Gene Summary

Gene:EEF1A2; eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2
Aliases: HS1, STN, EF1A, STNL, MRD38, EEF1AL, EIEE33, EF-1-alpha-2
Summary:This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and the other isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. This gene may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:elongation factor 1-alpha 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • EEF1A2
  • Gene Amplification
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Liver Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tamoxifen
  • Trisomy
  • Lung Cancer
  • Smoking
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Adolescents
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Trans-Activators
  • Peptide Elongation Factor 1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Cycle
  • Chromosome 20
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Xenograft Models
  • siRNA
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Oncogenes
  • Carcinoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Adenocarcinoma
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EEF1A2 (cancer-related)

Freitas D, Campos D, Gomes J, et al.
O-glycans truncation modulates gastric cancer cell signaling and transcription leading to a more aggressive phenotype.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:349-362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Changes in glycosylation are known to play critical roles during gastric carcinogenesis. Expression of truncated O-glycans, such as the Sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen, is a common feature shared by many cancers and is associated with cancer aggressiveness and poor-prognosis.
METHODS: Glycoengineered cell lines were used to evaluate the impact of truncated O-glycans in cancer cell biology using in vitro functional assays, transcriptomic analysis and in vivo models. Tumor patients 'samples and datasets were used for clinical translational significance evaluation.
FINDINGS: In the present study, we demonstrated that gastric cancer cells expressing truncated O-glycans display major phenotypic alterations associated with higher cell motility and cell invasion. Noteworthy, the glycoengineered cancer cells overexpressing STn resulted in tumor xenografts with less cohesive features which had a critical impact on mice survival. Furthermore, truncation of O-glycans induced activation of EGFR and ErbB2 receptors and a transcriptomic signature switch of gastric cancer cells. The disclosed top activated genes were further validated in gastric tumors, revealing that SRPX2 and RUNX1 are concomitantly overexpressed in gastric carcinomas and its expression is associated with patients' poor-survival, highlighting their prognosis potential in clinical practice.
INTERPRETATION: This study discloses novel molecular links between O-glycans truncation frequently observed in cancer and key cellular regulators with major impact in tumor progression and patients' clinical outcome.

Chen XJ, Zhang WN, Chen B, et al.
Homoharringtonine deregulates
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(6):2220-2225 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homoharringtonine (HHT), a known protein synthesis inhibitor, has an anti-myeloid leukemia effect and potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of anthracycline/cytarabine induction regimens for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with favorable and intermediate prognoses, especially in the t(8;21) subtype. Here we provide evidence showing that HHT inhibits the activity of leukemia-initiating cells (Lin

Li JF, Dai YT, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Transcriptional landscape of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on an international study of 1,223 cases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11711-E11720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) can be classified into known major genetic subtypes, while a substantial proportion of BCP ALL remains poorly characterized in relation to its underlying genomic abnormalities. We therefore initiated a large-scale international study to reanalyze and delineate the transcriptome landscape of 1,223 BCP ALL cases using RNA sequencing. Fourteen BCP ALL gene expression subgroups (G1 to G14) were identified. Apart from extending eight previously described subgroups (G1 to G8 associated with

Sun X, Ju T, Cummings RD
Differential expression of Cosmc, T-synthase and mucins in Tn-positive colorectal cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):827 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Tn neoantigen (GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr) is an O-glycan expressed in various types of human cancers. Studies in several Tn-expressing cancer cell lines and pancreatic tumors have identified loss of Cosmc expression caused by either mutations or promoter hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the mechanism(s) for Tn expression in human colorectal cancers (CRC).
METHODS: Tn-expressing cell populations were isolated from CRC cell lines by Fluorescence-associated cell sorting (FACS). The expression of the Tn and sialylated Tn (STn) antigens, Cosmc, T-synthase, and mucins was characterized in paired specimens with CRC and in CRC cell lines by immunostaining, western blot, and qPCR.
RESULTS: Using well-defined monoclonal antibodies, we confirmed prevalent Tn/STn expression in CRC samples. However, a majority of these tumors had elevated T-synthase activity and expression of both Cosmc and T-synthase proteins. Meanwhile, Tn antigen expression was not caused by mucin overproduction. In addition, we found that Tn-expressing CRC cell lines had either loss-of-function mutations in Cosmc or reversible Tn antigen expression, which was not caused by the deficiency of T-synthase activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate multiple mechanisms for Tn expression in CRCs.

