Gene Summary

Gene:EPHX1; epoxide hydrolase 1, microsomal (xenobiotic)
Aliases: MEH, EPHX, EPOX, HYL1
Summary:Epoxide hydrolase is a critical biotransformation enzyme that converts epoxides from the degradation of aromatic compounds to trans-dihydrodiols which can be conjugated and excreted from the body. Epoxide hydrolase functions in both the activation and detoxification of epoxides. Mutations in this gene cause preeclampsia, epoxide hydrolase deficiency or increased epoxide hydrolase activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:epoxide hydrolase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (9)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tyrosine
  • Taiwan
  • Xenobiotics
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Transcription
  • Smoking
  • Quinone Reductases
  • Pleural Neoplasms
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Genotype
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Serum Albumin
  • Exons
  • Pharyngeal Neoplasms
  • Signal Transduction
  • NADP
  • Sulfotransferases
  • Urine
  • Alleles
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Young Adult
  • Vegetables
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • Polymorphism
  • Sex Factors
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Microsomes
  • Tumor Markers
  • Epoxide Hydrolases
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Lung Cancer
  • Risk Assessment
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Chromosome 1
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EPHX1 (cancer-related)

Ruano-Ravina A, Pereyra MF, Castro MT, et al.
Genetic susceptibility, residential radon, and lung cancer in a radon prone area.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(8):1073-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Radon exposure has been classified as the second cause of lung cancer, after tobacco, and the first in never smokers. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes deletion increase the risk of lung cancer. We aim to know whether the risk of lung cancer because of residential radon is modulated by these genetic polymorphisms.
METHODS: Hospital-based, case-control study where cases had confirmed lung cancer. Cases and controls did not have previous neoplasm and were older than 30. Controls attended hospital for noncomplex surgery. We analyzed the results for the whole sample and separately for never/light smokers and moderate/heavy smokers.
RESULTS: Seven-hundred and ninety-two participants were analyzed. GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-2.04) and 1.13 (95% CI 0.70-1.82), respectively. Individuals with GSTM1 present and residential radon concentrations higher than 148 Bq/m had an OR of 1.48 (95% CI 0.73-3.00), whereas those with GSTM1 deleted had an OR of 2.64 (95% CI 1.18-5.91) when compared with participants with GSTM1 present and radon concentrations below 50 Bq/m3. Similar results were observed for GSTT1 deletion. These results were basically the same for the moderate/heavy smokers' subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS: The absence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes increases the risk of lung cancer because of radon exposure. These genes might modulate the carcinogenic pathway of alpha radiation. Further studies are warranted analyzing this association in never smokers.

Gong WF, He W, Zhang QM, et al.
Try113His and His139Arg polymorphisms in the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene are not associated with risk of breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):8087-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer may be caused by several factors, including polymorphisms in the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) gene. Previous work suggested an association between mEH polymorphism and risk of breast cancer, but the results have been inconsistent. PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between Tyr113His and His139Arg mEH polymorphisms and susceptibility to breast cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Seven studies involving 6,357 cases and 8,089 controls were included in this study. The Tyr113His mEH polymorphism did not affect breast cancer risk in the allelic contrast model (OR = 0.99, 95 % CI = 0.94-1.04, P = 0.58), the dominant genetic model (OR = 1.14, 95 % CI = 0.88-1.48, P = 0.33), or the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 0.96-1.10, P = 0.43). Similarly, the His139Arg mEH polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer risk in the allelic contrast model (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI = 0.91-1.04, P = 0.44), the dominant genetic model (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 0.84-1.21, P = 0.94), or the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0.96-1.12, P = 0.35). The mEH polymorphisms Tyr113His and His139Arg are not risk factors for breast cancer. Further, large and well-designed studies are required to confirm this conclusion.

Chen JY, Chen WN, Jiao BY, et al.
Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) promotes the carcinogenic effects of benzo [alpha] pyrene by interacting with microsomal epoxide hydrolase and enhancing its hydrolysis activity.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:282 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who often have concomitant increase in the levels of benzo[alpha]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide(±) (BPDE)-DNA adduct in liver tissues, suggesting a possible co-carcinogenesis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and benzo[alpha]pyrene in HCC; however the exact mechanisms involved are unclear.
METHODS: The interaction between hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was confirmed using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay; the effects of HBSP on mEH-mediated B[alpha]P metabolism was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and the influences of HBSP on B[alpha]P carcinogenicity were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor xenograft.
RESULTS: HBSP could interact with mEH in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was mediated by the N terminal 47 amino acid residues of HBSP. HBSP could greatly enhance the hydrolysis activity of mEH in cell-free mouse liver microsomes, thus accelerating the metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene to produce more ultimate carcinnogen, BPDE, and this effect of HBSP requires the intact HBSP molecule. Expression of HBSP significantly increased the formation of BPDE-DNA adduct in benzo[alpha]pyrene-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and this enhancement was blocked by knockdown of mEH. HBSP could enhance the cell proliferation, accelerate the G1/S transition, and promote cell transformation and tumorigenesis of B[alpha]P-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that HBSP could promote carcinogenic effects of B[alpha]P by interacting with mEH and enhancing its hydrolysis activity.

