Gene Summary

Gene:GPER1; G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1
Summary:This gene is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein binds estrogen, resulting in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the nucleus. This protein therefore plays a role in the rapid nongenomic signaling events widely observed following stimulation of cells and tissues with estrogen. Alternate transcriptional splice variants which encode the same protein have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • CREB1
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Chromosome 7
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
  • Testicular Cancer
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • RT-PCR
  • Signal Transduction
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Staging
  • Messenger RNA
  • Hydroxytestosterones
  • Phosphorylation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • HEK293 Cells
  • EGFR
  • Cell Proliferation
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Receptors, Interleukin-8A
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Up-Regulation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Tamoxifen
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • AKT1
  • Follicular Adenocarcinoma
  • GPER protein, human
  • Adenoma
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Estrogen Receptors
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GPER1 (cancer-related)

Weissenborn C, Ignatov T, Nass N, et al.
GPER Promoter Methylation Controls GPER Expression in Breast Cancer Patients.
Cancer Invest. 2017; 35(2):100-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we found that G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) protein expression decreased during breast carcinogenesis, and that GPER promoter is methylated. Here we analyzed GPER promoter methylation in 260 primary breast cancer specimens by methylation-specific polymerized chain reaction. The results demonstrated that GPER protein down-regulation significantly correlated with GPER promoter hypermethylation (p < .001). Comparison of 108 tumors and matched normal breast tissues indicated a significant GPER down-regulation in cancer tissues correlating with GPER promoter hypermethylation (p < .001). The latter was an unfavorable factor for overall survival of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (p = .025). Thus GPER promoter hypermethylation might be used as a prognostic factor.

Ji Y, Han Z, Shao L, Zhao Y
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction of calcium channel subunit α 1D siRNA inhibits breast cancer via G protein-coupled receptor 30.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):1886-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen has been closely associated with breast cancer. Several studies reported that Ca2+ signal and Ca2+ channels act in estrogen-modulated non-genomic pathway of breast cancer, however little was revealed on the function of L-type Ca2+ channels. The L-type Ca2+ channel subunit α 1D, named Cav1.3 was found in breast cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the expression and activity of Cav1.3 in human breast cancer, and reveal the effect of estrogen in regulating the expression of Cav1.3. The qRT-PCR and western blotting were employed to show that Cav1.3 was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. E2 exposure rapidly upregulated the expression of Cav1.3 in dosage- and time-dependent manner, and promoted Ca2+ influx. The silencing of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPER1/GPR30) using siRNA transfection inhibited the upregulation of Cav1.3 and Ca2+ influx induced by E2. Moreover, the inhibition of Cav1.3 by siRNA transfection suppressed E2-induced second peak of Ca2+ signal, the expression of p-ERK1/2, and the cell proliferation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) of Cav1.3 siRNA was used in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in the tumor xenografts mice in vivo. The application of UTMD significantly suppressed the tumor growth and promoted the survival rate. In conclusion, E2 upregulated the expression of Cav1.3 for Ca2+ influx to promote the expression of p-ERK1/2 for cell proliferation. The study confirmed that the mechanism of E2 inducing the expression of Cav1.3 through a non-genomic pathway, and highlighted that UTMD of Cav1.3 siRNA is a powerful promising technology for breast cancer gene therapy.

Qian H, Xuan J, Liu Y, Shi G
Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors.
J Immunol Res. 2016; 2016:7128702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers.

Lai J, Zhou Z, Tang XJ, et al.
A Tumor-Specific Neo-Antigen Caused by a Frameshift Mutation in BAP1 Is a Potential Personalized Biomarker in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient's HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM.

Zhang XL, Liu N, Weng SF, Wang HS
Bisphenol A Increases the Migration and Invasion of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells via Oestrogen-related Receptor Gamma.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 119(4):389-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by great metastasis and invasion capability. Our study revealed that nanomolar bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, can increase wound closure and invasion of both MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells. BPA treatment can increase protein and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, while had no effect on the expression of vimentin (Vim) and fibronectin (FN) in TNBC cells. The expression of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPER), which has been suggested to mediate rapid oestrogenic signals, was not varied in BPA-treated MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells. Its inhibitor G15 also had no effect on BPA-induced MMPs expression and cell invasion. Interestingly, BPA treatment can significantly increase the mRNA and protein expressions of oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ), but not ERRα or ERRβ, in both MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells. The knock-down of ERRγ can markedly attenuate BPA-induced expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in TNBC cells. BPA treatment can activate both ERK1/2 and Akt in TNBC cells. Both inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059) and Akt (LY294002) can attenuate BPA-induced ERRγ expression and cell invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, our data revealed that BPA can increase the expression of MMPs and in vitro motility of TNBC cells via ERRγ. Both activation of ERK1/2 and Akt participated in this process. Our study suggests that more attention should be paid to the roles of xenoestrogens such as BPA in the development and progression of TNBC.