Chugh S, Barkeer S, Rachagani S, et al.
Disruption of C1galt1 Gene Promotes Development and Metastasis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(5):1608-1624 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) produce higher levels of truncated O-glycan structures (such as Tn and sTn) than normal pancreata. Dysregulated activity of core 1 synthase glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GALT1) leads to increased expression of these truncated O-glycans. We investigated whether and how truncated O-glycans contributes to the development and progression of PDAC using mice with disruption of C1galt1.
METHODS: We crossed C1galt1 floxed mice (C1galt1
RESULTS: KPCC mice had significantly shorter survival times (median 102 days) than KPC mice (median 200 days) and developed early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias at 3 weeks, PDAC at 5 weeks, and metastasis at 10 weeks compared with KPC mice. Pancreatic tumors that developed in KPCC mice were more aggressive (more invasive and metastases) than those in KPC mice, had a decreased amount of stroma, and had increased production of Tn. Poorly differentiated PDAC specimens had significantly lower levels of C1GALT1 than well-differentiated PDACs. Human PDAC cells with knockout of C1GALT1 had aberrant glycosylation of MUC16 compared with control cells and increased expression of genes that regulate tumorigenesis and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: In studies of KPC mice with disruption of C1galt1, we found that loss of C1galt1 promotes development of aggressive PDACs and increased metastasis. Knockout of C1galt1 leads to increased tumorigenicity and truncation of O-glycosylation on MUC16, which could contribute to increased aggressiveness.

Coelho R, Marcos-Silva L, Mendes N, et al.
Mucins and Truncated
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Optimal research results rely on the selection of cellular models capable of recapitulating the characteristics of primary tumours from which they originate. The expression of mucins (MUC16 and MUC1) and truncated

Inoue K, Tsubamoto H, Isono-Nakata R, et al.
Itraconazole treatment of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina evaluated using positron emission tomography and tissue cDNA microarray: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):630 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is extremely rare, with a poorer prognosis than cutaneous malignant melanoma. Previous studies have explored the repurposing of itraconazole, a common oral anti-fungal agent, for the treatment of various cancers. Here, we describe a patient with metastatic, unresectable vaginal malignant melanoma treated with 200 mg oral itraconazole twice a day in a clinical window-of-opportunity trial.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Japanese woman with vaginal and inguinal tumours was referred to our institution. On the basis of an initial diagnosis of vaginal cancer metastatic to the inguinal lymph nodes, we treated her with itraconazole in a clinical trial until the biopsy and imaging study results were obtained. During this period, biopsies were performed three times, and
CONCLUSION: The findings of this case suggest that itraconazole is a potential effective treatment option for primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Moreover, we identified potential itraconazole target genes, which could help elucidate the mechanism underlying this disease and potentially aid in the development of new therapeutic agents.

Tan YT, Ye L, Xie F, et al.
Respecifying human iPSC-derived blood cells into highly engraftable hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with a single factor.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(9):2180-2185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Derivation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers considerable promise for cell therapy, disease modeling, and drug screening. However, efficient derivation of functional iPSC-derived HSCs with in vivo engraftability and multilineage potential remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate a tractable approach for respecifying iPSC-derived blood cells into highly engraftable hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through transient expression of a single transcription factor,

Chen B, Jiang L, Zhong ML, et al.
Identification of fusion genes and characterization of transcriptome features in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(2):373-378 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a clonal malignancy of immature T cells. Recently, the next-generation sequencing approach has allowed systematic identification of molecular features in pediatric T-ALL. Here, by performing RNA-sequencing and other genomewide analysis, we investigated the genomic landscape in 61 adult and 69 pediatric T-ALL cases. Thirty-six distinct gene fusion transcripts were identified, with

