Gene Summary

Gene:HERPUD1; homocysteine inducible ER protein with ubiquitin like domain 1
Aliases: SUP, HERP, Mif1
Summary:The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the ER stress response. This response includes the inhibition of translation to prevent further accumulation of unfolded proteins, the increased expression of proteins involved in polypeptide folding, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), and the destruction of misfolded proteins by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system. This gene may play a role in both UPR and ERAD. Its expression is induced by UPR and it has an ER stress response element in its promoter region while the encoded protein has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain which may interact with the ERAD system. This protein has been shown to interact with presenilin proteins and to increase the level of amyloid-beta protein following its overexpression. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. The full-length nature of all transcript variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident ubiquitin-like domain member 1 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Metribolone
  • Benzoquinones
  • U937 Cells
  • Protein Transport
  • Molecular Structure
  • Farnesol
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Western Blotting
  • Young Adult
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • siRNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Transcription Factor CHOP
  • Base Sequence
  • Signal Transduction
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Phosphatidate Phosphatase
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Gene Expression
  • Androgen Receptors
  • ATP dependent 26S protease
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Chromosome 16
  • Uterine Cancer
  • lipid phosphate phosphatase
  • Heme Oxygenase-1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Microarray Analysis
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Oxidative Stress
  • HMOX1 protein, human
  • Androgens
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • Leukaemia
  • Hormone-Dependent Cancers
  • Apoptosis
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HERPUD1 (cancer-related)

Hänze J, Kessel F, Di Fazio P, et al.
Effects of multi and selective targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on function and signaling of different bladder cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:316-325 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) is dysregulated in various malignancies including bladder cancer. RTKs trigger pro-proliferative, anti-apoptotic and metastatic signaling pathways. Here, we assessed the effects of a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) (BGJ398) targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and a pan-TKI (TKI258) targeting (FGFR), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) in bladder cancer cells.
METHODS: Levels of mRNA transcripts were measured in nine human cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. Cell function was assessed for viability, colony formation, migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Protein mediators of signal transduction were measured by Western-blot.
RESULTS: mRNA transcripts encoding RTK-related components, transcription factors, epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers as well as cell cycle and apoptotic factors were determined in the cell lines. Principal component analysis ordered one epithelial-like cell cluster (5637, BFTC-905, MGHU4, RT112) and one mesenchymal-like cell cluster (T24, UMUC3, HU456, TCC-SUP). Cell response scores towards TKI258 and BGJ398 treatment were heterogeneous between cell lines and correlated with certain transcript levels. Analysis of signal transduction pathways revealed inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling and induction of cell cycle dependent kinase (CDKN1A, p21) in epithelial-like cells differing in this regard from responses to mesenchymal-like cells that exhibited inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
CONCLUSION: RTK and EMT related transcript analysis separate bladder cancer cells in two clusters. Functional responses towards TKI258 and BGJ398 treatment of bladder Fcancer cells were heterogeneous with deviating effects on signaling and possibly different therapeutic outcome.

Wu Y, Tan M, Chen ML, Chen YZ
Expression and role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) on Ph-positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hematology. 2018; 23(8):439-447 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We observed that ph + ALL patients administrated with recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) after intense chemotherapy have presented a trend of disease relapse. Thus, we aim to thoroughly investigate the expression and role of GM-CSFR and G-CSFR on ph + ALL patients.
METHOD: SUP-B15, BALL-1 and primary leukemia cells were used in this study. Transcript levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR while cell viability was measured using a CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the different stages of cell cycle.
RESULTS: We found that the mRNA expression levels of GM-CSFR and G-CSFR were higher in patients with ph + ALL, as well as in SUP-B15 cells. rhG-CSF was also observed to promote the viability of SUP-B15 cells while inversely inhibiting BALL-1 cell viability. In addition, we also determined that rhG-CSF (100 ng/ml) decreased the sensitivity of SUP-B15 cells to imatinib and nilotinib, while the results were exactly the contrary for dasatinib.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated high expression levels of GM-CSFR and G-CSFR, as well as their promotable role for viability in ph + ALL cells. We further found that rhG-CSF influenced the sensitivity of SUP-B15 cells to TKIs.

Heimburg T, Kolbinger FR, Zeyen P, et al.
Structure-Based Design and Biological Characterization of Selective Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) Inhibitors with Anti-Neuroblastoma Activity.
J Med Chem. 2017; 60(24):10188-10204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important modulators of epigenetic gene regulation and additionally control the activity of non-histone protein substrates. While for HDACs 1-3 and 6 many potent selective inhibitors have been obtained, for other subtypes much less is known on selective inhibitors and the consequences of their inhibition. The present report describes the development of substituted benzhydroxamic acids as potent and selective HDAC8 inhibitors. Docking studies using available crystal structures have been used for structure-based optimization of this series of compounds. Within this study, we have investigated the role of HDAC8 in the proliferation of cancer cells and optimized hits for potency and selectivity, both in vitro and in cell culture. The combination of structure-based design, synthesis, and in vitro screening to cellular testing resulted in potent and selective HDAC8 inhibitors that showed anti-neuroblastoma activity in cellular testing.