Su S, Yang X, Omiecinski CJ
Intronic DNA elements regulate Nrf2 chemical responsiveness of the human microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1) through a far upstream alternative promoter.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):493-505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In humans, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) contributes important biological functions that underlie both detoxification and bioactivation fates arising from exposures to foreign chemicals. Previously, we discovered that human mEH gene transcription is initiated from alternative promoters. The respective transcripts are programmed with tissue specificity and the upstream E1b promoter contributes predominantly to mEH expression. The results presented demonstrate that exposures to the Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane (SFN) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), markedly activate E1b transcription in human lung and liver cells. Genomic analyses identified two major DNase I hypersensitive regions (HS-1 and HS-2) within the ~15 kb intervening sequence separating E1b from the downstream E1 promoter. In BEAS-2B cells, the Nrf2 effectors, SFN and tBHQ, selectively activated the more distal HS-2 through an antioxidant response element (ARE). An activator protein 1/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate interaction was further identified within the HS-2 enhancer that functioned to additionally contribute to ARE-mediated induction responsiveness of the E1b promoter. The results demonstrate that ARE modulation, integrated with additional transcriptional complexes, regulates the tissue-specific expression of mEH and that these processes likely coordinate both the protective and bioactivation functions contributed by mEH activities in human tissues.

Khrunin AV, Khokhrin DV, Moisseev AA, et al.
Pharmacogenomic assessment of cisplatin-based chemotherapy outcomes in ovarian cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(3):329-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cisplatin and its analogs are potent antitumor agents. However, their use is restricted by significant variability in tumor response and toxicity. There is a great need to identify genetic markers to predict the most important adverse events and patient outcomes.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We have evaluated the association between polymorphisms in 106 genes involved mainly in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, the cell cycle and apoptosis, and outcomes in 104 ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Arrayed primer extension technology was used to genotype 228 SNPs.
RESULTS: Ten SNPs in nine genes were found to be associated with one or more of the assessed clinical end points. SNPs in TPMT and NQO1 were significantly associated with progression-free survival. Polymorphisms in ERCC5, RAD52, MUTYH and LIG3 correlated with the occurrence of severe neutropenia. SNPs in NAT2 and EPHX1 were associated with anemia and nephrotoxicity, respectively. A SNP in ADH1C was correlated with complete tumor response.
CONCLUSION: The results obtained suggest that SNPs in different genes involved in drug metabolism can be important in identifying patients at risk for nonresponse to or toxicity from cisplatin-based treatment.

Panic N, Mastrostefano E, Leoncini E, et al.
Susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection: results of an epidemiological investigation among gastric cancer patients.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(6):3637-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, demographic, lifestyle factors and selected genetic polymorphisms that affect the susceptibility towards Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric cancer patients. Histological confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma cases that underwent curative gastrectomy between 2002 and 2012 were included. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained to determine the H. pylori status, and further cagA status and vacA m and s genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires, and blood samples were collected for EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, IL1B, IL1-RN, MTHFR and p53 genotyping. Proportions were compared in univariate analysis, while the relation between putative risk factors and H. pylori status and genotype were measured using logistic regression analysis. One hundred forty-nine gastric cancer patients were included, of which 78.5% were H. pylori positive. Among positive patients 50% were cagA+, 72.5% vacA m1 and 80.7% vacA s1. The presence of cagA was less frequent among vacA m1 (p = 0.031) and vacA s1 (p = 0.052) subtypes. The presence of father history for any cancer was a significant risk factor for H. pylori infection [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-64.55]. EPHX1 exon 3 T > C (OR = 0.35, CI 95% 0.13-0.94), IL1B-511 T > C (OR = 0.38, CI 95% 0.15-0.97) and IL1-RN VNTR (OR = 0.19, CI 95% 0.06-0.58) polymorphisms were protective towards H. pylori infection in the univariate analysis. Wine consumption was associated with higher risk of carrying the H. pylori vacA m1 virulent subtype (p = 0.034). Lastly, cardiovascular diseases were less common among cagA positive subjects (p = 0.023). Father history of any cancer is a risk factor for H. pylori infection. Polymorphisms in IL1B-511, IL1-RN and EPHX1 exon 3 genes might be protective towards H. pylori infection.

