GLIPR1; GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (12q21.2)

Gene Summary

Gene:GLIPR1; GLI pathogenesis-related 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein with similarity to both the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) superfamily and the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family. Increased expression of this gene is associated with myelomocytic differentiation in macrophage and decreased expression of this gene through gene methylation is associated with prostate cancer. The protein has proapoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer cells. This gene is a member of a cluster on chromosome 12 containing two other similar genes. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1
Updated:11 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
GLIPR1 is implicated in:
- cellular lipid metabolic process
- extracellular region
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
- small molecule metabolic process
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 11 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (5)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Prostate CancerGLIPR1 and Prostate Cancer View Publications7
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)GLIPR1 and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia View Publications3
Brain Tumours, ChildhoodGLIPR1 and Brain Tumours View Publications3
Wilms TumourGLIPR1 and Wilms Tumour View Publications1
Breast CancerGLIPR1 and Breast Cancer View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: GLIPR1 (cancer-related)

Karantanos T, Tanimoto R, Edamura K, et al.
Systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM protein as a novel therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(8):2003-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
GLIPR1 is a p53 target gene known to be downregulated in prostate cancer, and increased endogenous GLIPR1 expression has been associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, increased apoptosis, decreased c-Myc protein levels and increased cell cycle arrest. Recently, we found that upregulation of GLIPR1 in prostate cancer cells increases mitotic catastrophe through interaction with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) and downregulation of Aurora kinase A and TPX2. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of recombinant GLIPR1 protein (glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1-transmembrane domain deleted [GLIPR1-ΔTM]) uptake by prostate cancer cells and the efficacy of systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM administration in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. GLIPR1-ΔTM was selectively internalized by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production and to decreased c-Myc protein levels. Interestingly, GLIPR1-ΔTM was internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis in association with Hsc70. Systemic administration of GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibited VCaP xenograft growth. GLIPR1-ΔTM showed no evidence of toxicity following elimination from mouse models 8 hr after injection. Our results demonstrate that GLIPR1-ΔTM is selectively endocytosed by prostate cancer cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis, and that systemic GLIPR1-ΔTM significantly inhibits growth of VCaP xenografts without substantial toxicity.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer

Huang SG, Zhang LL, Niu Q, et al.
Hypoxia promotes epithelial--mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via inducing GLIPR-2 expression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77497 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Glioma pathogenesis related-2 (GLIPR-2) belongs to pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) family whose function remains unknown. In our previous studies, GLIPR-2 was found to be a novel potent stimulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal fibrosis which has been classified as type 2 EMT. However, whether GLIPR-2 could induce type 3 EMT in carcinogenesis needs further investigation. In this study, we showed that GLIPR-2 was expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, hypoxia could upregulate the expression of GLIPR-2 in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells in vitro, overexpression of this protein promoted migration and invasion via EMT, knockdown of GLIPR-2 attenuated migration and invasion of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells in hypoxia. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are positively regulated by GLIPR-2. Taken together, we provide evidence for a hypoxia/GLIPR-2/EMT/migration and invasion axis in HCC cells and it provides novel insights into the mechanism of migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in hypoxia condition.

Related: Liver Cancer Signal Transduction

Capalbo G, Mueller-Kuller T, Koschmieder S, et al.
Endoplasmic reticulum protein GliPR1 regulates G protein signaling and the cell cycle and is overexpressed in AML.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2254-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma pathogenesis‑related protein 1 (GliPR1) is a pleiotropic protein involved in cell proliferation, tumor growth and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to further characterize GliPR1 in regard to its subcellular localization and its overall effect on cellular gene expression. Knockdown of GliPR1 and Affymetrix microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed 262 GliPR1‑dependent differentially expressed genes, of which 40 were induced and 222 were suppressed. Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in five Gene Ontology categories: G protein signaling pathways, regulation of cyclin‑dependent protein kinase activity, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, axon guidance and dephosphorylation. GliPR1-EGFP fusion protein co‑localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or with cytoplasmic vesicles as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. GliPR1 expression was found to be significantly increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow samples, while markedly reduced in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, unchanged in myelodysplastic syndrome and slightly decreased in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as well as in chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) when compared to normal samples. GliPR1 was localized and involved in the ER secretory protein pathway. GliPR1 affects G protein signaling and cell cycle regulation. Based on the observed overexpression in AML samples, GliPR1 should be further explored as a potential target for AML.

