Gene Summary

Gene:HERPUD1; homocysteine inducible ER protein with ubiquitin like domain 1
Aliases: SUP, HERP, Mif1
Summary:The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the ER stress response. This response includes the inhibition of translation to prevent further accumulation of unfolded proteins, the increased expression of proteins involved in polypeptide folding, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), and the destruction of misfolded proteins by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system. This gene may play a role in both UPR and ERAD. Its expression is induced by UPR and it has an ER stress response element in its promoter region while the encoded protein has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain which may interact with the ERAD system. This protein has been shown to interact with presenilin proteins and to increase the level of amyloid-beta protein following its overexpression. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. The full-length nature of all transcript variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident ubiquitin-like domain member 1 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • HL-60 Cells
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Base Sequence
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Down-Regulation
  • Phosphatidate Phosphatase
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mitochondrial Swelling
  • Biomarkers
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Apoptosis
  • Androgen Receptors
  • K562 Cells
  • Benzoquinones
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Western Blotting
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Hydroquinones
  • U937 Cells
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Leukaemia
  • Gene Expression
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • Metribolone
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Trophoblasts
  • Signal Transduction
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Chromosome 16
  • Membrane Proteins
  • siRNA
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • DNA Primers
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Orchiectomy
  • Protein Transport
  • Prostate Cancer
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HERPUD1 (cancer-related)

Naren D, Wu J, Gong Y, et al.
Niemann-Pick disease type C1(NPC1) is involved in resistance against imatinib in the imatinib-resistant Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:59-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is involved in cholesterol trafficking and may normally function as a transmembrane efflux pump. Previous studies showed that its dysfunction can lead to cholesterol and daunorubicin accumulation in the cytoplasmic endosomal/lysosomal system, lead to Niemann-Pick disease and resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, NPC1 was shown by microarray analysis to be more highly expressed in the Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI, an imatinib-resistant variant of SUP-B15/S cells without bcr-abl gene mutation established in our lab. Further investigation revealed a defect in the functional capacity of the NPC1 protein demonstrated by filipin staining accompanied by a lower intracellular imatinib mesylate(IM) concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography in SUP-B15/RI compared with SUP-B15/S cells. Furthermore, U18666A, an inhibitor of NPC1 function, was used to block cholesterol trafficking to imitate the NPC1 defect in SUP-B15/S cells, leading to higher NPC1 expression, stronger filipin fluorescence, lower intracellular IM concentrations and greater resistance against IM. Samples from non-mutated relapsed Ph+ ALL patients also showed higher NPC1 expression compared with IM-sensitive patients. Our experiment may reveal a new mechanism of IM resistance in Ph+ ALL.

Codini M, Cataldi S, Lazzarini A, et al.
Why high cholesterol levels help hematological malignancies: role of nuclear lipid microdomains.
Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15:4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diet and obesity are recognized in the scientific literature as important risk factors for cancer development and progression. Hypercholesterolemia facilitates lymphoma lymphoblastic cell growth and in time turns in hypocholesterolemia that is a sign of tumour progression. The present study examined how and where the cholesterol acts in cancer cells when you reproduce in vitro an in vivo hypercholesterolemia condition.
METHODS: We used non-Hodgkin's T cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1 cell line) and we studied cell morphology, aggressiveness, gene expression for antioxidant proteins, polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and actin, cholesterol and sphingomyelin content and finally sphingomyelinase activity in whole cells, nuclei and nuclear lipid microdomains.
RESULTS: We found that cholesterol changes cancer cell morphology with the appearance of protrusions together to the down expression of β-actin gene and reduction of β-actin protein. The lipid influences SUP-T1 cell aggressiveness since stimulates DNA and RNA synthesis for cell proliferation and increases raf1 and E-cadherin, molecules involved in invasion and migration of cancer cells. Cholesterol does not change GRX2 expression but it overexpresses SOD1, SOD2, CCS, PRDX1, GSR, GSS, CAT and PNKP. We suggest that cholesterol reaches the nucleus and increases the nuclear lipid microdomains known to act as platform for chromatin anchoring and gene expression.
CONCLUSION: The results imply that, in hypercholesterolemia conditions, cholesterol reaches the nuclear lipid microdomains where activates gene expression coding for antioxidant proteins. We propose the cholesterolemia as useful parameter to monitor in patients with cancer.

Consolaro F, Ghaem-Maghami S, Bortolozzi R, et al.
FOXO3a and Posttranslational Modifications Mediate Glucocorticoid Sensitivity in B-ALL.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(12):1578-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, the molecular mechanism underlying glucocorticoid response and resistance is unclear. In this study, the role and regulation of FOXO3a in mediating the dexamethasone response in B-ALL were investigated. The results show that FOXO3a mediates the cytotoxic function of dexamethasone. In response to dexamethasone, it was found that FOXO3a translocates into the nucleus, where it induces the expression of downstream targets, including p27Kip1 and Bim, important for proliferative arrest and cell death in the sensitive RS4;11 and SUP-B15 B-ALL cells. FOXO3a activation by dexamethasone is mediated partially through the suppression of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. Furthermore, two posttranslational modifications were uncovered, phosphorylation on Ser-7 and acetylation on Lys-242/5, that associated with FOXO3a activation by dexamethasone. Immunoblot analysis showed that the phosphorylation on Ser-7 of FOXO3a is associated with p38/JNK activation, whereas the acetylation on Lys-242/5 is correlated with the downregulation of SIRT1/2/6 and the induction of the acetyltransferase CBP/p300. Collectively, these results indicate that FOXO3a is essential for dexamethasone response in B-ALL cells, and its nuclear translocation and activation is associated with its phosphorylation on Ser-7 and acetylation on Lys-242/245. These posttranslational events can be exploited as biomarkers for B-ALL diagnosis and as drug targets for B-ALL treatment, particularly for overcoming the glucocorticoid resistance.
IMPLICATIONS: FOXO3a and its posttranslational regulation are essential for dexamethasone response, and targeting FOXO3a and sirtuins may enhance the dexamethasone-induced cytotoxicity in B-ALL cells.