Martino A, Campa D, Jurczyszyn A, et al.
Genetic variants and multiple myeloma risk: IMMEnSE validation of the best reported associations--an extensive replication of the associations from the candidate gene era.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014; 23(4):670-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic background plays a role in multiple myeloma susceptibility. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma were identified in the last years, but only a few of them were validated in independent studies.
METHODS: With the aim to conclusively validate the strongest associations so far reported, we selected the polymorphisms rs2227667 (SERPINE1), rs17501108 (HGF), rs3136685 (CCR7), rs16944 (IL1B), rs12147254 (TRAF3), rs1805087 (MTR), rs1800629 (TNF-α), rs7516435 (CASP9), rs1042265 (BAX), rs2234922 (mEH), and rs1801133 (MTHFR). We genotyped them in 1,498 multiple myeloma cases and 1,934 controls ascertained in the context of the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, and meta-analyzed our results with previously published ones.
RESULTS: None of the selected SNPs were significantly associated with multiple myeloma risk (P value range, 0.055-0.981), possibly with the exception of the SNP rs2227667 (SERPINE1) in women.
CONCLUSIONS: We can exclude that the selected polymorphisms are major multiple myeloma risk factors.
IMPACT: Independent validation studies are crucial to identify true genetic risk factors. Our large-scale study clarifies the role of previously published polymorphisms in multiple myeloma risk.

Sang Q, Li X, Wang H, et al.
Quantitative methylation level of the EPHX1 promoter in peripheral blood DNA is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88013 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Steroid synthesis and metabolic pathways play important roles in the pathophysiology of PCOS, but until now there have been no studies on the methylation profiles of specific genes in steroid synthesis pathways that are known to be associated with PCOS. Here we used MassARRAY quantitative methylation analysis to determine the methylation levels of each CpG site or cluster in the promoters of EPHX1, SRD5A1, and CYP11A1 in 64 peripheral blood samples. We further examined the methylation level of EPHX1 in an independent cohort consisting of 116 people. Finally, we investigated the role of EPHX1 in steroidogenesis in the KGN cell line. For SRD5A1 and CYP11A1, there was no significant difference in methylation level between patients and controls. For EPHX1, however, the methylation levels of a few consecutive CpG sites and clusters were found to be significantly associated with PCOS. The methylation levels of a number of CpG clusters or sites were significantly lower in patients than in controls in the first cohort consisting of 64 people, such as clusters 13-14 (P<0.05), 15-16 (P<0.001), and 19-24 (P<0.001) and sites CpG_53 (P<0.01) and CpG_54 (P<0.05). Among differentiated methylation sites and clusters, the methylation levels of the CpG cluster 13-14 and CpG cluster 19-24 in PCOS patients were significantly lower than in controls in the second cohort of 116 people (P<0.05 for both). In addition, knockdown and overexpression experiments in KGN cells showed that EPHX1 can regulate estradiol concentrations, and this indicates a role for EPHX1 in steroidogenesis. Our study has demonstrated that methylation of the EPHX1 promoter might be associated with PCOS. This study provides direct evidence that methylation plays an important role in PCOS and demonstrates a novel role for EPHX1 in female reproduction.

Pérez-Morales R, Méndez-Ramírez I, Moreno-Macias H, et al.
Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer based on candidate genes in a sample from the Mexican Mestizo population: a case-control study.
Lung. 2014; 192(1):167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of mortality caused by neoplasias worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the primary cause, not all smokers develop LC. Polymorphic variations in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and cell-cycle dysregulation may alter an individual risk of developing LC. A polygenic cancer model was proposed, which considers genetic susceptibility to cancer is a global mechanism and suggests that it might be defined by the contributions of low-risk alleles in several candidate genes. This study focused on the analysis of 15 polymorphisms in 12 low-penetrance genes in a case-control study of a sample of Mexican Mestizo population.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed with a total of 572 unrelated individuals, including 190 cases with a primary LC diagnosis and 382 healthy controls. The polymorphic status of the individuals was determined by TaqMan probe and RFLP techniques. The association between LC and genotype score (GS) was assessed by logistic regression.
RESULTS: The results suggests a protective effect of the genotypes Arg/Lys of AhR rs2066853 (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, p = 0.03), Ile/Val of CYP1A1 rs1048943 (OR 0.49, p = 0.009), Tyr/His of EPHX1 rs1051740 (OR 0.53, p = 0.03), and A/A of CCND1 rs603965 (OR 0.44, p = 0.02). Analyses using the GS suggest that average cases have a larger number of risk alleles than controls (Student's t test -4.85, p = 0.001; OR 1.25, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest significant differences between the GS for the cases and controls, which support the hypothesis underlying the additive and polygenic models for lung cancer risk depending on the polymorphisms in low-penetrance genes.