Okamoto M, Mizukami Y
GPER negatively regulates TNFα-induced IL-6 production in human breast cancer cells via NF-κB pathway.
Endocr J. 2016; 63(5):485-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, that are thought to be mediated by the classical estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. G protein coupled estrogen receptor1 (GPER) is a novel membrane-type estrogen receptor that can mediate non-genomic estrogenic responses. Although there have been several reports asserting that the participation of GPER in anti-inflammatory effects is induced by estrogen, the role of GPER remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPER in the regulation of a representative inflammatory cytokine, IL-6. We first examined the expression of IL-6 mRNA by TNFα stimulation in the transfection of GPER-expression plasmid into HeLa cells. Exogenous GPER significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-6 expression, and blocked NF-κB promoter activity inducing the expression of IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The promoter activity was restored almost to control level by transfection with the C-terminal deletion mutant of GPER. Similar results have been observed in endogenous GPER using SKBR3 cells which do not express the classical ERs. The data have been validated by treatment of GPER with siRNA. These findings indicate that GPER negatively regulates TNFα-induced IL-6 expression, probably through inhibition of NF-κB promoter activity by a signal(s) derived from the C-terminal region of GPER.

Kasap B, Öztürk Turhan N, Edgünlü T, et al.
G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-30 gene polymorphisms are associated with uterine leiomyoma risk.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2016; 16(1):39-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30, GPER-1) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family and is expressed significantly in uterine leiomyomas. To understand the relationship between GPR30 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of leiomyoma, we measured the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) levels of 78 perimenopausal healthy women and 111 perimenopausal women with leiomyomas. The participants' leiomyoma number and volume were recorded. DNA was extracted from whole blood with a GeneJET Genomic DNA Purification Kit. An amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction approach was used for genotyping of the GPR30 gene (rs3808350, rs3808351, and rs11544331). The differences in genotype and allele frequencies between the leiomyoma and control groups were calculated using the chi-square (χ2) and Fischer's exact test. The median FSH level was higher in controls (63 vs. 10 IU/L, p=0.000), whereas the median E2 level was higher in the leiomyoma group (84 vs. 9.1 pg/mL, p=0.000). The G allele of rs3808351 and the GG genotype of both the rs3808350 and rs3808351 polymorphisms and the GGC haplotype increased the risk of developing leiomyoma. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies or leiomyoma volume. However, the GG genotype of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism and G allele of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism were associated with the risk of having a single leiomyoma. Our results suggest that the presence of the GG genotype of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism and the G allele of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism affect the characteristics and development of leiomyomas in the Turkish population.

Pisolato R, Lombardi AP, Vicente CM, et al.
Expression and regulation of the estrogen receptors in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.
Steroids. 2016; 107:74-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify the expression, cellular localization and regulation of classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, ER-α36 isoform and GPER in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3. In addition, we evaluated the relative contribution of these receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases) signaling pathway. These four estrogen receptors were detected by Western blot assays and were shown by immunofluorescence assays to localize preferentially in extranuclear regions of PC-3 cells. In addition, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) (1 μM) for 24 h led to down-regulation of the classic estrogen receptors, whereas E2 at physiological concentration (0.1 nM) for 24h tended to increase the levels of ERα and ERβ. Furthermore, the ERα-selective agonist PPT selectively increased the expression of ERβ and the ERβ-selective agonist DPN increased ERα levels. None of these treatments affected expression of the ER-α36 isoform. The unusual cytoplasmic localization of the classic estrogen receptors in these cells differs from the nuclear localization in the majority of estrogen target cells and suggests that rapid signaling pathways may be preferentially activated. In fact, treatment with selective agonists of ERα, ERβ and GPER induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was blocked by the respective antagonists. On the other hand, activation of ERK1/2 induced by E2 may involve additional mechanisms because it was not blocked by the three antagonists. Taken together, the results indicate that there is a crosstalk between ERα and ERβ to regulate the expression of each other, and suggest the involvement of other receptors, such as ER-α36, in the rapid ERK1/2 activation by E2. The identification of new isoforms of ERs, regulation of the receptors and signaling pathways is important to develop new therapeutic strategies for the castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Rigiracciolo DC, Scarpelli A, Lappano R, et al.
GPER is involved in the stimulatory effects of aldosterone in breast cancer cells and breast tumor-derived endothelial cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):94-111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aldosterone induces relevant effects binding to the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-gated transcription factor. Alternate mechanisms can mediate the action of aldosterone such as the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MAPK/ERK, transcription factors and ion channels. The G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) has been involved in the stimulatory effects of estrogenic signalling in breast cancer. GPER has been also shown to contribute to certain responses to aldosterone, however the role played by GPER and the molecular mechanisms implicated remain to be fully understood. Here, we evaluated the involvement of GPER in the stimulatory action exerted by aldosterone in breast cancer cells and breast tumor derived endothelial cells (B-TEC). Competition assays, gene expression and silencing studies, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments, cell proliferation and migration were performed in order to provide novel insights into the role of GPER in the aldosterone-activated signalling. Our results demonstrate that aldosterone triggers the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway in a MR- and GPER-dependent manner. Aldosterone does not bind to GPER, it however induces the direct interaction between MR and GPER as well as between GPER and EGFR. Next, we ascertain that the up-regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) induced by aldosterone involves MR and GPER. Biologically, both MR and GPER contribute to the proliferation and migration of breast and endothelial cancer cells mediated by NHE-1 upon aldosterone exposure. Our data further extend the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms through which GPER may contribute to the stimulatory action elicited by aldosterone in breast cancer.

