Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: GLIPR1 (cancer-related)
Yan L, Li Q, Yang J, Qiao BTPX2-p53-GLIPR1 regulatory circuitry in cell proliferation, invasion, and tumor growth of bladder cancer.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(2):1791-1803 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is associated with the metastasis and prognosis of bladder cancer. p53 is closely related to the progression of bladder cancer. Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a p53 target gene with antitumor activity. This study aims to explore the interplay between TPX2, p53, and GLIPR1 and its correlation with cell proliferation, invasion, and tumor growth in bladder cancer. Here, Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that TPX2 at both mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated in bladder carcinoma tissues compared to their paired adjacent normal tissues. Additionally, tissues expressing high TPX2 level exhibited high p53 level and low GLIPR1 level. The expressions of TPX2 and p53 in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells (KK47 and RT4) were lower than those in muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells (T24, 5637, and UM-UC-3), while GLIPR1 showed the converse expression pattern. Further investigation revealed that TPX2 activated the synthesis of p53; and GLIPR1 is up-regulated by wild-type (wt)-p53 but not affected by mutated p53; Additionally, GLIPR1 inhibited TPX2. These data suggested a TPX2-p53-GLIPR1 regulatory circuitry. Meanwhile, TPX2 overexpression promoted while overexpression of GLIPR1 or p53 inhibited bladder cancer growth. Interestingly, in T24 cells with mutated p53, p53 silence suppressed bladder cancer growth. This study identified a novel TPX2-p53-GLIPR1 regulatory circuitry which modulated cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of bladder cancer. Our findings provide new insight into underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic options in bladder cancer.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin (DDP), improve the survival of patients with lung cancer by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, which quickly develop resistance to DDP through uncharacterized mechanisms. Glioma Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 (GLIPR1) plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. However, the expression and function of GLIPR1 in mediating DDP resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP and human large cell lung cancer H460/DDP cells has not yet been reported.
METHODS: In this study, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression of GLIPR1, respectively. Bright-field microscopy, the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry analysis and JC-1 dye were used to measure the cellular morphology, proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively.
RESULTS: Compared to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, the mRNA and protein expression of GLIPR1 were significantly increased in DDP-resistant A549/DDP cells (p < 0.05). Similarly, the mRNA level of GLIPR1 in DDP-resistant H460/DDP cells was also significantly higher than that in DDP-sensitive H460 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of GLIPR1 in A549/DDP and H460/DDP cells led to increased apoptosis via a mitochondrial signaling pathway following incubation with various concentrations of DDP. Furthermore, GLIPR1 downregulation markedly reduced the protein expression of Bcl-2, and increased the cleaved Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase-3 in DDP-resistant A549/DDP cells.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that GLIPR1 could modulate the response of DDP-resistant A549/DDP and H460/DDP cells to cisplatin. Therefore, GLIPR1 deserves further investigation in the context of none-small lung cancer (NSCLC).
Genome-wide association studies and replication analyses have identified (n = 5) or replicated (n = 10) DNA variants associated with risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in European women. However, the causal gene and underlying mechanism for PCOS risk at these loci have not been determined. We hypothesized that analysis of phenotype, gene expression and metformin response as a function of genotype would identify candidate genes and pathways that could provide insight into the underlying mechanism for risk at these loci. To test the hypothesis, subjects with PCOS (n = 427) diagnosed according to the NIH criteria (< 9 menses per year and clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism) and controls (n = 407) with extensive phenotyping were studied. A subset of subjects (n = 38) underwent a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy for RNA sequencing and were subsequently treated with metformin for 12 weeks with standardized outcomes measured. Data were analyzed according to genotype at PCOS risk loci and adjusted for the false discovery rate. A gene variant in the THADA locus was associated with response to metformin and metformin was a predicted upstream regulator at the same locus. Genotype at the FSHB locus was associated with LH levels. Genes near the PCOS risk loci demonstrated differences in expression as a function of genotype in adipose including BLK and NEIL2 (GATA4 locus), GLIPR1 and PHLDA1 (KRR1 locus). Based on the phenotypes, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), and upstream regulatory and pathway analyses we hypothesize that there are PCOS subtypes. FSHB, FHSR and LHR loci may influence PCOS risk based on their relationship to gonadotropin levels. The THADA, GATA4, ERBB4, SUMO1P1, KRR1 and RAB5B loci appear to confer risk through metabolic mechanisms. The IRF1, SUMO1P1 and KRR1 loci may confer PCOS risk in development. The TOX3 and GATA4 loci appear to be involved in inflammation and its consequences. The data suggest potential PCOS subtypes and point to the need for additional studies to replicate these findings and identify personalized diagnosis and treatment options for PCOS.