Wang L, Basturk O, Wang J, et al.
A FISH assay efficiently screens for BRAF gene rearrangements in pancreatic acinar-type neoplasms.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(1):132-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 1-2% of pancreatic neoplasms are acinar cell carcinomas. Recently, BRAF gene rearrangements were identified in over 20% of acinar-type neoplasms, which included both pure acinar cell carcinomas and mixed carcinomas with acinar differentiation, using next-generation sequencing-based platforms, providing a potential therapeutic target for patients with these neoplasms. Thus, it is clinically important to develop a rapid, cost- and material-efficient assay to screen for BRAF gene fusions in pancreatic acinar-type neoplasms. We developed a dual color, break-apart FISH assay to detect BRAF gene rearrangements in these neoplasms and evaluated its performance in comparison to next-generation sequencing-based studies. A blinded BRAF rearrangement FISH investigation was performed on 31 acinar-type neoplasms that had been studied previously by next-generation sequencing-based analysis as well as on 18 additional acinar-type neoplasms that were accrued over the past 2 years. In total, BRAF fusions were identified in 12/49 (24%) acinar-type neoplasms by FISH. BRAF fusion partners were uncovered by using targeted next-generation sequencing studies in 11 FISH-positive cases that had sufficient material for next-generation sequencing studies. SND1 was the most frequent fusion partner involved in BRAF-fusion acinar-type neoplasms (50%), followed by HERPUD1 (18%). No BRAF fusions were identified by next-generation sequencing in any of the FISH-negative cases investigated. FISH analysis showed that BRAF rearrangements were diffusely present across tumor-rich areas in BRAF-fusion acinar-type neoplasms, which is consistent with an oncogenic driver alteration pattern. Thus, we demonstrated that, in comparison to targeted next-generation sequencing-based technologies, the FISH assay is highly sensitive and specific as well as time- and cost-efficient in the detection of BRAF fusions in acinar-type neoplasms. The FISH assay can be easily implemented in diagnostic settings to identify acinar-type neoplasms patients potentially suitable for targeted therapy to inhibit MAPK pathway activity.

Main BJ, Rodgers KJ
Assessing the Combined Toxicity of BMAA and Its Isomers 2,4-DAB and AEG In Vitro Using Human Neuroblastoma Cells.
Neurotox Res. 2018; 33(1):33-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined. We have previously demonstrated that BMAA induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and increases caspase and cathepsin activity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), effects consistent with proteotoxic stress due to disturbances in protein synthesis, folding or turnover. The current study investigates whether 2,4-DAB and AEG share a similar mechanism of toxicity to BMAA, and if simultaneous exposure of cells to BMAA and its isomers results in increased toxicity in vitro. We show that a 48-h treatment with both 500 μM BMAA and 2,4-DAB decreases cell viability in vitro whereas AEG was not cytotoxic under the same conditions. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 2,4-DAB did not increase expression of ER stress markers. Combined treatment of cells with BMAA and 2,4-DAB resulted in increased caspase activity and increased apoptosis above that of BMAA or 2,4-DAB on their own. These results suggest that 2,4-DAB does not share the same mechanism of toxicity as BMAA but the presence of 2,4-DAB increases the toxicity of BMAA to human cells in vitro.

Fan FY, Deng R, Yi H, et al.
The inhibitory effect of MEG3/miR-214/AIFM2 axis on the growth of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(1):316-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-MEG3 is an important tumor suppressor in various cancers. The present study investigated the potential role of maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) in the progression of T-LBL. Suppressed expression of MEG3 was detected in T-LBL tissues compared with adjacent histologically normal tissues. Down-regulated level of MEG3 was also found in three T-LBL cell lines (CCRF-CEM, Jurkat and SUP-T1) compared with human T-cell line H9. The proliferation of T-LBL cells was inhibited and cell apoptosis rate was largely promoted when MEG3 was upregulated by a lentiviral vector. Further research revealed that microRNA (miRNA)-214 is a direct target of MEG3. The expression of miR-214 was increased in T-LBL tissues and cell lines compared with control groups. Besides, decreased level of miR-214 was elevated adding miR-214 mimic in SUP-T1 cells transfected with LncRNA-MEG3. Similarly, upregulated level of miR-214 was downregulated adding miR-214 inhibitor in SUP-T1 cells transfected with MEG3 siRNA. Luciferase activity assay further confirmed the targeting relationship between MEG3 and miR-214. Moreover, AIFM2 protein was predicted as a target of miR-214. The expression of AIFM2 was increased by MEG3 and was downregulated by miR-214 mimic. miRNA-214 reversed the effect of MEG3 on inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in SUP-T1 cells. Moreover, relative expression of AIFM2 had a positive correlation with the expression of MEG3 and was negatively affected by miR-214. In vivo, MEG3 effectively suppressed tumor growth and the expression of proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Taken together, our research revealed that MEG3 worked as an anti-oncogene in T-LBL, and the MEG3-miR-214-AIFM2 pathway regulated the growth of T-LBL, providing potential prognosis markers as well as new potential targets for T-LBL treatment.

