Gene Summary

Gene:EEF1A2; eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2
Aliases: HS1, STN, EF1A, STNL, EEF1AL, EF-1-alpha-2
Summary:This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and the other isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. This gene may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:elongation factor 1-alpha 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Trisomy
  • Tumor Markers
  • FISH
  • Lung Cancer
  • Trans-Activators
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Carcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Dosage
  • Genomics
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Apoptosis
  • Oncogenes
  • Prostate Cancer
  • RT-PCR
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Movement
  • Messenger RNA
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Chromosome 20
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Cycle
  • Peptide Elongation Factor 1
  • siRNA
  • Smoking
  • Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational
  • Western Blotting
  • EEF1A2
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transfection
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Xenograft Models
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • Gene Amplification
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Ovarian Cancer
Tag cloud generated 25 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EEF1A2 (cancer-related)

Sun Y, Du C, Wang B, et al.
Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development.
METHODS: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

Pflueger D, Sboner A, Storz M, et al.
Identification of molecular tumor markers in renal cell carcinomas with TFE3 protein expression by RNA sequencing.
Neoplasia. 2013; 15(11):1231-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is defined by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 transcription factor at chromosome Xp11.2. Genetically proven TFE3 tRCCs have a broad histologic spectrum with overlapping features to other renal tumor subtypes. In this study, we aimed for characterizing RCC with TFE3 protein expression. Using next-generation whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) as a discovery tool, we analyzed fusion transcripts, gene expression profile, and somatic mutations in frozen tissue of one TFE3 tRCC. By applying a computational analysis developed to call chimeric RNA molecules from paired-end RNA-Seq data, we confirmed the known TFE3 translocation. Its fusion partner SFPQ has already been described as fusion partner in tRCCs. In addition, an RNA read-through chimera between TMED6 and COG8 as well as MET and KDR (VEGFR2) point mutations were identified. An EGFR mutation, but no chromosomal rearrangements, was identified in a control group of five clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs). The TFE3 tRCC could be clearly distinguished from the ccRCCs by RNA-Seq gene expression measurements using a previously reported tRCC gene signature. In validation experiments using reverse transcription-PCR, TMED6-COG8 chimera expression was significantly higher in nine TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in 24 ccRCCs (P < .001) and 22 papillary RCCs (P < .05-.07). Immunohistochemical analysis of selected genes from the tRCC gene signature showed significantly higher eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (EEF1A2) and Contactin 3 (CNTN3) expression in 16 TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in over 200 ccRCCs (P < .0001, both).

Pellegrino R, Calvisi DF, Neumann O, et al.
EEF1A2 inactivates p53 by way of PI3K/AKT/mTOR-dependent stabilization of MDM4 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(5):1886-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Mouse Double Minute homolog 4 (MDM4) gene up-regulation often occurs in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular mechanisms responsible for its induction remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis in the regulation of MDM4 levels in HCC. The activity of MDM4 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was modulated in human HCC cell lines by way of silencing and overexpression experiments. Expression of main pathway components was analyzed in an AKT mouse model and human HCCs. MDM4 inhibition resulted in growth restraint of HCC cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the PI3K-AKT and/or mTOR pathways lowered MDM4 protein levels in HCC cells and reactivated p53-dependent transcription. Deubiquitination by ubiquitin-specific protease 2a and AKT-mediated phosphorylation protected MDM4 from proteasomal degradation and increased its protein stability. The eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 (EEF1A2) was identified as an upstream inducer of PI3K supporting MDM4 stabilization. Also, we detected MDM4 protein up-regulation in an AKT mouse model and a strong correlation between the expression of EEF1A2, activated/phosphorylated AKT, and MDM4 in human HCC (each rho > 0.8, P < 0.001). Noticeably, a strong activation of this cascade was associated with shorter patient survival.
CONCLUSION: The EEF1A2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis promotes the protumorigenic stabilization of the MDM4 protooncogene in human HCC by way of a posttranscriptional mechanism. The activation level of the EEF1A2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR/MDM4 axis significantly influences the survival probability of HCC patients in vivo and may thus represent a promising molecular target.

Wei XJ, Li SY, Yu B, et al.
Expression of HAX-1 in human colorectal cancer and its clinical significance.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):1411-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancers worldwide. HS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) has been highlighted as an important marker in many types of cancers. However, little is known about the role of HAX-1 in CRC. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of HAX-1 expression with the clinicopathological features of CRC. The protein and mRNA levels of HAX-1 were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Survival curves were made with follow-up data. The relations of the prognosis with clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed. Using IHC and RT-qPCR, we showed that HAX-1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.05). High HAX-1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.034) and tumor (T) node (N) metastasis (M) stage (P = 0.028) of patients with CRC. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that overall survival was significantly worse in CRC patients with HAX-1 overexpression. Multivariate analysis showed that high HAX-1 expression was an independent predictor of overall survival. In conclusion, our data for the first time provide a basis for the concept that overexpression of HAX-1 may contribute to the malignant progression of CRC and predict poor prognosis for patients with this disease. HAX-1 might be an important marker for tumor progression and prognosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target of CRC.