BACKGROUND: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in proteins. WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77), also known as p44, MEP50, or WD45, forms a stoichiometric complex with PRMT5. The PRMT5/p44 complex is required for cellular proliferation of lung and prostate epithelial cells during earlier stages of development and is re-activated during prostate and lung tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms by which PRMT5 and p44 promote cellular proliferation are unknown.
METHODS: Expression of PRMT5 and p44 in lung and prostate cancer cells was silenced and their target genes were identified. The regulation of target genes was validated in various cancer cells during lung development and tumorigenesis. Altered expression of target genes was achieved by ectopic cDNA expression and shRNA-mediated silencing.
RESULTS: PRMT5 and p44 regulate expression of a specific set of genes encoding growth and anti-growth factors, including receptor tyrosine kinases and antiproliferative proteins. Genes whose expression was suppressed by PRMT5 and p44 encoded anti-growth factors and inhibited cell growth when ectopically expressed. In contrast, genes whose expression was enhanced by PRMT5 and p44 encoded growth factors and increased cell growth when expressed. Altered expression of target genes is associated with re-activation of PRMT5 and p44 during lung tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the molecular basis by which PRMT5 and p44 regulate cell growth and lay a foundation for further investigation of their role in lung tumor initiation.
Dong J, Bi B, Zhang L, Gao KGLIPR1 inhibits the proliferation and induces the differentiation of cancer-initiating cells by regulating miR-16 in osteosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1585-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common, highly malignant and metastatic bone cancer. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of osteosarcoma may further help us to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, and offer novel targets for effective therapies. Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) has been found to be downregulated in human cancers. However, its roles have not been reported in osteosarcoma. In the present study, we demonstrated that GLIPR1 protein was downregulated in osteosarcoma. Its overexpression inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion and induced the differentiation of cancer-initiating cells (CICs) in osteosarcoma. Moreover, GLIPR1 overexpression upregulated miR-16 in osteosarcoma cells. The upregulation suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion as well as induced differentiation of CICs in osteosarcoma. Thus, we conclude that GLIPR1 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion and induced the differentiation of CICs by regulating miR-16 in osteosarcoma. The present study provides direct evidence that GLIPR1 is a bona fide tumor suppressor and identified GLIPR1 and miR-16 as key components for regulating the proliferation, migration, invasion and CICs in osteosarcoma.
BACKGROUND: GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1) was originally identified in glioblastomas and its expression was also found to be down-regulated in prostate cancer. Functional studies revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. GLIPR1's role in lung cancer has not been investigated. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a protein arginine methyltransferase and forms a stoichiometric complex with the WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77) protein. Both PRMT5 and WDR77 are essential for growth of lung epithelial and cancer cells. But additional gene products that interact genetically or biochemichally with PRMT5 and WDR77 in the control of lung cancer cell growth are not characterized.
METHODS: DNA microarray and immunostaining were used to detect GLIPR1 expression during lung development and lung tumorigenesis. GLIPR1 expression was also analyzed in the TCGA lung cancer cohort. The consequence of GLIPR1 on growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in the nude mice was observed.
RESULTS: We found that GLIPR1 expression is negatively associated with PRMT5/WDR77. GLIPR1 is absent in growing epithelial cells at the early stages of mouse lung development and highly expressed in the adult lung. Expression of GLIPR1 was down-regulated during lung tumorigenesis and its expression suppressed growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in mice. GLIPR1 regulates lung cancer growth through the V-Erb-B avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ErbB3).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a novel pathway that PRMT5/WDR77 regulates GLIPR1 expression to control lung cancer cell growth and GLIPR1 as a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.
Koroknai V, Ecsedi S, Vízkeleti L, et al.Genomic profiling of invasive melanoma cell lines by array comparative genomic hybridization.