Bonnefont-Rebeix C, Fournel-Fleury C, Ponce F, et al.
Characterization of a novel canine T-cell line established from a spontaneously occurring aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular cell morphology.
Immunobiology. 2016; 221(1):12-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dogs with lymphoma are established as good model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma studies. Canine cell lines derived from lymphomas may be valuable tools for testing new therapeutic drugs. In this context, we established a canine T-cell line, PER-VAS, from a primary aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a stable immunophenotype: PER-VAS cells were positively labelled for CD5, CD45, MHC II and TLR3, and were negative for CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression. Although unstable along the culture process, IL-17 and MMP12 proteins were detectable as late as at passages 280 and 325i.e. respectively 24 and 29 months post isolation. At passage 325, PER-VAS cells maintained the expression of IL-17, CD3, CD56, IFNγ and TNFα mRNAs as shown by RT-PCR analysis. Stable rearrangement of the TCRγ gene has been evidenced by PCR. PER-VAS cells have a high proliferation index with a doubling time of 16.5h and were tumorigenic in Nude mice. Compared to the canine cell lines already reported, PER-VAS cells display an original expression pattern, close to NKT cells, which makes them valuable tools for in vitro comparative research on lymphomas.

Takeuchi H, Mmeje CO, Jinesh GG, et al.
Sequential gemcitabine and tamoxifen treatment enhances apoptosis and blocks transformation in bladder cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2738-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a common malignancy for which regional or metastatic disease is identified at diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen (Tam), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, can sensitize bladder cancer cell lines to gemcitabine (Gem) chemotherapy. ERα and ERβ protein levels were determined in each cell line using western blot analysis. The TCC-Sup, 5637, and RT4 bladder cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations and regimens of Tam or Gem alone or in combination. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide followed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was then evaluated by western blot analysis. Treated TCC-Sup cells were subjected to soft agar colony formation assay to determine the cellular transformation. Western blot analysis results revealed ER expression in the three cell lines. TCC-Sup and 5637 cells treated with a combination of Tam and Gem had lower cell viabilities than those treated with Tam or Gem alone for 72 h in TCC-Sup and 5637. Compared with the other treatments, sequential Gem followed by Tam (Gem→Tam) treatment caused the largest increase in DNA fragmentation at 72 h in TCC-Sup cells. Western blot analysis results revealed that this sequential Gem→Tam treatment increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in TCC-Sup cells. Sequential Gem→Tam inhibited the cell transformation in TCC-Sup cells. In conclusion, sequential Gem→Tam enhanced the cytotoxicity of Gem in vitro. This regimen be useful to enhance the efficacy of Gem in bladder cancer. However, future in vivo studies are required to verify the results.

Shi F, Len Y, Gong Y, et al.
Ribavirin Inhibits the Activity of mTOR/eIF4E, ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E Signaling Pathway and Synergizes with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Imatinib to Impair Bcr-Abl Mediated Proliferation and Apoptosis in Ph+ Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136746 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is the main composition factor of eIF4F translation initiation complex, influences the growth of tumor through modulating cap-dependent protein translation. Previous studies reported that ribavirin could suppress eIF4E-controlled translation and reduce the synthesis of onco-proteins. Here, we investigated the anti-leukemic effects of ribavirin alone or in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia cell lines SUP-B15 (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, Ph+ ALL) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, CML). Our results showed that ribavirin had anti-proliferation effect; it down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP1, and eIF4E proteins in the mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway, and MEK, ERK, Mnk1 and eIF4E proteins in ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E signaling pathway; reduced the expression of Mcl-1 (a translation substrates of eIF4F translation initiation complex) at protein synthesis level not mRNA transcriptional level; and induced cell apoptosis in both SUP-B15 and K562. 7-Methyl-guanosine cap affinity assay further demonstrated that ribavirin remarkably increased the eIF4E binding to 4EBP1 and decreased the combination of eIF4E with eIF4G, consequently resulting in a major inhibition of eIF4F complex assembly. The combination of ribavirin with imatinib enhanced antileukemic effects mentioned above, indicating that two drugs have synergistic anti-leukemic effect. Consistent with the cell lines, similar results were observed in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic primary leukemic blasts; however, the anti-proliferative role of ribavirin in other types of acute primary leukemic blasts was not obvious, which indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of ribavirin was different in cell lineages.