Vislovukh A, Kratassiouk G, Porto E, et al.
Proto-oncogenic isoform A2 of eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1 is a target of miR-663 and miR-744.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(11):2304-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) is a known proto-oncogene. We proposed that stimulation of the eEF1A2 expression in cancer tissues is caused by the loss of miRNA-mediated control.
METHODS: Impact of miRNAs on eEF1A2 at the mRNA and protein levels was examined by qPCR and western blot, respectively. Dual-luciferase assay was applied to examine the influence of miRNAs on 3'-UTR of EEF1A2. To detect miRNA-binding sites, mutations into the 3'-UTR of EEF1A2 mRNA were introduced by the overlap extension PCR.
RESULTS: miR-663 and miR-744 inhibited the expression of luciferase gene attached to the 3'-UTR of EEF1A2 up to 20% and 50%, respectively. In MCF7 cells, overexpression of miR-663 and miR-744 reduced the EEF1A2 mRNA level by 30% and 50%. Analogous effects were also observed at the eEF1A2 protein level. In resveratrol-treated MCF7 cells the upregulation of mir-663 and mir-744 was accompanied by downregulation of EEF1A2 mRNA. Both miRNAs were able to inhibit the proliferation of MCF7 cells.
CONCLUSION: miR-663 and miR-744 mediate inhibition of the proto-oncogene eEF1A2 expression that results in retardation of the MCF7 cancer cells proliferation. Antitumour effect of resveratrol may include stimulation of the miR-663 and miR-744 expression.

Skokowa J, Klimiankou M, Klimenkova O, et al.
Interactions among HCLS1, HAX1 and LEF-1 proteins are essential for G-CSF-triggered granulopoiesis.
Nat Med. 2012; 18(10):1550-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
We found that hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1 (HCLS1 or HS1) is highly expressed in human myeloid cells and that stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) leads to HCLS1 phosphorylation. HCLS1 binds the transcription factor lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1), transporting LEF-1 into the nucleus upon G-CSF stimulation and inducing LEF-1 autoregulation. In patients with severe congenital neutropenia, inherited mutations in the gene encoding HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) lead to profound defects in G-CSF-triggered phosphorylation of HCLS1 and subsequently to reduced autoregulation and expression of LEF-1. Consistent with these results, HCLS1-deficient mice are neutropenic. In bone marrow biopsies of the majority of tested patients with acute myeloid leukemia, HCLS1 protein expression is substantially elevated, associated with high levels of G-CSF synthesis and, in some individuals, a four-residue insertion in a proline-rich region of HCLS1 protein known to accelerate intracellular signaling. These data demonstrate the importance of HCLS1 in myelopoiesis in vitro and in vivo.

Frezzato F, Gattazzo C, Martini V, et al.
HS1, a Lyn kinase substrate, is abnormally expressed in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia and correlates with response to fludarabine-based regimen.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
In B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL) kinase Lyn is overexpressed, active, abnormally distributed, and part of a cytosolic complex involving hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1). These aberrant properties of Lyn could partially explain leukemic cells' defective apoptosis, directly or through its substrates, for example, HS1 that has been associated to apoptosis in different cell types. To verify the hypothesis of HS1 involvement in Lyn-mediated leukemic cell survival, we investigated HS1 protein in 71 untreated B-CLL patients and 26 healthy controls. We found HS1 overexpressed in leukemic as compared to normal B lymphocytes (1.38±0.54 vs 0.86±0.29, p<0.01), and when HS1 levels were correlated to clinical parameters we found a higher expression of HS1 in poor-prognosis patients. Moreover, HS1 levels significantly decreased in ex vivo leukemic cells of patients responding to a fludarabine-containing regimen. We also observed that HS1 is partially localized in the nucleus of neoplastic B cells. All these data add new information on HS1 study, hypothesizing a pivotal role of HS1 in Lyn-mediated modulation of leukemic cells' survival and focusing, one more time, the attention on the BCR-Lyn axis as a putative target for new therapeutic strategies in this disorder.