Melanoma Res. 2016; 26(2):100-7 [PubMed
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Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Invasion of cells is the first step in metastasis, resulting in cell migration through tissue compartments. We aimed to evaluate genomic alterations specifically associated with the invasive characteristics of melanoma cells. Matrigel invasion assays were used to determine the invasive properties of cell lines that originated from primary melanomas. Array comparative genomic hybridization analyses were carried out to define the chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs). Several recurrent CNAs were identified by array comparative genomic hybridization that affected melanoma-related genes. Invasive primary cell lines showed high frequencies of CNAs, including the loss of 7q and gain of 12q chromosomal regions targeting PTPN12, ADAM22, FZD1, TFPI2, GNG11, COL1A2, SMURF1, VGF, RELN and GLIPR1 genes. Gain of the GDNF (5p13.1), GPAA1, PLEC and SHARPIN (8q24.3) genes was significantly more frequent in invasive cell lines compared with the noninvasive ones. Importantly, copy number gains of these genes were also found in cell lines that originated from metastases, suggesting their role in melanoma metastasis formation. The present study describes genomic differences between invasive and noninvasive melanoma cell lines that may contribute toward the aggressive phenotype of human melanoma cells.
Glioblastoma (GBM) are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding normal brain tissue. RTVP-1 is highly expressed in GBM and regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells. To further study RTVP-1 effects we performed a pull-down assay using His-tagged RTVP-1 followed by mass spectrometry and found that RTVP-1 was associated with the actin polymerization regulator, N-WASP. This association was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. We found that RTVP-1 increased cell spreading, migration and invasion and these effects were at least partly mediated by N-WASP. Another protein which was found by the pull-down assay to interact with RTVP-1 is hnRNPK. This protein has been recently reported to associate with and to inhibit the effect of N-WASP on cell spreading. hnRNPK decreased cell migration, spreading and invasion in glioma cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we validated the interactions of hnRNPK with N-WASP and RTVP-1 in glioma cells. In addition, we found that overexpression of RTVP-1 decreased the association of N-WASP and hnRNPK. In summary, we report that RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell spreading, migration and invasion and that these effects are mediated via interaction with N-WASP and by interfering with the inhibitory effect of hnRNPK on the function of this protein.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent childhood malignancy. In the effort to find new anti-leukemic agents, we evaluated the small drug SB225002 (N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N'-(2-bromophenyl)urea). Although initially described as a selective antagonist of CXCR2, later studies have identified other cellular targets for SB225002, with potential medicinal use in cancer. We found that SB225002 has a significant pro-apoptotic effect against both B- and T-ALL cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that treatment with SB225002 induces G2-M cell cycle arrest. Transcriptional profiling revealed that SB225002-mediated apoptosis triggered a transcriptional program typical of tubulin binding agents. Network analysis revealed the activation of genes linked to the JUN and p53 pathways and inhibition of genes linked to the TNF pathway. Early cellular effects activated by SB225002 included the up-regulation of GLIPR1, a p53-target gene shown to have pro-apoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer. Silencing of GLIPR1 in B- and T-ALL cell lines resulted in increased resistance to SB225002. Although SB225002 promoted ROS increase in ALL cells, antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine pre-treatment only modestly attenuated cell death, implying that the pro-apoptotic effects of SB225002 are not exclusively mediated by ROS. Moreover, GLIPR1 silencing resulted in increased ROS levels both in untreated and SB225002-treated cells. In conclusion, SB225002 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different B- and T-ALL cell lines. Inhibition of tubulin function with concurrent activation of the p53 pathway, in particular, its downstream target GLIPR1, seems to underlie the anti-leukemic effect of SB225002.
Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, exhibit increased invasiveness and resistance to anti-tumor treatments. We explored the role of RTVP-1, a glioma-associated protein that promotes glioma cell migration, in the mesenchymal transformation of GBM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrated that RTVP-1 expression was higher in mesenchymal GBM and predicted tumor recurrence and poor clinical outcome. ChiP analysis revealed that the RTVP-1 promoter binds STAT3 and C/EBPβ, two master transcription factors that regulate mesenchymal transformation of GBM. In addition, IL-6 induced RTVP-1 expression in a STAT3-dependent manner. RTVP-1 increased the migration and mesenchymal transformation of glioma cells. Similarly, overexpression of RTVP-1 in human neural stem cells induced mesenchymal differentiation, whereas silencing of RTVP-1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs) decreased the mesenchymal transformation and stemness of these cells. Silencing of RTVP-1 also increased the survival of mice bearing GSC-derived xenografts. Using gene array analysis of RTVP-1 silenced glioma cells we identified IL-6 as a mediator of RTVP-1 effects on the mesenchymal transformation and migration of GSCs, therefore acting in a positive feedback loop by upregulating RTVP-1 expression via the STAT3 pathway. Collectively, these results implicate RTVP-1 as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM.
