analyses.
RESULTS: By testing the sequence of 22 genes included in the panel, a significant difference was detected between left- and right-sided CRC regarding the expression of BRAF and DDR2 genes, with mutations occurring more often in the right-sided CRC. In the multivariate setting, left-sided CRC only turned out as a significant positive prognostic parameter regarding progression-free survival, irrespective of the type of chemotherapy or BRAF and NRAS mutations.
CONCLUSION: Tumour location was the only parameter proven to be an independent prognostic factor for CRC in the present study.

Gao XH, Yu GY, Hong YG, et al.
Clinical significance of multiple gene detection with a 22-gene panel in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 207 colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(2):141-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous detection of multiple molecular biomarkers is helpful in the prediction of treatment response and prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: A 22-gene panel consisting of 103 hotspot regions was utilized in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 207 CRC patients, using the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multiplex PCR technique. Those 22 genes included AKT1, ALK, BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, STK11, and TP53.
RESULTS: Of the 207 patients, 193 had one or more variants, with 170, 20, and 3 having one, two, and three mutated genes, respectively. Of the total 414 variants identified in this study, 384, 25, and 5 were single-nucleotide variants, deletion, and insertion. The top four frequently mutated genes were TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. There was high consistency between the results of NGS-PCR technique and routine ARMS-PCR in KRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that advanced TNM stage, elevated serum CEA, total variants number ≥ 2, AKT1 and PTEN mutation were independent predictors of shorter DFS; poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, total variants number ≥ 2, BRAF, CTNNB1 and NRAS mutation were independent predictors of shorter OS.
CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to detect multiple gene mutations with a 22-gene panel in FFPE CRC specimens. TNM stage and total variants number ≥ 2 were independent predictors of DFS and OS. Detection of multiple gene mutations may provide additional prognostic information to TNM stage in CRC patients.

Youssef O, Knuuttila A, Piirilä P, et al.
Hotspot Mutations Detectable by Next-generation Sequencing in Exhaled Breath Condensates from Patients with Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5627-5634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations occurring in lung cancer are the basis for defining molecular subtypes and essential for targeted therapies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a form of non-invasive sample that, amongst components, contains DNA from pulmonary tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was herein used to analyze mutations in EBC from patients with lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBC was collected from 26 patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls. Amplicon-based sequencing using Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer gene panel v2 was applied.
RESULTS: The sequencing was successful in 17 patients and 20 controls. EBC from patients revealed 39 hotspot mutations occurring in: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4), F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), met proto-oncogene (MET), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), ret proto-oncogene (RET), SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes. EBC from controls revealed 35 hotspot mutations. The average mutant allele fraction was higher in patients than controls.
CONCLUSION: NGS can identify mutations in EBCs from patients with lung cancer. This could provide a promising non-invasive method for the assessment of gene mutations in lung cancer.

Olson N, Rouhi O, Zhang L, et al.
A novel case of an aggressive superficial spindle cell sarcoma in an adult resembling fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and harboring an EML4-NTRK3 fusion.
J Cutan Pathol. 2018; 45(12):933-939 [PubMed] Related Publications
A subset of soft tissue sarcomas often harbors recurrent fusions involving protein kinases. While some of these fusion events have shown utility in arriving at a precise diagnosis, novel fusions in otherwise difficult to classify sarcomas continue to be identified. We present a case of a 40-year-old female who noted a lower back nodule in 2010 that was initially labeled as a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with fibrosarcomatous transformation. The lesion recurred the following year and metastasized to the groin 6 years later. Because of some morphologic peculiarities, molecular characterization was pursued in the metastatic focus, which revealed the neoplasm was negative for the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion. However, anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction for targeted next-generation sequencing (Archer Dx) detected an EML4-NTRK3 fusion, which was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, Sanger sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis of the recurrent and metastatic specimens. Although various soft tissue neoplasms involving fusions with NTRK genes are well-reported, the current case could not be easily classified in any of the established entities. Nevertheless, it raises interesting questions regarding the importance of classification, prognosis, and treatment for some of these tyrosine kinase fusion-driven sarcomas.