Chen SJ, Zhou GB
Targeted therapy: The new lease on life for acute promyelocytic leukemia, and beyond.
IUBMB Life. 2012; 64(8):671-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemia, a group of hematological malignancies characterized by abnormal proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and blocked differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, is a disease involving dynamic change in the genome. Chromosomal translocation and point mutation are the major mechanisms in leukemia, which lead to production of oncogenes with dominant gain of function and tumor suppressor genes with recessive loss of function. Targeted therapy refers to treatment strategies perturbing the molecules critical for leukemia pathogenesis. The t(15;17) which generates PML-RARα, t(8;21) that produces AML1-ETO, and t(9;22) which generates BCR-ABL are the three most frequently seen chromosomal translocations in myeloid leukemia. The past two to three decades have witnessed tremendous success in development of targeted therapies for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia caused by the three fusion proteins. Here, we review the therapeutic efficacies and the mechanisms of action of targeted therapies for myeloid leukemia and show how this strategy significantly improve the clinical outcome of patients and even turn acute promyelocytic leukemia from highly fatal to highly curable.

Fernando TM, Ochs SD, Liu J, et al.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces transcriptional activity of the human polymorphic hs1,2 enhancer of the 3'Igh regulatory region.
J Immunol. 2012; 188(7):3294-306 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental toxicant known to inhibit Ab secretion and Ig expression. Inhibition of Ig expression may be partially mediated through repression of the 3'Igh regulatory region (3'IghRR). TCDD inhibits mouse 3'IghRR activation and induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding to dioxin response elements within the 3'IghRR enhancers hs1,2 and hs4. The human hs1,2 enhancer (hu-hs1,2) is polymorphic as the result of the presence of one to four invariant sequences (ISs), which have been correlated with several autoimmune diseases. The IS also contains a dioxin response element core motif. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether hu-hs1,2 activity is sensitive to TCDD. Using a mouse B cell line (CH12.LX), we compared the effects of TCDD on mouse hs1,2 versus hu-hs1,2 activity. TCDD inhibited mouse hs1,2 similarly to the mouse 3'IghRR. In contrast, hu-hs1,2 was activated by TCDD, and antagonist studies supported an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent activation, which was replicated in a human B cell line (IM-9). Absence of Pax5 binding sites is a major difference between the human and mouse hs1,2 sequence. Insertion of the high-affinity Pax5 site in hu-hs1,2 markedly blunted reporter activity but did not alter TCDD's effect (i.e., no shift from activation to inhibition). Additionally, deletional analysis demonstrated a significant IS contribution to hu-hs1,2 basal activity, but TCDD-induced activity was not strictly IS number dependent. Taken together, our results suggest that hu-hs1,2 is a significant target of TCDD and support species differences in hs1,2 regulation. Therefore, sensitivity of hu-hs1,2 to chemical-induced modulation may influence the occurrence and/or severity of human diseases associated with hu-hs1,2.

Butrym A, Majewski M, Dzietczenia J, et al.
High expression of hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate-1 (HS1) predicts poor survival of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
Leuk Res. 2012; 36(7):876-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in western countries. HS1 protein regulates leukemic cell migration and homing, and can indirectly promote disease progression and influence patient survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate HS1 expression in CLL patients in connection with other known prognostic factors and patients' survival.
METHODS: 90 untreated CLL patients were included into the study. The control group consisted of 28 healthy matched people. HS1 detection was performed by western-blotting. Mutational status of IgVH, as well as CD38 and ZAP70 expression was also analyzed.
RESULTS: HS1 expression was significantly higher in CLL patients comparing to controls. Positive correlation was shown between HS1 and: age (p=0.0454), Rai stage (p=0.0412), leukocytosis (p=0.0129) and beta-2-microglobulin (p=0.0342). Patients with lymphocyte doubling time shorter or equal to 6 months had higher expression of HS1. Patients with higher HS1 expression had shorter survival than those with lower HS1 expression (p=0.0329).
CONCLUSIONS: We showed, that high HS1 expression predicts poor survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