Li Z, Li X, Xu L, et al.
Inhibition of neuroblastoma proliferation by PF-3758309, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets p21-activated kinase 4.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):2705-2716 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid childhood tumor. Despite the availability of advanced multimodal therapy, high-risk patients still have low survival rates. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) has been shown to regulate many cellular processes in cancer cells, including migration, polarization and proliferation. However, the role of PAK4 in neuroblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that PAK4 was overexpressed in neuroblastoma tissues and was correlated with tumor malignance and prognosis. To investigate the function of PAK4 in neuroblastoma, we used a small-molecule inhibitor that targets PAK4, that is, PF-3758309. Our results showed that PF-3758309 significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Meanwhile, the inhibition of PAK4 by PF-3758309 increased the expression of CDKN1A, BAD and BAK1 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In addition, we screened the target genes of PAK4 by PCR array and found that 23 genes were upregulated (including TP53I3, TBX3, EEF1A2, CDKN1A, IFNB1 and MAPK8IP2) and 20 genes were downregulated (including TNFSF8, Bcl2-A1, Bcl2L1, SOCS3, BIRC3 and NFKB1) after PAK4 inhibition by PF-3758309. Moreover, PAK4 was found to regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis via the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated, for the first time, the expression and function of PAK4 in neuroblastomas and the inhibitory effect of PF-3758309, which deserves further investigation as an alternative strategy for neuroblastoma treatment.

Worst TS, Waldbillig F, Abdelhadi A, et al.
The EEF1A2 gene expression as risk predictor in localized prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Besides clinical stage and Gleason score, risk-stratification of prostate cancer in the pretherapeutic setting mainly relies on the serum PSA level. Yet, this is associated with many uncertainties. With regard to therapy decision-making, additional markers are needed to allow an exact risk prediction. Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (EEF1A2) was previously suggested as driver of tumor progression and potential biomarker. In the present study its functional and prognostic relevance in prostate cancer was investigated.
METHODS: EEF1A2 expression was analyzed in two cohorts of patients (n = 40 and n = 59) with localized PCa. Additionally data from two large expression dataset (MSKCC, Cell, 2010 with n = 131 localized, n = 19 metastatic PCa and TCGA provisional data, n = 499) of PCa patients were reanalyzed. The expression of EEF1A2 was correlated with histopathology features and biochemical recurrence (BCR). To evaluate the influence of EEF1A2 on proliferation and migration of metastatic PC3 cells, siRNA interference was used. Statistical significance was tested with t-test, Mann-Whitney-test, Pearson correlation and log-rank test.
RESULTS: qRT-PCR revealed EEF1A2 to be significantly overexpressed in PCa tissue, with an increase according to tumor stage in one cohort (p = 0.0443). In silico analyses in the MSKCC cohort confirmed the overexpression of EEF1A2 in localized PCa with high Gleason score (p = 0.0142) and in metastatic lesions (p = 0.0038). Patients with EEF1A2 overexpression had a significantly shorter BCR-free survival (p = 0.0028). EEF1A2 expression was not correlated with serum PSA levels. Similar results were seen in the TCGA cohort, where EEF1A2 overexpression only occurred in tumors with Gleason 7 or higher. Patients with elevated EEF1A2 expression had a significantly shorter BCR-free survival (p = 0.043). EEF1A2 knockdown significantly impaired the migration, but not the proliferation of metastatic PC3 cells.
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of EEF1A2 is a frequent event in localized PCa and is associated with histopathology features and a shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Due to its independence from serum PSA levels, EEF1A2 could serve as valuable biomarker in risk-stratification of localized PCa.

Lima L, Neves M, Oliveira MI, et al.
Sialyl-Tn identifies muscle-invasive bladder cancer basal and luminal subtypes facing decreased survival, being expressed by circulating tumor cells and metastases.
Urol Oncol. 2017; 35(12):675.e1-675.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential of sialyl-Tn (STn), a cancer-associated glycan antigen present in membrane glycoproteins, to improve a recent molecular model for stratification and prognostication of advanced stage bladder tumors based on keratins (KRT14, 5, and 20) expression. In addition, determine the association between STn and disease dissemination based on the evaluation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the metastasis, which is a critical matter to improve patient management.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of 80 muscle-invasive primary bladder tumors and associated metastasis were screened for KRT14, 5, and 20 and STn by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood was collected in a patients' subset, CTCs were isolated through a size-based microfluidic chip and screened for KRTs and STn.
RESULTS: Basal-like lesions presented worse cancer-specific and disease-free survival compared to luminal tumors. STn antigen inclusion discriminated patients with worst survival in each subgroup (P = 0.047 for luminal; P = 0.027 for basal-like tumors). STn expression in CTCs and distant metastasis was also demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: This work reinforces the potential of the KRT-based model for bladder cancer management and the association of STn with aggressiveness, supporting its inclusion in predictive molecular models toward patient-tailored precision medicine. Moreover, we describe for the first time that CTCs and the metastasis present a basal phenotype and express the STn antigen, highlighting its link with disease dissemination. Future studies should focus on determining the biological and clinical significance of these observations in the context of liquid biopsies. Given the membrane nature of STn, highly specific targeted therapeutics may also be envisaged.