Min W, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al.Role of the anti-glioma drug AT13148 in the inhibition of Notch signaling pathway.
Gene. 2015; 573(1):153-9 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the drug targets related to Notch signaling pathway for glioma treatment.
METHODS: Gene expression profiles GSE44561, GSE48079 and GSE22772GSE48079GSE22772 of glioma cells samples with activated Notch signaling pathway and control samples were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using limma package. GO (Gene Oncology) function and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using DAVID tools to predict the underlying function of these DEGs. Sequentially, drug target genes recorded in DrugBank database were collected and matched with the selected DEGs to identify the potential drug targets for glioma. Further, these targets were verified by the screened DEGs in the anti-glioma drug (AT13148) treated samples of microarray data of GSE38008.
RESULTS: A total of 75,645,497 DEGs were respectively identified in GSE44561, GSE48079 and GSE22772GSE48079GSE22772 datasets and these DEGs could well distinguish the glioma samples from controls. The DEGs were mainly enriched in classical functions and pathways, such as cell cycle, and DNA replication. A total of 122 DEGs were found to be potential drug targets for glioma, among which GLIPR1 was targeted by drug XL820, PDGFRB and KDR were targeted by SOT-107. Efficacy validation of the other 119 drug targets by GSE38008 data showed that ACSS1, ASL, GCLM, ROCK2, IMPA1, and TFPI may be targeted by the anti-glioma drug of AT13148.
CONCLUSION: AT13148 may inhibit glioma progression by suppressing the Notch signaling genes, including GLIPR1, PDGFRB, ACSS1, and ASL.
Chakrabarti S, Multani S, Dabholkar J, Saranath DWhole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples.
Cancer gender disparity has been observed for a variety of human malignancies. Thyroid cancer is one such cancer with a higher incidence in women, but more aggressive disease in men. There is scant evidence on the role of sex hormones on cancer initiation/progression. Using a transgenic mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), we found castration led to lower rates of cancer in females and less advanced cancer in males. Mechanistically, less advanced cancer in castrated males was due to increased expression of tumor suppressor (Glipr1, Sfrp1) and immune-regulatory genes and higher tumor infiltration with M1 macrophages and CD8 cells. Functional study showed that GLIPR1 reduced cell growth and increased chemokine secretion (Ccl5) that activates immune cells. Our data demonstrate that testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by reducing tumor suppressor gene expression and tumor immunity.
Genistein can prevent tumorigenesis and reduce the incidence of diseases that are dependent upon estrogen. Previous research, however, has shown that genistein can also increase the risk of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein in breast cancer and to determine whether genistein produces a therapeutic effect or promotes the development of breast cancer. Gene microarray data obtained from three samples treated with alcohol (control group), three samples treated with 3 µmol/l genistein and three samples treated with 10 µmol/l genistein for 48 h, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional enrichment in the two genistein groups was performed. The interaction networks of the DEGs were constructed and the overlapping network was extracted. Finally, the functions and pathways of the DEGs in the overlapping network were enriched. In total, 224 DEGs coexisted in the two genistein groups, and the most significant function of these was the cell cycle. The number and the fold change of expression values of the DEGs in the 10 µmol/l genistein group were significantly higher compared with that of the 3 µmol/l genistein group. The most significant function and pathway of the DEGs in the overlapping network was the cell cycle involving several genes, including GLIPR1, CDC20, BUB1, MCM2 and CCNB1. Thus, genistein stimulation resulted in gene expression changes in breast cancer cell lines and discrepancies increased with higher doses of genistein. The DEGs were most significantly associated with cell cycle regulation.
GLIPR1 is a p53 target gene known to be downregulated in prostate cancer, and increased endogenous GLIPR1 expression has been associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, increased apoptosis, decreased c-Myc protein levels and increased cell cycle arrest. Recently, we found that upregulation of GLIPR1 in prostate cancer cells increases mitotic catastrophe through interaction with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) and downregulation of Aurora kinase A and TPX2. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of recombinant GLIPR1 protein (glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1-transmembrane domain deleted [GLIPR1-ΔTM]) uptake by prostate cancer cells and the efficacy of systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM administration in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. GLIPR1-ΔTM was selectively internalized by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production and to decreased c-Myc protein levels. Interestingly, GLIPR1-ΔTM was internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis in association with Hsc70. Systemic administration of GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibited VCaP xenograft growth. GLIPR1-ΔTM showed no evidence of toxicity following elimination from mouse models 8 hr after injection. Our results demonstrate that GLIPR1-ΔTM is selectively endocytosed by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis, and that systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibits growth of VCaP xenografts without substantial toxicity.