Scaggiante B, Dapas B, Bonin S, et al.
Dissecting the expression of EEF1A1/2 genes in human prostate cancer cells: the potential of EEF1A2 as a hallmark for prostate transformation and progression.
Br J Cancer. 2012; 106(1):166-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In prostate adenocarcinoma, the dissection of the expression behaviour of the eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A1/2) has not yet fully elucidated.
METHODS: The EEF1A1/A2 expressions were investigated by real-time PCR, western blotting (cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched fractions) and immunofluorescence in the androgen-responsive LNCaP and the non-responsive DU-145 and PC-3 cells, displaying a low, moderate and high aggressive phenotype, respectively. Targeted experiments were also conducted in the androgen-responsive 22Rv1, a cell line marking the progression towards androgen-refractory tumour. The non-tumourigenic prostate PZHPV-7 cell line was the control.
RESULTS: Compared with PZHPV-7, cancer cells showed no major variations in EEF1A1 mRNA; eEF1A1 protein increased only in cytoskeletal/nuclear fraction. On the contrary, a significant rise of EEF1A2 mRNA and protein were found, with the highest levels detected in LNCaP. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 immunostaining confirmed the western blotting results. Pilot evaluation in archive prostate tissues showed the presence of EEF1A2 mRNA in near all neoplastic and perineoplastic but not in normal samples or in benign adenoma; in contrast, EEF1A1 mRNA was everywhere detectable.
CONCLUSION: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 switch-on, observed in cultured tumour prostate cells and in human prostate tumour samples, may represent a feature of prostate cancer; in contrast, a minor involvement is assigned to EEF1A1. These observations suggest to consider EEF1A2 as a marker for prostate cell transformation and/or possibly as a hallmark of cancer progression.

Liu W, Guan M, Hu T, et al.
Re-expression of AKAP12 inhibits progression and metastasis potential of colorectal carcinoma in vivo and in vitro.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e24015 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: AKAP12/Gravin (A kinase anchor protein 12) is one of the A-kinase scaffold proteins and a potential tumor suppressor gene in human primary cancers. Our recent study demonstrated the highly recurrent loss of AKAP12 in colorectal cancer and AKAP12 reexpression inhibited proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in colorectal cancer cells, implicating AKAP12 in colorectal cancer pathogenesis.
METHODS: To evaluate the effect of this gene on the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer, we examined the impact of overexpressing AKAP12 in the AKAP12-negative human colorectal cancer cell line LoVo, the single clone (LoVo-AKAP12) compared to mock-transfected cells (LoVo-CON).
RESULTS: pCMV6-AKAP12-mediated AKAP12 re-expression induced apoptosis (3% to 12.7%, p<0.01), migration (89.6±7.5 cells to 31.0±4.1 cells, p<0.01) and invasion (82.7±5.2 cells to 24.7±3.3 cells, p<0.01) of LoVo cells in vitro compared to control cells. Nude mice injected with LoVo-AKAP12 cells had both significantly reduced tumor volume (p<0.01) and increased apoptosis compared to mice given AKAP12-CON. The quantitative human-specific Alu PCR analysis showed overexpression of AKAP12 suppressed the number of intravasated cells in vivo (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that AKAP12 may play an important role in tumor growth suppression and the survival of human colorectal cancer.

Luo X, Li Z, Li X, et al.
hSav1 interacts with HAX1 and attenuates its anti-apoptotic effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2011; 28(3):349-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been reported that Salvador (SAV) is a core component of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway that restricts cell number, by functioning as a dual regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila. However, the function of its human ortholog hSav1 (also called hWW45) in mammalian cells is poorly understood. In this study, we identified hematopoietic cell-specific protein 1 (HS1)-associated protein X-1 (HAX1), a 35-kDa protein localized to cell mitochondria, as a novel binding partner of hSav1 using a yeast two-hybrid screening technique. Our finding was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays of both proteins. Using immunofluorescence staining, we showed that HAX1 and hSav1 interact with each other. Analysis of the anti-apoptotic function of HAX1 revealed that the presence of hSav1 attenuated the HAX1 protective effects from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells, while knockdown of hSav1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) significantly enhanced the anti-apoptotic function of HAX1. Also, using the Oncomine database, we found several studies in which HAX1 levels were significantly up-regulated and hSav1 expression was down-regulated in breast cancer samples compared to normal breast tissue. In summary, we conclude that hSav1 interacts with HAX1 and attenuates its protective role against apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Zhang Y, Tong X
Expression of the actin-binding proteins indicates that cofilin and fascin are related to breast tumour size.
J Int Med Res. 2010 May-Jun; 38(3):1042-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was designed to investigate the expression of four actin-binding proteins, alpha-actinin-4, cofilin 1, fascin and elongation factor 1-alpha 2 (eEF1A2), in samples of breast cancer from 112 patients with different stages of breast cancer (stages T0 - T1, T2 and T3) compared with normal control tissues (n = 33). Levels of eEF1A2 and alpha-actinin-4 mRNA appeared to be unrelated to tumour size, except for a significant down-regulation of alpha-actinin-4 mRNA in T3 cases. Significant up-regulation of cofilin 1 mRNA was associated with stages T0 - T1 and T2; up-regulation seen at stage T3 was not significant compared with control tissue. Fascin mRNA levels were significantly reduced at all three tumour stages (T0 - T1, T2 and T3) compared with control tissue. In conclusion, some components of the actin cytoskeletal system might hold significant potential as targets in future cancer therapies.