Schneider M, Schneider S, Zühlke-Jenisch R, et al.
Alterations of the CD58 gene in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(10):638-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immune evasion plays a central role in the pathophysiology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). As mutations of the CD58 gene contribute to immune evasion of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumor cells, we studied whether alterations of the CD58 gene also occur in Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of cHL. Single nucleotide polymorphism chip analysis revealed homozygous deletions within the CD58 gene in two cHL cell lines (SUP-HD1 and U-HO1). Sequencing of the CD58 gene in seven cHL cell lines disclosed in addition a homozygous splice site mutation in cell line KM-H2. None of the three mutated lines expressed CD58 protein on their surface. Thus, three of seven cHL cell lines analyzed harbor destructive CD58 mutations. Molecular analysis of isolated HRS cells from 10 primary cases of cHL; however, did not reveal any case with a CD58 mutation. A FICTION study indicated heterozygous deletions of CD58 in 3 of 13 cHL analyzed. Overall, we report frequent inactivating mutations of CD58 in cHL cell lines, but their rare occurrence in primary HRS cells. As the three cHL cell lines with CD58 mutations were all established from HRS cells located in pleural effusions, i.e., outside the normal lymph node microenvironment, in end-stages of the disease, CD58 inactivation in cHL might be predominantly prevalent to such situations.

Zeng CH, Guo B, Chen J, et al.
Expression profile of tumor suppressor gene RASSF1 in lacrimal gland carcinoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):6993-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the expression pattern of the tumor sup-pressor gene RAS association domain family gene 1 (RASSF1) in lacri-mal gland carcinoma and analyzed its relationship with the oncogenesis and progression of tumors. Sixty-two patients (30 males, 32 females, average age = 47 ± 3.5 years) admitted with lacrimal gland carcinoma to the Department of Ophthalmology of our hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 were enrolled in this study. Based on tumor ma-lignancy, patients were classified into a malignant group (N = 25) and benign group (N = 37). Healthy lacrimal gland resections from trauma surgery (N = 35) were recruited as a healthy control group. Expres-sion profiles of RASSF1 in all groups were quantified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Recur-rence of lacrimal gland carcinoma was surveyed through postopera-tive follow-up. Expression levels of RASSF1 in samples from the ma-lignant and benign groups were significantly lower than those in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the malignant group showed lower RASSF1 expression than the benign group (P < 0.05). Postopera-tive follow-up identified 22 cases of recurrence in the malignant group, with a recurrence rate of 88%, while 15 cases in the benign group had a recurrence rate of 40.5%. A direct relationship exists between RASSF1 expression levels and the malignancy grade of lacrimal gland carci-noma. Patients with lower RASSF1 expression showed a higher recur-rence probability, indicating unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, measur-ing RASSF1 expression can be used as a diagnostic method for lacrimal gland carcinoma.

Saenz GJ, Hovanessian R, Gisis AD, Medh RD
Glucocorticoid-mediated co-regulation of RCAN1-1, E4BP4 and BIM in human leukemia cells susceptible to apoptosis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 463(4):1291-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to induce apoptosis of leukemia cells via gene regulatory changes affecting key pro-and anti-apoptotic genes. Three genes previously implicated in GC-evoked apoptosis in the CEM human T-cell leukemia model, RCAN1, E4BP4 and BIM, were studied in a panel of human lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines. Of the two RCAN1 transcripts, the synthetic GC Dexamethasone (Dex) selectively upregulates RCAN1-1, but not RCAN1-4, in GC-susceptible Sup-B15, RS4;11, Kasumi-1 cells but not in GC-resistant Sup T1 and Loucy cells. E4BP4 and BIM regulation correlated with that of RCAN1-1. A putative GRE and four EBPREs were identified within 1500bp upstream from the transcription start site of RCAN1-1. GC-refractory CEM C1-15 cells sensitized to GC-evoked apoptosis by ectopic E4BP4 expression, CEM C1-15mE#3, showed restored RCAN1-1 upregulation, suggesting that RCAN1-1 is a downstream target of E4BP4. A model for coordinated regulation of RCAN1-1, E4BP4 and BIM, and their role in GC-evoked apoptosis is proposed.

Nishio Y, Gojoubori T, Kaneko Y, et al.
Cancer cell-derived IL-8 induces monocytic THP1 cells to secrete IL-8 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activity of transcription factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results in the spontaneous secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. Among them, IL-8, owing to its angiogenic activity, promotes the growth of OSCCs. In the present study, we examined the role of IL-8 secreted by OSCCs, on the angiogenic activity of monocytic THP1 cells. Culture supernatant (Ca-sup) augmented IL-8 secretion by THP1 cells, which was found to be significantly reduced following the removal Ca9-22-derived IL-8 from the Ca-sup. IL-8 induction was regulated at the transcriptional level, because real-time PCR demonstrated the augmented IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. We further performed the luciferase assay using the 5'-untranslated region of IL-8 gene. Contradictory to our speculations, luciferase activity was not augmented by Ca-sup stimulation. NF-κB-independent IL-8 induction was further confirmed by pre-treating THP1 cells with NF-κB-specific inhibitors. To elucidate the signaling pathway, THP1 was pre-treated with MEK inhibitors. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment of cells with MEK inhibitor drastically reduced IL-8 levels, suggesting the role of MEK. Moreover, Ca-sup was found to increase ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. These results indicated that OSCC-derived IL-8 appears to activate angiogenic activity in monocytes within the tumor microenvironment via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