Barrington-Trimis JL, Searles Nielsen S, Preston-Martin S, et al.
Parental smoking and risk of childhood brain tumors by functional polymorphisms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism genes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis suggested an association between exposure to paternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk, but no studies have evaluated whether this association differs by polymorphisms in genes that metabolize tobacco-smoke chemicals.
METHODS: We assessed 9 functional polymorphisms in 6 genes that affect the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to evaluate potential interactions with parental smoking during pregnancy in a population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors. Cases (N = 202) were ≤10 years old, diagnosed from 1984-1991 and identified in three Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries in the western U.S. Controls in the same regions (N = 286) were frequency matched by age, sex, and study center. DNA for genotyping was obtained from archived newborn dried blood spots.
RESULTS: We found positive interaction odds ratios (ORs) for both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, EPHX1 H139R, and childhood brain tumors (P(interaction) = 0.02; 0.10), such that children with the high-risk (greater PAH activation) genotype were at a higher risk of brain tumors relative to children with the low-risk genotype when exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. A dose-response pattern for paternal smoking was observed among children with the EPHX1 H139R high-risk genotype only (OR(no exposure) = 1.0; OR(≤3 hours/day) = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.52-3.34; OR(>3 hours/day )= 3.18, 95% CI: 0.92-11.0; P(trend )= 0.07).
CONCLUSION: Parental smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood brain tumors among genetically susceptible children who more rapidly activate PAH in tobacco smoke.

Merlo DF, Agramunt S, Anna L, et al.
Micronuclei in cord blood lymphocytes and associations with biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens and hormonally active factors, gene polymorphisms, and gene expression: the NewGeneris cohort.
Environ Health Perspect. 2014; 122(2):193-200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development.
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored.
METHODS: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe.
RESULTS: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN.
CONCLUSION: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research.

Hu JJ, Wang ZT, Li B
Meta-analysis demonstrates lack of an association of microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 polymorphisms with esophageal cancer risk.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):4540-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epoxide hydrolases metabolize exogenous chemicals, including carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The relationship between microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk has been investigated in various ethnic populations, but the results have been contradictory. We investigated the association of EPHX1 Tyr113His and His139Arg polymorphisms with esophageal cancer via a comprehensive meta-analysis. Publications before August 20, 2012 were included. Eight studies concerning Tyr113His polymorphism associated with 1158 esophageal cancer cases and 1868 controls were identified; 7 studies concerning association of His139Arg with 901 esophageal cancer cases and 1615 controls were also included. A random-effect model was applied, irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. No significant association was found in either the allele or genotype models for Tyr113His or His139Arg polymorphism with risk for esophageal cancer. Lack of association was also identified in stratified analyses by ethnicity. No publication bias was observed. We conclude that current evidence does not demonstrate association of EPHX1 Tyr113His or His139Arg polymorphisms with risk for development of esophageal cancer.

Duan CY, Liu MY, Li SB, et al.
Lack of association of EPHX1 gene polymorphisms with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(1):659-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have focused on the association of a gene (EPHX1) encoding microsomal epoxide hydrolase with the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the possible association between EPHX1 genetic polymorphisms and the risk for HCC. We conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of EPHX1 genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to HCC in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang database in China, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data from eligible studies were extracted for meta-analysis. HCC risk associated with EPHX1 genetic polymorphism was estimated by pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Our results showed that, for the two polymorphisms (337 T > C and 416A > G) of EPHX1 gene, neither allele frequency nor genotype distributions were associated with risk for HCC in all genetic models (all P > 0.05). This meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 genetic polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of HCC.

Eom SY, Yim DH, Zhang Y, et al.
Dietary aflatoxin B1 intake, genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, and GSTT1, and gastric cancer risk in Korean.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(11):1963-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake, genetic polymorphisms of AFB1 metabolic enzymes, and interactions between the polymorphisms and intake of AFB1 with regard to the risk of gastric cancer in Korean.
METHODS: The participants in the study included 477 gastric cancer patients and 477 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Direct interviews and a structured questionnaire were used to determine the level of exposure to AFB1, and the GoldenGate assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used for genotypic analyses of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), cytochrome P450 1E1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and glutathione S-transferase genes.
RESULTS: The probable daily intake of AFB1 was significantly higher among gastric cancer patients than among control subjects (cases vs. controls: 1.91 ± 0.87 vs. 1.65 ± 0.72 ng/kg bw/day, p < 0.0001), and increased AFB1 intake was significantly associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio 1.94; 95 % confidence interval 1.43-2.63). However, genetic polymorphisms of AFB1 metabolic enzymes were not associated with gastric cancer, with the exception of CYP1A2. Moreover, there was no interaction between AFB1 intake and the genotypes of metabolic enzymes that affect gastric cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that dietary AFB1 exposure might be associated with a risk of gastric cancer. However, the effect of AFB1 on gastric carcinogenesis may not be modulated by genetic polymorphisms of AFB1 metabolic enzymes.