Lim SM, Kim HR, Lee JS, et al.
Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase II Study of Ceritinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring ROS1 Rearrangement.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(23):2613-2618 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose ROS1 rearrangement is a distinct molecular subset of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of ceritinib in patients with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC. Patients and Methods We enrolled 32 patients with advanced NSCLC who tested positive for ROS1 rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Ceritinib 750 mg was administered once daily. The primary end point was objective response rate. The secondary end points were disease control rate; duration of response; progression-free survival; overall survival; toxicity; and concordance among fluorescent in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and next-generation sequencing. Results Between June 7, 2013, and February 1, 2016, 404 patients underwent ROS1 prescreening, and 32 patients with ROS1 rearrangement were enrolled. All patients except two were crizotinib-naïve. At the time of data cutoff, the median follow-up was 14.0 months, and 18 patients (56%) had discontinued treatment. Of the 32 patients enrolled, 28 were evaluable for response by independent radiologic review. Objective response rate was 62% (95% CI, 45% to 77%), with one complete response and 19 partial responses; duration of response was 21.0 months (95% CI, 17 to 25 months); and disease control rate was 81% (95% CI, 65% to 91%). The median progression-free survival was 9.3 months (95% CI, 0 to 22 months) for all patients and 19.3 months (95% CI, 1 to 37 months) for crizotinib-naïve patients. The median overall survival was 24 months (95% CI, 5 to 43 months). Of the eight patients with brain metastases, intracranial disease control was reported in five (63%; 95% CI, 31% to 86%). The most common adverse events (majority, grade 1 or 2) for all treated patients were diarrhea (78%), nausea (59%), and anorexia (56%). Conclusion Ceritinib demonstrated potent clinical activity in patients with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC who were heavily treated previously with multiple lines of chemotherapy.

Yang L, Mu Y, Cui H, et al.
MiR-9-3p augments apoptosis induced by H2O2 through down regulation of Herpud1 in glioma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0174839 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs are short, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that function as regulators of tumor progression in various cancers, including glioma. The present study sought to investigate the biological functions of miR-9-3p in glioma progression. The results of a microRNA microarray indicated that microRNA-9-3p (miR-9-3p, miR-9*) is down-regulated in high-grade (grades III and IV) gliomas compared with non-tumor tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. The miR-9-3p expression level was associated with age and tumor grade. Herpud1 was regulated by miR-9-3p in glioma cells and tissues and was identified as a miR-9-3p target with luciferase reporter assays. Glioma cells transfected with miR-9-3p mimics or HERPUD1-RNAi had more apoptotic cells than them in control after induced by H2O2. Our results indicated that low expression of miR-9-3p results in a high level of Herpud1, which may protect against apoptosis in glioma.

Yan T, Leng Y, Yang X, et al.
High-expressing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interacts with histone deacetylase 2 to promote the development of Ph+ leukemia through the HDAC2-mediated PTEN pathway.
Leuk Res. 2017; 57:9-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aberrant expression or mutation of CFTR has been shown to be involved in several tumors, but how mutations or dysfunction of CFTR may increase the risk of malignancies in various tissues remains unclear. Here, we report the interaction between CFTR and HDAC2, and its involvement in the development of Ph+ leukemia. We first detected the physical interaction and co-localization of CFTR and HDAC2 in Ph+ leukemia cell lines. And treatment with CFTRinh-172, a CFTR inhibitor, reduced the expression of HDAC2 protein in K562 and SUP-B15 cells, which could be partially recovered by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Additionally, high expression levels of HDAC2 protein were observed in CFTR cDNA transfected HEK-293 and Ba/F3 cells. Next, we found that HDAC2 bound in the promoter region of the PTEN gene, and treatment with HDAC2 inhibitor or CFTRinh-172 resulted in an increase in PTEN mRNA and protein levels and a decrease in PDK1 and mTOR (downstream signaling of PTEN) activity. Finally, the MTT assay revealed that CFTRinh-172 could strengthen the anti-proliferation effect of HDAC2 inhibitor on Ph+ leukemia cells. Altogether, this study provides strong evidence that high-expression CFTR plays an important role in the development of Ph+ leukemia through the HDAC2-mediated PTEN pathway.

Dyshlovoy SA, Madanchi R, Hauschild J, et al.
The marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A induces p53-independent apoptosis and inhibits autophagy in urothelial carcinoma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Advanced urothelial carcinomas represent a considerable clinical challenge as they are difficult to treat. Platinum-based combination regimens obtain response rates ranging from 40 to 70% in first-line therapy of advanced urothelial carcinoma. In the majority of cases, however, the duration of these responses is limited, and when progression occurs, the outcome is generally poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the anticancer effects and the mode of action of the marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A in p53-wild type and p53-deficient human urothelial carcinoma cells.
METHODS: Activity of frondoside A was examined in the human urothelial carcinoma cell lines RT112, RT4, HT-1197, TCC-SUP, T-24, and 486p. Effects of frondoside A on cell viability, either alone or in combination with standard cytotoxic agents were investigated, and synergistic effects were analyzed. Pro-apoptotic activity was assessed by Western blotting and FACS, alone and in combination with a caspases-inhibitor. The impact of functional p53 was investigated by siRNA gene silencing and the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. Effects on autophagy were studied using LC3B-I/II and SQSTM/p62 as markers. The unpaired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the data sets.
RESULTS: Frondoside A shows high cytotoxicity in urothelial carcinoma cells with IC
CONCLUSIONS: A unique combination of properties makes marine compound frondoside A a promising candidate for the treatment of human urothelial carcinomas.

