ITGA4

Gene Summary

Gene:ITGA4; integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)
Aliases: IA4, CD49D
Location:2q31.3
Summary:The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin alpha-4
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ITGA4 (cancer-related)

Melaiu O, Melissari E, Mutti L, et al.
Expression status of candidate genes in mesothelioma tissues and cell lines.
Mutat Res. 2015; 771:6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to broaden knowledge on the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we reviewed studies on the MPM-transcriptome and identified 119 deregulated genes. However, there was poor consistency among the studies. Thus, the expression of these genes was further investigated in the present work using reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in 15 MPM and 20 non-MPM tissue samples. Fifty-nine genes showed a statistically significant deregulation and were further evaluated in two epithelioid MPM cell lines (compared to MET-5A, a non-MPM cell line). Nine genes (ACSL1, CCNO, CFB, PDGFRB, SULF1, TACC1, THBS2, TIMP3, XPOT) were deregulated with statistical significance in both cell lines, 12 (ASS1, CCNB1, CDH11, COL1A1, CXADR, EIF4G1, GALNT7, ITGA4, KRT5, PTGIS, RAN, SOD1) in at least one cell line, whereas 7 (DSP, HEG1, MCM4, MSLN, NME2, NMU, TNPO2) were close but did not reach the statistical significance in any of the cell line. Patients whose MPM tissues expressed elevated mRNA levels of BIRC5, DSP, NME2, and THBS2 showed a statistically significant shorter overall survival. Although MPM is a poorly studied cancer, some features are starting to emerge. Novel cancer genes are suggested here, in particular those involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions.

Parikh SA, Shanafelt TD
Risk factors for Richter syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2014; 9(3):294-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Richter syndrome (RS) is defined as the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to a more aggressive B-cell lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Approximately 5-10% of CLL patients develop this complication during long-term follow-up. Traditional risk factors for future RS include clinical (advanced Rai stage), biological (ZAP-70, CD38, CD49d) and genetic (del17p, del11q) characteristics at the time of CLL diagnosis. The impact of CLL therapy (purine-nucleoside analogue and/or alkylator-based chemoimmunotherapy and kinase inhibitor therapy) on the risk of RS remains controversial. Both heritable (germline) and acquired (somatic) genetic mutations contribute to risk of RS. Germline polymorphisms in genes related to CD38, LRF4, and BCL-2 have been implicated in the development of RS. Somatic mutations contributing to the development of RS include TP53 disruption, c-myc activation, CDKN2A loss and NOTCH1 mutations. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the biological and genetic factors contributing to RS in CLL patients.

Riches JC, O'Donovan CJ, Kingdon SJ, et al.
Trisomy 12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exhibit upregulation of integrin signaling that is modulated by NOTCH1 mutations.
Blood. 2014; 123(26):4101-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is important in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as it controls migration of malignant cells into the pro-survival lymph node microenvironment. Circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells have increased expression of the integrins CD11a and CD49d, as well as CD38, but the tissue expression of these and other molecules, and the functional and clinical sequelae of these changes have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells also have increased expression of the integrins CD11b, CD18, CD29, and ITGB7, and the adhesion molecule CD323. Notably, there was reduced expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 in trisomy 12 cases with NOTCH1 mutations compared with wild type. Trisomy 12 cells also exhibit upregulation of intracellular integrin signaling molecules CALDAG-GEFI, RAP1B, and Ras-related protein ligand, resulting in enhanced very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] directed adhesion and motility. CD38 expression in CLL has prognostic significance, but the increased CD38 expression in trisomy 12 CLL cells must be taken into account in this subgroup, and the threshold of CD38 positivity should be raised to 40% for this marker to retain its prognostic value. In conclusion, trisomy 12 CLL cells exhibit functional upregulation of integrin signaling, with β2-integrin expression being modulated by NOTCH1 mutation status.

Do SI, Ko E, Kang SY, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation of integrin α4 in human breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7079-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrins are cell surface receptors that mediate cell-cell/extracellular interactions and have shown an association with metastasis or transformation in several cancers. However, the correlation between the clinicopathological status of breast cancer and the altered integrin α4 status is not clear. In this study, we investigated DNA methylation of integrin α4 in breast cancer. We retrieved 351 cases of surgically resected breast cancer (290 invasive carcinoma and 61 intraductal carcinoma). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine integrin α4 methylation status. Integrin α4 methylation was frequently observed in breast cancer specimens (145/351 cases, 41.3 %). In addition, DNA methylation of integrin α4 showed statistical correlation with HER2 positivity and higher histologic grade (p = 0.001, 0.008 in ductal carcinoma in situ and 0.003 in invasive ductal carcinoma). However, other clinicopathological data such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, metastasis, and TNM status showed no statistical correlation. Moreover, we found that the downregulated expression of integrin α4 in a heavily methylated breast cancer cell line (ZR-75) was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, implying transcriptional silencing by DNA methylation. We observed that integrin α4 methylation is associated with the histologic grade of tumors and lymph node metastasis. Also, this data supports a previous study that suggested integrin α4 and HER2 are involved in the same signaling pathway. DNA methylation of integrin α4 may be a poor prognostic factor which affects undifferentiated histologic change of breast cancer.