Zhang H, Wang X, Chen Z, Wang W
MicroRNA-424 suppresses estradiol-induced cell proliferation via targeting GPER in endometrial cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015; 61(7):96-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy with increasing morbidity in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of non-coding RNA, have been proven to be critical in the process of tumorigenesis. miR-424 has been reported to play a protective role in various type of cancer including endometrial carcinoma. It has been reported that high levels of estrogen increase morbidity of EC by promoting cell growth ability. The current research was designed to delineate the mechanism of miR-424 in regulating E2 (17β-estradiol)-induced cell proliferation in endometrial cancer. In this study, we confirmed that cell proliferation is increased significantly in E2-treated endometrial cancer cell lines. Moreover, miR-424 overexpression dramatically decreased E2-induced cell proliferation, indicating a pivotal role in endometrial cancer cell growth. In addition, the results suggest that miR-424 up-regulation inactivated the PI3K/AKT signaling, which was mediated by G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) in endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the luciferase report confirmed the targeting reaction between miR-424 and GPER. After transfection with the GPER overexpression vector into E2-induced endometrial cancer cells, we found that GPER significantly attenuated the inhibition effect of miR-424 in E2-induced cell growth in EC. Taken together, our study suggests that increased miR-424 suppresses E2-induced cell growth, and providing a potential therapeutic target for estrogen-associated endometrial carcinoma.

Zhao L, Zhu XY, Jiang R, et al.
Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11236-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P < 0.001 for all the three molecules). GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression in 106 FTCs and 128 FTAs were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The rates of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 high expression were 73.6%, 72.6% and 70.8% in FTC and 30.5%, 28.1% and 27.3% in FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA.

Schaap MC, Guimarães AM, Wilderspin AF, Wells G
Protocol for a Steady-State FRET Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1379:165-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer chemoprevention is an important strategy to prevent, reverse, or suppress the development of cancer. One of the target pathways that has emerged in recent years is the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE system that regulates the protection of cells against various carcinogens and their metabolites. Increased concentrations of the redox transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces the activation of antioxidant and phase 2 detoxifying genes. Nrf2 is regulated by substrate adaptor protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) that can target Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. The interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1 can be disrupted at the protein-protein interface in order to increase Nrf2 activity for potential therapeutic purposes. This chapter describes a protocol for a steady-state fluorescence or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to examine the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI), to investigate the effects of Nrf2 mutations on Keap1 binding and finally to identify potential inhibitors of this PPI. In the assay system Keap1 is conjugated to an YFP protein at the N-terminus whereas an Nrf2-derived 16-mer peptide containing a high-affinity "ETGE" motif is conjugated to a CFP protein at the N-terminus.

Pupo M, Maggiolini M, Musti AM
GPER Mediates Non-Genomic Effects of Estrogen.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1366:471-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens are important modulators of a broad spectrum of physiological functions in humans. However, despite their beneficial actions, a number of lines of evidence correlate the sustained exposure to exogenous estrogen with increased risk of the onset of various cancers. Mainly these steroid hormones induce their effects by binding and activating estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). These receptors belong to the family of ligand-regulated transcription factors, and upon activation they regulate the expression of different target genes by binding directly to specific DNA sequences. On the other hand, in recent years it has become clear that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER) is able to mediate non-genomic action of estrogens in different cell contexts. In particular, GPER has been shown to specifically bind estrogens, and in turn to functionally cross-react with diverse cell signaling systems such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, the Notch signaling pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. In this chapter we will present some of the different experimental techniques currently used to demonstrate the functional role of GPER in mediating non-genomic actions of estrogens, such as the dual luciferase assay, assessment of the involvement of GPER in the stimulation of cell migration in breast cancer cell lines and in cancer-associated fibroblasts, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Overall, the experimental procedures described herein represent key instruments for assessing the biological role of GPER in mediating non-genomic signals of estrogen.