Related: Apoptosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Bier A, Giladi N, Kronfeld N, et al.
MicroRNA-137 is downregulated in glioblastoma and inhibits the stemness of glioma stem cells by targeting RTVP-1.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(5):665-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive malignant astrocytic tumors, contain a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we study the expression and function of miR-137, a putative suppressor miRNA, in GBM and GSCs. We found that the expression of miR-137 was significantly lower in GBM and GSCs compared to normal brains and neural stem cells (NSCs) and that the miR-137 promoter was hypermethylated in the GBM specimens. The expression of miR-137 was increased in differentiated NSCs and GSCs and overexpression of miR-137 promoted the neural differentiation of both cell types. Moreover, pre-miR-137 significantly decreased the self-renewal of GSCs and the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Shh. We identified RTVP-1 as a novel target of miR-137 in GSCs; transfection of the cells with miR-137 decreased the expression of RTVP-1 and the luciferase activity of RTVP-1 3'-UTR reporter plasmid. Furthermore, overexpression of RTVP-1 plasmid lacking its 3'-UTR abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-137 on the self-renewal of GSCs. Silencing of RTVP-1 decreased the self-renewal of GSCs and the expression of CXCR4 and overexpression of CXCR4 abrogated the inhibitory effect of RTVP-1 silencing on GSC self-renewal. These results demonstrate that miR-137 is downregulated in GBM probably due to promoter hypermethylation. miR-137 inhibits GSC self-renewal and promotes their differentiation by targeting RTVP-1 which downregulates CXCR4. Thus, miR-137 and RTVP-1 are attractive therapeutic targets for the eradication of GSCs and for the treatment of GBM.

Related: Signal Transduction SOX2 gene

Fujita T, Satoh T, Timme TL, et al.
Combined therapeutic effects of adenoviral vector-mediated GLIPR1 gene therapy and radiotherapy in prostate and bladder cancer models.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(2):92-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to explore the potential benefits of combining AdGlipr1 (or AdGLIPR1) gene therapy with radiotherapy using subcutaneous prostate and bladder cancer models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Combination adenoviral vector-mediated gene therapy and radiotherapy were applied to 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 cells in vitro and colony formation and apoptosis were analyzed. In addition, combination therapies were administered to mice bearing subcutaneous 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 tumors, and tumor growth suppression and survival extension were compared with the monotherapies (AdGlipr1/AdGLIPR1 and radiotherapy) or control vector Adv/CMV/βgal, as well as single-cycle treatment with 2-cycle treatment.
RESULTS: Combination treatment significantly suppressed colony formation and increased apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, combination therapy produced significant 178-2 BMA and TSU-Pr1 tumor growth suppression and survival extension compared with the monotherapies or the control. Further tumor growth suppression and survival extension were observed after 2 cycles of the combination treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Combining AdGlipr1 (AdGLIPR1) with radiotherapy may achieve additive or synergistic tumor control in selected prostate and bladder tumors, and additional therapeutic effects may result with repeated treatment cycles.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Li L, Yang G, Ren C, et al.
Glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 induces prostate cancer cell death through Hsc70-mediated suppression of AURKA and TPX2.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):484-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
In this study we report that expression of glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) regulated numerous apoptotic, cell cycle, and spindle/centrosome assembly-related genes, including AURKA and TPX2, and induced apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe (MC) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including p53-mutated/deleted, androgen-insensitive metastatic PCa cells. Mechanistically, GLIPR1 interacts with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70); this interaction is associated with SP1 and c-Myb destabilization and suppression of SP1- and c-Myb-mediated AURKA and TPX2 transcription. Inhibition of AURKA and TPX2 using siRNA mimicked enforced GLIPR1 expression in the induction of apoptosis and MC. Recombinant GLIPR1-ΔTM protein inhibited AURKA and TPX2 expression, induced apoptosis and MC, and suppressed orthotopic xenograft tumor growth. Our results define a novel GLIPR1-regulated signaling pathway that controls apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe in PCa cells and establishes the potential of this pathway for targeted therapies.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer

Li L, Ren C, Yang G, et al.
GLIPR1 suppresses prostate cancer development through targeted oncoprotein destruction.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(24):7694-704 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Downregulation of the proapoptotic p53 target gene glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) occurs frequently in prostate cancer, but the functional meaning of this event is obscure. Here, we report the discovery of functional relationship between GLIPR1 and c-Myc in prostate cancer where c-Myc is often upregulated. We found that the expression of GLIPR1 and c-Myc were inversely correlated in human prostate cancer. Restoration of GLIPR1 expression in prostate cancer cells downregulated c-myc levels, inhibiting cell-cycle progression. Downregulation was linked to a reduction in β-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription of the c-myc gene, which was caused by GLIPR1-mediated redistribution of casein kinase 1α (CK1α) from the Golgi apparatus to the cytoplasm where CK1α could phosphorylate β-catenin and mediate its destruction. In parallel, GLIPR1 also promoted c-Myc protein ubiquitination and degradation by glycogen synthase kinase-3α- and/or CK1α-mediated c-Myc phosphorylation. Notably, genetic ablation of the mouse homolog of Glipr1 cooperated with c-myc overexpression to induce prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Together, our findings provide evidence for CK1α-mediated destruction of c-Myc and identify c-Myc S252 as a crucial CK1α phosphorylation site for c-Myc degradation. Furthermore, they reveal parallel mechanisms of c-myc downregulation by GLIPR1 that when ablated in the prostate are sufficient to drive c-Myc expression and malignant development.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer

Sonpavde G, Thompson TC, Jain RK, et al.
GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by adenoviral vector as neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection for localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding radical prostatectomy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(22):7174-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GLIPR1 is upregulated by p53 in prostate cancer cells and has preclinical antitumor activity. A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and activity of the neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection of GLIPR1 expressing adenovirus for intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy (RP).
METHODS: Eligible men had localized prostate cancer (T1-T2c) with Gleason score greater than or equal to 7 or prostate-specific antigen 10 ng/mL or more and were candidates for RP. Patients received the adenoviral vector expressing the GLIPR1 gene by a single injection into the prostate followed four weeks later by RP. Six viral particle (vp) dose levels were evaluated: 10(10), 5 × 10(10), 10(11), 5 × 10(11), 10(12), and 5 × 10(12) vp.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients with a median age of 64 years were recruited. Nine men had T1c, 4 had T2a, and 3 had T2b and T2c clinical stage. Toxicities included urinary tract infection (n = 3), flu-like syndrome (n = 3), fever (n = 1), dysuria (n = 1), and photophobia (n = 1). Laboratory toxicities were grade 1 elevated AST/ALT (n = 1) and elevations of PTT (n = 3, with 1 proven to be lupus anticoagulant). No pathologic complete remission was seen. Morphologic cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, and nuclear p27(Kip1) upregulation were observed. Peripheral blood CD8(+), CD4(+), and CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were increased, with upregulation of their HLA-DR expression and elevations of serum IL-12.
CONCLUSIONS: The intraprostatic administration of GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by an adenoviral vector was safe in men, with localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding RP. Preliminary evidence of biologic antitumor activity and systemic immune response was documented.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Xiao YH, Li XH, Tan T, et al.
Identification of GLIPR1 tumor suppressor as methylation-silenced gene in acute myeloid leukemia by microarray analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(12):1831-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify methylation-silenced genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in AML cell line HL-60 cells exposed to the demethylating agent 5-aza-2dC. The methylation status and expression of glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1), one of highly induced genes by demethylation, were further detected in six hematopoietic malignancy cell lines and 260 bone marrow samples from leukemia patients and nonmalignant diseases as control, as well as pre-treated and post-treated bone marrow samples from 24 complete remission AML patients received chemotherapy using MS-PCR, bisulfite DNA sequencing, RT-PCR, and Western blotting.
RESULTS: One hundred and nine genes were significantly induced by demethylation in HL-60 cells, 12 genes of which were confirmed by RT-PCR. GLIPR1, a tumor suppressor gene, was frequently methylation-silenced in AML cell lines and AML patients, but not in the other hematopoietic malignancy cell lines and patients. The frequencies of methylation-silenced GLIPR1 in the pre-treatment were significantly higher than those in the post-treatment in complete remission AML patients.
CONCLUSION: We identify 109 genes induced by demethylation in HL-60 cells, and demonstrate that GLIPR1 is a methylation-silenced gene in the AML patients, and may serve as a marker for monitoring disease activity during therapy in the AML patients. The data provide the important information for studying the pathogenesis of AML and discovering the target genes of methylating agents.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Ziv-Av A, Taller D, Attia M, et al.
RTVP-1 expression is regulated by SRF downstream of protein kinase C and contributes to the effect of SRF on glioma cell migration.
Cell Signal. 2011; 23(12):1936-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are characterized by increased infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissue. We recently reported that RTVP-1 is highly expressed in gliomas and plays a role in the migration of these cells, however the regulation of RTVP-1 expression in these cells is not yet described. In this study we examined the role of PKC in the regulation of RTVP-1 expression and found that PMA and overexpression of PKCα and PKCε increased the expression of RTVP-1, whereas PKCδ exerted an opposite effect. Using the MatInspector software, we identified a SRF binding site on the RTVP-1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that SRF binds to the RTVP-1 promoter in U87 cells, and that this binding was significantly increased in response to serum addition. Moreover, silencing of SRF blocked the induction of RTVP-1 expression in response to serum. We found that overexpression of PKCα and PKCε increased the activity of the RTVP-1 promoter and the binding of SRF to the promoter. In contrast, overexpression of PKCδ blocked the increase in RTVP-1 expression in response to serum and the inhibitory effect of PKCδ was abrogated in cells expressing a SRFT160A mutant. SRF regulated the migration of glioma cells and its effect was partially mediated by RTVP-1. We conclude that RTVP-1 is a PKC-regulated gene and that this regulation is at least partly mediated by SRF. Moreover, RTVP-1 plays a role in the effect of SRF on glioma cell migration.