Fathy M, Hamed M, Youssif O, et al.
Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer susceptibility: modification by antioxidant enzyme genetic polymorphisms.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2014; 18(1):55-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the primary etiologic factor responsible for lung cancer. However, only 10-15 % of smokers develop lung cancer, suggesting a genetic role in modifying individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Antioxidant enzymes and genetic polymorphisms should be considered.
AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of antioxidant enzyme activity and genetic polymorphisms in modifying the susceptibility to lung cancer among individuals exposed to ETS.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 150 male subjects were divided into three groups: 50 lung cancer patients, 50 chronic smokers, and 50 passive smokers. Genotyping of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) exon 3 (Tyr(113)Hist) and exon 4 (Hist(139)Arg) polymorphisms were done by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. MnSOD (Val(16)Ala) polymorphism was detected by the real time-TaqMan assay. Erythrocyte MnSOD activity was measured spectrophotometrically.
RESULTS: ETS-exposed individuals (both active and passive smokers) who carried the His allele of mEH exon3 have a 2.9-fold increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, P < 0.001). In addition, ETS-exposed carriers of the Arg allele of mEH exon 4 have a 2.1-fold increased risk of lung cancer (OR 2.1, P = 0.024). However, no association between the MnSOD Val(16)Ala polymorphism and lung cancer was detected among ETS-exposed individuals (OR 1.6, P = 0.147), although the lung cancer group had significantly lower MnSOD activity than the chronic or passive smoker groups (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Exons 3 and 4 polymorphisms of the mEH gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility through disturbed antioxidant balance. However, this was not the case with the MnSOD Val(16)Ala single-nucleotid polymorphism. Antioxidant enzymes may modulate the influence of ETS exposure on lung cancer risk.

Peluso ME, Munnia A, Srivatanakul P, et al.
DNA adducts and combinations of multiple lung cancer at-risk alleles in environmentally exposed and smoking subjects.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2013; 54(6):375-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interindividual variation in DNA adduct levels in individuals exposed to similar amounts of environmental carcinogens may be due to genetic variability. We analysed the influence of genes involved in determining/modifying DNA damage, including microsomal epoxide hydrolase1 (EPHX1) His139Arg, N-acetyl-transferase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) Pro187Ser, manganese superoxide dismutase2 (MnSOD2) Val16Ala, and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) Asp148Glu polymorphisms in blood of 120 smokers. Subsequently, we examined the effects of the combinations of the variant alleles of EPHX, NQO1 and MnSOD2 together with the wild type allele of APE1 on DNA damage by calculating the "sum of at-risk alleles." We reviewed the studies examining the relationships of DNA adducts with at-risk alleles in environmentally exposed subjects. Our findings showed that smokers carrying the EPHX1-139Arg and the NQO1-187Ser variants were significantly more likely to have higher adduct levels. Null associations were found with the other variants. Nevertheless, DNA adduct levels in smokers with ≥5 at-risk alleles were significantly different from those with fewer than two alleles. A similar picture emerged from studies of DNA adducts and at-risk alleles in environmentally exposed and smoking subjects. Certain at-risk allele combinations may confer a greater likelihood of increased levels of adducts after environmental insults. The increase in DNA adduct levels in susceptible subjects exposed to environmental carcinogens may reflect changes in the mechanisms that protect cells from the accumulation of genetic damage. Alterations of the physiological processes designed to maintain homeostasis may reduce the individual "genotoxic tolerance" to environmental challenges and result in phenotypes characterized by high levels of DNA adducts.

Conesa-Zamora P, Ruiz-Cosano J, Torres-Moreno D, et al.
Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes (EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1) in lymphoma susceptibility: a case control study.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:228 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interplay between genetic susceptibility and carcinogenic exposure is important in the development of haematopoietic malignancies. EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1 are three genes encoding proteins directly involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens.
METHODS: We have studied the prevalence of three functional polymorphisms affecting these genes rs1051740 EPHX1, rs1800566 NQO1 and rs662 PON1 in 215 patients with lymphoma and 214 healthy controls.
RESULTS: Genotype frequencies for EPHX and NQO1 polymorphisms did not show any correlation with disease. In contrast, the GG genotype in the PON1 polymorphism was found to be strongly associated with the disease (15.3% vs. 4.7%; OR = 3.7 CI (95%): 1.8-7.7; p < 0.001). According to the pathological diagnosis this association was related to follicular (p = 0.004) and diffuse large B-cell (p = 0.016) lymphomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that further confirmation is needed, this study shows that the PON1 GG genotype in rs662 polymorphism could be a risk factor for B-cell lymphomas.