Duan Y, Wong W, Chua SC, et al.
Overexpression of Tyro3 and its implications on hepatocellular carcinoma progression.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(1):358-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
While various tyrosine kinases have been associated with the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the identification of a dominant therapeutic target among them remains a challenge. Here, we investigated the role of Tyro3, a relatively uncharacterized member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) receptor family. The present study aimed to profile and identify potential association between Tyro3 expression in HCC and cancer phenotypes. RNAs obtained from 55 HCC patients were quantified for Tyro3 expression in both cancerous tissue and the adjacent normal tissue. Expression profile was correlated with clinical data. These observations were further substantiated with in vitro HCC cell culture investigations.Tyro3 was strongly upregulated (>2-fold elevation) in the tumor tissue of ~42% of the patients. It was shown that higher expression level of Tyro3 was associated with the key tumor marker AFP, and the tumor diameter and liver injury marker ALT. Subsequent cell culture models indicated high expression in various HCC cell lines, in particular Hep3B. Gene silencing of Tyro3 in Hep3B effectively reduced cell proliferation, ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression, indicating a key in maintaining the proliferative state of these cells. Notably, silencing also suppressed the transcriptional and translational expression of HCC tumor marker AFP. Overall, these data suggest that Tyro3 contributes significantly to tumor growth, aggressiveness and liver dysfunction. Inhibition of Tyro3 and its aberrant signaling in tumors with high expression could present new opportunities for HCC treatment.

Gullà A, Di Martino MT, Gallo Cantafio ME, et al.
A 13 mer LNA-i-miR-221 Inhibitor Restores Drug Sensitivity in Melphalan-Refractory Multiple Myeloma Cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(5):1222-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The onset of drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in multiple myeloma. Although increasing evidence is defining the role of miRNAs in mediating drug resistance, their potential activity as drug-sensitizing agents has not yet been investigated in multiple myeloma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here we studied the potential utility of miR-221/222 inhibition in sensitizing refractory multiple myeloma cells to melphalan.
RESULTS: miR-221/222 expression inversely correlated with melphalan sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells. Inhibition of miR-221/222 overcame melphalan resistance and triggered apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells in vitro, in the presence or absence of human bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. Decreased multiple myeloma cell growth induced by inhibition of miR-221/222 plus melphalan was associated with a marked upregulation of pro-apoptotic BBC3/PUMA protein, a miR-221/222 target, as well as with modulation of drug influx-efflux transporters SLC7A5/LAT1 and the ABC transporter ABCC1/MRP1. Finally, in vivo treatment of SCID/NOD mice bearing human melphalan-refractory multiple myeloma xenografts with systemic locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibitors of miR-221 (LNA-i-miR-221) plus melphalan overcame drug resistance, evidenced by growth inhibition with significant antitumor effects together with modulation of PUMA and ABCC1 in tumors retrieved from treated mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings provide the proof of concept that LNA-i-miR-221 can reverse melphalan resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma, providing the framework for clinical trials to overcome drug resistance, and improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.

Yan Y, Jiang X, Zhao Y, et al.
Role of GPER on proliferation, migration and invasion in ligand-independent manner in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2015; 33(8):552-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is identified as a critical estrogen receptor, in addition to the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. In ERα-negative ovarian cancer cells, our previous studies have found that estrogen stimulated cell proliferation and metastasis via GPER. However, the ligand-independent function of GPER in ovarian cancer cells is still not clear. Herein, we describe that GPER has a co-expression with ERα and ERβ, which are first determined in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line. In the absence of estrogen, GPER depletion by specific siRNA inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells. Whereas abrogation of ERα or ERβ by specific antagonist MPP and PHTPP has the opposite effects for stimulation of cell growth. Markedly, GPER knockdown attenuates MPP or PHTPP-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, GPER modulates protein expression of the cell cycle critical components, c-fos and cyclin D1 and factors for cancer cell invasion and metastasis, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. These findings establish that GPER ligand-independently stimulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells. Knockdown of GPER attenuates the progression of ovarian cancer that caused by functional loss of ERα or ERβ. Targeting GPER provides new aspect as a potential therapeutic strategy in ovarian cancer.