Aytekin T, Ozaslan M, Cengiz B
Deletion mapping of chromosome region 12q13-24 in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 201(1):32-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Colorectal cancer develops after a long and multistep process of carcinogenesis. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is among the most important steps in development of colorectal cancer. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is an effective method to determine the localization of tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we used five microsatellite markers to analyze the region 12q13-24 among 47 patients with colorectal cancer. The frequency of LOH and the clinicopathological data were compared using logistic regression and a chi-square test. In 34 of 47 tumor tissues (72%), LOH was detected at least in one marker. The highest LOH frequency was 34%, on the D12S129 locus; the lowest frequency was 23%, on the D12S78 locus. Loss of heterozygosity was detected as 32% on D12S83, 30% on D12S346, and 26% on D12S1660. No statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of LOH and clinicopathological features (P > 0.05). Chromosome region 12q13-24 contains several known genes that may be candidate tumor suppressor genes, including RASAL1, ITGA7, STAB2, GLIPR1, and SLC5A8. Although the exact roles of these genes in colorectal cancer formation remain to be clarified, the present data point to a tumor suppressor role.

Related: Chromosome 12 Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Rasmussen LM, Frederiksen KS, Din N, et al.
Prolactin and oestrogen synergistically regulate gene expression and proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(3):809-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in mammary gland development. It was also suggested to contribute to breast cancer progression. In vivo data strongly supported a crucial role of PRL in promoting tumour growth; however, PRL demonstrated only a weak, if any, pro-proliferative effect on cancer cells in vitro. Several recent studies indicated that PRL action in vivo may be influenced by the hormonal milieu, e.g. other growth factors such as 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)). Here, we explored the potential interplay between PRL and E(2) in regulation of gene expression and cell growth. PRL alone induced either a weak or no proliferative response of T47D and BT-483 cells respectively, while it drastically enhanced cell proliferation in E(2)-stimulated cultures. Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed 12 genes to be regulated by E(2), while 57 genes were regulated by PRL in T47D cells. Most of the PRL-regulated genes (42/57) were not previously described as PRL target genes, e.g. WT1 and IER3. One hundred and five genes were found to be regulated upon PRL/E(2) co-treatment: highest up-regulation was found for EGR3, RUNX2, EGR1, MAFF, GLIPR1, IER3, SOCS3, WT1 and AREG. PRL and E(2) synergised to regulate EGR3, while multiple genes were regulated additively. These data show a novel interplay between PRL and E(2) to modulate gene regulation in breast cancer cells.

Related: Breast Cancer

Müller I, Wischnewski F, Pantel K, Schwarzenbach H
Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:297 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation.
METHODS: In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies.
RESULTS: Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3) at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first to reveal the histone code and MBD profile at the promoters of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different tumour cells and associated changes after stimulation with methylation inhibitor 5-aza-CdR.