Zhou W, Wang S, Ying Y, et al.
miR-196b/miR-1290 participate in the antitumor effect of resveratrol via regulation of IGFBP3 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(2):1075-1083 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs play critical roles in the progression of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Previous studies have indicated that miR-196b and miR-1290 play critical roles in T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-cell ALL (B-ALL), respectively. Resveratrol, a natural edible polyphenolic phytoalexin, possesses certain anticancer activities. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the regulation of ALL by resveratrol is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of resveratrol in ALL focusing on miRNAs. Research indicates that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) plays a critical role in the aetiology of ALL. In the present study, we first demonstrated that the expression of IGFBP3 was decreased in ALL patients. We further identified that miR-196b and miR-1290 were overexpressed in T-ALL TALL-104 and B-ALL SUP-B15 cell lines, respectively. Moreover, resveratrol markedly decreased the overexpression of miR-196b/miR-1290 and elevated IGFBP3 expression in the ALL cell lines. As an miR-196b/miR-1290 inhibitor, resveratrol was further demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on ALL cells including antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of migration. Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-196b/miR-1290 directly bound to the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of IGFBP3 mRNA. Moreover, we observed that IGFBP3 short interfering RNA reversed the antitumor activity of resveratrol against ALL cells. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that resveratrol targets miR-196b and miR-1290 for its antitumor activity in T-ALL and B-ALL, respectively. The present study also confirms that both miR‑196b and miR-1290 target the IGFBP3 3'-UTR and are potential therapeutic targets for ALL.

Ishii A, Kang JQ, Schornak CC, et al.
J Med Genet. 2017; 54(3):202-211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), a disease with a devastating prognosis, is characterised by neonatal onset of seizures and massive myoclonus accompanied by a continuous suppression-burst EEG pattern. Three genes are associated with EMEs that have metabolic features. Here, we report a pathogenic mutation of an ion channel as a cause of EME for the first time.
METHODS: Sequencing was performed for 214 patients with epileptic seizures using a gene panel with 109 genes that are known or suspected to cause epileptic seizures. Functional assessments were demonstrated by using electrophysiological experiments and immunostaining for mutant γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA
RESULTS: We discovered a
CONCLUSION: This mutation has complex functional effects on GABA

Locatelli SL, Careddu G, Stirparo GG, et al.
Dual PI3K/ERK inhibition induces necroptotic cell death of Hodgkin Lymphoma cells through IER3 downregulation.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:35745 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways are constitutively activated in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients, thus representing attractive therapeutic targets. Here we report that the PI3K/ERK dual inhibitor AEZS-136 induced significant cell proliferation inhibition in L-540, SUP-HD1, KM-H2 and L-428 HL cell lines, but a significant increase in necroptotic cell death was observed only in two out of four cell lines (L-540 and SUP-HD1). In these cells, AEZS-136-induced necroptosis was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. JNK was activated by AEZS-136, and AEZS-136-induced necroptosis was blocked by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125, suggesting that JNK activation is required to trigger necroptosis following dual PI3K/ERK inhibition. Gene expression analysis indicated that the effects of AEZS-136 were associated with the modulation of cell cycle and cell death pathways. In the cell death-resistant cell lines, AEZS-136 induced the expression of immediate early response 3 (IER3) both in vitro and in vivo. Silencing of IER3 restored sensitivity to AEZS-136-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, xenograft studies demonstrated a 70% inhibition of tumor growth and a 10-fold increase in tumor necrosis in AEZS-136-treated animals. Together, these data suggest that dual PI3K/ERK inhibition might be an effective approach for improving therapeutic outcomes in HL.

Han J, Jin R, Zhang M, et al.
Ikaros 6 protects acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells against daunorubicin-induced apoptosis by activating the Akt-FoxO1 pathway.
J Leukoc Biol. 2017; 101(3):675-681 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ikaros isoform 6 (Ik6) is associated with a poor prognosis for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of Ik6 enhances proliferation and chemoresistance of leukemia cells, with a possible underlying mechanism that involves antiapoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether Ik6 protects against apoptosis by regulating the Akt-FoxO1 pathway. Bone marrow samples from children with ALL were collected and evaluated. In Ik6

Li J, Zhou P, Li L, et al.
Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0158592 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3), and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells.
METHODS: To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs), a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV). Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL-staining assay.
RESULTS: CMBsαvβ3 had a regular shape and good dispersion. Compared to CMBs, CMBsαvβ3 had more stable concentrations of αVβ3 ligand and pEGFP-KDRP-CD/TK, and CMBsαvβ3 was much sticker to HepG2 HCC cells than normal liver L-02cells. Moreover, after exposed to anti-αVβ3 monoclonal antibody, the adhesion of CMBsαvβ3 to HepG2 cells and L-02 cells were significantly reduced. Also, CMBsαvβ3 demonstrated a substantially higher efficiency in pEGFP-KDRP-CD/TK plasmid transfection in HepG2 cells than CMBs. In addition, CMBsαvβ3 could significantly facilitate 5-FC/GCV-induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. Moreover, treatment of 5-FC/GCV combined with CMBsαvβ3 resulted in a marked apoptotic cell death in HepG2 and SK-Herp-1 HCC cells. In vitro, treatment of 5-FC/GCV combined with CMBsαvβ3 suppresed cell proliferation. In nude mice model, 5-FU + GCV combined with plasmid + CMBsαvβ3were able to significantly suppress tumor volumes.
CONCLUSION: Through biotin-avidin mediation system, CMBsαvβ3 were successfully generated to specifically target HCC HepG2 cells. More importantly, CMBsαvβ3 could significantly facilitate 5-FC/GCV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. Our study demonstrated a potential strategy that could be translated clinically to improve liver tumor gene delivery.