Di Zazzo E, Galasso G, Giovannelli P, et al.
Prostate cancer stem cells: the role of androgen and estrogen receptors.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):193-208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men, and androgen deprivation therapy still represents the primary treatment for prostate cancer patients. This approach, however, frequently fails and patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is almost untreatable.Cancer cells are characterized by a hierarchical organization, and stem/progenitor cells are endowed with tumor-initiating activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that prostate cancer stem cells lack the androgen receptor and are, indeed, resistant to androgen deprivation therapy. In contrast, these cells express classical (α and/or β) and novel (GPR30) estrogen receptors, which may represent new putative targets in prostate cancer treatment.In the present review, we discuss the still-debated mechanisms, both genomic and non-genomic, by which androgen and estradiol receptors (classical and novel) mediate the hormonal control of prostate cell stemness, transformation, and the continued growth of prostate cancer. Recent preclinical and clinical findings obtained using new androgen receptor antagonists, anti-estrogens, or compounds such as enhancers of androgen receptor degradation and peptides inhibiting non-genomic androgen functions are also presented. These new drugs will likely lead to significant advances in prostate cancer therapy.

Zekas E, Prossnitz ER
Estrogen-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen (17β-estradiol) promotes the survival and proliferation of breast cancer cells and its receptors represent important therapeutic targets. The cellular actions of estrogen are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ as well as the 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). We previously reported that estrogen activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kinase) pathway via GPER, resulting in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production within the nucleus of breast cancer cells; however, the mechanisms and consequences of this activity remained unclear.
METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells were transfected with GFP-fused Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) as a reporter to assess localization in response to estrogen stimulation. Inhibitors of PI3Kinases and EGFR were employed to determine the mechanisms of estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. Receptor knockdown with siRNA and the selective GPER agonist G-1 elucidated the estrogen receptor(s) responsible for estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. The effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and downregulators (SERMs and SERDs) on FOXO3a in MCF7 cells were also determined. Cell survival (inhibition of apoptosis) was assessed by caspase activation.
RESULTS: In the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF7, FOXO3a inactivation occurs on a rapid time scale as a result of GPER, but not ERα, stimulation by estrogen, established by the GPER-selective agonist G-1 and knockdown of GPER and ERα. GPER-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a is effected by the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3Kinase as a result of transactivation of the EGFR. The SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene, as well as the SERD ICI182,780, were active in mediating FOXO3a inactivation in a GPER-dependent manner. Additionally, estrogen-and G-1-mediated stimulation of MCF7 cells results in a decrease in caspase activation under proapoptotic conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that non-genomic signaling by GPER contributes, at least in part, to the survival of breast cancer cells, particularly in the presence of ER-targeted therapies involving SERMs and SERDs. Our results further suggest that GPER expression and FOXO3a localization could be utilized as prognostic markers in breast cancer therapy and that GPER antagonists could promote apoptosis in GPER-positive breast cancers, particularly in combination with chemotherapeutic and ER-targeted drugs, by antagonizing estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation.

Sathya S, Sudhagar S, Lakshmi BS
Estrogen suppresses breast cancer proliferation through GPER / p38 MAPK axis during hypoxia.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 417:200-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer cells frequently experience hypoxia which is associated with resistance to hormonal therapy and poor clinical prognosis, making it important to understand the function of estrogen under hypoxic condition. Here, we demonstrate that estrogen suppresses breast cancer cell growth under hypoxia, through inhibition at G1/S phase of cell cycle, by elevation of p21 expression. The involvement of GPER in estrogen mediated growth arrest was elucidated using specific ligands and siRNA. Although, estrogen was observed to activate both p44/42 and p38 MAPK signaling, pharmacological inhibition and silencing of p38 MAPK abrogated the induction of p21 expression and growth arrest, during hypoxia. The involvement of estrogen induced ROS in the p38 MAPK mediated p21 expression and cell growth arrest was established by observing that scavenging of ROS by NAC abrogated p38 MAPK activation and p21 expression during hypoxia. In conclusion, Estrogen suppresses breast cancer growth by inhibiting G1/S phase transition through GPER/ROS/p38 MAPK/p21 mediated signaling during hypoxic condition.

Zhang D, Jia H, Li W, et al.
Screening and Identification of a Phage Display Derived Peptide That Specifically Binds to the CD44 Protein Region Encoded by Variable Exons.
J Biomol Screen. 2016; 21(1):44-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD44, especially the isoforms with variable exons (CD44v), is a promising biomarker for the detection of cancer. To develop a CD44v-specific probe, we screened a 7-mer phage peptide library against the CD44v3-v10 protein using an improved subtractive method. The consensus sequences with the highest frequency (designated CV-1) emerged after four rounds of panning. The binding affinity and specificity of the CV-1 phage and the synthesized peptide for the region of CD44 encoded by the variable exons were confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and competitive inhibition assays. Furthermore, the binding of the CV-1 probe to gastric cancer cells and tissues was validated using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays. CV-1 sensitively and specifically bound to CD44v on cancer cells and tissues. Thus, CV-1 has the potential to serve as a promising probe for cancer molecular imaging and target therapy.