Chorzalska A, Salloum I, Shafqat H, et al.
Low expression of Abelson interactor-1 is linked to acquired drug resistance in Bcr-Abl-induced leukemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(11):2165-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
The basis for persistence of leukemic stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment remains poorly understood. We present evidence that signaling cross-talk between α4 integrin and Abelson interactor-1 (Abi-1) is involved in the acquisition of an anchorage-dependent phenotype and drug resistance in Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia cells. Comparison of Abi-1 (ABI-1) and α4 integrin (ITGA4) gene expression in relapsing Bcr-Abl-positive CD34+progenitor cells demonstrated a reduction in Abi-1 and an increase in α4 integrin mRNA in the absence of Bcr-Abl mutations. This inverse correlation between Abi-1 and α4 integrin expression, as well as linkage to elevated phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk signaling, was confirmed in imatinib mesylate -resistant leukemic cells. These results indicate that the α4-Abi-1 signaling pathway may mediate acquisition of the drug-resistant phenotype of leukemic cells.

Bulian P, Shanafelt TD, Fegan C, et al.
CD49d is the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(9):897-904 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although CD49d is an unfavorable prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), definitive validation evidence is lacking. A worldwide multicenter analysis was performed using published and unpublished CLL series to evaluate the impact of CD49d as an overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS) predictor.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A training/validation strategy was chosen to find the optimal CD49d cutoff. The hazard ratio (HR) for death and treatment imposed by CD49d was estimated by pooled analysis of 2,972 CLLs; Cox analysis stratified by center and stage was used to adjust for confounding variables. The importance of CD49d over other flow cytometry-based prognosticators (eg, CD38, ZAP-70) was ranked by recursive partitioning.
RESULTS: Patients with ≥ 30% of neoplastic cells expressing CD49d were considered CD49d+. Decrease in OS at 5 and 10 years among CD49d+ patients was 7% and 23% (decrease in TFS, 26% and 25%, respectively). Pooled HR of CD49d for OS was 2.5 (2.3 for TFS) in univariate analysis. This HR remained significant and of similar magnitude (HR, 2.0) in a Cox model adjusted for clinical and biologic prognosticators. Hierarchic trees including all patients or restricted to those with early-stage disease or those age ≤ 65 years always selected CD49d as the most important flow cytometry-based biomarker, with negligible additional prognostic information added by CD38 or ZAP-70. Consistently, by bivariate analysis, CD49d reliably identified patient subsets with poorer outcome independent of CD38 and ZAP-70.
CONCLUSION: In this analysis of approximately 3,000 patients, CD49d emerged as the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of OS and TFS in CLL.

Pivetta E, Danussi C, Wassermann B, et al.
Neutrophil elastase-dependent cleavage compromises the tumor suppressor role of EMILIN1.
Matrix Biol. 2014; 34:22-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key event in tumor growth and progression. The breakdown of ECM can lead to the generation of bioactive fragments that promote cell growth and spread. EMILIN1, a multidomain glycoprotein expressed in several tissues, exerts a crucial regulatory function through the engagement of α4/α9 integrins. Unlike the majority of ECM molecules that elicit a proliferative program, the signals emitting from EMILIN1 engaged by α4/α9β1 integrins are antiproliferative. In this study, aimed to demonstrate if the suppressor role of EMILIN1 was related to its structural integrity, we tested the possibility that EMILIN1 could be specifically cleaved. Among the proteolytic enzymes released in the tumor microenvironment we showed that neutrophil elastase cleaved EMILIN1 in three/four major fragments. The consequence of this proteolytic process was the impairment of its anti-proliferative role. Accordingly, EMILIN1 was digested in sarcomas and ovarian cancers. Sarcoma specimens were infiltrated by neutrophils (PMNs) and stained positively for elastase. The present findings highlight the peculiar activity of PMN elastase in disabling EMILIN1 suppressor function.