Mariani SA, Minieri V, De Dominici M, et al.
CDKN2A-independent role of BMI1 in promoting growth and survival of Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(8):1682-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BMI1 is a key component of the PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex-1) complex required for maintenance of normal and cancer stem cells. Its aberrant expression is detected in chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but no data exist on BMI1 requirement in ALL cells. We show here that BMI1 expression is important for proliferation and survival of Ph+ ALL cells and for leukemogenesis of Ph+ cells in vivo. Levels of BIM, interferon-α (IFNα)-regulated genes and E2F7 were upregulated in BMI1-silenced cells, suggesting that repressing their expression is important for BMI1 biological effects. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that: (i) downregulation of BIM or E2F7 abrogated apoptosis or rescued, in part, the reduced proliferation and colony formation of BMI1 silenced BV173 cells; (ii) BIM/E2F7 double silencing further enhanced colony formation and in vivo leukemogenesis of BMI1-silenced cells; (iii) overexpression of BIM and E2F7 mimicked the effect of BMI1 silencing in BV173 and SUP-B15 cells; and (iv) treatment with IFNα suppressed proliferation and colony formation of Ph+ ALL cells. These studies indicate that the growth-promoting effects of BMI1 in Ph+ ALL cells depend on suppression of multiple pathways and support the use of IFNα in the therapy of Ph+ ALL.

Foy JP, Tortereau A, Caulin C, et al.
The dynamics of gene expression changes in a mouse model of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies in patients with oral cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(24):35932-35945 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A better understanding of the dynamics of molecular changes occurring during the early stages of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies. We generated genome-wide expression profiles of microdissected normal mucosa, hyperplasia, dysplasia and tumors derived from the 4-NQO mouse model of oral tumorigenesis. Genes differentially expressed between tumor and normal mucosa defined the "tumor gene set" (TGS), including 4 non-overlapping gene subsets that characterize the dynamics of gene expression changes through different stages of disease progression. The majority of gene expression changes occurred early or progressively. The relevance of these mouse gene sets to human disease was tested in multiple datasets including the TCGA and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer project. The TGS was able to discriminate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from normal oral mucosa in 3 independent datasets. The OSCC samples enriched in the mouse TGS displayed high frequency of CASP8 mutations, 11q13.3 amplifications and low frequency of PIK3CA mutations. Early changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with a trend toward a shorter oral cancer-free survival in patients with oral preneoplasia that was not seen in multivariate analysis. Progressive changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with an increased sensitivity to 4 different MEK inhibitors in a panel of 51 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the areodigestive tract. In conclusion, the dynamics of molecular changes in the 4-NQO model reveal that MEK inhibition may be relevant to prevention and treatment of a specific molecularly-defined subgroup of OSCC.

Naren D, Wu J, Gong Y, et al.
Niemann-Pick disease type C1(NPC1) is involved in resistance against imatinib in the imatinib-resistant Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:59-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is involved in cholesterol trafficking and may normally function as a transmembrane efflux pump. Previous studies showed that its dysfunction can lead to cholesterol and daunorubicin accumulation in the cytoplasmic endosomal/lysosomal system, lead to Niemann-Pick disease and resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, NPC1 was shown by microarray analysis to be more highly expressed in the Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI, an imatinib-resistant variant of SUP-B15/S cells without bcr-abl gene mutation established in our lab. Further investigation revealed a defect in the functional capacity of the NPC1 protein demonstrated by filipin staining accompanied by a lower intracellular imatinib mesylate(IM) concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography in SUP-B15/RI compared with SUP-B15/S cells. Furthermore, U18666A, an inhibitor of NPC1 function, was used to block cholesterol trafficking to imitate the NPC1 defect in SUP-B15/S cells, leading to higher NPC1 expression, stronger filipin fluorescence, lower intracellular IM concentrations and greater resistance against IM. Samples from non-mutated relapsed Ph+ ALL patients also showed higher NPC1 expression compared with IM-sensitive patients. Our experiment may reveal a new mechanism of IM resistance in Ph+ ALL.

Codini M, Cataldi S, Lazzarini A, et al.
Why high cholesterol levels help hematological malignancies: role of nuclear lipid microdomains.
Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15:4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diet and obesity are recognized in the scientific literature as important risk factors for cancer development and progression. Hypercholesterolemia facilitates lymphoma lymphoblastic cell growth and in time turns in hypocholesterolemia that is a sign of tumour progression. The present study examined how and where the cholesterol acts in cancer cells when you reproduce in vitro an in vivo hypercholesterolemia condition.
METHODS: We used non-Hodgkin's T cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1 cell line) and we studied cell morphology, aggressiveness, gene expression for antioxidant proteins, polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and actin, cholesterol and sphingomyelin content and finally sphingomyelinase activity in whole cells, nuclei and nuclear lipid microdomains.
RESULTS: We found that cholesterol changes cancer cell morphology with the appearance of protrusions together to the down expression of β-actin gene and reduction of β-actin protein. The lipid influences SUP-T1 cell aggressiveness since stimulates DNA and RNA synthesis for cell proliferation and increases raf1 and E-cadherin, molecules involved in invasion and migration of cancer cells. Cholesterol does not change GRX2 expression but it overexpresses SOD1, SOD2, CCS, PRDX1, GSR, GSS, CAT and PNKP. We suggest that cholesterol reaches the nucleus and increases the nuclear lipid microdomains known to act as platform for chromatin anchoring and gene expression.
CONCLUSION: The results imply that, in hypercholesterolemia conditions, cholesterol reaches the nuclear lipid microdomains where activates gene expression coding for antioxidant proteins. We propose the cholesterolemia as useful parameter to monitor in patients with cancer.