Jiang X, Ye X, Ma J, et al.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER 1) mediates estrogen-induced, proliferation of leiomyoma cells.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015; 31(11):894-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1, formerly known as GPR30) has been proposed as the receptor for estrogen-induced, growth of leiomyomas though its precise mechanisms of action are not clear. We obtained leiomyoma cells (LC) and normal smooth muscle cells from 28 women (n = 28, median age 38 years, median parity 1.0). We incubated them with 17-β estradiol (E(2)), after blocking, or upregulating, expression of GPER-1 with ICI182,780 (a GPER-1 agonist) and siGPR30, respectively. We evaluated the role of GPER-1 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway using Western blot analysis. We studied cell proliferation with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and, mitotic activity with phosphohistone H3 (PPH3) expression in leiomyoma, and, matched, normal, smooth muscle tissues using standard immunohistochemistry. Downregulation of GPER-1 expression with siGPR30 partially attenuated the E(2)-activated MAPK signaling pathway (p < 0.01). Upregulation of GPER-1 with ICI182,780 enhanced the E(2)-activated MAPK signaling pathway (p < 0.01). ICI182,780 enhanced E(2)-induced proliferation of LC (p < 0.01), while knock down of the GPER-1 gene with GPER-1 small interfering RNA partially inhibited E(2)-induced cell proliferation (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in PPH3 expression between LCs and normal smooth muscle tissues (p > 0.05). Neither ICI182,780 nor siGPR30 increased mitosis in LCs (p > 0.05). Our results indicate that GPER-1 mediates proliferation of estrogen-induced, LC by activating the MAPK pathway, and, not by promoting mitosis.

Ma Y, Zhao S, Shen S, et al.
A novel recombinant slow-release TNF α-derived peptide effectively inhibits tumor growth and angiogensis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13595 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RMP16, a recombinant TNF α-derived polypeptide comprising a specific human serum albumin (HSA)-binding 7-mer peptide identified by phage display screening (WQRPSSW), a cleavage peptide for Factor Xa (IEGR), and a 20-amino acid bioactive peptide P16 (TNF α segment including amino acid residues 75-94), was prepared by gene-engineering technology. RMP16 showed prolonged half-life, 13.11 hours in mice (half-lives of P16 and TNF α are 5.77 and 29.0 minutes, respectively), and obviously higher receptor selectivity for TNFRI than TNF α. RMP16 had significant inhibition effects for multiple tumor cells, especially prostate cancer Du145 cells, and human vascular endothelial cells but not for human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. RMP16 can more effectively induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation for DU145 cells than P16 and TNF α via the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In nude mice with transplanted tumor of DU145 cells, RMP16 significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor tissues but causing less side effects, and tumor inhibitory rate reached nearly 80%, furthermore, RMP16 can potently inhibit tumor angiogenesis and neovascularization. These findings suggest that RMP16 may represent a promising long-lasting antitumor therapeutic peptide with less TNF α-induced toxicity.

Tefferi A, Lasho TL, Begna KH, et al.
A Pilot Study of the Telomerase Inhibitor Imetelstat for Myelofibrosis.
N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(10):908-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current drugs for myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis, including Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, do not induce complete or partial remissions. Imetelstat is a 13-mer lipid-conjugated oligonucleotide that targets the RNA template of human telomerase reverse transcriptase.
METHODS: We sought to obtain preliminary information on the therapeutic activity and safety of imetelstat in patients with high-risk or intermediate-2-risk myelofibrosis. Imetelstat was administered as a 2-hour intravenous infusion (starting dose, 9.4 mg per kilogram of body weight) every 1 to 3 weeks. The primary end point was the overall response rate, and the secondary end points were adverse events, spleen response, and independence from red-cell transfusions.
RESULTS: A total of 33 patients (median age, 67 years) met the eligibility criteria; 48% had received prior JAK inhibitor therapy. A complete or partial remission occurred in 7 patients (21%), with a median duration of response of 18 months (range, 13 to 20+) for complete responses and 10 months (range, 7 to 10+) for partial responses. Bone marrow fibrosis was reversed in all 4 patients who had a complete response, and a molecular response occurred in 3 of the 4 patients. Response rates were 27% among patients with a JAK2 mutation versus 0% among those without a JAK2 mutation (P=0.30) and 32% among patients without an ASXL1 mutation versus 0% among those with an ASXL1 mutation (P=0.07). The rate of complete response was 38% among patients with a mutation in SF3B1 or U2AF1 versus 4% among patients without a mutation in these genes (P=0.04). Responses did not correlate with baseline telomere length. Treatment-related adverse events included grade 4 thrombocytopenia (in 18% of patients), grade 4 neutropenia (in 12%), grade 3 anemia (in 30%), and grade 1 or 2 elevation in levels of total bilirubin (in 12%), alkaline phosphatase (in 21%), and aspartate aminotransferase (in 27%).
CONCLUSIONS: Imetelstat was found to be active in patients with myelofibrosis but also had the potential to cause clinically significant myelosuppression. (Funded by Geron; number, NCT01731951.).