Zhu YM, Wang PP, Huang JY, et al.
Gene mutational pattern and expression level in 560 acute myeloid leukemia patients and their clinical relevance.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):178 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytogenetic aberrations and gene mutations have long been regarded as independent prognostic markers in AML, both of which can lead to misexpression of some key genes related to hematopoiesis. It is believed that the expression level of the key genes is associated with the treatment outcome of AML.
METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the clinical features and molecular aberrations of 560 newly diagnosed non-M3 AML patients, including mutational status of CEBPA, NPM1, FLT3, C-KIT, NRAS, WT1, DNMT3A, MLL-PTD and IDH1/2, as well as expression levels of MECOM, ERG, GATA2, WT1, BAALC, MEIS1 and SPI1.
RESULTS: Certain gene expression levels were associated with the cytogenetic aberration of the disease, especially for MECOM, MEIS1 and BAALC. FLT3, C-KIT and NRAS mutations contained conversed expression profile regarding MEIS1, WT1, GATA2 and BAALC expression, respectively. FLT3, DNMT3A, NPM1 and biallelic CEBPA represented the mutations associated with the prognosis of AML in our group. Higher MECOM and MEIS1 gene expression levels showed a significant impact on complete remission (CR) rate, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) both in univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively; and an additive effect could be observed. By systematically integrating gene mutational status results and gene expression profile, we could establish a more refined system to precisely subdivide AML patients into distinct prognostic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression abnormalities contained important biological and clinical informations, and could be integrated into current AML stratification system.

Schwartzman O, Savino AM, Gombert M, et al.
Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(20):E4030-E4039 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to development of high-risk B-cell precursor ALL (DS-ALL), which differs genetically from most sporadic pediatric ALLs. Increased expression of cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2), the receptor to thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), characterizes about half of DS-ALLs and also a subgroup of sporadic "Philadelphia-like" ALLs. To understand the pathogenesis of relapsed DS-ALL, we performed integrative genomic analysis of 25 matched diagnosis-remission and -relapse DS-ALLs. We found that the CRLF2 rearrangements are early events during DS-ALL evolution and generally stable between diagnoses and relapse. Secondary activating signaling events in the JAK-STAT/RAS pathway were ubiquitous but highly redundant between diagnosis and relapse, suggesting that signaling is essential but that no specific mutations are "relapse driving." We further found that activated JAK2 may be naturally suppressed in 25% of CRLF2

Munkley J, Livermore K, Rajan P, Elliott DJ
RNA splicing and splicing regulator changes in prostate cancer pathology.
Hum Genet. 2017; 136(9):1143-1154 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Changes in mRNA splice patterns have been associated with key pathological mechanisms in prostate cancer progression. The androgen receptor (abbreviated AR) transcription factor is a major driver of prostate cancer pathology and activated by androgen steroid hormones. Selection of alternative promoters by the activated AR can critically alter gene function by switching mRNA isoform production, including creating a pro-oncogenic isoform of the normally tumour suppressor gene TSC2. A number of androgen-regulated genes generate alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms, including a prostate-specific splice isoform of ST6GALNAC1 mRNA. ST6GALNAC1 encodes a sialyltransferase that catalyses the synthesis of the cancer-associated sTn antigen important for cell mobility. Genetic rearrangements occurring early in prostate cancer development place ERG oncogene expression under the control of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to hijack cell behaviour. This TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene shows different patterns of alternative splicing in invasive versus localised prostate cancer. Alternative AR mRNA isoforms play a key role in the generation of prostate cancer drug resistance, by providing a mechanism through which prostate cancer cells can grow in limited serum androgen concentrations. A number of splicing regulator proteins change expression patterns in prostate cancer and may help drive key stages of disease progression. Up-regulation of SRRM4 establishes neuronal splicing patterns in neuroendocrine prostate cancer. The splicing regulators Sam68 and Tra2β increase expression in prostate cancer. The SR protein kinase SRPK1 that modulates the activity of SR proteins is up-regulated in prostate cancer and has already given encouraging results as a potential therapeutic target in mouse models.