Perbellini O, Falisi E, Giaretta I, et al.
Clinical significance of LAIR1 (CD305) as assessed by flow cytometry in a prospective series of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(5):881-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Most patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia are diagnosed by flow cytometry. Several immunophenotypic markers have been identified as significant and independent prognostic variables, especially from retrospective cohorts. However, while attractive because their detection is inexpensive and feasible in most laboratories, only few have been validated by independent series. The expression of leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (also known as LAIR1, LAIR-1 or CD305), an inhibitor of B-cell receptor-mediated signaling, has been reported to be lacking in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, its correlation with biological variables and its prognostic significance remain unknown. We investigated 311 consecutive patients, prospectively enrolled since 2007. Methods for studying patients were standardized and included clinical assessment, immunophenotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes. Overall, 22.1% of patients had Binet stage B or C disease, 38.5% had unmutated immunoglobulin genes, 15.1% had high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, 23.4% were CD38(+), 37.8% CD49d(+), and 59.8% LAIR1(+). Expression of LAIR1 was inversely related to that of CD38 (P=0.0005), but was not associated with CD49d expression (P=0.96). A significantly lower expression of LAIR1 was observed in patients with Binet stage B or C disease (P=0.023), and in the presence of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (P=0.048) or unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes (P<0.0001). At univariate analysis LAIR1(+) was significantly associated with longer time to first treatment (P=0.0002). This favorable effect of LAIR1(+) was confirmed by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.1, P=0.03 for LAIR1). Our results indicate that LAIR1 expression is a reliable and inexpensive marker capable of independently predicting time to first treatment in newly diagnosed unselected patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Xochelli A, Kalpadakis C, Gardiner A, et al.
Clonal B-cell lymphocytosis exhibiting immunophenotypic features consistent with a marginal-zone origin: is this a distinct entity?
Blood. 2014; 123(8):1199-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological and clinical significance of a clonal B-cell lymphocytosis with an immunophenotype consistent with marginal-zone origin (CBL-MZ) is poorly understood. We retrospectively evaluated 102 such cases with no clinical evidence to suggest a concurrent MZ lymphoma. Immunophenotyping revealed a clonal B-cell population with Matutes score ≤2 in all cases; 19/102 were weakly CD5 positive and all 35 cases tested expressed CD49d. Bone marrow biopsy exhibited mostly mixed patterns of small B-lymphocytic infiltration. A total of 48/66 (72.7%) cases had an abnormal karyotype. Immunogenetics revealed overusage of the IGHV4-34 gene and somatic hypermutation in 71/79 (89.8%) IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ gene rearrangements. With a median follow-up of 5 years, 85 cases remain stable (group A), whereas 17 cases (group B) progressed, of whom 15 developed splenomegaly. The clonal B-cell count, degree of marrow infiltration, immunophenotypic, or immunogenetic findings at diagnosis did not distinguish between the 2 groups. However, deletions of chromosome 7q were confined to group A and complex karyotypes were more frequent in group B. Although CBL-MZ may antedate SMZL/SLLU, most cases remain stable over time. These cases, not readily classifiable within the World Heath Organization classification, raise the possibility that CBL-MZ should be considered as a new provisional entity within the spectrum of clonal MZ disorders.

Huang PY, Best OG, Almazi JG, et al.
Cell surface phenotype profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(9):2085-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging system, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 overexpression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, + 12, 11q-, 17p-) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all cases of CLL at risk. In a recent review, we summarized those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan(™) CLL antibody microarray (Version 3; 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19 + B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (two epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196 and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage patients with CLL according to probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.

Sayeed A, Fedele C, Trerotola M, et al.
IGF-IR promotes prostate cancer growth by stabilizing α5β1 integrin protein levels.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76513 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Dynamic crosstalk between growth factor receptors, cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix is essential for cancer cell migration and invasion. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that bind extracellular matrix proteins and enable cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organization. They also mediate signal transduction to regulate cell proliferation and survival. The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) mediates tumor cell growth, adhesion and inhibition of apoptosis in several types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that β1 integrins regulate anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer (PrCa) cells by regulating IGF-IR expression and androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional functions. Furthermore, we have recently reported that IGF-IR regulates the expression of β1 integrins in PrCa cells. We have dissected the mechanism through which IGF-IR regulates β1 integrin expression in PrCa. Here we report that IGF-IR is crucial for PrCa cell growth and that β1 integrins contribute to the regulation of proliferation by IGF-IR. We demonstrate that β1 integrin regulation by IGF-IR does not occur at the mRNA level. Exogenous expression of a CD4 - β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain chimera does not interfere with such regulation and fails to stabilize β1 integrin expression in the absence of IGF-IR. This appears to be due to the lack of interaction between the β1 cytoplasmic domain and IGF-IR. We demonstrate that IGF-IR stabilizes the β1 subunit by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. The α5 subunit, one of the binding partners of β1, is also downregulated along with β1 upon IGF-IR knockdown while no change is observed in the expression of the α2, α3, α4, α6 and α7 subunits. Our results reveal a crucial mechanistic role for the α5β1 integrin, downstream of IGF-IR, in regulating cancer growth.

Zucchetto A, Caldana C, Benedetti D, et al.
CD49d is overexpressed by trisomy 12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: evidence for a methylation-dependent regulation mechanism.
Blood. 2013; 122(19):3317-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD49d is a negative prognosticator in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), expressed by ~40% of CLL cases and associated with aggressive, accelerated clinical courses. In this study, analyzing CD49d expression in a wide CLL cohort (n = 1200) belonging to different cytogenetic groups, we report that trisomy 12 CLL almost universally expressed CD49d and were characterized by the highest CD49d expression levels among all CD49d(+) CLL. Through bisulfite genomic sequencing, we demonstrated that, although CD49d(+)/trisomy 12 CLL almost completely lacked methylation of the CD49d gene, CD49d(-)/no trisomy 12 CLL were overall methylated, the methylation levels correlating inversely to CD49d expression (P = .0001). Consistently, CD49d expression was recovered in CD49d(-) hypermethylated CLL cells upon in vitro treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. This may help explain the clinicobiological features of trisomy 12 CLL, including the high rates of cell proliferation and disease progression, lymph node involvement, and predisposition to Richter syndrome transformation.