Scielzo C, Bertilaccio MT, Simonetti G, et al.
HS1 has a central role in the trafficking and homing of leukemic B cells.
Blood. 2010; 116(18):3537-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The function of the intracellular protein hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate-1 (HS1) in B lymphocytes is poorly defined. To investigate its role in migration, trafficking, and homing of leukemic B lymphocytes we have used B cells from HS1(-/-) mice, the HS1-silenced human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) MEC1 cell line and primary leukemic B cells from patients with CLL. We have used both in vitro and in vivo models and found that the lack of expression of HS1 causes several important functional effects. In vitro, we observed an impaired cytoskeletal remodeling that resulted in diminished cell migration, abnormal cell adhesion, and increased homotypic aggregation. In vivo, immunodeficient Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-) mice injected with HS1-silenced CLL B cells showed a decreased organ infiltration with the notable exception of the bone marrow (BM). The leukemic-prone Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mice crossed with HS1-deficient mice were compared with Eμ-TCL1 mice and showed an earlier disease onset and a reduced survival. These findings show that HS1 is a central regulator of cytoskeleton remodeling that controls lymphocyte trafficking and homing and significantly influences the tissue invasion and infiltration in CLL.

Li Z, Qi CF, Shin DM, et al.
Eef1a2 promotes cell growth, inhibits apoptosis and activates JAK/STAT and AKT signaling in mouse plasmacytomas.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10755 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The canonical function of EEF1A2, normally expressed only in muscle, brain, and heart, is in translational elongation, but recent studies suggest a non-canonical function as a proto-oncogene that is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors including breast and ovary. Transcriptional profiling of a spectrum of primary mouse B cell lineage neoplasms showed that transcripts encoding EEF1A2 were uniquely overexpressed in plasmacytomas (PCT), tumors of mature plasma cells. Cases of human multiple myeloma expressed significantly higher levels of EEF1A2 transcripts than normal bone marrow plasma cells. High-level expression was also a feature of a subset of cell lines developed from mouse PCT and from the human MM.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Heightened expression of EEF1A2 was not associated with increased copy number or coding sequence mutations. shRNA-mediated knockdown of Eef1a2 transcripts and protein was associated with growth inhibition due to delayed G1-S progression, and effects on apoptosis that were seen only under serum-starved conditions. Transcriptional profiles and western blot analyses of knockdown cells revealed impaired JAK/STAT and PI3K/AKT signaling suggesting their contributions to EEF1A2-mediated effects on PCT induction or progression.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EEF1A2 may play contribute to the induction or progression of some PCT and a small percentage of MM. Eef1a2 could also prove to be a useful new marker for a subset of MM and, ultimately, a possible target for therapy.

Lee MH, Surh YJ
eEF1A2 as a putative oncogene.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009; 1171:87-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The first evidence for the role of the protein elongation factor eEF1A2 in tumorigenesis was reported by Anand and colleagues who demonstrated that eEF1A2 is overexpressed in about 30% of ovarian tumors and some established ovarian cancer cells. This abnormal expression correlates with a poor prognosis. Since this discovery, there have been several reports suggesting eEF1A2 as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. This review highlights the oncogenic potential of eEF1A2.

Jitkaew S, Trebinska A, Grzybowska E, et al.
N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in transformed human B cell lines with transcriptional down-regulation of anti-apoptotic HS1-associated protein X-1.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(41):27827-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) has been widely used to investigate signal transduction pathways that are involved in gene expression and cell survival/cell death. However, contradictory effects of TPCK on apoptosis have been reported, and the underlying signaling events leading to TPCK-induced promotion or prevention of apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we show that TPCK induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B cell lines with release of pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria. TPCK treatment also results in down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, cIAP1, cIAP2, and HAX-1, and caspase-dependent cleavage of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and XIAP. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that the TPCK-induced down-regulation of HAX-1 occurred at the transcriptional level, and experiments using the specific pharmacological inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, suggested that HAX-1 expression is subject to regulation by the transcription factor, NF-kappaB. B cell lines derived from patients with homozygous HAX1 mutations were more sensitive to TPCK-induced apoptosis when compared with normal donor cell lines. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine effectively blocked TPCK-induced apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cell lines and prevented the down-regulation or cleavage of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that TPCK induces apoptosis in human B cell lines and exerts multiple effects on pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