Maddalena F, Simeon V, Vita G, et al.
TRAP1 protein signature predicts outcome in human metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):21229-21240 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
TRAP1 is a HSP90 molecular chaperone upregulated in colorectal carcinomas and involved in control of intracellular signaling, cell cycle, apoptosis and drug resistance, stemness and bioenergetics through co-traslational regulation of a network of client proteins. Thus, the clinical significance of TRAP1 protein network was analyzed in human colorectal cancers. TRAP1 and/or its client proteins were quantified, by immunoblot analysis, in 60 surgical specimens of colorectal carcinomas at different stages and, by immunohistochemistry, in 9 colorectal adenomatous polyps, 11 in situ carcinomas and 55 metastatic colorectal tumors. TRAP1 is upregulated at the transition between low- and high-grade adenomas, in in situ carcinomas and in about 60% of human colorectal carcinomas, being downregulated only in a small cohort of tumors. The analysis of TCGA database showed that a subgroup of colorectal tumors is characterized by gain/loss of TRAP1 copy number, this correlating with its mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, TRAP1 is co-expressed with the majority of its client proteins and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the upregulation of TRAP1 and associated 6-protein signature (i.e., IF2α, eF1A, TBP7, MAD2, CDK1 and βCatenin) identifies a cohort of metastatic colorectal carcinomas with a significantly shorter overall survival (HR 5.4; 95% C.I. 1.1-26.6; p=0.037). Consistently, the prognostic relevance of TRAP1 was confirmed in a cohort of 55 metastatic colorectal tumors. Finally, TRAP1 positive expression and its prognostic value are more evident in left colon cancers. These data suggest that TRAP1 protein network may provide a prognostic signature in human metastatic colorectal carcinomas.

Pan M, Zhang Q, Liu P, et al.
Inhibition of the nuclear export of p65 and IQCG in leukemogenesis by NUP98-IQCG.
Front Med. 2016; 10(4):410-419 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 fuses with approximately 34 different partner genes via translocation in hematological malignancies. Transgenic or retrovirus-mediated bone marrow transplanted mouse models reveal the leukemogenesis of some NUP98-related fusion genes. We previously reported the fusion protein NUP98-IQ motif containing G (IQCG) in a myeloid/T lymphoid bi-phenoleukemia patient with t(3;11) and confirmed its leukemogenic ability. Herein, we demonstrated the association of NUP98-IQCG with CRM1, and found that NUP98-IQCG expression inhibits the CRM1-mediated nuclear export of p65 and enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB. Moreover, IQCG could be entrapped in the nucleus by NUP98-IQCG, and the fusion protein interacts with calmodulin via the IQ motif in a calcium-independent manner. Therefore, the inhibition of nuclear exports of p65 and IQCG might contribute to the leukemogenesis of NUP98-IQCG.

Frezzato F, Accordi B, Trimarco V, et al.
Profiling B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia by reverse phase protein array: Focus on apoptotic proteins.
J Leukoc Biol. 2016; 100(5):1061-1070 [PubMed] Related Publications
B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes from proliferative activity and apoptosis resistance. The increased awareness of the importance of B cell receptor signaling in CLL has raised new opportunities for targeted intervention. Herein, we describe a study performed with the high-throughput RPPA (reverse phase protein array) technique, which allowed us to simultaneously study different molecules in a large series of patients. We analyzed B lymphocytes from 57 patients with CLL and 11 healthy subjects. Different pathways were assessed for activation/expression of key signaling proteins. Data obtained were validated by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. The RPPA investigation and its validation, identified 3 series of proteins: 1) molecules whose expression levels reached statistically significant differences in CLL vs. healthy controls (HSP70, Smac/DIABLO, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-6); 2) proteins with a positive trend of difference in CLL vs. healthy controls (HS1, γ-tubulin, PKC α/β-II Thr-638/641, p38 MAPK Thr-180/Tyr-182, NF-κB Ser-536, Bcl2 Ser-70 and Src Tyr-527); and 3) molecules differentially expressed in patients with IGHV mutations vs. those without mutations (ZAP70, PKC-ζλ, Thr-410/403, and CD45). This study identified some molecules, particularly those involved in apoptosis control, which could be considered for further studies to design new therapeutic strategies in CLL.