Ghoshal U, Kumar S, Jaiswal V, et al.
Association of microsomal epoxide hydrolase exon 3 Tyr113His and exon 4 His139Arg polymorphisms with gastric cancer in India.
Indian J Gastroenterol. 2013; 32(4):246-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, an important phase II xenobiotic enzyme, exhibits polymorphisms at exon 3 (Tyr113His [T/C]) and exon 4 (His139Arg [A/G]), which modulate enzyme activity; this may affect susceptibility to cancers. We studied association between these polymorphisms and gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: In a prospective study, 77 patients with GC, 50 with peptic ulcer, and 160 healthy controls (HC) were genotyped for exon 3 (PCR-RFLP followed by sequencing) and exon 4 (PCR-RFLP). Helicobacter pylori was considered to be present if two of three tests (histology, rapid urease test, and IgG antibody) were positive.
RESULTS: Tyr113His and His139Arg genotypes and haplotypes were comparable among groups. 113His carriers were commoner among H. pylori-negative patients with GC than HC (p-value = 0.019, odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-5.4). Haplotype combination of exons 3 and 4 113Tyr-139Arg (TA) were associated with higher and reduced risk in patients with GC than HC in presence and absence of H. pylori (25 % vs. 11 %; p-value = 0.033, OR = 2.61, 95 % CI = 1.08-6.3 and 11.6 % vs. 28.7 %; p-value = 0.004, OR = 0.33, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.7, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Though 113Tyr-139Arg was associated with GC in presence of H. pylori, in its absence, it appeared to be protective. Exon 3, 113His, however, was associated with GC even in absence of H. pylori infection.

Zhong JH, Xiang BD, Ma L, et al.
Meta-analysis of microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e57064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex process that may be influenced by many factors, including polymorphism in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Previous work suggests an association between the Tyr113His and His139Arg mEH polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the results have been inconsistent.
METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between Tyr113His and His139Arg mEH polymorphism and susceptibility to HCC. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving 1,696 HCC cases and 3,600 controls. The 113His- mEH allele was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC based on allelic contrast (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.75, p = 0.02), homozygote comparison (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.07-2.54, p = 0.02) and a recessive genetic model (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.21-1.96, p<0.001), while individuals carrying the Arg139Arg mEH genotype had no association with increased or decreased risk of HCC.
CONCLUSION: The 113His- allele polymorphism in mEH may be a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis, while the mEH 139Arg- allele may not be a risk or protective factor. There is substantial evidence that mEH polymorphisms interact synergistically with other genes and the environment to modulate risk of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

Chung CJ, Huang CY, Pu YS, et al.
The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 266(2):254-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene-environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene-environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene-environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination.

Liu H, Li HY, Chen HJ, et al.
EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(1):155-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) plays an important role in both the activation and the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. Polymorphisms at exon 4 of the EPHX1 gene have been reported to be associated with variations in EPHX1 activity. Many studies have investigated the association between EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk, but the impact of EPHX1 A139G polymorphism on lung cancer risk is not clear owing to the apparent inconsistence among those studies. This study aimed to identify the association between EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk by performing a meta-analysis. We used the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) to explore the association. Finally, 26 studies with a total of 14,494 subjects were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analyses of total studies showed the EPHX1 A139G polymorphism was associated with lung cancer risk under three genetic models (OR (G versus A) = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.04-1.31, P (OR) = 0.01; OR (AG versus AA) = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.06-1.37, P (OR) = 0.004; OR (AG + GG versus AA) = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.06-1.39, P (OR) = 0.005). Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses further identified the significant association between the EPHX1 A139G polymorphism and lung cancer risk. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Meta-analyses of available data supported the concept of EPHX1 A139G polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor for lung cancer.

Lupo PJ, Nousome D, Okcu MF, et al.
Maternal variation in EPHX1, a xenobiotic metabolism gene, is associated with childhood medulloblastoma: an exploratory case-parent triad study.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012; 29(8):679-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Common epidemiologic study designs used for evaluating germline genetic determinants of childhood medulloblastoma are often subject to population stratification bias and do not account for maternal genetic effects, a proxy for the intrauterine environment, which may be important in determining etiologic factors for this outcome. The case-parent triad design overcomes these limitations. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study among 27 childhood medulloblastoma case-parent triads recruited from the Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Center at Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, USA) between 2003 and 2010. We assessed 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine xenobiotic detoxification genes, as deficiencies in this pathway may induce brain tumorigenesis. Log-linear modeling was used to assess the association between medulloblastoma and both the offspring (i.e., case) and maternal genotypes of each SNP. In our population, there were no offspring genotypes that were significantly associated with disease risk. However, the maternal EPHX1 rs1051740 genotype (RR = 3.26, P = .01) was associated with medulloblastoma risk. This exploratory study highlights the utility of the case-parent triad design, but these results should be interpreted cautiously due to the limited sample size.