Zheng Y, McFarland BC, Drygin D, et al.
Targeting protein kinase CK2 suppresses prosurvival signaling pathways and growth of glioblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(23):6484-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary malignancies in the brain, and glioblastoma is the most aggressive of these tumors. Protein kinase CK2 is composed of two catalytic subunits (α and/or α') and two β regulatory subunits. CK2 suppresses apoptosis, promotes neoangiogenesis, and enhances activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, Hsp90, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways. Aberrant activation of the NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT-3 pathways is implicated in glioblastoma progression. As CK2 is involved in their activation, the expression and function of CK2 in glioblastoma was evaluated.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: Analysis of 537 glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project demonstrates the CSNK2A1 gene, encoding CK2α, has gene dosage gains in glioblastoma (33.7%), and is significantly associated with the classical glioblastoma subtype. Inhibition of CK2 activity by CX-4945, a selective CK2 inhibitor, or CK2 knockdown by siRNA suppresses activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and AKT pathways and downstream gene expression in human glioblastoma xenografts. On a functional level, CX-4945 treatment decreases the adhesion and migration of glioblastoma cells, in part through inhibition of integrin β1 and α4 expression. In vivo, CX-4945 inhibits activation of STAT-3, NF-κB p65, and AKT, and promotes survival of mice with intracranial human glioblastoma xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: CK2 inhibitors may be considered for treatment of patients with glioblastoma.

Degheidy HA, Gadalla SM, Farooqui MZ, et al.
Bcl-2 level as a biomarker for 13q14 deletion in CLL.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2013 Jul-Aug; 84(4):237-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deletion 13q14.3 is the most common cytogenetic abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Previously it was reported that miR-15/16 is the target of 13q14 deletions and plays a tumor suppressor role by suppressing Bcl-2. Therefore, Bcl-2 expression was examined more closely to determine whether it would predict 13q14 deletion status.
METHODS: A multi-color flow panel consisting of anti-Bcl-2/anti-lambda/anti-kappa/CD19/CD5/CD3/CD20 was performed. The ability of Bcl-2 to predict 13q14 deletion was tested using the conventional Bcl-2 index (c-index): mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CLL clone/MFI of residual T cells. Fifty-four untreated CLL/MBL patients were studied. Bimodal Bcl-2 expression was evaluated to test the ability of Bcl-2 to detect intraclonal heterogeneity. Other CLL prognostic markers including CD38, CD49d, CD26, and CD69 were evaluated. FISH was performed on selected sorted populations.
RESULTS: The Bcl-2 c-index strongly predicts del13q14 P < 0.0001. A statistically significant association was observed between the percentage of cells carrying the deletion and the level of Bcl-2 expression P < 0.05. Cells sorted based on Bcl-2 expression showed enrichment of both hemizygous and homozygous del 13q14 cells. Also, we observed that an alteration in Bcl-2 level over time predicts changes in 13q14 deletion status. And a statistically significant correlation between the bimodal pattern of CD69 expression and the presence of 13q14 deletion was found P < 0.0001.
CONCLUSION: Bcl-2 expression using the c-index strongly predicts 13q14 deletion and can be used to distinguish homozygous, heterozygous, and diploid CLL clonal cells. Further systematic studies of this biomarker are needed for confirmation and expansion of these findings.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Celegato M, Borghese C, Casagrande N, et al.
Bortezomib down-modulates the survival factor interferon regulatory factor 4 in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and decreases the protective activity of Hodgkin lymphoma-associated fibroblasts.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(1):149-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor active in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cell lines, but poorly active in the clinic when used as a single agent, suggesting that the microenvironment could protect from drug efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bortezomib activity in the presence of HL-associated fibroblasts (HL-AFs) and sCD40L. We found that co-cultivation with human HL-AFs or the addition of sCD40L during bortezomib treatment protected cHL cells from apoptosis and cytotoxicity and rescued the down-regulation of the survival factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). In contrast, bortezomib treatment before co-cultivation with HL-AFs inhibited in a dose-dependent manner cHL cell adhesion to HL-AFs and completely overcame HL-AF protection against drug activity. Consistently, we found that bortezomib treatment down-regulated the surface expression of CD49d and CD44, which mediate the adhesion of cHL cells to HL-AFs, and of CD54 and CD40, which mediate the adhesion to CD40L+ rosetting T-cells. These preclinical findings suggest that the low in vivo activity of bortezomib as a single agent may be due to a protective influence of the microenvironment. However, inclusion of bortezomib in the cHL drug regimen, by reducing IRF4 expression and interactions with the microenvironment, could increase the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic treatment of relapsed/refractory cHL.