Chen WL, Wang YY, Zhao A, et al.
Enhanced Fructose Utilization Mediated by SLC2A5 Is a Unique Metabolic Feature of Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Therapeutic Potential.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(5):779-791 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Rapidly proliferating leukemic progenitor cells consume substantial glucose, which may lead to glucose insufficiency in bone marrow. We show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are prone to fructose utilization with an upregulated fructose transporter GLUT5, which compensates for glucose deficiency. Notably, AML patients with upregulated transcription of the GLUT5-encoding gene SLC2A5 or increased fructose utilization have poor outcomes. Pharmacological blockage of fructose uptake ameliorates leukemic phenotypes and potentiates the cytotoxicity of the antileukemic agent, Ara-C. In conclusion, this study highlights enhanced fructose utilization as a metabolic feature of AML and a potential therapeutic target.

Fu C, Zhao H, Wang Y, et al.
Tumor-associated antigens: Tn antigen, sTn antigen, and T antigen.
HLA. 2016; 88(6):275-286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glycosylation is one of the major posttranslational modifications of proteins. N-glycosylation (Asn-linked) and O-glycosylation (Ser/Thr-linked) are the two main forms. Abnormal O-glycosylation is frequently observed on the surface of tumor cells, and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in patients with cancer. O-glycans (Tn, sTn, and T antigen) can be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus with the aid of several glycosyltransferases (such as T-synthase and ST6GalNAc-I) in a suitable environment. The unique molecular chaperone of T-synthase is Cosmc, which helps T-synthase to fold correctly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dysregulation of these glycosyltransferases, molecular chaperones, or the environment is involved in the dysregulation of O-glycans. Tn, sTn, and T antigen neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, esophageal, prostate, and endometrial cancer. This review discusses the major synthetic pathway of O-glycans and the mechanism by which Tn, sTn, and T antigens promote tumor metastasis.

Ten Hacken E, Sivina M, Kim E, et al.
Functional Differences between IgM and IgD Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
J Immunol. 2016; 197(6):2522-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BCR signaling is a central pathogenetic pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Most CLL cells express BCRs of IgM and IgD isotypes, but the contribution of these isotypes to functional responses remains incompletely defined. We therefore investigated differences between IgM and IgD signaling in freshly isolated peripheral blood CLL cells and in CLL cells cultured with nurselike cells, a model that mimics the lymph node microenvironment. IgM signaling induced prolonged activation of ERK kinases and promoted CLL cell survival, CCL3 and CCL4 chemokine secretion, and downregulation of BCL6, the transcriptional repressor of CCL3 In contrast, IgD signaling induced activation of the cytoskeletal protein HS1, along with F-actin polymerization, which resulted in rapid receptor internalization and failure to support downstream responses, including CLL cell survival and chemokine secretion. IgM and IgD receptor downmodulation, HS1 and ERK activation, chemokine secretion, and BCL6 downregulation were also observed when CLL cells were cocultured with nurselike cells. The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib effectively inhibited both IgM and IgD isotype signaling. In conclusion, through a variety of functional readouts, we demonstrate very distinct outcomes of IgM and IgD isotype activation in CLL cells, providing novel insight into the regulation of BCR signaling in CLL.

Liu YF, Wang BY, Zhang WN, et al.
Genomic Profiling of Adult and Pediatric B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 8:173-183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Genomic landscapes of 92 adult and 111 pediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) were investigated using next-generation sequencing and copy number alteration analysis. Recurrent gene mutations and fusions were tested in an additional 87 adult and 93 pediatric patients. Among the 29 newly identified in-frame gene fusions, those involving MEF2D and ZNF384 were clinically relevant and were demonstrated to perturb B-cell differentiation, with EP300-ZNF384 inducing leukemia in mice. Eight gene expression subgroups associated with characteristic genetic abnormalities were identified, including leukemia with MEF2D and ZNF384 fusions in two distinct clusters. In subgroup G4 which was characterized by ERG deletion, DUX4-IGH fusion was detected in most cases. This comprehensive dataset allowed us to compare the features of molecular pathogenesis between adult and pediatric B-ALL and to identify signatures possibly related to the inferior outcome of adults to that of children. We found that, besides the known discrepancies in frequencies of prognostic markers, adult patients had more cooperative mutations and greater enrichment for alterations of epigenetic modifiers and genes linked to B-cell development, suggesting difference in the target cells of transformation between adult and pediatric patients and may explain in part the disparity in their responses to treatment.