Related: Breast Cancer PTEN Prostate Cancer CCND2 gene

Thompson TC
Glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1: tumor-suppressor activities and therapeutic potential.
Yonsei Med J. 2010; 51(4):479-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
After glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1/Glipr1) was identified, the expression of GLIPR1 was shown to be down-regulated in human prostate cancer, owing in part to methylation in the regulatory region of this gene in prostate cancer cells. Additional studies showed that GLIPR1/Glipr1 expression is induced by DNA-damaging agents independent of p53. Functional analysis of GLIPR1 using in vitro and in vivo gene-transfer approaches revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for mouse Glipr1 and human GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. The proapoptotic activities were dependent on production of reactive oxygen species and sustained c-Jun-NH(2) kinase signaling. It was interesting that adenoviral vector-mediated Glipr1 (AdGlipr1) transduction into prostate cancer tissues using an immunocompetent orthotopic mouse model revealed additional biologic activities consistent with tumor-suppressor functions. Significantly reduced tumor-associated angiogenesis and direct suppression of endothelial-cell sprouting activities were documented. In addition, AdGlipr1 strongly stimulated antitumor immune responses that resulted in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in this model. Glipr1-related antitumor immunostimulatory activities were confirmed and extended in subsequent studies. Administration of a novel Glipr1 genemodified tumor cell vaccine had significant antitumor activity in a mouse model of recurrent prostate cancer. In conclusion, restoration of GLIPR1 function in prostate cancer cells through GLIPR1 gene-based or GLIPR protein-based delivery methods may provide a safe and effective approach for targeted therapy for a range of malignancies.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Quinn MC, Filali-Mouhim A, Provencher DM, et al.
Reprogramming of the transcriptome in a novel chromosome 3 transfer tumor suppressor ovarian cancer cell line model affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(7):648-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor suppression as a consequence of the transfer of chromosome 3p fragments was previously observed in a novel epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) OV-90 cell line model harboring loss of 3p. Microarray analysis revealed that tumor suppression was associated with a modified transcriptome. To investigate the relevance of the altered transcriptome, the differentially expressed genes identified by Affymetrix analysis in the 3p transfer studies, were integrated with a comparative microarray analysis of normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells and malignant ovarian (TOV) cancers. Data from 219 significantly differentially expressed genes exhibited patterns in the direction predicted by the analysis of 3p transfer study. The 30 genes with the highest statistically significant differences (P < 1 x 10(-8)) in expression were found consistently differentially expressed between NOSE and TOV samples. The investigation of these genes in benign serous ovarian tumors and EOC cell lines also exhibited predictable expression patterns. Within the group of differentially expressed genes were SPARC, DAB2, CP, EVI1, ELF3, and EHD2, known to play a role in ovarian cancer, genes implicated in other cancers, such as GREM1 and GLIPR1, as well as genes not previously reported in a cancer context such as AKAP2 and ATAD4. A number of the differentially expressed genes are implicated in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the reprogramming of the transcriptome that occurred as a consequence of the chromosome 3 transfer and tumor suppression affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian carcinogenesis thus validating our novel ovarian cancer cell line model.