Fathi Z, Mousavi SAJ, Roudi R, Ghazi F
Distribution of KRAS, DDR2, and TP53 gene mutations in lung cancer: An analysis of Iranian patients.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is the deadliest known cancer in the world, with the highest number of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of hotspot regions in DDR2 and KRAS genes for the first time, as well as in TP53 gene, in lung cancer patients within the Iranian population.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The mutations in exon 2 of KRAS, exon 18 of DDR2, and exons 5-6 of TP53 genes were screened in lung cancer samples, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) using PCR and sequencing techniques.
RESULTS: Analysis of the KRAS gene showed only a G12C variation in one large cell carcinoma (LCC) patient, whereas variants were not found in adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. The Q808H variation in the DDR2 gene was detected in one SCC sample, while no variant was seen in the ADC and LCC subtypes. Variations in the TP53 gene were seen in all NSCLC subtypes, including six ADC (13.63%), seven SCC (15.9%) and two LCC (4.54%). Forty-eight variants were found in the TP53 gene. Of these, 15 variants were found in coding regions V147A, V157F, Q167Q, D186G, H193R, T211T, F212L and P222P, 33 variants in intronic regions rs1625895 (HGVS: c.672+62A>G), rs766856111 (HGVS: c.672+6G>A) and two new variants (c.560-12A>G and c.672+86T>C).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, KRAS, DDR2, and TP53 variants were detected in 2%, 2.17% and 79.54% of all cases, respectively. The frequency of DDR2 mutation is nearly close to other studies, while KRAS and TP53 mutation frequencies are lower and higher than other populations, respectively. Three new putative pathogenic variants, for the first time, have been detected in Iranian patients with lung cancer, including Q808H in DDR2, F212L, and D186G in coding regions of TP53. In addition, we observed five novel benign variants, including Q167Q, P222P and T211T in coding sequence, and c.560-12A>G and c.672+86T>C, in intronic region of TP53. Mutations of KRAS and DDR2 were found in LCC and SCC subtypes, respectively, whereas mutations of TP53 were seen in SCC and ADC subtypes with higher frequencies and LCC subtype with lower frequency. Therefore, Iranian lung cancer patients can benefit from mutational analysis before starting the conventional treatment. A better understanding of the biology of these genes and their mutations will be critical for developing future targeted therapies.

Millares L, Barreiro E, Cortes R, et al.
Tumor-associated metabolic and inflammatory responses in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: Local patterns and prognostic significance.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 122:124-130 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed in early stage and surgically-treated have five-year mortality rate >20%. The identification of biomarkers able to predict progression and death may help to identify patients needing closer follow-up.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort of early-stage surgically-treated NSCLC patients enrolled in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging Project was created, and tissue Microarrays (TMAs) were constructed with tumor and non-tumor lung tissue. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) proteins (transketolase [TKT] and transketolase-like 1 [TKTL1]), inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin 1 beta [IL1β], nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NFκB]-p65 and antigen Ki-67), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL1) were measured by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were included in the study (n = 199). TKT and TKTL1 were significantly higher in ADC than in non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). Higher values were also observed in NSCLC for all the inflammatory markers, with figures >30% above those of non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). PDL1 analysis showed a higher percentage of positivity in ADC than in non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling confirmed that high IL1β level in tumor tissue was independently associated with 3-year mortality in NSCLC [HR = 2.05, 95% CI (1.1-3.7), p = 0.019], a relationship driven by ADC subtype.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms an increase in metabolic activity and an inflammatory response in tumor tissue of early stage NSCLC, and a significant relationship between high levels of IL1β in the tumor and poor prognosis in ADC.

Velmurugan BK, Chang WH, Chung CM, et al.
DDR2 overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma is associated to lymph node metastasis.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(4):747-753 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), a collagen receptor tyrosine kinase, play a major role in cancer progression. DDR2 has been suggested as a prognostic marker in several cancer types; however, the correlation between DDR2 expression and clinical outcome of oral cancer patients in Taiwan population has not been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study we sought to determine the clinical significance of Discoidin Domain Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (DDR2) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. We examined DDR2 expression in OSCC specimens by immunohistochemistry and then we analyzed the association of DDR2 expression with clinicopathological factors in OSCC.
RESULTS: We divided 254 OSCC cases into two groups based on DDR2 expression levels and compared with several clinicopathological factors and their overall survival. The group with high DDR2 expression had significantly higher frequencies of lymph node metastasis (P= 0.0094) and AJCC stage (P= 0.0058) compared to the group with low DDR2 expression. Furthermore, the lymph node metastasis oral cancer patients with high DDR2 expression had low survival rate than low DDR2 group (P= 0.0458).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that DDR2 is a potent biomarker that can be used as an effective therapeutic target for treating OSCC patients with lymph node metastasis.