Glioma pathogenesis related-2 (GLIPR-2) belongs to pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) family whose function remains unknown. In our previous studies, GLIPR-2 was found to be a novel potent stimulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal fibrosis which has been classified as type 2 EMT. However, whether GLIPR-2 could induce type 3 EMT in carcinogenesis needs further investigation. In this study, we showed that GLIPR-2 was expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, hypoxia could upregulate the expression of GLIPR-2 in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells in vitro, overexpression of this protein promoted migration and invasion via EMT, knockdown of GLIPR-2 attenuated migration and invasion of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells in hypoxia. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are positively regulated by GLIPR-2. Taken together, we provide evidence for a hypoxia/GLIPR-2/EMT/migration and invasion axis in HCC cells and it provides novel insights into the mechanism of migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in hypoxia condition.
Capalbo G, Mueller-Kuller T, Koschmieder S, et al.Endoplasmic reticulum protein GliPR1 regulates G protein signaling and the cell cycle and is overexpressed in AML.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2254-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioma pathogenesis‑related protein 1 (GliPR1) is a pleiotropic protein involved in cell proliferation, tumor growth and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to further characterize GliPR1 in regard to its subcellular localization and its overall effect on cellular gene expression. Knockdown of GliPR1 and Affymetrix microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed 262 GliPR1‑dependent differentially expressed genes, of which 40 were induced and 222 were suppressed. Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in five Gene Ontology categories: G protein signaling pathways, regulation of cyclin‑dependent protein kinase activity, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, axon guidance and dephosphorylation. GliPR1-EGFP fusion protein co‑localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or with cytoplasmic vesicles as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. GliPR1 expression was found to be significantly increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow samples, while markedly reduced in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, unchanged in myelodysplastic syndrome and slightly decreased in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as well as in chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) when compared to normal samples. GliPR1 was localized and involved in the ER secretory protein pathway. GliPR1 affects G protein signaling and cell cycle regulation. Based on the observed overexpression in AML samples, GliPR1 should be further explored as a potential target for AML.
Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive malignant astrocytic tumors, contain a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we study the expression and function of miR-137, a putative suppressor miRNA, in GBM and GSCs. We found that the expression of miR-137 was significantly lower in GBM and GSCs compared to normal brains and neural stem cells (NSCs) and that the miR-137 promoter was hypermethylated in the GBM specimens. The expression of miR-137 was increased in differentiated NSCs and GSCs and overexpression of miR-137 promoted the neural differentiation of both cell types. Moreover, pre-miR-137 significantly decreased the self-renewal of GSCs and the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Shh. We identified RTVP-1 as a novel target of miR-137 in GSCs; transfection of the cells with miR-137 decreased the expression of RTVP-1 and the luciferase activity of RTVP-1 3'-UTR reporter plasmid. Furthermore, overexpression of RTVP-1 plasmid lacking its 3'-UTR abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-137 on the self-renewal of GSCs. Silencing of RTVP-1 decreased the self-renewal of GSCs and the expression of CXCR4 and overexpression of CXCR4 abrogated the inhibitory effect of RTVP-1 silencing on GSC self-renewal. These results demonstrate that miR-137 is downregulated in GBM probably due to promoter hypermethylation. miR-137 inhibits GSC self-renewal and promotes their differentiation by targeting RTVP-1 which downregulates CXCR4. Thus, miR-137 and RTVP-1 are attractive therapeutic targets for the eradication of GSCs and for the treatment of GBM.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to explore the potential benefits of combining AdGlipr1 (or AdGLIPR1) gene therapy with radiotherapy using subcutaneous prostate and bladder cancer models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Combination adenoviral vector-mediated gene therapy and radiotherapy were applied to 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 cells in vitro and colony formation and apoptosis were analyzed. In addition, combination therapies were administered to mice bearing subcutaneous 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 tumors, and tumor growth suppression and survival extension were compared with the monotherapies (AdGlipr1/AdGLIPR1 and radiotherapy) or control vector Adv/CMV/βgal, as well as single-cycle treatment with 2-cycle treatment.