Bone KM, Wang P, Wu F, et al.
NPM-ALK mediates phosphorylation of MSH2 at tyrosine 238, creating a functional deficiency in MSH2 and the loss of mismatch repair.
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e311 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The vast majority of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL) tumors express the characteristic oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK, which mediates tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity on various substrates. We recently identified MSH2, a protein central to DNA mismatch repair (MMR), as a novel binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of NPM-ALK. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we report for the first time that MSH2 is phosphorylated by NPM-ALK at a specific residue, tyrosine 238. Using GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, we confirmed that the MSH2(Y238F) mutant is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, transfection of MSH2(Y238F) into these cells substantially decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MSH2. Importantly, gene transfection of MSH2(Y238F) abrogated the binding of NPM-ALK with endogenous MSH2, re-established the dimerization of MSH2:MSH6 and restored the sensitivity to DNA mismatch-inducing drugs, indicative of MMR return. Parallel findings were observed in two ALK+ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SUP-M2. In addition, we found that enforced expression of MSH2(Y238F) into ALK+ALCL cells alone was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings have identified NPM-ALK-induced phosphorylation of MSH2 at Y238 as a crucial event in suppressing MMR. Our studies have provided novel insights into the mechanism by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases disrupt MMR.

Carnesecchi S, Rougemont AL, Doroshow JH, et al.
The NADPH oxidase NOX5 protects against apoptosis in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cell lines.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 84:22-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key modulators of apoptosis and carcinogenesis. One of the important sources of ROS is NADPH oxidases (NOXs). The isoform NOX5 is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues, but it has not been detected in any common Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. In diverse, nonlymphoid malignant cells NOX5 exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Apoptosis suppression is the hallmark feature of a rare type of lymphoma, termed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), and a major factor in the therapy resistance and relapse of ALK(+) ALCL tumors. We applied RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to detect NOX5 expression in three ALK(+) ALCL cell lines (Karpas-299, SR-786, SUP-M2). We investigated the role of NOX5 in apoptosis by small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and chemical inhibition of NOX5 using FACS analysis and examining caspase 3 cleavage in Karpas-299 cells. We used immunohistochemistry to detect NOX5 in ALK(+) ALCL pediatric tumors. NOX5 mRNA was uniquely detected in ALK(+) ALCL cells, whereas cell lines of other lymphoma classes were devoid of NOX5. Transfection of NOX5-specific siRNA and chemical inhibition of NOX5 abrogated calcium-induced superoxide production and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in Karpas-299 cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed focal NOX5 reactivity in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL tumor cells. These results indicate that NOX5-derived ROS contribute to apoptosis blockage in ALK(+) ALCL cell lines and suggest NOX5 as a potential pharmaceutical target to enhance apoptosis and thus to suppress tumor progression and prevent relapse in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL patients that resist classical therapeutic approaches.

Chen C, Zhang HX, Wang M, et al.
Stromal cells attenuate the cytotoxicity of imatinib on Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia cells by up-regulating the VE-cadherin/β-catenin signal.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(12):1460-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
β-Catenin is a key regulator of leukemia stem cell maintenance and drug resistance. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of the stromal cell-mediated VE-cadherin-β-catenin signal on Ph+ leukemia cells during imatinib treatment. We found stromal cells could desensitize imatinib and up-regulate VE-cadherin expression on Ph+ leukemia cells (K562 and SUP-B15 cells), which further stabilized and activated β-catenin. Knockdown of VE-cadherin with shRNA diminished the β-catenin protein and partly resensitized Ph+ leukemia cells to imatinib despite the presence of stromal cells, suggesting VE-cadherin is a potential target in the treatment of Ph+ leukemia.

Lee AC, Du D, Chen B, et al.
Electrochemical detection of leukemia oncogenes using enzyme-loaded carbon nanotube labels.
Analyst. 2014; 139(17):4223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe an ultrasensitive electrochemical nucleic acid assay amplified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based labels for the detection of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)-related p185 BCR-ABL fusion transcript. The carboxylated CNTs were functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules and target-specific detection probes (DP) via diimide-activated amidation and used to label and amplify the target hybridization signal. The activity of captured HRP was monitored by square-wave voltammetry measuring the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 2-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide substrate solution. The signal-amplified assay achieved a detection limit of 83 fM (5 × 10(-18) mol in 60 μL) targets oligonucleotides and has a 4-order-wide dynamic range of target concentration. The resulting assay allowed robust discrimination between the perfect match and a three-base mismatch sequence. When exposed to the full-length (491 bp) DNA oncogene, the approach demonstrated a detection limit of 1 × 10(-16) mol in 60 μL, corresponding to approximately 33 pg of the target gene. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay enabled a PCR-free detection of target transcripts in as little as 65 ng of mRNA extracted from positive ALL cell lines SUP-B15 in comparison to those obtained from negative cell line HL-60. The approach enables a simple, low-cost and ultrasensitive electrochemical nucleic acid detection in portable devices, point-of-care and early disease diagnostic applications.