VandenBoom T, Quan VL, Zhang B, et al.
Genomic Fusions in Pigmented Spindle Cell Nevus of Reed.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(8):1042-1051 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent molecular studies of spitzoid neoplasms have identified mutually exclusive kinase fusions involving ROS1, ALK, RET, BRAF, NTRK1, MET, and NTRK3 as early initiating genomic events. Pigmented spindle cell nevus (PSCN) of Reed is a morphologic variant of Spitz and may be very diagnostically challenging, having histologic features concerning for melanoma. Their occurrence in younger patients, lack of association to sun exposure, and rapid early growth phase similar to Spitz nevi suggest fusions may also play a significant role in these lesions. However, to date, there is little data in the literature focused on the molecular characterization of PSCN of Reed with next-generation sequencing. We analyzed a total of 129 melanocytic neoplasms with RNA sequencing including 67 spitzoid neoplasms (10 Spitz nevi, 44 atypical Spitz tumors, 13 spitzoid melanomas) and 23 PSCN of Reed. Although only 2 of 67 (3.0%) of spitzoid lesions had NTRK3 fusions, 13 of 23 (57%) of PSCN of Reed harbored NTRK3 fusions with 5' partners ETV6 (12p13) in 2 cases and MYO5A (15q21) in 11 cases. NTRK3 fusions were confirmed with a fluorescent in situ hybridization break-apart probe. The presence of a NTRK3 fusion correlated with younger age (P=0.021) and adnexal extension (P=0.001). Other minor fusions identified in PSCN of Reed included MYO5A-MERTK (2), MYO5A-ROS1, MYO5A-RET, and ETV6-PITX3 leading to a total of 78% with fusions. Our study suggests that the majority of PSCN of Reed are the result of genomic fusions, and the most frequent and characteristic genomic aberration is an NTRK3 fusion.

Berning P, Schaefer C, Clemens D, et al.
The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor (AMD3100) promotes proliferation of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and activates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CXCR4 receptor antagonist plerixafor (AMD3100) is raising interest as an anti-cancer agent that disrupts the CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine - receptor interaction between neoplastic cells and their microenvironment in tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we investigated plerixafor for anti-cancer activity in Ewing sarcoma, a rare and aggressive cancer of bone and soft tissues.
METHODS: We used a variety of methods such as cell viability and migration assays, flow cytometry, phospho-tyrosine arrays and western blotting to determine plerixafor effects on five characterized Ewing sarcoma cell lines and a low-passage culture in vitro.
RESULTS: Unexpectedly, plerixafor led to an increase in cell viability and proliferation in standard cell growth conditions, and to chemotactic migration towards plerixafor. Exploring potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, we found that Ewing sarcoma cell lines divided into classes of high- and low-level CXCR4 surface expression. Proliferative plerixafor responses were observed in both groups, maintained despite significant CXCR4 down-regulation or inhibition of Gαi-protein signal transduction, and involved activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (DDR2, MERTK, MST1R, NTRK1, RET), the most prominent being platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB). PDGFRB was activated in response to inhibition of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis by plerixafor and/or pertussis toxin (Gαi-protein inhibitor). Dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor of both PDGFRB and the CXCR4 downstream kinase SRC, counteracted this activation in some but not all cell lines.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest a feedback interaction between the CXCR4 chemokine receptor and RTK signaling cascades that elicits compensatory cell survival signaling and can shift the net effect of plerixafor towards proliferation. PDGFRB was identified as a candidate driver RTK and potential therapeutic co-target for CXCR4 in Ewing sarcoma. Although as yet limited to in vitro studies, these findings call for further investigation in the cancer - microenvironment interplay in vivo.

Rada M, Nallanthighal S, Cha J, et al.
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) mediate collagen type XI alpha 1-driven cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(35):4809-4820 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although, cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the precise mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance are not fully understood. Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), a gene encoding a minor fibrillar collagen of the extracellular matrix, is identified as one of the most upregulated genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer. However, the exact functions of COL11A1 in cisplatin resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that COL11A1 binds to integrin α1β1 and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) and activates downstream signaling pathways to inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that COL11A1 activates Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB signaling to induce the expression of three inhibitor apoptosis proteins (IAPs), including XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3 is sufficient to restore cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of COL11A1 in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mouse models, respectively. We also show that the components of COL11A1- integrin α1β1/DDR2- Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB-IAP signaling pathway serve as poor prognosis markers in ovarian cancer patients. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which COL11A1 confers cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Our study also uncovers IAPs as promising therapeutic targets to reduce cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, particularly in recurrent ovarian cancer expressing high levels of COL11A1.

Lezcano C, Shoushtari AN, Ariyan C, et al.
Primary and Metastatic Melanoma With NTRK Fusions.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(8):1052-1058 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A number of oncogenic driver mutations have been identified in melanocytic nevi and melanoma, but translocations also play a role in tumorigenesis and provide potential therapeutic targets for malignant lesions. Various translocations, such as those involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1), and NTRK3 have been reported in spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms leading to kinase-fusion proteins that result in immunohistochemically detectable ALK or NTRK expression. We have previously reported that ALK expression can be found in nonspitzoid primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas. In this study we report that nonspitzoid metastasizing melanomas of adults may also harbor NTRK fusions and that NTRK expression can be immunohistochemically detected in these tumors. Of 751 melanomas analyzed by next-generation sequencing, 4 metastatic melanomas were identified with NTRK fusions, 3 involving NTRK1, 1 involving NTRK2. They occurred in 3 women and 1 man. Two of the corresponding primary tumors were from the trunk, 1 from an extremity and 1 tumor arose in anal skin. One primary tumor displayed features of superficial spreading melanoma and 3 were nodular melanomas. All tumors were cytologically characterized by the presence of large epithelioid melanocytes. All tumors were immunoreactive with anti-Trk antibody. Next-generation sequencing documented that the NTRK1 fusion partners included TRIM63, DDR2, and GON4L. One tumor harbored an NTRK2-TRAF2 fusion. Thus, our findings document that NTRK kinase fusions can occur in nonspitzoid metastasizing melanomas of adults. The presence of an NTRK family fusion in these tumors may provide a therapeutic opportunity in a small subset of patients with metastatic melanoma.