Peluso M, Srivatanakul P, Jedpiyawongse A, et al.
Aromatic DNA adducts and number of lung cancer risk alleles in Map-Ta-Phut Industrial Estate workers and nearby residents.
Mutagenesis. 2013; 28(1):57-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Map-Ta-Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) in Rayong, Thailand, is the location of one of the largest industrial complexes in southeastern Asia. The MIE complex produces a mixture of air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds capable to induce the generation of DNA adducts. DNA adducts are considered to be a biomarker of carcinogen exposure; however, its production can be modulated by genetic susceptibility. Thus, we analysed the influence of EPHX1 His139Arg (A>G, rs2234922) and NQO1 Pro187Ser (C>T, rs1800566) involved in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; MnSOD(2) Val16Ala (C>T, rs1799725) a gene that acts against the free radical generation; APE1/Ref-1 Asp148Glu (T>G, rs3136820) a gene involved in the repair of DNA, and in the control of cell-cycle and apoptosis on leucocyte DNA adducts in 77 MIE workers, 69 Map-Ta-Phut residents, and 50 rural controls, Rayong, Thailand. We searched for associations with the 'sum of at-risk alleles' by combining the variant alleles of EPHX1, NQO1 and MnSOD(2) together with the wild-type allele of APE1, since they appeared to influence lung cancer risk. Although our findings revealed significant associations between DNA adducts and the EPHX1 His139Arg and NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphisms, the combination of at-risk alleles was found to affect DNA damage much stronger. DNA adducts were significantly increased in the individuals bearing 4 and ≥ 5 at-risk alleles [mean ratio (MR) = 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.18, P = 0.012, and MR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.27-3.51, P = 0.004, respectively)]. After correction for residence/employment categorisation, a significant increment was present in the MIE workers with ≥ 5 alleles (MR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.46-5.71, P = 0.003). Our data indicate relationships between the generation of DNA adducts and the enzymatic activities of EPHX and NQO1. The combination of unfavourable genetic variants seems to determine the individuals' susceptibility, rather than a single polymorphism.

Ndossi DG, Frizzell C, Tremoen NH, et al.
An in vitro investigation of endocrine disrupting effects of trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 and HT-2 toxins.
Toxicol Lett. 2012; 214(3):268-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trichothecenes are a large family of chemically related mycotoxins. Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 and HT-2 toxins belong to this family and are produced by various species of Fusarium. The H295R steroidogenesis assay, regulation of steroidogenic gene expression and reporter gene assays (RGAs) for the detection of androgen, estrogen, progestagen and glucocorticoid (ant)agonist responses, have been used to assess the endocrine disrupting activity of DON, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. H295R cells were used as a model for steroidogenesis and gene expression studies and exposed with either DON (0.1-1000ng/ml), T-2 toxin (0.0005-5ng/ml) or HT-2 toxin (0.005-50ng/ml) for 48h. We observed a reduction in hormone levels in media of exposed cells following radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was determined by four colorimetric assays and we observed reduced cell viability with increasing toxin concentrations partly explaining the significant reduction in hormone levels at the highest toxin concentration of all three trichothecenes. Thirteen of the 16 steroidogenic genes analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) were significantly regulated (P<0.05) by DON (100ng/ml), T-2 toxin (0.5ng/ml) and HT-2 toxin (5ng/ml) compared to the control, with reference genes (B2M, ATP5B and ACTB). Whereas HMGR and CYP19 were down-regulated, CYP1A1 and CYP21 were up-regulated by all three trichothecenes. DON further up-regulated CYP17, HSD3B2, CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 and down-regulated NR5A1. T-2 toxin caused down-regulation of NR0B1 and NR5A1 whereas HT-2 toxin induced up-regulation of EPHX and HSD17B1 and down-regulation of CYP11A and CYP17. The expressions of MC2R, StAR and HSD17B4 genes were not significantly affected by any of the trichothecenes in the present study. Although the results indicate that there is no evidence to suggest that DON, T-2 and HT-2 toxins directly interact with the steroid hormone receptors to cause endocrine disruption, the present findings indicate that exposure to DON, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin have effects on cell viability, steroidogenesis and alteration in gene expression indicating their potential as endocrine disruptors.