Wróbel AM, Gregoraszczuk EŁ
Action of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on GPR30 gene and protein expression, cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2015; 238(2):110-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we examined cAMP levels and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in response to the actions of parabens on GPR30 in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. Cells were exposed to methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben at a concentration of 20nM; 17-β-estradiol (10nM) was used as a positive control. 17β-estradiol and all tested parabens increased GPR30 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. No parabens affected cAMP levels in either cell line, with the exception of propylparaben in MCF-10A cells. 17β-estradiol, propylparaben, and butylparaben increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells, whereas 17β-estradiol, methyl- and butylparaben, but not propylparaben, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-10A cells. Akt activation was noted only in MCF-7 cells and only with propylparaben treatment. Collectively, the data presented here point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through βγ dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, among investigated parabens, propylparaben appears to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells through activation of Akt kinases, confirming conclusions suggested by our previously published data. Nevertheless, continuing research on the carcinogenic action of parabens is warranted.

Santolla MF, Avino S, Pellegrino M, et al.
SIRT1 is involved in oncogenic signaling mediated by GPER in breast cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1834 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A number of tumors exhibit an altered expression of sirtuins, including NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) that may act as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter mainly depending on the tumor types. For instance, in breast cancer cells SIRT1 was shown to exert an essential role toward the oncogenic signaling mediated by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In accordance with these findings, the suppression of SIRT1 led to the inhibition of the transduction pathway triggered by ERα. As the regulation of SIRT1 has not been investigated in cancer cells lacking ER, in the present study we ascertained the expression and function of SIRT1 by estrogens in ER-negative breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients. Our results show that 17β-estradiol (E2) and the selective ligand of GPER, namely G-1, induce the expression of SIRT1 through GPER and the subsequent activation of the EGFR/ERK/c-fos/AP-1 transduction pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is involved in the pro-survival effects elicited by E2 through GPER, like the prevention of cell cycle arrest and cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent etoposide. Interestingly, the aforementioned actions of estrogens were abolished silencing GPER or SIRT1, as well as using the SIRT1 inhibitor Sirtinol. In addition, we provide evidence regarding the involvement of SIRT1 in tumor growth stimulated by GPER ligands in breast cancer cells and xenograft models. Altogether, our data suggest that SIRT1 may be included in the transduction network activated by estrogens through GPER toward the breast cancer progression.

Grassi D, Ghorbanpoor S, Acaz-Fonseca E, et al.
The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Regulates Arginine-Vasopressin Gene Expression in Human Female Neuroblastoma Cells Through G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and ERK Signaling.
Endocrinology. 2015; 156(10):3706-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene reduces blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women. In the present study we have explored whether raloxifene regulates gene expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The effect of raloxifene was assessed in human female SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which have been recently identified as a suitable cellular model to study the estrogenic regulation of AVP. Raloxifene, within a concentration ranging from 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M, decreased the mRNA levels of AVP in SH-SY5Y cells with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. This effect of raloxifene was imitated by an agonist (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) and blocked by an antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline of GPER and by GPER silencing. Raloxifene induced a time-dependent increase in the level of phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, by a mechanism blocked by the GPER antagonist. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with either a MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2-specific inhibitor (1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadine) or a protein kinase C inhibitor (sotrastaurin) blocked the effects of raloxifene on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the regulation of AVP mRNA levels. These results reveal a mechanism mediating the regulation of AVP expression by raloxifene, involving the activation of GPER, which in turn activates protein kinase C, MAPK/ERK kinase, and ERK. The regulation of AVP by raloxifene and GPER may have implications for the treatment of blood hypertension(.).