RESULTS: Combination treatment significantly suppressed colony formation and increased apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, combination therapy produced significant 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 tumor growth suppression and survival extension compared with the monotherapies or the control. Further tumor growth suppression and survival extension were observed after 2 cycles of the combination treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Combining AdGlipr1 (AdGLIPR1) with radiotherapy may achieve additive or synergistic tumor control in selected prostate and bladder tumors, and additional therapeutic effects may result with repeated treatment cycles.
In this study we report that expression of glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) regulated numerous apoptotic, cell cycle, and spindle/centrosome assembly-related genes, including AURKA and TPX2, and induced apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe (MC) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including p53-mutated/deleted, androgen-insensitive metastatic PCa cells. Mechanistically, GLIPR1 interacts with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70); this interaction is associated with SP1 and c-Myb destabilization and suppression of SP1- and c-Myb-mediated AURKA and TPX2 transcription. Inhibition of AURKA and TPX2 using siRNA mimicked enforced GLIPR1 expression in the induction of apoptosis and MC. Recombinant GLIPR1-ΔTM protein inhibited AURKA and TPX2 expression, induced apoptosis and MC, and suppressed orthotopic xenograft tumor growth. Our results define a novel GLIPR1-regulated signaling pathway that controls apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe in PCa cells and establishes the potential of this pathway for targeted therapies.
Downregulation of the proapoptotic p53 target gene glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) occurs frequently in prostate cancer, but the functional meaning of this event is obscure. Here, we report the discovery of functional relationship between GLIPR1 and c-Myc in prostate cancer where c-Myc is often upregulated. We found that the expression of GLIPR1 and c-Myc were inversely correlated in human prostate cancer. Restoration of GLIPR1 expression in prostate cancer cells downregulated c-myc levels, inhibiting cell-cycle progression. Downregulation was linked to a reduction in β-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription of the c-myc gene, which was caused by GLIPR1-mediated redistribution of casein kinase 1α (CK1α) from the Golgi apparatus to the cytoplasm where CK1α could phosphorylate β-catenin and mediate its destruction. In parallel, GLIPR1 also promoted c-Myc protein ubiquitination and degradation by glycogen synthase kinase-3α- and/or CK1α-mediated c-Myc phosphorylation. Notably, genetic ablation of the mouse homolog of Glipr1 cooperated with c-myc overexpression to induce prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Together, our findings provide evidence for CK1α-mediated destruction of c-Myc and identify c-Myc S252 as a crucial CK1α phosphorylation site for c-Myc degradation. Furthermore, they reveal parallel mechanisms of c-myc downregulation by GLIPR1 that when ablated in the prostate are sufficient to drive c-Myc expression and malignant development.
Sonpavde G, Thompson TC, Jain RK, et al.GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by adenoviral vector as neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection for localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding radical prostatectomy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(22):7174-82 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GLIPR1 is upregulated by p53 in prostate cancer cells and has preclinical antitumor activity. A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and activity of the neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection of GLIPR1 expressing adenovirus for intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy (RP).
METHODS: Eligible men had localized prostate cancer (T1-T2c) with Gleason score greater than or equal to 7 or prostate-specific antigen 10 ng/mL or more and were candidates for RP. Patients received the adenoviral vector expressing the GLIPR1 gene by a single injection into the prostate followed four weeks later by RP. Six viral particle (vp) dose levels were evaluated: 10(10), 5 × 10(10), 10(11), 5 × 10(11), 10(12), and 5 × 10(12) vp.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients with a median age of 64 years were recruited. Nine men had T1c, 4 had T2a, and 3 had T2b and T2c clinical stage. Toxicities included urinary tract infection (n = 3), flu-like syndrome (n = 3), fever (n = 1), dysuria (n = 1), and photophobia (n = 1). Laboratory toxicities were grade 1 elevated AST/ALT (n = 1) and elevations of PTT (n = 3, with 1 proven to be lupus anticoagulant). No pathologic complete remission was seen. Morphologic cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, and nuclear p27(Kip1) upregulation were observed. Peripheral blood CD8(+), CD4(+), and CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were increased, with upregulation of their HLA-DR expression and elevations of serum IL-12.
CONCLUSIONS: The intraprostatic administration of GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by an adenoviral vector was safe in men, with localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding RP. Preliminary evidence of biologic antitumor activity and systemic immune response was documented.