Ma W, Wang DD, Li L, et al.
Caveolin-1 plays a key role in the oleanolic acid-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):293-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study found that caveolin-1 (CAV-1) protein expression is upregulated during oleanolic acid (OA)-induced inhibition of proliferation and promotion of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. CAV-1 is the main structural protein component of caveolae, playing important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development. It has been shown that cav-1 expression is lower in leukemia cancer cell lines SUP-B15, HL-60, THP-1 and K562 and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary (CLP) cells when compared with normal white blood cells, with the lowest cav-1 expression level found in HL-60 cells. To study the effects of cav-1 in HL-60 cells and the effects of cav-1 overexpression on OA drug efficacy, cav-1 was overexpressed in HL-60 cells using lentiviral-mediated transfection combined with OA treatment. The results showed that cav-1 overexpression inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase and inhibited activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of CAV-1 also increased HL-60 cell sensitivity to OA. To further verify whether OA affects HL-60 cells via the activation of downstream signaling pathways by CAV-1, cav-1 gene expression was silenced using RNAi, and the cells were treated with OA to examine its efficacy. The results showed that after cav-1 silencing, OA had little effect on cell activity, apoptosis, the cell cycle and phosphorylation of HL-60 cells. This study is the first to show that CAV-1 plays a crucial role in the effects of OA on HL-60 cells.

Beckham CJ, Olsen J, Yin PN, et al.
Bladder cancer exosomes contain EDIL-3/Del1 and facilitate cancer progression.
J Urol. 2014; 192(2):583-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: High grade bladder cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect bladder cancer progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exosomes derived from human bladder cancer cell lines and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer were assessed for the ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. Exosomes purified from the high grade bladder cancer cell line TCC-SUP and the nonmalignant urothelial cell line SV-HUC were submitted for mass spectrometry analysis. EDIL-3 was identified and selected for further analysis. Western blot was done to determine EDIL-3 levels in urinary exosomes from patients with high grade bladder cancer. shRNA gene knockdown and recombinant EDIL-3 were applied to study EDIL-3 function.
RESULTS: Exosomes isolated from high grade bladder cancer cells and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer promoted angiogenesis and migration of bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells. We silenced EDIL-3 expression and found that shEDIL-3 exosomes did not facilitate angiogenesis, and urothelial and endothelial cell migration. Moreover, exosomes purified from the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer contained significantly higher EDIL-3 levels than exosomes from the urine of healthy controls. EDIL-3 activated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling while blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling abrogated this EDIL-3 induced bladder cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes derived from the urine of patients with bladder cancer contains bioactive molecules such as EDIL-3. Identifying these components and their associated oncogenic pathways could lead to novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies.

Bode C, Kinjo T, Alvord WG, Klinman DM
Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides reduce lung cancer susceptibility in mice with silicosis.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1078-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Silicosis is an inflammatory lung disease induced by the inhalation of silica-containing dust particles. There is conflicting data on whether patients with silicosis are more susceptible to lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke. To examine this issue experimentally, a model was developed in which one of the most abundant and potent carcinogens present in cigarette smoke [4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)] was administered to mice at the peak of silica-induced pulmonary inflammation. Results show that the incidence of lung tumors in silicotic mice treated with NNK was significantly increased compared with mice exposed to silica or NNK alone. Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs can block pathologic inflammation. We therefore examined whether treatment with these suppressive (Sup) ODN could block silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and thereby reduce susceptibility to lung cancer. Results show that Sup (but not control) ODN inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and other inflammatory manifestations of chronic silicosis. Of greater import, Sup ODN reduced lung tumor incidence and multiplicity in silicotic mice exposed to NNK. These findings establish an experimental model for examining the role of silicotic inflammation in cancer susceptibility and demonstrate that Sup ODN represent a novel therapy for chronic silicosis.

Zhou F, Xu Y, Qiu Y, et al.
Ik6 expression provides a new strategy for the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1373-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study demonstrated that the dominant-negative Ikaros isoform 6 (Ik6) is overexpressed in Chinese children with newly diagnosed B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and is strongly associated with a poor outcome. The purpose of the present study was to further explore the function of Ik6 in B-ALL. The association between Ik6 expression as detected by real-time PCR and efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated. The effect of the alteration in Ik6 on leukemic cell lines was assessed by in vitro gain-of-function and loss-of-function techniques. PCR analysis showed that Ik6 expression was decreased when patients completed induction chemotherapy and reached complete remission. Ik6 expression was significantly increased when patients suffered relapse. Stable transfection of Ik6 into the Nalm-6 cell line revealed that Ik6 enhanced proliferation of Nalm-6 cells through the promotion of G0/G1-to-S-phase transition and enhanced chemoresistance to chemotherapeutics through anti-apoptotic effects. However, Ik6 expression did not affect the invasion of Nalm-6 cells. In contrast, silencing of Ik6 in Sup-B15 cells significantly inhibited proliferation and increased chemosensitivity. The present study suggests that Ik6 may be a biological marker of chemosensitivity and relapse and Ik6 may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for ALL.