Consolaro F, Ghaem-Maghami S, Bortolozzi R, et al.
FOXO3a and Posttranslational Modifications Mediate Glucocorticoid Sensitivity in B-ALL.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(12):1578-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, the molecular mechanism underlying glucocorticoid response and resistance is unclear. In this study, the role and regulation of FOXO3a in mediating the dexamethasone response in B-ALL were investigated. The results show that FOXO3a mediates the cytotoxic function of dexamethasone. In response to dexamethasone, it was found that FOXO3a translocates into the nucleus, where it induces the expression of downstream targets, including p27Kip1 and Bim, important for proliferative arrest and cell death in the sensitive RS4;11 and SUP-B15 B-ALL cells. FOXO3a activation by dexamethasone is mediated partially through the suppression of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. Furthermore, two posttranslational modifications were uncovered, phosphorylation on Ser-7 and acetylation on Lys-242/5, that associated with FOXO3a activation by dexamethasone. Immunoblot analysis showed that the phosphorylation on Ser-7 of FOXO3a is associated with p38/JNK activation, whereas the acetylation on Lys-242/5 is correlated with the downregulation of SIRT1/2/6 and the induction of the acetyltransferase CBP/p300. Collectively, these results indicate that FOXO3a is essential for dexamethasone response in B-ALL cells, and its nuclear translocation and activation is associated with its phosphorylation on Ser-7 and acetylation on Lys-242/245. These posttranslational events can be exploited as biomarkers for B-ALL diagnosis and as drug targets for B-ALL treatment, particularly for overcoming the glucocorticoid resistance.
IMPLICATIONS: FOXO3a and its posttranslational regulation are essential for dexamethasone response, and targeting FOXO3a and sirtuins may enhance the dexamethasone-induced cytotoxicity in B-ALL cells.

Bonnefont-Rebeix C, Fournel-Fleury C, Ponce F, et al.
Characterization of a novel canine T-cell line established from a spontaneously occurring aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular cell morphology.
Immunobiology. 2016; 221(1):12-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dogs with lymphoma are established as good model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma studies. Canine cell lines derived from lymphomas may be valuable tools for testing new therapeutic drugs. In this context, we established a canine T-cell line, PER-VAS, from a primary aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a stable immunophenotype: PER-VAS cells were positively labelled for CD5, CD45, MHC II and TLR3, and were negative for CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression. Although unstable along the culture process, IL-17 and MMP12 proteins were detectable as late as at passages 280 and 325i.e. respectively 24 and 29 months post isolation. At passage 325, PER-VAS cells maintained the expression of IL-17, CD3, CD56, IFNγ and TNFα mRNAs as shown by RT-PCR analysis. Stable rearrangement of the TCRγ gene has been evidenced by PCR. PER-VAS cells have a high proliferation index with a doubling time of 16.5h and were tumorigenic in Nude mice. Compared to the canine cell lines already reported, PER-VAS cells display an original expression pattern, close to NKT cells, which makes them valuable tools for in vitro comparative research on lymphomas.

Takeuchi H, Mmeje CO, Jinesh GG, et al.
Sequential gemcitabine and tamoxifen treatment enhances apoptosis and blocks transformation in bladder cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2738-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a common malignancy for which regional or metastatic disease is identified at diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen (Tam), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, can sensitize bladder cancer cell lines to gemcitabine (Gem) chemotherapy. ERα and ERβ protein levels were determined in each cell line using western blot analysis. The TCC-Sup, 5637, and RT4 bladder cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations and regimens of Tam or Gem alone or in combination. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide followed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was then evaluated by western blot analysis. Treated TCC-Sup cells were subjected to soft agar colony formation assay to determine the cellular transformation. Western blot analysis results revealed ER expression in the three cell lines. TCC-Sup and 5637 cells treated with a combination of Tam and Gem had lower cell viabilities than those treated with Tam or Gem alone for 72 h in TCC-Sup and 5637. Compared with the other treatments, sequential Gem followed by Tam (Gem→Tam) treatment caused the largest increase in DNA fragmentation at 72 h in TCC-Sup cells. Western blot analysis results revealed that this sequential Gem→Tam treatment increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in TCC-Sup cells. Sequential Gem→Tam inhibited the cell transformation in TCC-Sup cells. In conclusion, sequential Gem→Tam enhanced the cytotoxicity of Gem in vitro. This regimen be useful to enhance the efficacy of Gem in bladder cancer. However, future in vivo studies are required to verify the results.