Labgaa I, Villacorta-Martin C, D'Avola D, et al.
A pilot study of ultra-deep targeted sequencing of plasma DNA identifies driver mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(27):3740-3752 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular components of solid tumors including DNA are released into the bloodstream, but data on circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still scarce. This study aimed at analyzing mutations in cfDNA and their correlation with tissue mutations in patients with HCC. We included 8 HCC patients treated with surgical resection for whom we collected paired tissue and plasma/serum samples. We analyzed 45 specimens, including multiregional tumor tissue sampling (n = 24), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC, n = 8), plasma (n = 8) and serum (n = 5). Ultra-deep sequencing (5500× coverage) of all exons was performed in a targeted panel of 58 genes, including frequent HCC driver genes and druggable mutations. Mutations detected in plasma included known HCC oncogenes and tumor suppressors (e.g., TERT promoter, TP53, and NTRK3) as well as a candidate druggable mutation (JAK1). This approach increased the detection rates previously reported for mutations in plasma of HCC patients. A thorough characterization of cis mutations found in plasma confirmed their tumoral origin, which provides definitive evidence of the release of HCC-derived DNA fragments into the bloodstream. This study demonstrates that ultra-deep sequencing of cfDNA is feasible and can confidently detect somatic mutations found in tissue; these data reinforce the role of plasma DNA as a promising minimally invasive tool to interrogate HCC genetics.

Laetsch TW, DuBois SG, Mascarenhas L, et al.
Larotrectinib for paediatric solid tumours harbouring NTRK gene fusions: phase 1 results from a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 study.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(5):705-714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene fusions involving NTRK1, NTRK2, or NTRK3 (TRK fusions) are found in a broad range of paediatric and adult malignancies. Larotrectinib, a highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of the TRK kinases, had shown activity in preclinical models and in adults with tumours harbouring TRK fusions. This study aimed to assess the safety of larotrectinib in paediatric patients.
METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 study was done at eight sites in the USA and enrolled infants, children, and adolescents aged 1 month to 21 years with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours or CNS tumours that had relapsed, progressed, or were non-responsive to available therapies regardless of TRK fusion status; had a Karnofsky (≥16 years of age) or Lansky (<16 years of age) performance status score of 50 or more, adequate organ function, and full recovery from the acute toxic effects of all previous anticancer therapy. Following a protocol amendment on Sept 12, 2016, patients with locally advanced infantile fibrosarcoma who would require disfiguring surgery to achieve a complete surgical resection were also eligible. Patients were enrolled to three dose cohorts according to a rolling six design. Larotrectinib was administered orally (capsule or liquid formulation), twice daily, on a continuous 28-day schedule, in increasing doses adjusted for age and bodyweight. The primary endpoint of the phase 1 dose escalation component was the safety of larotrectinib, including dose-limiting toxicity. All patients who received at least one dose of larotrectinib were included in the safety analyses. Reported here are results of the phase 1 dose escalation cohort. Phase 1 follow-up and phase 2 are ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02637687.
FINDINGS: Between Dec 21, 2015, and April 13, 2017, 24 patients (n=17 with tumours harbouring TRK fusions, n=7 without a documented TRK fusion) with a median age of 4·5 years (IQR 1·3-13·3) were enrolled to three dose cohorts: cohorts 1 and 2 were assigned doses on the basis of both age and bodyweight predicted by use of SimCyp modelling to achieve an area under the curve equivalent to the adult doses of 100 mg twice daily (cohort 1) and 150 mg twice daily (cohort 2); and cohort 3 was assigned to receive a dose of 100 mg/m
INTERPRETATION: The TRK inhibitor larotrectinib was well tolerated in paediatric patients and showed encouraging antitumour activity in all patients with TRK fusion-positive tumours. The recommended phase 2 dose was defined as 100mg/m
FUNDING: Loxo Oncology Inc.