Related: Chromosome 3 Ovarian Cancer

Wang H, Thompson TC
Gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.
Gene Ther. 2008; 15(10):787-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Murphy TM, Perry AS, Lawler M
The emergence of DNA methylation as a key modulator of aberrant cell death in prostate cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008; 15(1):11-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in the machinery that governs programmed cell death and that sabotage of apoptosis is one of the principal factors aiding in the evolution of the carcinogenic phenotype. A number of studies have implicated aberrant DNA methylation as a key survival mechanism in cancer, whereby promoter hypermethylation silences genes essential for many processes including apoptosis. To date, studies on the methylation profile of apoptotic genes have largely focused on cancers of the breast, colon and stomach, with only limited data available on prostate cancer. Here we discuss the major developments in the field of DNA methylation and its role in the regulation of aberrant apoptosis in prostate cancer. The most significant advances have involved the discovery of apoptotic gene targets of methylation, including XAF1, (fragile histidine triad (FHIT ), cellular retinol binding protein 1 (CRBP1), decoy receptor 1(DCR1), decoy receptor 2 (DCR2 ), target of methylation-induced silenceing 1 (TMS1), TNF receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), Reprimo (RPRM) and GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1). These genes are reported to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer and some offer potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers. We also introduce the concept of an 'apoptotic methylation signature' for prostate cancer and evaluate its potential in a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic setting.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Li L, Abdel Fattah E, Cao G, et al.
Glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 exerts tumor suppressor activities through proapoptotic reactive oxygen species-c-Jun-NH2 kinase signaling.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(2):434-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1), a novel p53 target gene, is down-regulated by methylation in prostate cancer and has p53-dependent and -independent proapoptotic activities in tumor cells. These properties suggest an important tumor suppressor role for GLIPR1, yet direct genetic evidence of a tumor suppressor function for GLIPR1 is lacking and the molecular mechanism(s), through which GLIPR1 exerts its tumor suppressor functions, has not been shown. Here, we report that the expression of GLIPR1 is significantly reduced in human prostate tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal prostate tissues and in multiple human cancer cell lines. Overexpression of GLIPR1 in cancer cells leads to suppression of colony growth and induction of apoptosis. Mice with an inactivated Glipr1 gene had significantly shorter tumor-free survival times than either Glipr1(+/+) or Glipr1(+/-) mice in both p53(+/+) and p53(+/-) genetic backgrounds, owing to their development of a unique array of malignant tumors. Mechanistic analysis indicated that GLIPR1 up-regulation increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis through activation of the c-Jun-NH(2) kinase (JNK) signaling cascade. Thus, our results identify GLIPR1 as a proapoptotic tumor suppressor acting through the ROS-JNK pathway and support the therapeutic potential for this protein.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Signal Transduction

Chilukamarri L, Hancock AL, Malik S, et al.
Hypomethylation and aberrant expression of the glioma pathogenesis-related 1 gene in Wilms tumors.
Neoplasia. 2007; 9(11):970-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Wilms tumors (WTs) have a complex etiology, displaying genetic and epigenetic changes, including loss of imprinting (LOI) and tumor suppressor gene silencing. To identify new regions of epigenetic perturbation in WTs, we screened kidney and tumor DNA using CpG island (CGI) tags associated with cancer-specific DNA methylation changes. One such tag corresponded to a paralog of the glioma pathogenesis-related 1/related to testis-specific, vespid, and pathogenesis proteins 1 (GLIPR1/RTVP-1) gene, previously reported to be a tumor-suppressor gene silenced by hypermethylation in prostate cancer. Here we report methylation analysis of the GLIPR1/RTVP-1 gene in WTs and normal fetal and pediatric kidneys. Hypomethylation of the GLIPR1/RTVP-1 5'-region in WTs relative to normal tissue is observed in 21/24 (87.5%) of WTs analyzed. Quantitative analysis of GLIPR1/RTVP-1 expression in 24 WTs showed elevated transcript levels in 16/24 WTs (67%), with 12 WTs displaying in excess of 20-fold overexpression relative to fetal kidney (FK) control samples. Immunohistochemical analysis of FK and WT corroborates the RNA expression data and reveals high GLIPR1/RTVP-1 in WT blastemal cells together with variable levels in stromal and epithelial components. Hypomethylation is also evident in the WT precursor lesions and nephrogenic rests (NRs), supporting a role for GLIPR1/RTVP-1 deregulation early in Wilms tumorigenesis. Our data show that, in addition to gene dosage changes arising from LOI and hypermethylation-induced gene silencing, gene activation resulting from hypomethylation is also prevalent in WTs.

Related: Azacitidine Kidney Cancer Wilms' Tumour Wilms Tumour

Xiang C, Sarid R, Cazacu S, et al.
Cloning and characterization of human RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of RTVP-1 in glioma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 362(3):612-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we report the cloning and characterization of RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of human RTVP-1, which was isolated from the U87 glioma cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that RTVP-1b contains an additional 71 base exon between exons 2 and 3 that is missing in RTVP-1, leading to a frame-shift and a different putative protein. The deduced protein was 237 amino acids in length, sharing the N-terminal 141 amino acids with RTVP-1. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that RTVP-1b was expressed in a wide range of tissues and that its expression was different from that of RTVP-1. In contrast, RTVP-1 and RTVP-1b showed similar patterns of expression in astrocytic tumors; highly expressed in glioblastomas as compared to normal brains, low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Overexpression of RTVP-1b increased glioma cell proliferation but did not affect cell migration. Our results suggest that RTVP-1b represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in gliomas.