Ding J, Romani J, Zaborski M, et al.
Inhibition of PI3K/mTOR overcomes nilotinib resistance in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia cells through translational down-regulation of MDM2.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a cytogenetic disorder resulting from formation of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), that is, the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation and the formation of the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as imatinib and nilotinib, have emerged as leading compounds with which to treat CML. t(9;22) is not restricted to CML, 20-30% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases also carry the Ph. However, TKIs are not as effective in the treatment of Ph+ ALL as in CML. In this study, the Ph+ cell lines JURL-MK2 and SUP-B15 were used to investigate TKI resistance mechanisms and the sensitization of Ph+ tumor cells to TKI treatment. The annexin V/PI (propidium iodide) assay revealed that nilotinib induced apoptosis in JURL-MK2 cells, but not in SUP-B15 cells. Since there was no mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL1 in cell line SUP-B15, the cells were not generally unresponsive to TKI, as evidenced by dephosphorylation of the BCR-ABL1 downstream targets, Crk-like protein (CrkL) and Grb-associated binder-2 (GAB2). Resistance to apoptosis after nilotinib treatment was accompanied by the constitutive and nilotinib unresponsive activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Treatment of SUP-B15 cells with the dual PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor BEZ235 alone induced apoptosis in a low percentage of cells, while combining nilotinib and BEZ235 led to a synergistic effect. The main role of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 and the reason for apoptosis in the nilotinib-resistant cells was the block of the translational machinery, leading to the rapid downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MDM2 (human homolog of the murine double minute-2). These findings highlight MDM2 as a potential therapeutic target to increase TKI-mediated apoptosis and imply that the combination of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor and TKI might form a novel strategy to combat TKI-resistant BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia.

Yang X, He G, Gong Y, et al.
Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin enhances anti-leukemia effect of imatinib on Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Eur J Haematol. 2014; 92(2):111-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCR-ABL fusion gene typically causes a type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), known as Ph+ ALL. Although imatinib (IM) treatment induced high rates of complete response (CR), serious acute and late complications are frequent, whereas more vexatiously resistance to chemotherapy and clinical relapse develops. Therefore, the efficacy of treatment in Ph+ ALL is still to be determined. In this study, we focused our attention on the potential benefit of rapamycin (RAPA), an mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, in combination with IM on a Ph+ ALL cell line SUP-B15 and a primary Ph+ ALL sample in vitro. Analysis of cell proliferation showed that RAPA (50 nm) plus IM exerted good synergistic effect on Ph+ ALL cells. Notably, we found that IM treatment induced the abnormal activation of the components of mTOR signaling pathway and p-BCR-ABL, whereas RAPA potently eliminated this deleterious side effect induced by IM and might overcome the resistance to IM. The synergistic effect was also associated with the increase in autophagy, which seemed to have an opposite role with apoptosis in Ph+ ALL cells, and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Altogether, our results suggested that IM in combination with RAPA was more effective for Ph+ ALL cells than IM alone.

Lin JA, Fang SU, Su CL, et al.
Silencing glucose-regulated protein 78 induced renal cell carcinoma cell line G1 cell-cycle arrest and resistance to conventional chemotherapy.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(1):29.e1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78) is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone; it maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and modulates unfolded protein response. The protein is overexpressed in various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Increased Grp78 expression in patients with RCC is correlated with more aggressive tumors and poorer prognoses. This study investigated the role of Grp78 in regulating tumorigenesis and evaluated the potential of Grp78-targeted therapy for RCC.
METHODS: The expression level of Grp78 was examined in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-intact or VHL-null RCC cell lines by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Specific Grp78 ribonucleic acid interference was applied as a molecularly Grp78-targeted therapeutic approach. This method enabled us to assess the effects of manipulating Grp78 expression to regulate RCC cell growth.
RESULTS: The Grp78 messenger ribonucleic acid and protein were expressed in both VHL-intact and VHL-null RCC cell lines. The specific inhibition of Grp78 expression suppressed RCC cell growth and colony formation significantly, and induced G1 cell-cycle arrest. We also showed that inhibiting Grp78 expression increased the cells' resistance to the cytotoxicity of the S-phase-specific anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. This effect was regulated by the unfolded protein response-induced suppression of G1/S transition-related cyclins (D1, E1, and E2) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4 and CDK6) protein expression.
CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings indicate the regulatory function of Grp78 in RCC cell proliferation, and provide a molecular-based mechanism of Grp78 positivity in the progression of RCC.

Takahashi R, Sato T, Klinman DM, et al.
Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically enhance antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs in A549 human lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(2):429-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunosuppressive oligodeoxynucleotides (Sup ODNs) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs reduce inflammation and, thus, may have an impact on inflammation‑related tumor growth. In this study, we found a significant antiproliferative effect of Sup ODNs on the A549 non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line compared to those treated with control ODNs (p<0.05). Sup-ODN-mediated G1 phase cell cycle arrest was achieved via inhibition of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and the p15INK4b and p27KIP1/retinoblastoma protein pathway. In addition, Sup ODNs induced apoptosis and enhanced apoptosis when combined with vinorelbine. In a setting similar to clinical use of multidrug chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC, these effects were investigated by using Sup ODNs in combination with conventional anticancer drugs. Sup ODNs had a significant synergistic effect with 5-fluorouracil, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, paclitaxel and irinotecan, with a mean combination index of 0.43-0.78 (<1.0 indicates synergism) in the A549 NSCLC cell line. In conclusion, our results showed that Sup ODNs have an anticancer effect and increase the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to conventional anticancer drugs by modifying Akt and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Thus, Sup ODNs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