Bonaparte E, Pesenti C, Fontana L, et al.
Molecular profiling of lung cancer specimens and liquid biopsies using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of predictive molecular alterations in lung adenocarcinoma is essential for accurate therapeutic decisions. Although several molecular approaches are available, a number of issues, including tumor heterogeneity, frequent material scarcity, and the large number of loci to be investigated, must be taken into account in selecting the most appropriate technique. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), which allows multiplexed genotyping, has been adopted in routine diagnostics as a sensitive, reliable, fast, and cost-effective method. Our aim was to test the reliability of this approach in detecting targetable mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, we also analyzed low-quality samples, such as cytologic specimens, that often, are the unique source of starting material in lung cancer cases, to test the sensitivity of the system.
METHODS: We designed a MS-based assay for testing 158 mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, PIK3CA, ERBB2, DDR2, AKT, and MEK1 genes and applied it to 92 NSCLC specimens and 13 liquid biopsies from another subset of NSCLC patients. We also tested the sensitivity of the method to distinguish low represented mutations using serial dilutions of mutated DNA.
RESULTS: Our panel is able to detect the most common NSCLC mutations and the frequency of the mutations observed in our cohort was comparable to literature data. The assay identifies mutated alleles at frequencies of 2.5-10%. In addition, we found that the amount of DNA template was irrelevant to efficiently uncover mutated alleles present at high frequency. However, when using less than 10 ng of DNA, the assay can detect mutations present in at least 10% of the alleles. Finally, using MS and a commercial kit for RT-PCR we tested liquid biopsy from 13 patients with identified mutations in cancers and detected the mutations in 4 (MS) and in 5 samples (RT-PCR).
CONCLUSIONS: MS is a powerful method for the routine predictive tests of lung cancer also using low quality and scant tissues. Finally, after appropriate validation and improvement, MS could represent a promising and cost-effective strategy for monitoring the presence and percentage of the mutations also in non-invasive sampling.

Grither WR, Divine LM, Meller EH, et al.
TWIST1 induces expression of discoidin domain receptor 2 to promote ovarian cancer metastasis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(13):1714-1729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mesenchymal gene program has been shown to promote the metastatic progression of ovarian cancer; however, specific proteins induced by this program that lead to these metastatic behaviors have not been identified. Using patient derived tumor cells and established human ovarian tumor cell lines, we find that the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition inducing factor TWIST1 drives expression of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that recognizes fibrillar collagen as ligand. The expression and action of DDR2 was critical for mesothelial cell clearance, invasion and migration in ovarian tumor cells. It does so, in part, by upregulating expression and activity of matrix remodeling enzymes that lead to increased cleavage of fibronectin and spreading of tumor cells. Additionally, DDR2 stabilizes SNAIL1, allowing for sustained mesenchymal phenotype. In patient derived ovarian cancer specimens, DDR2 expression correlated with enhanced invasiveness. DDR2 expression was associated with advanced stage ovarian tumors and metastases. In vivo studies demonstrated that the presence of DDR2 is critical for ovarian cancer metastasis. These findings indicate that the collagen receptor DDR2 is critical for multiple steps of ovarian cancer progression to metastasis, and thus, identifies DDR2 as a potential new target for the treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer.

Raspollini MR, Montagnani I, Montironi R, et al.
Intratumoural heterogeneity may hinder precision medicine strategies in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(5):467-471 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an heterogeneous tumour at architectural, cellular and molecular level, a reason why the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus recommended wide sampling of RCC masses to include at least 1 block/cm of tumour together with perpendicular sections of the tumour/perinephric fat interface and the tumour/renal sinus interface. Intratumoural molecular heterogeneity may be a limitation at the moment of defining precision medicine strategies based on gene mutation status. This study analyses the presence of any mutation of

Popławski P, Wiśniewski JR, Rijntjes E, et al.
Restoration of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression in renal cancer cells downregulates oncoproteins and affects key metabolic pathways as well as anti-oxidative system.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0190179 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) contributes to deiodination of 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) yielding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), a powerful regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. Our previous work showed that loss of DIO1 enhances proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. However, the global effects of DIO1 expression in various tissues affected by cancer remain unknown. Here, the effects of stable DIO1 re-expression were analyzed on the proteome of renal cancer cells, followed by quantitative real-time PCR validation in two renal cancer-derived cell lines. DIO1-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of thyroid hormones were quantified by L-MS/MS and correlations between expression of DIO1 and potential target genes were determined in tissue samples from renal cancer patients. Stable re-expression of DIO1, resulted in 26 downregulated proteins while 59 proteins were overexpressed in renal cancer cells. The 'downregulated' group consisted mainly of oncoproteins (e.g. STAT3, ANPEP, TGFBI, TGM2) that promote proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, DIO1 re-expression enhanced concentrations of two subunits of thyroid hormone transporter (SLC7A5, SLC3A2), enzymes of key pathways of cellular energy metabolism (e.g. TKT, NAMPT, IDH2), sex steroid metabolism and anti-oxidative response (AKR1C2, AKR1B10). DIO1 expression resulted in elevated intracellular concentration of T4. Expression of DIO1-affected genes strongly correlated with DIO1 transcript levels in tissue samples from renal cancer patients as well as with their poor survival. This first study addressing effects of deiodinase re-expression on proteome of cancer cells demonstrates that induced DIO1 re-expression in renal cancer robustly downregulates oncoproteins, affects key metabolic pathways, and triggers proteins involved in anti-oxidative protection. This data supports the notion that suppressed DIO1 expression and changes in local availability of thyroid hormones might favor a shift from a differentiated to a more proliferation-prone state of cancer tissues and cell lines.