Munkley J, Vodak D, Livermore KE, et al.
Glycosylation is an Androgen-Regulated Process Essential for Prostate Cancer Cell Viability.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 8:103-116 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Steroid androgen hormones play a key role in the progression and treatment of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the first-line treatment used to control cancer growth. Here we apply a novel search strategy to identify androgen-regulated cellular pathways that may be clinically important in prostate cancer. Using RNASeq data, we searched for genes that showed reciprocal changes in expression in response to acute androgen stimulation in culture, and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer. Amongst 700 genes displaying reciprocal expression patterns we observed a significant enrichment in the cellular process glycosylation. Of 31 reciprocally-regulated glycosylation enzymes, a set of 8 (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3) were significantly up-regulated in clinical prostate carcinoma. Androgen exposure stimulated synthesis of glycan structures downstream of this core set of regulated enzymes including sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl Lewis(X) (SLe(X)), O-GlcNAc and chondroitin sulphate, suggesting androgen regulation of the core set of enzymes controls key steps in glycan synthesis. Expression of each of these enzymes also contributed to prostate cancer cell viability. This study identifies glycosylation as a global target for androgen control, and suggests loss of specific glycosylation enzymes might contribute to tumour regression following androgen depletion therapy.

Qiu FN, Huang Y, Chen DY, et al.
Eukaryotic elongation factor-1α 2 knockdown inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis by suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(16):4226-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To assess the impact of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and determine the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: eEF1A2 levels were detected in 62 HCC tissue samples and paired pericarcinomatous specimens, and the human HCC cell lines SK-HEP-1, HepG2 and BEF-7402, by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Experimental groups included eEF1A2 silencing in BEL-7402 cells with lentivirus eEF1A2-shRNA (KD group) and eEF1A2 overexpression in SK-HEP-1 cells with eEF1A2 plasmid (OE group). Non-transfected cells (control group) and lentivirus-based empty vector transfected cells (NC group) were considered control groups. Cell proliferation (MTT and colony formation assays), apoptosis (Annexin V-APC assay), cell cycle (DNA ploidy assay), and migration and invasion (Transwell assays) were assessed. Protein levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling effectors were evaluated by Western blot.
RESULTS: eEF1A2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC cancer tissue samples than in paired pericarcinomatous and normal specimens. SK-HEP-1 cells showed lower eEF1A2 mRNA levels; HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells showed higher eEF1A2 mRNA levels, with BEL-7402 cells displaying the highest amount. Efficient eEF1A2 silencing resulted in reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, increased apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. The PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway was notably inhibited. Inversely, eEF1A2 overexpression resulted in promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
CONCLUSION: eEF1A2, highly expressed in HCC, is a potential oncogene. Its silencing significantly decreases HCC tumorigenesis, likely by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

Yang G, Zong H
Overexpression of PDZK1IP1, EEF1A2 and RPL41 genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(6):4786-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is an aggressive malignancy in the liver, which is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA remains unclear. RNA-Seq for tumor and para-tumor sample pairs enables the characterization of changes in the gene expression profiles of patients with iCCA. The present study analyzed RNA‑Seq data of seven iCCA para‑tumor and tumor sample pairs. Differential gene expression analysis demonstrated significant upregulation of PDZK1IP1, EEF1A2 and RPL41 (ENSG00000279483) genes in the iCCA samples when compared with the matched para‑tumor samples. Furthermore, genes associated with the immune system, metabolism and metabolic energy were significantly downregulated in the iCCA tumor tissues, indicating that this is involved in the pathogenesis of iCCA. The present study aimed to elucidate the gene expression patterns associated with the tumorigenesis of iCCA by comparing tumor and normal tissues, in order to isolate novel diagnostic factors for iCCA.

Munkley J
The Role of Sialyl-Tn in Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(3):275 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is linked with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in carcinogenesis targeting sTn in cancer may enable the targeting of tumours from the earliest stage.

Costa C, Pereira S, Lima L, et al.
Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0141253 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin). This decreased the number of invasive lesions and, concomitantly, the expression of STn and also pS6, the downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, STn was found to be marker of poor prognosis in bladder cancer and, in combination with PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway evaluation, holds potential to improve the stratification of stage disease. Animal experiments suggest that mTOR pathway inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach for this specific subtype of MIBC.