Xiao YH, Li XH, Tan T, et al.Identification of GLIPR1 tumor suppressor as methylation-silenced gene in acute myeloid leukemia by microarray analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(12):1831-40 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To identify methylation-silenced genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in AML cell line HL-60 cells exposed to the demethylating agent 5-aza-2dC. The methylation status and expression of glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1), one of highly induced genes by demethylation, were further detected in six hematopoietic malignancy cell lines and 260 bone marrow samples from leukemia patients and nonmalignant diseases as control, as well as pre-treated and post-treated bone marrow samples from 24 complete remission AML patients received chemotherapy using MS-PCR, bisulfite DNA sequencing, RT-PCR, and Western blotting.
RESULTS: One hundred and nine genes were significantly induced by demethylation in HL-60 cells, 12 genes of which were confirmed by RT-PCR. GLIPR1, a tumor suppressor gene, was frequently methylation-silenced in AML cell lines and AML patients, but not in the other hematopoietic malignancy cell lines and patients. The frequencies of methylation-silenced GLIPR1 in the pre-treatment were significantly higher than those in the post-treatment in complete remission AML patients.
CONCLUSION: We identify 109 genes induced by demethylation in HL-60 cells, and demonstrate that GLIPR1 is a methylation-silenced gene in the AML patients, and may serve as a marker for monitoring disease activity during therapy in the AML patients. The data provide the important information for studying the pathogenesis of AML and discovering the target genes of methylating agents.
Ziv-Av A, Taller D, Attia M, et al.RTVP-1 expression is regulated by SRF downstream of protein kinase C and contributes to the effect of SRF on glioma cell migration.
Cell Signal. 2011; 23(12):1936-43 [PubMed
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Gliomas are characterized by increased infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissue. We recently reported that RTVP-1 is highly expressed in gliomas and plays a role in the migration of these cells, however the regulation of RTVP-1 expression in these cells is not yet described. In this study we examined the role of PKC in the regulation of RTVP-1 expression and found that PMA and overexpression of PKCα and PKCε increased the expression of RTVP-1, whereas PKCδ exerted an opposite effect. Using the MatInspector software, we identified a SRF binding site on the RTVP-1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that SRF binds to the RTVP-1 promoter in U87 cells, and that this binding was significantly increased in response to serum addition. Moreover, silencing of SRF blocked the induction of RTVP-1 expression in response to serum. We found that overexpression of PKCα and PKCε increased the activity of the RTVP-1 promoter and the binding of SRF to the promoter. In contrast, overexpression of PKCδ blocked the increase in RTVP-1 expression in response to serum and the inhibitory effect of PKCδ was abrogated in cells expressing a SRFT160A mutant. SRF regulated the migration of glioma cells and its effect was partially mediated by RTVP-1. We conclude that RTVP-1 is a PKC-regulated gene and that this regulation is at least partly mediated by SRF. Moreover, RTVP-1 plays a role in the effect of SRF on glioma cell migration.
Aytekin T, Ozaslan M, Cengiz BDeletion mapping of chromosome region 12q13-24 in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 201(1):32-8 [PubMed
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Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Colorectal cancer develops after a long and multistep process of carcinogenesis. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is among the most important steps in development of colorectal cancer. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is an effective method to determine the localization of tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we used five microsatellite markers to analyze the region 12q13-24 among 47 patients with colorectal cancer. The frequency of LOH and the clinicopathological data were compared using logistic regression and a chi-square test. In 34 of 47 tumor tissues (72%), LOH was detected at least in one marker. The highest LOH frequency was 34%, on the D12S129 locus; the lowest frequency was 23%, on the D12S78 locus. Loss of heterozygosity was detected as 32% on D12S83, 30% on D12S346, and 26% on D12S1660. No statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of LOH and clinicopathological features (P > 0.05). Chromosome region 12q13-24 contains several known genes that may be candidate tumor suppressor genes, including RASAL1, ITGA7, STAB2, GLIPR1, and SLC5A8. Although the exact roles of these genes in colorectal cancer formation remain to be clarified, the present data point to a tumor suppressor role.