Hass HG, Vogel U, Scheurlen M, Jobst J
Subclassification and Detection of New Markers for the Discrimination of Primary Liver Tumors by Gene Expression Analysis Using Oligonucleotide Arrays.
Gut Liver. 2018; 12(3):306-315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background/Aims: The failure to correctly differentiate between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant clinical problem, particularly in terms of the different treatment goals for both cancers. In this study a specific gene expression profile to discriminate these two subgroups of liver cancer was established and potential diagnostic markers for clinical use were analyzed.
Methods: To evaluate the gene expression profiles of HCC and intrahepatic CC, Oligonucleotide arrays (
Results: 695 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in HCC (245 up-/450 down-regulated) and 552 genes/ESTs in CC (221 up-/331 down-regulated) were significantly dysregulated (p<0.05, fold change >2, ≥70%). Using a supervised learning method, and one-way analysis of variance a specific 270-gene expression profile that enabled rapid, reproducible differentiation between both tumors and nonmalignant liver tissues was established. A panel of 12 genes (e.g., HSP90β, ERG1, GPC3, TKT, ACLY, and NME1 for HCC; SPT2, T4S3, CNX43, TTD1, HBD01 for CC) were detected and partly described for the first time as potential discrimination markers.
Conclusions: A specific gene expression profile for discrimination of primary liver cancer was identified and potential marker genes with feasible clinical impact were described.

Puri T
Targeted therapy in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Indian J Cancer. 2017 Jan-Mar; 54(1):83-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene exemplify the molecular characterization of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly adenocarcinoma, and its therapeutic relevance. Several genetic alterations with prognostic and predictive role, including ROS, RET, MET, KRAS, have now been identified in adenocarcinoma and some such as DDR2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in squamous cell carcinoma. This has heralded the development of agents targeted against these aberrations. Better knowledge of tumor biology and development of targeted agents has ushered an era of personalized treatment strategies in NSCLC, leading to improvements not only in tumor control and duration of life but also in quality of life.

Ricordel C, Lespagnol A, Llamas-Gutierrez F, et al.
Mutational Landscape of DDR2 Gene in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Next-generation Sequencing.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2018; 19(2):163-169.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite great advances in lung cancer management with the recent emergence of molecular targeted therapies for non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, no dramatic improvements have been achieved in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Mutations in discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene were recently identified as promising molecular targets in this histology. The aim of this study is to describe the DDR2 mutational landscape of lung SCC and investigate the associated clinical factors.
METHODS: Next-generation sequencing of the DDR2 gene was performed on 271 samples of lung SCC. Patients followed in our institution from January 2011 to August 2014 were retrospectively selected for data collection. Other driver gene alterations (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, and PI3KCA) were analyzed using pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: A total of 11 patients harboring a DDR2 mutation was detected among the 271 sequenced lung SCC samples (4%). We describe 10 unreported mutations, comprising a novel DDR2 exon 7 splice mutant. DDR2 mutations were not mutually exclusive with other driver gene alterations. One hundred thirty-six patients were included for clinical comparison and logistic regression analysis. No difference was detected between DDR2-mutant and DDR2 wild-type lung SCC regarding clinical characteristics or survival.
CONCLUSION: DDR2 mutations were observed in 4% of cases of lung SCC of European descent. DDR2-mutated tumors can exhibit other driver gene alterations. No clinical characteristics were significantly associated with DDR2 mutation.

Church AJ, Calicchio ML, Nardi V, et al.
Recurrent EML4-NTRK3 fusions in infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital mesoblastic nephroma suggest a revised testing strategy.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(3):463-473 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital mesoblastic nephroma are tumors of infancy traditionally associated with the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. However, a number of case reports have identified variant fusions in these tumors. In order to assess the frequency of variant NTRK3 fusions, and in particular whether the recently identified EML4-NTRK3 fusion is recurrent, 63 archival cases of infantile fibrosarcoma, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, mammary analog secretory carcinoma and secretory breast carcinoma (tumor types that are known to carry recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 fusions) were tested with NTRK3 break-apart FISH, EML4-NTRK3 dual fusion FISH, and targeted RNA sequencing. The EML4-NTRK3 fusion was identified in two cases of infantile fibrosarcoma (one of which was previously described), and in one case of congenital mesoblastic nephroma, demonstrating that the EML4-NTRK3 fusion is a recurrent genetic event in these related tumors. The growing spectrum of gene fusions associated with infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital mesoblastic nephroma along with the recent availability of targeted therapies directed toward inhibition of NTRK signaling argue for alternate testing strategies beyond ETV6 break-apart FISH. The use of either NTRK3 FISH or next-generation sequencing will expand the number of cases in which an oncogenic fusion is identified and facilitate optimal diagnosis and treatment for patients.