Zou J, Li P, Lu F, et al.
Notch1 is required for hypoxia-induced proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
J Hematol Oncol. 2013; 6:3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Notch1 is a potent regulator known to play an oncogenic role in many malignancies including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Tumor hypoxia and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity can act as major stimuli for tumor aggressiveness and progression. Although hypoxia-mediated activation of the Notch1 pathway plays an important role in tumor cell survival and invasiveness, the interaction between HIF-1α and Notch1 has not yet been identified in T-ALL. This study was designed to investigate whether hypoxia activates Notch1 signalling through HIF-1α stabilization and to determine the contribution of hypoxia and HIF-1α to proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance in T-ALL.
METHODS: T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, Sup-T1) transfected with HIF-1α or Notch1 small interference RNA (siRNA) were incubated in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Their potential for proliferation and invasion was measured by WST-8 and transwell assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis and assess cell cycle regulation. Expression and regulation of components of the HIF-1α and Notch1 pathways and of genes related to proliferation, invasion and apoptosis were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot.
RESULTS: Hypoxia potentiated Notch1 signalling via stabilization and activation of the transcription factor HIF-1α. Hypoxia/HIF-1α-activated Notch1 signalling altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and accelerated cell proliferation. Hypoxia-induced Notch1 activation increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9, which increased invasiveness. Of greater clinical significance, knockdown of Notch1 prevented the protective effect of hypoxia/HIF-1α against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. This sensitization correlated with losing the effect of hypoxia/HIF-1α on Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Notch1 signalling is required for hypoxia/HIF-1α-induced proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance in T-ALL. Pharmacological inhibitors of HIF-1α or Notch1 signalling may be attractive interventions for T-ALL treatment.

Guo Y, Shan Q, Gong Y, et al.
Oridonin in combination with imatinib exerts synergetic anti-leukemia effect in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in vitro by inhibiting activation of LYN/mTOR signaling pathway.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(13):1244-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is triggered by constitutively activated BCR-ABL and SRC family tyrosine kinases.They account for the activations of multiple growth-signaling pathways, including Raf/MEK/ERK, Akt/mTOR and STAT5 pathways. The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib is the standard treatment for Ph+ leukemia and plays efficacious role in CML. However, imatinib has few inhibitory effects on SRC tyrosine kinase with response rate of Ph+ ALL lower and relapse more frequent and quicker compared with CML. Previous studies showed that oridonin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in many tumor cells. However, the anticancer activity and mechanism of oridonin in Ph+ ALL is unknown. To investigate the anticancer activity of oridonin, we examined its role in constitutively activated Akt/mTOR, Raf/MEK/ERK, STAT5 and SRC pathway, mRNA level of bcr/abl gene, cell viability and apoptosis in Ph+ ALL SUP-B15 cells. Furthermore, we detected synergetic effect of oridonin plus imatinib. Our results showed that oridonin inhibiting activations of LYN (one of SRC family kinases) and ABL and their downstream Akt/mTOR, Raf/MEK/ERK and STAT5 pathways, downregulated Bcl-2 but upregulated Bax protein and then induced apoptosis in Ph+ ALL cells. Oridonin plus imatinib exerted synergetic effects by overcoming imatinib defect of upregulating Akt/mTOR and LYN signaling. Additionally, we examined the effect of oridonin on the signaling pathways in the primary specimens from Ph+ ALL patients. Our data showed that oridonin remarkably suppressed activations of Akt/mTOR, Raf/MEK and STAT5 pathway in these primary specimens and oridonin with imatinib exerted synergetic suppressive effects on mTOR, STAT5 and LYN signaling in one imatinib resistant patient specimen. Additional evaluation of oridonin as a potential therapeutic agent for Ph+ ALL seems warranted.

Hiwasa K, Nagaya H, Terao S, et al.
Improved gene transfer into bladder cancer cells using adenovirus vector containing RGD motif.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(8):3137-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transduction efficacy of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector in high-grade human bladder cancer cells is generally extremely low due to the non-expression of coxsackie and adenoviral receptor (CAR). We investigated whether fiber-modified adenovirus vector containing an RGD motif in the HI loop of the adenovirus fiber knob could increase the transduction efficiency of Ad5 into human bladder cancer cells in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expressions of CAR, and of α(v), β(3) and β(5) integrin, and the transduction efficacy of fiber-modified adenovirus vector in four human bladder cancer cell lines (TCC-SUP, 253J, T24 and KK47).
RESULTS: The expression of CAR was lower and those of α(v) and β(3) integrin were higher in four human cancer cell lines compared with the control cell line, KK47. The transduction efficacy of fiber-modified adenovirus vector increased by 20- to 470-fold compared with Ad5.
CONCLUSION: Fiber-modified adenovirus vector may be useful in order to establish new effective gene therapy strategies for the treatment of high-grade human bladder cancer.

Sato Y, Ohshima K, Takata K, et al.
Ocular adnexal IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2012; 52(1):51-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
IgG4-related disease is a recently proposed clinical entity with several unique clinicopathological features. A chronic inflammatory state with marked fibrosis, which can often be mistaken for malignancy, especially by clinical imaging analyses, unifies these features. In the present report, we describe a case of IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease. The patient was a 55-year-old male who was being followed for right orbital tumor over 1.5 years. The lesion had recently increased in size, so a biopsy was performed. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with IgG4-related disease ; however, IgG4+ plasma cells showed immunoglobulin light-chain restriction and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement was detected in the lesion. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as IgG4-producing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In conclusion, in histological diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, it is important to examine not only IgG4-immunostain but also immunoglobulin light-chain restriction.