Munkley J, Oltean S, Vodák D, et al.
The androgen receptor controls expression of the cancer-associated sTn antigen and cell adhesion through induction of ST6GalNAc1 in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(33):34358-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation of stable tumours in mice, reduced cell adhesion and induced a switch towards a more mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in vitro. ST6GalNAc1 has a dynamic expression pattern in clinical datasets, beingsignificantly up-regulated in primary prostate carcinoma but relatively down-regulated in established metastatic tissue. ST6GalNAc1 is frequently upregulated concurrently with another important glycosylation enzyme GCNT1 previously associated with prostate cancer progression and implicated in Sialyl Lewis X antigen synthesis. Together our data establishes an androgen-dependent mechanism for sTn antigen expression in PCa, and are consistent with a general role for the androgen receptor in driving important coordinate changes to the glycoproteome during PCa progression.

Asner SA, Giulieri S, Diezi M, et al.
Acquired Multidrug Antifungal Resistance in Candida lusitaniae during Therapy.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015; 59(12):7715-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Candida lusitaniae is usually susceptible to echinocandins. Beta-1,3-glucan synthase encoded by FKS genes is the target of echinocandins. A few missense mutations in the C. lusitaniae FKS1 hot spot 1 (HS1) have been reported. We report here the rapid emergence of antifungal resistance in C. lusitaniae isolated during therapy with amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS), and azoles for treatment of persistent candidemia in an immunocompromised child with severe enterocolitis and visceral adenoviral disease. As documented from restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, the five C. lusitaniae isolates examined were related to each other. From antifungal susceptibility and molecular analyses, 5 different profiles (P) were obtained. These profiles included the following: profile 1 (P1) (CAS MIC [μg/ml], 0.5; fluconazole [FLC] MIC, 0.25), determined while the patient was being treated with liposomal AMB for 3 months; P2 (FLC MIC [μg/ml], 0.25; CAS MIC, 4), while the patient was being treated with CAS for 2 weeks; P3 (CAS MIC [μg/ml], 0.5; FLC MIC, 32), while the patient was being treated with azoles and CAS initially followed by azoles alone for a week; P4 (CAS MIC [μg/ml], 8; FLC MIC, 8), while the patient was being treated with both drugs for 3 weeks; and P5 (AMB MIC [μg/ml], 0.125; CAS MIC, 8), while the patient was being treated with AMB and FLC for 2 weeks. CAS resistance was associated with resistance not only to micafungin and anidulafungin but also to AMB. Analysis of CAS resistance revealed 3 novel FKS1 mutations in CAS-resistant isolates (S638Y in P2; S631Y in P4; S638P in P5). While S638Y and -P are within HS1, S631Y is in close proximity to this domain but was confirmed to confer candin resistance using a site-directed mutagenesis approach. FLC resistance could be linked with overexpression of major facilitator gene 7 (MFS7) in C. lusitaniae P2 and P4 and was associated with resistance to 5-flurocytosine. This clinical report describes resistance of C. lusitaniae to all common antifungals. While candins or azole resistance followed monotherapy, multidrug antifungal resistance emerged during combined therapy.

Yan J, Ma C, Cheng J, et al.
HAX-1 inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer through the suppression of caspase-9 activation.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2776-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
HS1 associated protein X-1 (HAX-1), a substrate of Src family tyrosine kinases, plays a critical role in cell apoptosis. However, its functions in prostate cancer remains unclear. The present study explored the role and mechanism of HAX-1 in cancer cell apoptosis. The mRNA and protein levels of HAX-1 in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, VCaP and DU145 were assessed. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-9 activities were assessed in DU145 after HAX-1 siRNA treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of HAX-1 in prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, VCaP and DU145 were significantly higher than those in the primary prostate epithelial cells, and DU145 possess the highest mRNA and protein levels compared to PC-3 and VCaP. When HAX-1 was knocked down in DU145, cell proliferation was significantly decreased, accompanied by a decrease in Ki67 protein expression. Compared with the control and control siRNA groups, HAX-1 siRNA promoted cell apoptosis and caspase-9 activation in DU145. Furthermore, prostate cancer cells co-transfected with HAX-1 and caspase-9 promoted viability and reduced apoptosis. In contract, co-transfection of caspase-9 and HAX-1 siRNA suppressed the cell viability and enhanced apoptosis. In summary, the present study demonstrated that HAX-1 inhibits cell apoptosis through caspase-9 inactivation.

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