Li D, Yang Z, Liu Z, et al.
DDR2 and IFITM1 Are Prognostic Markers in Gallbladder Squamous Cell/Adenosquamous Carcinomas and Adenocarcinomas.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2019; 25(1):157-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was conducted to investigate the expressions of DDR2 and IFITM1 and their clinical and pathological significances in the rare type squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and ordinary adenocarcinomas (AC) of gallbladder cancers. DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was examined in 69 SC/ASCs and 146 ACs using EnVision immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the percentage of positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was significantly higher in SC/ASC patients with high TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and no resection surgery compared to patients with low TNM stages, no lymph node metastasis, no invasion, and resection surgery (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The positive rate of DDR2 was significantly higher in SC/ASC patients with large tumor sizes than patients with small tumor sizes (p < 0.05). The percentage of positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expressions was significantly higher in AC patients with high TNM stages that didn't receive resection surgery compared to patients with low TNM stages that did receive resection surgery (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The positive rate of IFITM1 was significantly higher in AC patients with lymph node metastasis and invasion than in patients without metastasis and invasion (p < 0.05). Positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was closely associated with a decreased overall survival in SC/ASC and AC patients (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). AUC analysis showed that DDR2 and IFITM1 was sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of SC/ASC (AUC = 0.740 and AUC =0.733, respectively) and AC (AUC = 0.710 and AUC =0.741, respectively). In conclusion, positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression is a marker for the clinical severity, poor prognosis, and diagnosis of gallbladder SC/ASC and AC.

Tokaca N, Barth S, O'Brien M, et al.
Molecular Adequacy of Image-Guided Rebiopsies for Molecular Retesting in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience.
J Thorac Oncol. 2018; 13(1):63-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: In the era of biomarker-driven systemic therapy for advanced NSCLC, the role of routine repeated biopsies for decision making outside EGFR-mutant disease remains unproven. We report our center's experience of safety and adequacy for molecular retesting of tumor material obtained from image-guided lung rebiopsies in NSCLC.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective case note analysis of patients undergoing image-guided lung rebiopsies at a single cancer center between 2011 and 2014. The primary objective was to determine the pathological success rate. Secondary and exploratory objectives were to determine technical success rate, histological concordance, molecular adequacy, genotypes identified, and complication rate.
RESULTS: In all, 103 patients underwent transthoracic image-guided procedures. A total of 66 rebiopsies in NSCLC were identified and analyzed. The pathological success rate was 87.1%. A high histological discordance rate was observed (12 of 52 evaluable cases [23.1%]). Pretest molecular adequacy as determined by the lung pathologist was 78.8% (52 of 66). Of 52 adequate samples 51 were sent for molecular analysis, with a total of 209 genes analyzed (including EGFR, ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene [ALK], KRAS, BRAF, dicoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene [DDR2], NRAS, ROS1, and rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene gene [RET]). The rate of postgenotyping molecular adequacy was 87.1% (182 of 209). Overall, 20 new potentially actionable mutations were identified, with 13 of 66 patients (19.7%) starting to receive new targeted treatment as a result. Overall, rebiopsies informed clinical decision making in 63.6% of cases. The rates of complications were 15% for pneumothorax, 3% for pneumothorax requiring chest drain, and 8% for hemoptysis.
CONCLUSIONS: We have validated the pathological and molecular adequacy rates of rebiopsies and demonstrated clinical utility in routine decision making.

Kim D, You E, Jeong J, et al.
DDR2 controls the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-related gene expression via c-Myb acetylation upon matrix stiffening.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):6847 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing matrix stiffness caused by the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition surrounding cancer cells is accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we show that expression levels of EMT marker genes along with discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) can increase upon matrix stiffening. DDR2 silencing by short hairpin RNA downregulated EMT markers. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that c-Myb and LEF1 may be responsible for DDR2 induction during cell culture on a stiff matrix. Mechanistically, c-Myb acetylation by p300, which is upregulated on the stiff matrix, seems to be necessary for the c-Myb-and-LEF1-mediated DDR2 expression. Finally, we found that the c-Myb-DDR2 axis is crucial for lung cancer cell line proliferation and expression of EMT marker genes in a stiff environment. Thus, our results suggest that DDR2 regulation by p300 expression and/or c-Myb acetylation upon matrix stiffening may be necessary for regulation of EMT and invasiveness of lung cancer cells.