Kim J, Namkung W, Yoon JS, et al.
The role of translation elongation factor eEF1A in intracellular alkalinization-induced tumor cell growth.
Lab Invest. 2009; 89(8):867-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The formation of a pH gradient, which is characterized by intracellular alkalinization and extracellular acidification, plays a key role in the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of alkalinization-induced cell growth are not known. In this study, we investigated the roles of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) in alkalinization-induced cell growth. In all cell lines tested (NIH3T3, HEK293, and HeLa), cell growth was affected by the modulation of intracellular pH. In general, weak intracellular alkalinization produced increased cell growth, whereas intracellular acidification resulted in decreased cell growth. It is interesting to note that portions of actin-bound eEF1A proteins were gradually reduced from acidic to alkaline conditions, suggesting an increase in levels of functionally active, free-form eEF1A. Over-expression of eEF1A caused increased cell growth in HeLa cells. It should be noted that dissociation of eEF1A from actin by transfection with the actin-binding domain deleted eEF1A construct further increased cell growth under acidic conditions, whereas most of the intact eEF1A was bound to actin. Conversely, knockdown of eEF1A by treatment with eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 siRNAs nullified the effects of alkalinization-induced cell growth. The above findings suggest that an increase in free-form eEF1A under alkaline conditions plays a critical role in alkalinization-induced cell growth.

Maher SK, Helbing CC
Modulators of inhibitor of growth (ING) family expression in development and disease.
Curr Drug Targets. 2009; 10(5):392-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family proteins regulate many critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation and growth, apoptosis, DNA repair, senescence, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Their transcripts and proteins are differentially expressed in health and disease and there is evidence for developmental regulation. The vast majority of studies have characterized ING levels in the context of cancer. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the expression of ING family members in other contexts. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal model systems that provide insight into the factors influencing the expression of these important proteins. We examine the influence of cell cycle and aging as well as genotoxic stress on ING expression levels and evaluate several emerging areas of inquiry demonstrating that ING gene activity may be modulated by factors such as the p53 tumor suppressor, DNA methylation, and ING proteins themselves with external factors such as hormones, reactive oxygen species, TGFbeta signalling, and other proteins of pathological significance also influencing ING levels. We then briefly discuss the influence of post-translational modification and changes in subcellular localization as it pertains to modulation of ING expression. Understanding how ING expression is modulated represents a vital aspect of effective drug targeting strategies.

Li WB, Feng J, Geng SM, et al.
Induction of apoptosis by Hax-1 siRNA in melanoma cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2009; 33(4):548-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
HS1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) is a novel intracellular protein and recent studies suggested that it is an anti-apoptotic factor in different tumors. Hax-1 expression was upregulated in various metastatic tumors and cancer cell lines, including melanoma. To understand the role of Hax-1 in melanoma development and progression, we constructed Hax-1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) expression vectors to downregulate Hax-1 expression in a human melanoma A375 cell line. One of the two Hax-1 RNA interference (RNAi) constructs significantly reduced melanoma cell viability, which was due to induction of apoptosis in A375 cells. Molecularly, the induced apoptosis through downregulation of Hax-1 expression was mediated by activation of caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymatic activity in A375 cells. The data indicate that Hax-1 plays a role in suppression of apoptosis and promotion of melanoma cell growth, suggesting that this Hax-1 siRNA has a therapeutic indication in control of melanoma.

Cao H, Zhu Q, Huang J, et al.
Regulation and functional role of eEF1A2 in pancreatic carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 380(1):11-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer typically has an unfavourable prognosis due to late diagnosis and a lack of therapeutic options. Thus, it is important to better understand its pathological mechanism and to develop more effective treatments for the disease. Human chromosome 20q13 has long been suspected to harbour oncogenes involved in pancreatic cancer and other tumours. In this study, we found that eEF1A2, a gene located in 20q13, was significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Little or no expression of eEF1A2 was detected in normal human pancreatic and chronic pancreatitis tissues, whereas increased eEF1A2 expression occurred in 83% of the pancreatic cancers we studied. Furthermore, using in vitro and in vivo model systems, we found that overexpression of eEF1A2 promoted cell growth, survival, and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Our data thus suggest that eEF1A2 might play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly by acting as a tumour oncogene.

Sun Y, Wong N, Guan Y, et al.
The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(8):1761-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OECs) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In our study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We defined the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.