Hameetman L, Rozeman LB, Lombaerts M, et al.
Peripheral chondrosarcoma progression is accompanied by decreased Indian Hedgehog signalling.
J Pathol. 2006; 209(4):501-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (HH) signalling is important for specific developmental processes, and aberrant, increased activity has been described in various tumours. Disturbed HH signalling has also been implicated in the hereditary syndrome, Multiple Osteochondromas. Indian Hedgehog (IHH), together with parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), participates in the organization of growth plates in long bones. PTHLH signalling is absent in osteochondromas, benign tumours arising adjacent to the growth plate, but is reactivated when these tumours undergo malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. We describe a gradual decrease in the expression of Patched (PTCH) and glioma-associated oncogene homologue 1 (GLI1) (both transcribed upon IHH activity), and GLI2 with increasing malignancy, suggesting that IHH signalling is inactive and PTHLH signalling is IHH independent in secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas. cDNA expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies suggest that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-mediated proliferative signalling is active in high-grade chondrosarcomas since TGF-beta downstream targets were upregulated in these tumours. This is accompanied by downregulation of energy metabolism-related genes and upregulation of the proto-oncogene jun B. Thus, the tight regulation of growth plate organization by IHH signalling is still seen in osteochondroma, but gradually lost during malignant transformation to secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma and subsequent progression. TGF-beta signalling is stimulated during secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma progression and could potentially regulate the retained activity of PTHLH.

Related: Chondrosarcoma Osteosarcoma Signal Transduction CTNNB1 gene

Naruishi K, Timme TL, Kusaka N, et al.
Adenoviral vector-mediated RTVP-1 gene-modified tumor cell-based vaccine suppresses the development of experimental prostate cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2006; 13(7):658-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously identified a novel p53 target gene, RTVP-1, that possesses unique cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activities which make it potentially useful for cancer gene therapy. To test the therapeutic potential of RTVP-1 in a gene-modified tumor cell-based vaccine model, we used an adenoviral vector capable of efficient transduction and expression of RTVP-1 (AdRTVP-1), together with a highly metastatic mouse prostate cancer cell line (178-2 BMA). A vaccine was prepared with 178-2 BMA cells transduced with AdRTVP-1 or a control adenoviral vector expressing beta-galactosidase (Adbetagal). After irradiation of the cells, syngeneic 129/Sv mice were vaccinated three times at weekly intervals. After 3 weeks, they were challenged with orthotopic 178-2 BMA cells. After 21 days, fewer than 60% of the RTVP-1-cell-vaccinated mice developed tumors compared to 100% of the control mice. The RTVP-1-cell vaccine significantly reduced primary tumor wet weight compared with control Adbetagal-cell vaccine (P<0.0001 at 7 and 14 days). Experimental metastasis to lung was also significantly reduced (P=0.0377), and survival significantly increased (P=0.0002). In addition, significantly increased NK and CTL activities were demonstrated in the AdRTVP-1-cell-vaccinated mice. These findings indicate that RTVP-1 gene-modified cell-based vaccines may be useful in the prevention of recurrent prostate cancer.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Ren C, Li L, Yang G, et al.
RTVP-1, a tumor suppressor inactivated by methylation in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(3):969-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously identified and characterized a novel p53-regulated gene in mouse prostate cancer cells that was homologous to a human gene that had been identified in brain cancers and termed RTVP-1 or GLIPR. In this report, we document that the human RTVP-1 gene is also regulated by p53 and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell lines. We show that the expression of the human RTVP-1 gene is down-regulated in human prostate cancer specimens compared with normal human prostate tissue at the mRNA and protein levels. We further document epigenetic changes consistent with RTVP-1 being a tumor suppressor in human prostate cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer TP53

Murphy EV, Zhang Y, Zhu W, Biggs J
The human glioma pathogenesis-related protein is structurally related to plant pathogenesis-related proteins and its gene is expressed specifically in brain tumors.
Gene. 1995; 159(1):131-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding GliPR (glioma pathogenesis-related protein), a protein that is structurally similar to plant pathogenesis-related proteins. The GLIPR gene is highly expressed in the human brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme/astrocytoma, but neither in normal fetal or adult brain tissue, nor in other nervous system tumors. GliPR shares up to 50% amino acid (aa) homology with plant pathogenesis-related proteins, group 1, over a region that comprises almost two thirds of the protein. We speculate that there may be functional similarities between the human and plant proteins as well.


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. GLIPR1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/GLIPR1.htm Accessed: date

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