Kobayashi-Watanabe N, Sato A, Watanabe T, et al.
Functional analysis of Discoidin domain receptor 2 mutation and expression in squamous cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 110:35-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 mutations have recently been reported to be candidate targets of molecular therapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). However, the status of DDR2 expression and mutations, as well as their precise roles in lung SQCC, have not been clarified. We here report DDR2 mutation and expression status in clinical samples and its role of lung SQCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated DDR2 expression and mutation status in 44 human clinical samples and 7 cell lines. Biological functions of DDR2 were assessed by in vitro cell invasion assay and animal model experiments.
RESULTS: Endogenous DDR2 protein expression levels were high in one cell line, PC-1, and immunohistochemistry of lung cancer tissue array showed high levels of DDR2 protein in 29% of lung SQCC patients. A mutation (T681I) identified in lung SQCC and the cell line EBC-1 was detected among 44 primary lung SQCC samples and 7 lung SQCC cell lines. Although Forced expression of DDR2 and its mutant (T681I) led to induce SQCC cell invasion in vitro, only wild type DDR2 enhanced lung metastasis in an animal model. We also found that ectopic expression of DDR2 induced MMP-1 mRNA expression accompanied by phosphorylation of c-Jun after treatment with its ligand, collagen type I, but DDR2 with the T681I mutation did not, suggesting that T681I mutation is an inactivating mutation.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of DDR2 might contribute to tumor progression in lung SQCC. The overexpression of DDR2 could be potential molecular target of lung SQCC.

Guyard A, Danel C, Théou-Anton N, et al.
Morphologic and molecular study of lung cancers associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other pulmonary fibroses.
Respir Res. 2017; 18(1):120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primitive lung cancers developed on lung fibroses are both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Their incidence may increase with new more efficient lung fibrosis treatments. Our aim was to describe a cohort of lung cancers associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other lung fibrotic disorders (non-IPF), and to characterize their molecular alterations using immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing (NGS).
METHODS: Thirty-one cancer samples were collected from 2001 to 2016 in two French reference centers for pulmonary fibrosis - 18 for IPF group and 13 for non-IPF group. NGS was performed using an ampliseq panel to analyze hotspots and targeted regions in 22 cancer-associated genes. ALK, ROS1 and PD-L1 expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histologic subtype in the IPF group (44%), adenocarcinoma was the most frequent subtype in the non-IPF group (62%). Forty-one mutations in 13 genes and one EGFR amplification were identified in 25 samples. Two samples had no mutation in the selected panel. Mutations were identified in TP53 (n = 20), MET (n = 4), BRAF (n = 3), FGFR3, PIK3CA, PTEN, STK11 (n = 2), SMAD4, CTNNB1, DDR2, ERBB4, FBXW7 and KRAS (n = 1) genes. No ALK and ROS1 expressions were identified. PD-L1 was expressed in 10 cases (62%) with only one (6%) case >50%.
CONCLUSIONS: This extensive characterization of lung fibrosis-associated cancers evidenced molecular alterations which could represent either potential therapeutic targets either clues to the pathophysiology of these particular tumors. These findings support the relevance of large molecular characterization of every lung fibrosis-associated cancer.

Catic A, Kurtovic-Kozaric A, Johnson SH, et al.
A novel cytogenetic and molecular characterization of renal metanephric adenoma: Identification of partner genes involved in translocation t(9;15)(p24;q24).
Cancer Genet. 2017; 214-215:9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare benign tumor frequently misclassified when microscopic features alone are applied. The correct classification of a renal tumor is critical for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Despite the advancements in cancer genomics, up until recently relatively few genetic alterations critical to MA development have been recognized. Recent data suggest that 90% of MA have BRAF

Dey N, Krie A, Klein J, et al.
Down's Syndrome and Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Rare Occurrence of Distinctive Clinical Relationship.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Down's syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of significant intellectual disability in children and adults is caused by the trisomy of either all or a part of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). Patients with DS mostly suffer from characteristic tumor types. Although individual patients of DS are at a higher risk for acute leukemia and testicular cancers, other types of solid tumors including breast cancers are mostly uncommon and have significantly lower-than-expected age-adjusted incidence rates. Except for an increased risk of retinoblastomas, and lymphomas, the risk of developing solid tumors has been found to be lower in both children and adults, and breast cancer was found to be almost absent (Hasle H., The Lancet Oncology, 2001). A study conducted in the United States found only one death when 11.65 were expected (Scholl T et al., Dev Med Child Neurol. 1982). A recent study examined mammogram reports of women with DS treated in the largest medical facility specifically serving adults with DS in the United States. It was found that only 0.7% women with DS had been diagnosed with breast cancers (Chicoine B et al., Intellect Dev Disabil. 2015). Here we describe a case of breast cancer in a 25-year-old patient with DS. The disease was presented as lymph node positive carcinoma with alterations of tumor suppressor genes characteristic to the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling (CGP) revealed a wild-type status for

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