Chauhan PS, Ihsan R, Mishra AK, et al.
High order interactions of xenobiotic metabolizing genes and P53 codon 72 polymorphisms in acute leukemia.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2012; 53(8):619-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes are associated with altered metabolism of carcinogens in acute leukemia (AL). This study applied two data mining approaches to explore potential interactions among P53 and xenobiotic metabolizing genes in 230 AL patients [131 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 99 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)] and 199 controls. Individually, none of the genotypes showed significant associations with AML risk. However, in ALL the CYP1A12A TC genotype was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.58; P = 0.01), whereas the GSTM1 null genotype imparted reduced risk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.31-0.96; P = 0.03). In classification and regression tree analysis, combinations of GSTM1 present, CYP1A12C AA or GG, EPHX1 exon3 TC, and EPHX1 exon4 AA or GG genotype strongly enhanced the risk of AML (OR = 5.89; 95% CI = 1.40-26.62; P = 0.01). In ALL, combinations of CYP1A12A TT, P53 GG or CC and GSTP1 AG genotypes conferred the highest risk (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.45-12.25; P = 0.004). In multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, a four locus model (GSTP1, P53, EPHX1 exon3, and CYP1A12A) was the best predictor model for ALL risk. The association between this model and ALL risk remained true even at low prior probabilities of 0.01% (false positive report probability = 0.05). Interaction entropy interpretations of the best model of ALL revealed that two-way interactions were mostly synergistic. These results suggest that high order gene-gene interactions play an important role in AL risk.

Liu F, Yuan D, Wei Y, et al.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between EPHX1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) plays an important role in both the activation and detoxification of PAHs, which are carcinogens found in cooked meat and tobacco smoking. Polymorphisms at exons 3 and 4 of the EPHX1 gene have been reported to be associated with variations in EPHX1 activity. The aim of this study is to quantitatively summarize the relationship between EPHX1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases for studies published before June 2012. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EPHX1 Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922) polymorphisms and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate.
RESULTS: This meta-analysis yielded 14 case-control studies, which included 13 studies for Tyr113His (6395 cases and 7893 controls) and 13 studies for His139Arg polymorphisms (5375 cases and 6962 controls). Overall, the pooled results indicated that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism was not associated with CRC risk; while the His139Arg polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk (Arg/His vs. His/His, OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.83-0.98; dominant model, OR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-0.99). The statistically significant association between EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism and CRC was observed among Caucasians and population-based case-control studies. This association showed little heterogeneity and remained consistently strong when analyses were limited to studies in which genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, or limited to studies with matched controls. When cumulative meta-analyses of the two associations were conducted by studies' publication time, the results were persistent and robust.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism may be not associated with CRC development; while the EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism may have a potential protective effect on CRC.

Joshi AD, Corral R, Catsburg C, et al.
Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(11):2108-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case-control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology.

Lacko M, Voogd AC, Roelofs HM, et al.
Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms in phase I and II biotransformation enzymes on head and neck cancer risk.
Head Neck. 2013; 35(6):858-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Combinations of genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes might modify the individual risk for head and neck cancer.
METHODS: Blood from 432 patients with head and neck cancer and 437 controls was investigated for genetic polymorphisms in 9 different phase I and II biotransformation enzymes. Analysis of the risk-modifying effect was performed according to predicted enzyme activities, based on genetic polymorphisms in the corresponding genes.
RESULTS: Combination of polymorphisms in COX-2 or EPHX1 with high activity polymorphisms in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, or UGT1A7 showed a risk-modulating effect in head and neck carcinogenesis, especially among heavy smokers and patients with laryngeal cancer. However, no additional effect for the combination of these polymorphisms was discovered when compared to the impact of polymorphism in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 individually.
CONCLUSION: Predicted high activity polymorphisms in the phase II enzymes UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 are associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer.

Catsburg C, Joshi AD, Corral R, et al.
Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(7):1352-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene-diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies.

Masoodi TA, Rao Talluri V, Shaik NA, et al.
Functional genomics based prioritization of potential nsSNPs in EPHX1, GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes for breast cancer susceptibility studies.
Genomics. 2012; 99(6):330-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, nsSNPs in EPHX1, GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes were screened for their functional impact on concerned proteins and their plausible role in breast cancer susceptibility. Initially, SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP, followed by identification of potentially deleterious nsSNPs using PolyPhen and SIFT. Functional analysis was done with SNPs3D, SNPs&GO and MutPred methods. Prediction and evaluation of the functional impact on the 3D structure of proteins were performed with Swiss PDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref servers. On analysis, 13 nsSNPs were found to be highly deleterious and damaging to the protein structure, of which 6 nsSNPs, rs45549733, rs45506591 and rs4986949 of GSTP1, rs72549341 and rs148240980 of EPHX1 and rs17856199 of GSTT1 were predicted to be potentially polymorphic. It is therefore hypothesized that the 6 identified nsSNPs may alter the detoxification process and elevate carcinogenic metabolite accumulation thus modifies the risk of breast cancer susceptibility in a group of women.

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