Kido T, Lau YF
The human Y-encoded testis-specific protein interacts functionally with eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A, a putative oncoprotein.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(7):1573-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome. TSPY is expressed in normal germ cells of fetal and adult testis and ectopically in tumor germ cells, including gonadoblastoma in intersex patients, testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer and other somatic cancers. It is a member of the TSPY/SET/NAP1 superfamily and harbors a highly conserved domain, termed SET/NAP domain. To explore its possible role(s) in tumorigenesis, we had performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a fetal gonadal cDNA library and identified the translation elongation factor eEF1A as a binding partner for TSPY at the SET/NAP domain. TSPY and eEF1A were highly expressed and colocalized in tumor germ cells of human seminoma specimens, suggesting their possible interaction in germ cell tumors. They were colocalized in the cytoplasm and could be co-immunoprecipitated from transfected COS7 cells. Significantly, both eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 have postulated to be involved in various types of human cancer, including breast and prostate cancers. TSPY enhanced protein synthesis of a reporter gene, which was augmented by an overexpression of eEF1A. TSPY also increased the nuclear redistribution of eEF1A, resulting in a parallel increase in reporter gene transcripts. Our results suggest that TSPY could exert its oncogenic function(s) by interacting with eEF1As and stimulating gene expression via its enhancements in protein synthesis and gene transcription.

Ju T, Lanneau GS, Gautam T, et al.
Human tumor antigens Tn and sialyl Tn arise from mutations in Cosmc.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(6):1636-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neoplastic lesions typically express specific carbohydrate antigens on glycolipids, mucins, and other glycoproteins. Such antigens are often under epigenetic control and are subject to reversion and loss upon therapeutic selective pressure. We report here that two of the most common tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, Tn and sialyl Tn (STn), result from somatic mutations in the gene Cosmc that encodes a molecular chaperone required for formation of the active T-synthase. Diverse neoplastic lesions, including colon cancer and melanoma-derived cells lines, expressed both Tn and STn antigen due to loss-of-function mutations in Cosmc. In addition, two human cervical cancer specimens that showed expression of the Tn/STn antigens were also found to have mutations in Cosmc and loss of heterozygosity for the cross-linked Cosmc locus. This is the first example of somatic mutations in multiple types of cancers that cause global alterations in cell surface carbohydrate antigen expression.

Pinke DE, Kalloger SE, Francetic T, et al.
The prognostic significance of elongation factor eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2008; 108(3):561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2), a transforming gene previously shown to be highly expressed in primary human ovarian tumours, is a prognostic marker.
METHODS: We have used an antibody specific for eEF1A2 to measure eEF1A2 protein expression in 500 primary ovarian tumours in a tissue microarray. We have also ectopically expressed eEF1A2 in SK-OV-3 cells, a clear cell carcinoma line that does not normally express eEF1A2.
RESULTS: We have shown that eEF1A2 has high expression levels in approximately 30% of all primary ovarian tumours. 50% of serous tumours, 30% of endometrioid, 19% of mucinous and 8% of clear cell tumours highly express eEF1A2. Ectopic expression of eEF1A2 in the SK-OV-3 clear cell carcinoma line enhances their in vitro proliferative capacity and ability to form tumour-like spheroids in hanging drop culture. Expression of eEF1A2 did not alter sensitivity to anoikis, cisplatin, or taxol. In serous cancer, eEF1A2 is an independent prognostic marker for survival and high eEF1A2 protein expression was associated with increased probability of 20-year survival.
CONCLUSIONS: eEF1A2 is highly expressed in ovarian carcinomas. Its expression enhances cell growth in vitro, and eEF1A2 expression is likely to be a useful ovarian cancer prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients with serous tumours.

Schlaeger C, Longerich T, Schiller C, et al.
Etiology-dependent molecular mechanisms in human hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology. 2008; 47(2):511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is characterized by aggressive tumor behavior coupled with poor prognosis. Various etiologies have been linked to HCC development, most prominently chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections as well as chronic alcohol consumption. In approximately 10% of HCCs, the etiology remains cryptic; however, recent epidemiological data suggest that most of these cryptogenic HCCs develop due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify etiology-dependent DNA copy number aberrations and genes relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis, we performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization of 63 HCCs of well-defined etiology and 4 HCC cell lines followed by gene expression profiling and functional analyses of candidate genes. For a 10-megabase chromosome region on 8q24, we observed etiology-dependent copy number gains and MYC overexpression in viral and alcohol-related HCCs, resulting in up-regulation of MYC target genes. Cryptogenic HCCs showed neither 8q24 gains, nor MYC overexpression, nor target gene activation, suggesting that tumors of this etiology develop by way of a distinct MYC-independent pathomechanism. Furthermore, we detected several etiology-independent small chromosome aberrations, including amplification of MDM4 on 1q32.1 and frequent gains of EEF1A2 on 20q13.33. Both genes were overexpressed in approximately half the HCCs examined, and gene silencing reduced cell viability as well as proliferation and increased apoptosis rates in HCC cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MDM4 and EEF1A2 act as etiology-independent oncogenes in a significant percentage of HCCs.