Ribeiro MP, Santos AE, Custódio JB
Rethinking tamoxifen in the management of melanoma: New answers for an old question.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2015; 764:372-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The use of the antiestrogen tamoxifen in melanoma therapy is controversial due to the unsuccessful outcomes and a still rather unclarified mechanism of action. It seemed that the days of tamoxifen in malignant melanoma therapy were close to an end, but new evidence may challenge this fate. On one hand, it is now believed that metabolism is a major determinant of tamoxifen clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients, which is a variable that has yet to be tested in melanoma patients, since the tamoxifen active metabolite endoxifen demonstrated superior cytostatic activity over the parent drug in melanoma cells; on the other hand, new evidence has emerged regarding estrogen-mediated signaling in melanoma cells, including the methylation of the estrogen receptor-α gene promoter and the expression of the G protein coupled estrogen receptor. The expression of estrogen receptor-α and G protein coupled estrogen receptor, as well as the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype, may be used as predictive biomarkers to select the patients that may respond to antiestrogens based on specific traits of their tumors. This review focused on these new evidences and how they may contribute to shed new light on this long-lasting controversy, as well as their possible implications for future investigations.

Al-Rasheed MM, Alzahrani AS, Macadam A, et al.
The potential role of the sodium iodide symporter gene polymorphism in the development of differentiated thyroid cancer.
Gene. 2015; 572(2):163-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) (solute carrier family 5; SLC5A), mediates the active transport of iodine anion (I(-)) into thyroid follicular cells to facilitate thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Considering its fundamental role in thyroid function, our objective in this study is to explore its potential involvement in the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Following a preliminary sequencing of the gene in a representative sample of the general population, five variants, (1) rs45602038, (2) rs4808708, (3) rs4808709, (4) rs7250346 and (5) rs12327843, were selected for a larger population-based association study consisting of 507 cases and 597 controls, of which only the rs45602038_TT [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.90 (1.26-2.88); p=0.002] was associated with disease following adjustment for other confounders using the multivariate analysis. Furthermore, a 5-mer haplotype CGAGT constructed from the five studied SNPs conferred a significant risk (χ(2)=10.98; p=0.0009) for DTC. This association trickled down through shorter derivatives, with the 4-mer haplotype CGAG (χ(2)=13.25; p=0.0003) displaying the most significant association and the 3-mer GAG (χ(2)=11.80; p=0.0006) being equally strongly linked to the disease. Comparison of the flanking derivatives of the primary 5-mer haplotype also indicated that the 3-mer CGA (χ(2)=4.04; p=0.045) constructed from SNP block 1-3 was a lot weaker than that of the AGT (χ(2)=6.73; p=0.0095) constructed from the blocks 3-5 from the other end of the gene. Put together, these data implicate the three nucleotide changes at the rs4808708, rs4808709 and rs7250346 loci (blocks 2-4) as the core for this relationship.

Deng B, Fang J, Zhang X, et al.
Role of gelsolin in cell proliferation and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Gene. 2015; 571(2):292-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gelsolin (GSN), one of the most important actin structure regulating proteins, has been implicated in the oncogenesis of some cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression of GSN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and revealed its potential mechanisms. The mRNA and protein levels of GSN were overexpressed in HCC cells and HCC tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues. GSN expression was correlated with venous invasion (P=0.0199) and Edmonson grading (P=0.0344) expression in HCC. Overexpression of GSN in Huh7 and SMMC-7721 cells significantly promoted cell proliferation and the number of Matrigel™-invading cells compared with control cells, with increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase MCL-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, a key regulator of growth and invasion. In contrast, knockdown of GSN expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in MHCC-97L and MHCC-97H cell lines resulted in decreased cell viability and cell invasion. Our findings indicated that GSN expression promoted tumor-associated phenotypes by facilitating proliferative and invasive capacities of HCC cells, which might serve as a potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

Huang W, Chen Y, Liu Y, et al.
Roles of ERβ and GPR30 in Proliferative Response of Human Bladder Cancer Cell to Estrogen.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:251780 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer belongs to one of the most common cancers and is a leading cause of deaths in our society. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is the main type of this cancer, and the estrogen receptors in UCB remain to be studied. Our experiment aimed to investigate the possible biological effect of 17β-estradiol on human bladder-derived T24 carcinoma cells and to indicate its related mechanisms. T24 cells were treated with various doses of 17β-estradiol, and cell proliferation was detected using MTT assays. 17β-estradiol promoted T24 cell proliferation independent of ERβ/GPR30-regulated EGFR-MAPK pathway, while it inhibited cell growth via GPR30. Furthermore, the expression levels of downstream genes (c-FOS, BCL-2, and CYCLIN D1) were increased by 17β-estradiol and this effect was independently associated with activity of the EGFR-MAPK pathway. The two estrogen receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bladder cancer.

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