Wu H, Chen P, Liao R, et al.
Intratumoral regulatory T cells with higher prevalence and more suppressive activity in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 28(9):1555-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a vital role in immunosuppressive crosstalk; however, Tregs from different locations lead to different clinical outcomes. Our aim was, therefore, to compare the prevalences and suppressive phenotypes of Tregs in the peripheral blood, peritumor, and intratumor of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS : The frequencies and phenotypes of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low/-) CD49d(-) Tregs in the periphery, peritumor, and intratumor of 78 HCC patients and 12 healthy controls were evaluated by flow cytometry. Treg-cell suppressive activity was determined using an in vitro CD154 expression assay. Tregs from tumor and paired peritumor were then hybridized using an Agilent whole genome oligo microarray, and selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional analysis of the microarray data was performed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology analyses. RESULTS : Intratumoral Tregs exhibited higher frequencies and more suppressive phenotypic functions than those in peritumor and periphery, whereas there was no difference between the latter two. Functional analysis showed that complement cascades, p53, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis pathways were significantly upregulated in intratumoral Tregs; the salivary secretion pathway was significantly downregulated in intratumoral Tregs, and immune cells and tumor-immuno-related Gene Ontology terms were significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS : Tregs in different locations exhibited different functional statuses. A higher prevalence and more suppressive phenotype suggested a critical role for intratumoral Tregs in the formation of multicellular immunosuppressive networks. HCC immunotherapy may be improved, therefore, by specific locational Tregs elimination or suppression.

Kurihara M, Kirita T, Sasahira T, et al.
Protumoral roles of melanoma inhibitory activity 2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(7):1460-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was examined in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: MIA2 role was examined by immunohistochemistry of human OSCCs and knockdown studies using human 3 OSCC cell lines with MIA2 expression.
RESULTS: MIA2 expression was observed in 62 (66.7%) of 93 OSCCs and was associated with tumour expansion and nodal metastasis. Melanoma inhibitory activity 2 expression was inversely correlated with intratumoral infiltration of lymphocytes. Invasion and anti-apoptotic survival were reduced by MIA2 knockdown in HSC3 cells. MOLT-3 lymphocytes infiltrating the HSC3 cell layer was enhanced by MIA2 knockdown or MIA2 depletion with the antibody. In HSC3 cells, MIA2 knockdown decreased the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. The downregulation of VEGF-C and -D was caused by inhibition of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, respectively. Melanoma inhibitory activity 2 was co-precipitated with integrin α4 andα5 in HSC3 cells. Integrin α4 knockdown decreased p38 phosphorylation and increased apoptosis, whereas integrin α5 knockdown decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis. Inhibition of JNK decreased apoptosis in the HSC3 cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the roles of MIA2 might be based on the variety of the integrins and the subtypes of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

Zheng W, Liu D, Fan X, et al.
Potential therapeutic biomarkers in plasma cell myeloma: a flow cytometry study.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2013 Jul-Aug; 84(4):222-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression profile of potential therapeutic biomarkers in plasma cell myeloma (PCM) by multicolor flow cytometry analysis.
METHODS: Bone marrow (BM) specimens were collected consecutively and analyzed using a routine PCM panel (CD38/CD138/CD45/CD19/CD20/CD28/CD56/CD117, cyto-kappa/lambda). The specimens were further assessed for CD30, CD44, CD49d, CD70, CD105, and CD184 expression in cases containing a substantial number of neoplastic plasma cells.
RESULTS: Totally, 101 patient BM samples were assessed, including 58 men and 43 women, with a median age of 64 years (34-89). Twenty-nine patients had newly diagnosed/untreated PCM, 40 had persistent/residual disease undergoing various therapies and 32 had relapsed disease. CD49d was expressed brightly and uniformly in all 45 patients tested. Expression of CD44 and CD184 was more variable with a median percentage of 77% (1-100) and 65% (5-100) respectively. Using an arbitrary 20% cutoff, CD44 was positive in 74 (73%) and CD184 in 92 (91%) cases with a mean fluorescence intensity ratio of 42.8 and 21.4. A higher CD44 expression was observed in patients with recurrent/persistent disease (P = 0.028). Additionally, both CD44 (P = 0.002) and CD184 (P = 0.026) showed higher expressions in CD117-positive cases, but there was no correlation with cytogenetic groups. The CD30, CD70, and CD105 were expressed very infrequently in PCM, with a median expression of 0.2%, 0.2%, and 0.4% respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: CD49d, CD44, and CD184, are highly expressed in PCM. CD49d expression is bright and uniform, whereas CD44 and CD184 are more heterogeneous. In contrast, surface CD30, CD70, and CD105 are infrequent. These data provide useful preclinical information for the design of potential novel targeted therapies in PCM patients.