Nakahata S, Morishita K
CADM1/TSLC1 is a novel cell surface marker for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2012; 52(1):17-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
CADM1/TSLC1 (Cell adhesion molecule 1/Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1) is a cell adhesion molecule that was originally identified as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer. CADM1/TSLC1 expression is reduced in a variety of cancers via promoter methylation, and this reduction is associated with poor prognosis and enhanced metastatic potential. In contrast, we observed that CADM1/TSLC1 is highly and ectopically expressed in all primary adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells and in most human T-cell leukemia virus type (HTLV)-1-infected T-cell and ATLL cell lines. No expression, however, was detected in CD4+ T cells or in several other non-HTLV-1-infected leukemia cells. Moreover, we identified that high CADM1/TSLC1 expression plays an important role in enhanced cell-cell adhesion to the vascular endothelium, tumor growth and the ability of ATLL cells to infiltrate organs. We developed various antibodies as diagnostic tools to identify CADM1+ ATLL cells. Using flow cytometry, we determined that CADM1/TSLC1 is present on the surface of ATLL cells. The percentage of CD4+CADM1+ cells in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1 carriers and ATLL patients was highly correlated with the DNA copy number of HTLV-1 in lymphocytes. In particular, we identified the soluble form of CADM1/TSLC1 in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1 carriers and ATLL patients. Therefore, measurements of soluble CADM1/TSLC1 serum levels and the detection of CD4+CADM1+ cells in the blood, when combined with standard diagnostic methods, would be useful for identifying and monitoring disease progression in HTLV-1 carriers. Such tests would provide increased accuracy and may aid in early diagnosis and in determining the effects of ATLL treatments.

Yeom SY, Lee SJ, Kim WS, Park C
Rad knockdown induces mitochondrial apoptosis in bortezomib resistant leukemia and lymphoma cells.
Leuk Res. 2012; 36(9):1172-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the molecular mechanism(s) underlying bortezomib resistance, we sought to identify potential target genes that were differentially expressed in bortezomib-resistant leukemia cells versus parental controls. Microarray analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of Rad (Ras associated with diabetes) were higher in the bortezomib-resistant Jurkat (Jurkat-R) cells than in the parental control cells. The importance of Rad for bortezomib resistance was supported by three observations. First, Rad knockdown overcame bortezomib resistance and induced mitochondrial apoptosis via Noxa/Bcl-2 modulation. Second, Rad decreased cell death in response to bortezomib. Third, leukemia and lymphoma cell lines (K-562, Raji, IM-9 and Jurkat-R) with elevated Rad expression levels showed higher degrees of bortezomib resistance versus those (Sup-B15, JVM-2, U266 and Jurkat) with low Rad expression levels (r=0.48, P=0.0004). Thus, Rad over expression could be a molecular target to improve bortezomib sensitivity in human leukemia and lymphoma.

Harada M, Pokrovskaja-Tamm K, Söderhäll S, et al.
Involvement of miR17 pathway in glucocorticoid-induced cell death in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(10):2041-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Analysis of the microRNA transcriptome following dexa- methasone treatment of the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cell line RS4;11 showed a global down-regulation of microRNA levels. MIR17HG was rapidly down-regulated following treatment, with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrating the promoter to be a direct target of glucocorticoid (GC)-transcriptional repression and revealing the miR17-92 cluster as a prime target for dexamethasone-induced repression. The loss of miR17 family expression and concomitant increases in the miR17 target Bim occurred in an additional ALL cell line SUP-B15 but not in the dexamethasone-resistant REH. Alteration of miR17 levels through up-regulation or inhibition resulted in an decrease and increase, respectively, in Bim protein levels and dexamethasone-induced cell death. Primary ex vivo ALL cells that underwent apoptosis induced by dexamethasone also down-regulated miR17 levels. Thus, down-regulation of miR17 plays an important role in glucocorticoid-induced cell death suggesting that targeting miR17 may improve the current ALL combination therapy.

Matsuzaki J, Torigoe T, Hirohashi Y, et al.
ECRG4 is a negative regulator of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in human T-leukemia cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(5):996-1003 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously established Fas-resistant variant clones from the human T-cell leukemia lines Jurkat and SUP-T13. Comparative gene expression analysis of the Fas-resistant and Fas-sensitive clones revealed several genes that were aberrantly expressed in the Fas-resistant clones. One of the genes, esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4), contained a VDAC2-like domain that might be associated with apoptotic signals. In the present study, we examined the subcellular localization and function of ECRG4 in Fas-mediated apoptosis. By confocal fluorescence microscopy, ECRG4-EGFP fusion protein was detected in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus in gene-transfected HeLa cells. Overexpression of ECRG4 in Fas-sensitive Jurkat cells inhibited mitochondrial membrane permeability transition, leading to resistance against Fas-induced apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis was also suppressed in ECRG4-overexpressing Jurkat cells. Immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ECRG4 is associated with procaspase-8. The inhibitory mechanism included the inhibition of caspase-8 activity and Bid cleavage. Since ECRG4 expression is downregulated in activated T cells, our results suggest that ECRG4 is a novel antiapoptotic gene which is involved in the negative regulation of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in T cells.

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