Shi F, Len Y, Gong Y, et al.
Ribavirin Inhibits the Activity of mTOR/eIF4E, ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E Signaling Pathway and Synergizes with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Imatinib to Impair Bcr-Abl Mediated Proliferation and Apoptosis in Ph+ Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136746 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is the main composition factor of eIF4F translation initiation complex, influences the growth of tumor through modulating cap-dependent protein translation. Previous studies reported that ribavirin could suppress eIF4E-controlled translation and reduce the synthesis of onco-proteins. Here, we investigated the anti-leukemic effects of ribavirin alone or in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia cell lines SUP-B15 (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, Ph+ ALL) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, CML). Our results showed that ribavirin had anti-proliferation effect; it down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP1, and eIF4E proteins in the mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway, and MEK, ERK, Mnk1 and eIF4E proteins in ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E signaling pathway; reduced the expression of Mcl-1 (a translation substrates of eIF4F translation initiation complex) at protein synthesis level not mRNA transcriptional level; and induced cell apoptosis in both SUP-B15 and K562. 7-Methyl-guanosine cap affinity assay further demonstrated that ribavirin remarkably increased the eIF4E binding to 4EBP1 and decreased the combination of eIF4E with eIF4G, consequently resulting in a major inhibition of eIF4F complex assembly. The combination of ribavirin with imatinib enhanced antileukemic effects mentioned above, indicating that two drugs have synergistic anti-leukemic effect. Consistent with the cell lines, similar results were observed in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic primary leukemic blasts; however, the anti-proliferative role of ribavirin in other types of acute primary leukemic blasts was not obvious, which indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of ribavirin was different in cell lineages.

Schneider M, Schneider S, Zühlke-Jenisch R, et al.
Alterations of the CD58 gene in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(10):638-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immune evasion plays a central role in the pathophysiology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). As mutations of the CD58 gene contribute to immune evasion of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumor cells, we studied whether alterations of the CD58 gene also occur in Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of cHL. Single nucleotide polymorphism chip analysis revealed homozygous deletions within the CD58 gene in two cHL cell lines (SUP-HD1 and U-HO1). Sequencing of the CD58 gene in seven cHL cell lines disclosed in addition a homozygous splice site mutation in cell line KM-H2. None of the three mutated lines expressed CD58 protein on their surface. Thus, three of seven cHL cell lines analyzed harbor destructive CD58 mutations. Molecular analysis of isolated HRS cells from 10 primary cases of cHL; however, did not reveal any case with a CD58 mutation. A FICTION study indicated heterozygous deletions of CD58 in 3 of 13 cHL analyzed. Overall, we report frequent inactivating mutations of CD58 in cHL cell lines, but their rare occurrence in primary HRS cells. As the three cHL cell lines with CD58 mutations were all established from HRS cells located in pleural effusions, i.e., outside the normal lymph node microenvironment, in end-stages of the disease, CD58 inactivation in cHL might be predominantly prevalent to such situations.

Zeng CH, Guo B, Chen J, et al.
Expression profile of tumor suppressor gene RASSF1 in lacrimal gland carcinoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):6993-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the expression pattern of the tumor sup-pressor gene RAS association domain family gene 1 (RASSF1) in lacri-mal gland carcinoma and analyzed its relationship with the oncogenesis and progression of tumors. Sixty-two patients (30 males, 32 females, average age = 47 ± 3.5 years) admitted with lacrimal gland carcinoma to the Department of Ophthalmology of our hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 were enrolled in this study. Based on tumor ma-lignancy, patients were classified into a malignant group (N = 25) and benign group (N = 37). Healthy lacrimal gland resections from trauma surgery (N = 35) were recruited as a healthy control group. Expres-sion profiles of RASSF1 in all groups were quantified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Recur-rence of lacrimal gland carcinoma was surveyed through postopera-tive follow-up. Expression levels of RASSF1 in samples from the ma-lignant and benign groups were significantly lower than those in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the malignant group showed lower RASSF1 expression than the benign group (P < 0.05). Postopera-tive follow-up identified 22 cases of recurrence in the malignant group, with a recurrence rate of 88%, while 15 cases in the benign group had a recurrence rate of 40.5%. A direct relationship exists between RASSF1 expression levels and the malignancy grade of lacrimal gland carci-noma. Patients with lower RASSF1 expression showed a higher recur-rence probability, indicating unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, measur-ing RASSF1 expression can be used as a diagnostic method for lacrimal gland carcinoma.

Saenz GJ, Hovanessian R, Gisis AD, Medh RD
Glucocorticoid-mediated co-regulation of RCAN1-1, E4BP4 and BIM in human leukemia cells susceptible to apoptosis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 463(4):1291-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to induce apoptosis of leukemia cells via gene regulatory changes affecting key pro-and anti-apoptotic genes. Three genes previously implicated in GC-evoked apoptosis in the CEM human T-cell leukemia model, RCAN1, E4BP4 and BIM, were studied in a panel of human lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines. Of the two RCAN1 transcripts, the synthetic GC Dexamethasone (Dex) selectively upregulates RCAN1-1, but not RCAN1-4, in GC-susceptible Sup-B15, RS4;11, Kasumi-1 cells but not in GC-resistant Sup T1 and Loucy cells. E4BP4 and BIM regulation correlated with that of RCAN1-1. A putative GRE and four EBPREs were identified within 1500bp upstream from the transcription start site of RCAN1-1. GC-refractory CEM C1-15 cells sensitized to GC-evoked apoptosis by ectopic E4BP4 expression, CEM C1-15mE#3, showed restored RCAN1-1 upregulation, suggesting that RCAN1-1 is a downstream target of E4BP4. A model for coordinated regulation of RCAN1-1, E4BP4 and BIM, and their role in GC-evoked apoptosis is proposed.