Torres-Martin M, Lassaletta L, San-Roman-Montero J, et al.
Microarray analysis of gene expression in vestibular schwannomas reveals SPP1/MET signaling pathway and androgen receptor deregulation.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(3):848-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Vestibular schwannomas are benign neoplasms that arise from the vestibular nerve. The hallmark of these tumors is the biallelic inactivation of neurofibromin 2 (NF2). Transcriptomic alterations, such as the neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB2 pathway, have been described in schwannomas. In this study, we performed a whole transcriptome analysis in 31 vestibular schwannomas and 9 control nerves in the Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST platform, validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using TaqMan low density arrays. We performed a mutational analysis of NF2 by PCR/denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), as well as a microsatellite marker analysis of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 22q. The microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,516 genes were deregulated and 48 of the genes were validated by qRT-PCR. At least 2 genetic hits (allelic loss and/or gene mutation) in NF2 were found in 16 tumors, seven cases showed 1 hit and 8 tumors showed no NF2 alteration. MET and associated genes, such as integrin, alpha 4 (ITGA4)/B6, PLEXNB3/SEMA5 and caveolin-1 (CAV1) showed a clear deregulation in vestibular schwannomas. In addition, androgen receptor (AR) downregulation may denote a hormonal effect or cause in this tumor. Furthermore, the osteopontin gene (SPP1), which is involved in merlin protein degradation, was upregulated, which suggests that this mechanism may also exert a pivotal role in schwannoma merlin depletion. Finally, no major differences were observed among tumors of different size, histological type or NF2 status, which suggests that, at the mRNA level, all schwannomas, regardless of their molecular and clinical characteristics, may share common features that can be used in their treatment.

Hsieh YT, Gang EJ, Geng H, et al.
Integrin alpha4 blockade sensitizes drug resistant pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia to chemotherapy.
Blood. 2013; 121(10):1814-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Bone marrow (BM) provides chemoprotection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, contributing to lack of efficacy of current therapies. Integrin alpha4 (alpha4) mediates stromal adhesion of normal and malignant B-cell precursors, and according to gene expression analyses from 207 children with minimal residual disease, is highly associated with poorest outcome. We tested whether interference with alpha4-mediated stromal adhesion might be a new ALL treatment. Two models of leukemia were used, one genetic (conditional alpha4 ablation of BCR-ABL1 [p210(+)] leukemia) and one pharmacological (anti-functional alpha4 antibody treatment of primary ALL). Conditional deletion of alpha4 sensitized leukemia cell to nilotinib. Adhesion of primary pre-B ALL cells was alpha4-dependent; alpha4 blockade sensitized primary ALL cells toward chemotherapy. Chemotherapy combined with Natalizumab prolonged survival of NOD/SCID recipients of primary ALL, suggesting adjuvant alpha4 inhibition as a novel strategy for pre-B ALL.

Chiorazzi N
Implications of new prognostic markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012; 2012:76-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several prognostic markers based on genetic, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells have emerged in the past decade. The clinical utility of these newer prognostic indicators, alone or in combination with each other and other clinical predictive systems, is still being determined. This chapter attempts to define biologic and molecular underpinnings of 3 sets of prognostic indicators in CLL: genetic abnormalities quantified by FISH and/or defined by exploratory sensitive molecular techniques, expression of specific proteins in or on CLL cells (ie, CD38, CD49d, and ZAP-70), and the IGHV mutation status of a CLL clone. Although not demonstrated conclusively, each probably reflects the biologic properties of the leukemic cells of individual CLL patients. This reflection may be direct, indicating a specific property of the CLL cell itself, or indirect, representing how the CLL cell interacts with the host's microenvironment. The new tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials support this interpretation. These and other biology-based indicators of patient clinical course and outcome can be used as starting points from which to understand and treat CLL.

Bolzoni M, Storti P, Bonomini S, et al.
Immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide inhibit multiple myeloma-induced osteoclast formation and the RANKL/OPG ratio in the myeloma microenvironment targeting the expression of adhesion molecules.
Exp Hematol. 2013; 41(4):387-97.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM)-induced osteoclast (OC) formation is mainly due to an imbalance of the receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio in favor of RANKL in the bone microenvironment and to the CCL3 production by MM cells. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the immunomodulatory drugs on RANKL/OPG ratio, the production of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, and MM-induced OC formation. We found that in vivo concentrations of both lenalidomide (LEN) and pomalidomide (POM) significantly blunted RANKL upregulation normalizing the RANKL/OPG ratio in human osteoprogenitor cells (PreOBs) when co-cultured with MM cells and also inhibited CCL3 production by MM cells. A reduction in CD49d expression, a molecule critically involved in RANKL upregulation in the MM microenvironment, accompanied this effect. Consistently, the pro-osteoclastogenic property of MM cells co-cultured with PreOBs was reduced by both LEN and POM. We further investigated the effect of these drugs on the transcriptional profile of both MM cells and PreOBs by microarray analysis, which showed that adhesion molecules, such as ITGA8 and ICAM2, are significantly downregulated in MM cells. Our data suggest that LEN and POM inhibit MM-induced OC formation through normalization of the RANKL/OPG ratio targeting the expression of adhesion molecules by MM cells.