Grassi G, Scaggiante B, Farra R, et al.
The expression levels of the translational factors eEF1A 1/2 correlate with cell growth but not apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with different differentiation grade.
Biochimie. 2007; 89(12):1544-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the involvement of the elongation factors eEF1A (eEF1A1 and eEF1A2) in the development of different cancers no information is available on their possible contribution to the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of both forms of eEF1A in HepG2 and JHH6 cell lines considered to be a good in vitro model of HCC at different stage of differentiation. Our data indicate that the mRNA amount of eEF1A1 is increased in both cell lines as compared to normal liver tissue, but eEF1A2 mRNA level is markedly increased only in JHH6. Moreover, the less differentiated cell line JHH6 displays higher EEF1A1 and EEF1A2 mRNAs levels and an higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of EEF1A protein compared to the better differentiated HepG2 cell line. Over-expression depends only partially on gene amplification. The more abundant mRNA levels and the higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of eEF1A in JHH6 neither correlate with apoptosis resistance nor with proliferation rate in sub-confluent cells. However, in confluent cells, a clear tendency to maintain JHH6 into the cell cycle was observed. In conclusion, we document the increased mRNA levels of EEF1A genes in HCC cell lines compared to normal liver. Additionally, we show the increased nuclear-enriched/cytoplasmic protein ratio of eEF1A and the marked raise of the expression of both eEF1A forms in JHH6 compared to HepG2, suggesting the possibility that eEF1A forms might become a relevant markers related to HCC tumor phenotype.

Tomlinson VA, Newbery HJ, Bergmann JH, et al.
Expression of eEF1A2 is associated with clear cell histology in ovarian carcinomas: overexpression of the gene is not dependent on modifications at the EEF1A2 locus.
Br J Cancer. 2007; 96(10):1613-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The tissue-specific translation elongation factor eEF1A2 is a potential oncogene that is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer. eEF1A2 is highly similar (98%) to the near-ubiquitously expressed eEF1A1 (formerly known as EF1-alpha) making analysis with commercial antibodies difficult. We wanted to establish the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer of defined histological subtypes at both the RNA and protein level, and to establish the mechanism for the overexpression of eEF1A2 in tumours. We show that while overexpression of eEF1A2 is seen at both the RNA and protein level in up to 75% of clear cell carcinomas, it occurs at a lower frequency in other histological subtypes. The copy number at the EEF1A2 locus does not correlate with expression level of the gene, no functional mutations were found, and the gene is unmethylated in both normal and tumour DNA, showing that overexpression is not dependent on genetic or epigenetic modifications at the EEF1A2 locus. We suggest that the cause of overexpression of eEF1A2 may be the inappropriate expression of a trans-acting factor. The oncogenicity of eEF1A2 may be related either to its role in protein synthesis or to potential non-canonical functions.

Lam DC, Girard L, Suen WS, et al.
Establishment and expression profiling of new lung cancer cell lines from Chinese smokers and lifetime never-smokers.
J Thorac Oncol. 2006; 1(9):932-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype of lung cancer, which ranks top in the cancer mortality in both men and women. Female nonsmokers and adenocarcinoma have emerged as a distinct combination in patients with lung cancer in recent decades. Lung cancer cell lines established from patients with known clinical characteristics such as gender and smoking habit would be useful for future research on lung cancer.
METHODS: Four new lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (HKULC 1-4) were established from Chinese patients with primary lung adenocarcinomas and with different clinical characteristics with respect to age, gender, smoking habits, tumor staging, and previous therapy. They were characterized by immunohistochemical and growth kinetic studies, tests for tumorigenicity in nude mice, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation analysis, and in situ hybridization, and gene expression profiling with Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A.
RESULTS: The newly established HKULC lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were maintained for over 70 passages and demonstrated morphologic and immunohistochemical features and growth kinetics of tumor cell lines. One of the four HKULC cell lines, HKULC 3 (derived from a female nonsmoking patient with lung adenocarcinoma), was found to have a deletion at exon 19 of the EGFR gene. EGFR in situ hybridization showed no EGFR gene amplification in these cell lines. HKULC 1 and 4 formed tumor xenografts after inoculation in nude mice. A list of 71 genes that were differentially expressed or showing class predictive significance was identified. These genes included putative tumor suppressor genes (DKK3, SERPINF1, CDH11, DSC3, and KLF6), genes involved in or related to the EGFR pathways (ERBB3, MUC1, VAV1), genes involved in regulation of cell cycle and proliferation (CDKN1A and CDKN2A), a putative oncogene (EEF1A2), and a gene related to metastasis (MTSS1).
DISCUSSION: Four new lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics. These characterized cell lines and their gene expression profiles will provide resources for studies of lung cancer biology and in vitro chemotherapeutic drug study.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. EEF1A2, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 25 February, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999