Nishio Y, Gojoubori T, Kaneko Y, et al.
Cancer cell-derived IL-8 induces monocytic THP1 cells to secrete IL-8 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activity of transcription factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results in the spontaneous secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. Among them, IL-8, owing to its angiogenic activity, promotes the growth of OSCCs. In the present study, we examined the role of IL-8 secreted by OSCCs, on the angiogenic activity of monocytic THP1 cells. Culture supernatant (Ca-sup) augmented IL-8 secretion by THP1 cells, which was found to be significantly reduced following the removal Ca9-22-derived IL-8 from the Ca-sup. IL-8 induction was regulated at the transcriptional level, because real-time PCR demonstrated the augmented IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. We further performed the luciferase assay using the 5'-untranslated region of IL-8 gene. Contradictory to our speculations, luciferase activity was not augmented by Ca-sup stimulation. NF-κB-independent IL-8 induction was further confirmed by pre-treating THP1 cells with NF-κB-specific inhibitors. To elucidate the signaling pathway, THP1 was pre-treated with MEK inhibitors. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment of cells with MEK inhibitor drastically reduced IL-8 levels, suggesting the role of MEK. Moreover, Ca-sup was found to increase ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. These results indicated that OSCC-derived IL-8 appears to activate angiogenic activity in monocytes within the tumor microenvironment via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

Bone KM, Wang P, Wu F, et al.
NPM-ALK mediates phosphorylation of MSH2 at tyrosine 238, creating a functional deficiency in MSH2 and the loss of mismatch repair.
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e311 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The vast majority of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL) tumors express the characteristic oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK, which mediates tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity on various substrates. We recently identified MSH2, a protein central to DNA mismatch repair (MMR), as a novel binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of NPM-ALK. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we report for the first time that MSH2 is phosphorylated by NPM-ALK at a specific residue, tyrosine 238. Using GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, we confirmed that the MSH2(Y238F) mutant is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, transfection of MSH2(Y238F) into these cells substantially decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MSH2. Importantly, gene transfection of MSH2(Y238F) abrogated the binding of NPM-ALK with endogenous MSH2, re-established the dimerization of MSH2:MSH6 and restored the sensitivity to DNA mismatch-inducing drugs, indicative of MMR return. Parallel findings were observed in two ALK+ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SUP-M2. In addition, we found that enforced expression of MSH2(Y238F) into ALK+ALCL cells alone was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings have identified NPM-ALK-induced phosphorylation of MSH2 at Y238 as a crucial event in suppressing MMR. Our studies have provided novel insights into the mechanism by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases disrupt MMR.

Carnesecchi S, Rougemont AL, Doroshow JH, et al.
The NADPH oxidase NOX5 protects against apoptosis in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cell lines.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 84:22-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key modulators of apoptosis and carcinogenesis. One of the important sources of ROS is NADPH oxidases (NOXs). The isoform NOX5 is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues, but it has not been detected in any common Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. In diverse, nonlymphoid malignant cells NOX5 exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Apoptosis suppression is the hallmark feature of a rare type of lymphoma, termed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), and a major factor in the therapy resistance and relapse of ALK(+) ALCL tumors. We applied RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to detect NOX5 expression in three ALK(+) ALCL cell lines (Karpas-299, SR-786, SUP-M2). We investigated the role of NOX5 in apoptosis by small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and chemical inhibition of NOX5 using FACS analysis and examining caspase 3 cleavage in Karpas-299 cells. We used immunohistochemistry to detect NOX5 in ALK(+) ALCL pediatric tumors. NOX5 mRNA was uniquely detected in ALK(+) ALCL cells, whereas cell lines of other lymphoma classes were devoid of NOX5. Transfection of NOX5-specific siRNA and chemical inhibition of NOX5 abrogated calcium-induced superoxide production and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in Karpas-299 cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed focal NOX5 reactivity in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL tumor cells. These results indicate that NOX5-derived ROS contribute to apoptosis blockage in ALK(+) ALCL cell lines and suggest NOX5 as a potential pharmaceutical target to enhance apoptosis and thus to suppress tumor progression and prevent relapse in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL patients that resist classical therapeutic approaches.

Wang WZ, Lin XH, Pu QH, et al.
Targeting miR-21 sensitizes Ph+ ALL Sup-b15 cells to imatinib-induced apoptosis through upregulation of PTEN.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 454(3):423-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are insensitive to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that imatinib treatment induced significant upregulation of miR-21 and downregulation of PTEN in Ph+ ALL cell line Sup-b15. Transient inhibition of miR-21 resulted in increased apoptosis, PTEN upregulation and AKT dephosphorylation, whereas ectopic overexpression of miR-21 further conferred imatinib resistance. Furthermore, knockdown of PTEN protected the cells from imatinib-induced apoptosis achieved by inhibition of miR-21. Additionally, PI3K inhibitors also notably enhanced the effects of imatinib on Sup-b15 cells and primary Ph+ ALL cells similar to miR-21 inhibitor. Therefore, miR-21 contributes to imatinib resistance in Ph+ ALL cells and antagonizing miR-21 demonstrates therapeutic potential by sensitizing the malignancy to imatinib therapy.

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