Park KS, Kim KK, Piao ZH, et al.
Olfactomedin 4 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells through downregulation of integrin and MMP genes.
Mol Cells. 2012; 34(6):555-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and has an anti-apoptotic function. The roles of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis and how it functions in these processes remain elusive. We investigated the function of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as an experimental system. Our results showed that OLFM4 had no positive effect on cell viability or cell cycle progression in B16F10 cells. However, it significantly suppressed the tumorigenicity of B16F10 cells, i.e., intradermal primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. OLFM4 also suppressed the migration and invasion of B16F10 cells in vitro. For further insight into the mechanisms underlying OLFM4-mediated suppression of tumor progression, we examined the effect of OLFM4 on the expression of integrin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), both of which are involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of OLFM4 clearly reduced the expression levels of integrin α1, integrin α4, integrin α5, integrin α6, and MMP9. Moreover, forced expression of MMP9 attenuated the inhibitory activity of OLFM4 on migration and invasiveness. Our findings provide the experimental evidence that OLFM4 may function as a tumor suppressor and an anti-metastatic gene during tumor progression.

Yen CY, Huang CY, Hou MF, et al.
Evaluating the performance of fibronectin 1 (FN1), integrin α4β1 (ITGA4), syndecan-2 (SDC2), and glycoprotein CD44 as the potential biomarkers of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Biomarkers. 2013; 18(1):63-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Some extracellular matrix genes as prognostic biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were evaluated.
METHODS: We investigated gene expression of fibronectin 1 (FN1), integrin α4β1 (ITGA4), syndecan-2 (SDC2), and glycoprotein CD44 in matched OSCC/margin tissues.
RESULTS: Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of relative mRNA expression of FN1, ITGA4, SDC2, and CD44 were 0.700, 0.677, 0.513, and 0.549, respectively. For tongue/mouth floor and edentulous ridge, AUC for FN1 and ITGA4 were 0.827 and 0.725 and sensitivities/specificities were 80%/84% and 88%/52%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: FN1 and ITGA4 are potential OSCC biomarkers for tongue/mouth floor and edentulous ridge.

Lian ZQ, Wang Q, Li WP, et al.
Screening of significantly hypermethylated genes in breast cancer using microarray-based methylated-CpG island recovery assay and identification of their expression levels.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(2):629-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
To screen candidate methylation markers for early detection of breast cancer and to explore the relationship between methylation and gene expression, we performed methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA) combined with CpG island array on 61982 CpG sites across 4162 genes in 10 cancerous and 10 non-cancerous breast tissues. Direct bisulfite sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) were carried out in independent cancerous and non-cancerous samples. Gene expression was analyzed by microarrays and validated using RT-PCR. We detected 70 significantly hypermethylated genes in breast cancer tissues, including many novel hypermethylated genes such as ITGA4, NFIX, OTX2 and FGF12. Direct bisulfite sequencing showed widespread methylation occurring in intragenic regions of the WT1, PAX6 and ITGA4 genes and in the promoter region of the OTX2 gene in breast cancer tissues. COBRA assay confirmed that the WT1, OTX2 and PAX6 genes were hypermethylated in breast cancer tissues. Clustering analysis of the gene expression of 70 significantly hypermethylated genes revealed that most hypermethylated genes in breast cancer were not expressed in breast tissues. RT-PCR assay confirmed that WT1 and PITX2 were only weakly expressed in the breast cancer tissues and were not expressed in most non-cancerous breast tissues. OTX2 and PAX6 were not expressed in either breast cancer or non-cancerous tissues. In conclusion, these results will expand our knowledge of hypermethylated genes and methylation sites for early detection of breast cancer and deepen our understanding of the relationship between methylation and gene expression. The MIRA approach can screen candidate methylated genes for further clinical validation more effectively than gene expression microarray-based strategy.

Staquicini FI, Cardó-Vila M, Kolonin MG, et al.
Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(46):18637-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
Molecules differentially expressed in blood vessels among organs or between damaged and normal tissues, are attractive therapy targets; however, their identification within the human vasculature is challenging. Here we screened a peptide library in cancer patients to uncover ligand-receptors common or specific to certain vascular beds. Surveying ~2.35 x 10(6) motifs recovered from biopsies yielded a nonrandom distribution, indicating that systemic tissue targeting is feasible. High-throughput analysis by similarity search, protein arrays, and affinity chromatography revealed four native ligand-receptors, three of which were previously unrecognized. Two are shared among multiple tissues (integrin α4/annexin A4 and cathepsin B/apolipoprotein E3) and the other two have a restricted and specific distribution in normal tissue (prohibitin/annexin A2 in white adipose tissue) or cancer (RAGE/leukocyte proteinase-3 in bone metastases). These findings provide vascular molecular markers for biotechnology and medical applications.