Rasmussen LM, Frederiksen KS, Din N, et al.Prolactin and oestrogen synergistically regulate gene expression and proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(3):809-22 [PubMed
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The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in mammary gland development. It was also suggested to contribute to breast cancer progression. In vivo data strongly supported a crucial role of PRL in promoting tumour growth; however, PRL demonstrated only a weak, if any, pro-proliferative effect on cancer cells in vitro. Several recent studies indicated that PRL action in vivo may be influenced by the hormonal milieu, e.g. other growth factors such as 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)). Here, we explored the potential interplay between PRL and E(2) in regulation of gene expression and cell growth. PRL alone induced either a weak or no proliferative response of T47D and BT-483 cells respectively, while it drastically enhanced cell proliferation in E(2)-stimulated cultures. Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed 12 genes to be regulated by E(2), while 57 genes were regulated by PRL in T47D cells. Most of the PRL-regulated genes (42/57) were not previously described as PRL target genes, e.g. WT1 and IER3. One hundred and five genes were found to be regulated upon PRL/E(2) co-treatment: highest up-regulation was found for EGR3, RUNX2, EGR1, MAFF, GLIPR1, IER3, SOCS3, WT1 and AREG. PRL and E(2) synergised to regulate EGR3, while multiple genes were regulated additively. These data show a novel interplay between PRL and E(2) to modulate gene regulation in breast cancer cells.
Müller I, Wischnewski F, Pantel K, Schwarzenbach HPromoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:297 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation.
METHODS: In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies.
RESULTS: Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3) at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first to reveal the histone code and MBD profile at the promoters of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different tumour cells and associated changes after stimulation with methylation inhibitor 5-aza-CdR.
After glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1/Glipr1) was identified, the expression of GLIPR1 was shown to be down-regulated in human prostate cancer, owing in part to methylation in the regulatory region of this gene in prostate cancer cells. Additional studies showed that GLIPR1/Glipr1 expression is induced by DNA-damaging agents independent of p53. Functional analysis of GLIPR1 using in vitro and in vivo gene-transfer approaches revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for mouse Glipr1 and human GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. The proapoptotic activities were dependent on production of reactive oxygen species and sustained c-Jun-NH(2) kinase signaling. It was interesting that adenoviral vector-mediated Glipr1 (AdGlipr1) transduction into prostate cancer tissues using an immunocompetent orthotopic mouse model revealed additional biologic activities consistent with tumor-suppressor functions. Significantly reduced tumor-associated angiogenesis and direct suppression of endothelial-cell sprouting activities were documented. In addition, AdGlipr1 strongly stimulated antitumor immune responses that resulted in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in this model. Glipr1-related antitumor immunostimulatory activities were confirmed and extended in subsequent studies. Administration of a novel Glipr1 genemodified tumor cell vaccine had significant antitumor activity in a mouse model of recurrent prostate cancer. In conclusion, restoration of GLIPR1 function in prostate cancer cells through GLIPR1 gene-based or GLIPR protein-based delivery methods may provide a safe and effective approach for targeted therapy for a range of malignancies.
Quinn MC, Filali-Mouhim A, Provencher DM, et al.Reprogramming of the transcriptome in a novel chromosome 3 transfer tumor suppressor ovarian cancer cell line model affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(7):648-61 [PubMed
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Tumor suppression as a consequence of the transfer of chromosome 3p fragments was previously observed in a novel epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) OV-90 cell line model harboring loss of 3p. Microarray analysis revealed that tumor suppression was associated with a modified transcriptome. To investigate the relevance of the altered transcriptome, the differentially expressed genes identified by Affymetrix analysis in the 3p transfer studies, were integrated with a comparative microarray analysis of normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells and malignant ovarian (TOV) cancers. Data from 219 significantly differentially expressed genes exhibited patterns in the direction predicted by the analysis of 3p transfer study. The 30 genes with the highest statistically significant differences (P < 1 x 10(-8)) in expression were found consistently differentially expressed between NOSE and TOV samples. The investigation of these genes in benign serous ovarian tumors and EOC cell lines also exhibited predictable expression patterns. Within the group of differentially expressed genes were SPARC, DAB2, CP, EVI1, ELF3, and EHD2, known to play a role in ovarian cancer, genes implicated in other cancers, such as GREM1 and GLIPR1, as well as genes not previously reported in a cancer context such as AKAP2 and ATAD4. A number of the differentially expressed genes are implicated in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the reprogramming of the transcriptome that occurred as a consequence of the chromosome 3 transfer and tumor suppression affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian carcinogenesis thus validating our novel ovarian cancer cell line model.
Wang H, Thompson TCGene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.
Gene Ther. 2008; 15(10):787-96 [PubMed
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There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1.