Emmons MF, Gebhard AW, Nair RR, et al.
Acquisition of resistance toward HYD1 correlates with a reduction in cleaved α4 integrin expression and a compromised CAM-DR phenotype.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2011; 10(12):2257-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/06/2015 Related Publications
We recently reported that the β1 integrin antagonist, referred to as HYD1, induces necrotic cell death in myeloma cell lines as a single agent using in vitro and in vivo models. In this article, we sought to delineate the determinants of sensitivity and resistance toward HYD1-induced cell death. To this end, we developed an HYD1 isogenic resistant myeloma cell line by chronically exposing H929 myeloma cells to increasing concentrations of HYD1. Our data indicate that the acquisition of resistance toward HYD1 correlates with reduced levels of the cleaved α4 integrin subunit. Consistent with reduced VLA-4 (α4β1) expression, the resistant variant showed ablated functional binding to fibronectin, VCAM-1, and the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5. The reduction in binding of the resistant cell line to HS-5 cells translated to a compromised cell adhesion-mediated drug resistant phenotype as shown by increased sensitivity to melphalan- and bortezomib-induced cell death in the bone marrow stroma coculture model of drug resistance. Importantly, we show that HYD1 is more potent in relapsed myeloma specimens than newly diagnosed patients, a finding that correlated with α4 integrin expression. Collectively, these data indicate that this novel d-amino acid peptide may represent a good candidate for pursuing clinical trials in relapsed myeloma and in particular patients with high levels of α4 integrin. Moreover, our data provide further rationale for continued preclinical development of HYD1 and analogues of HYD1 for the treatment of multiple myeloma and potentially other tumors that home and/or metastasize to the bone.

Lee ES, Choi JS, Kim MS, et al.
Ginsenoside metabolite compound K differentially antagonizing tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte-endothelial trafficking.
Chem Biol Interact. 2011; 194(1):13-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human leukocyte endothelial adhesion and transmigration occur in the early stage of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial cells are targeted by pro-inflammatory cytokines modulating many gene proteins responsible for cell adhesion, thrombosis and inflammatory responses. This study examined the potential of compound K to inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α induction of monocyte adhesion onto TNF-α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were cultured with 10ng/ml TNF-α with individual ginsenosides of Rb1, Rc, Re, Rh1 and compound K (CK). Ginsenosides at doses of ⩽50μM did not show any cytotoxicity. TNF-α induced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, and such induction was attenuated by Rh1 and CK. Consistently, CK suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of HUVEC adhesion molecules of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and also Rh1 showed a substantial inhibition. Rh1 and CK dampened induction of counter-receptors, α4/β1 integrin VLA-4 and αL/β2 integrin LFA-1 in TNF-α-treated THP-1 cells. Additionally, CK diminished THP-1 secretion of MMP-9 required during transmigration, inhibiting transendothelial migration of THP-1 cells. CK blunted TNF-α-promoted IL-8 secretion of HUVEC and CXCR1 expression of THP-1 monocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α-activated endothelial IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation were disturbed by CK, and TNF-α induction of α4/β1 integrin was abrogated by the NF-κB inhibitor SN50. These results demonstrate that CK exerts anti-atherogenic activity with blocking leukocyte endothelial interaction and transmigration through negatively mediating NF-κB signaling.

Calpe E, Codony C, Baptista MJ, et al.
ZAP-70 enhances migration of malignant B lymphocytes toward CCL21 by inducing CCR7 expression via IgM-ERK1/2 activation.
Blood. 2011; 118(16):4401-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
ZAP-70 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been associated with enhanced B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, survival, and migration. We investigated whether ZAP-70 can directly govern migration and the underlying mechanisms. In the ZAP-70 stably transfected Ramos cell line, IgM stimulation, but no IgD, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and Syk, and delayed IgM and CD79b internalization. In contrast, in the Raji cell line, where ZAP-70 was constitutively phosphorylated, ERK1/2, but not Akt, was phosphorylated, suggesting that MAPK pathway mediates ZAP-70 effects. BCR stimulation modulated the expression of CCR7, CXCR4, CXCR5, CD44, CD49d, and CD62L, which were up-regulated in ZAP-70-positive CLL primary subclones. The most dramatic change after BCR engagement in ZAP-70-transfected cells was CCR7 up-regulation, this being impaired by ERK1/2 inhibition and translating into both increased signaling and migration toward CCL21. Primary CLL subclones with high ZAP-70 expression showed increased migration toward CCL21. In conclusion, ZAP-70 ectopic expression led to enhanced BCR signaling after IgM stimulation and increased the expression of CCR7 predominantly via ERK1/2, increasing the response and migration toward CCL21. In primary CLL samples, cellular subsets with high ZAP-70 expression had increased expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors in addition to an enhanced ability to migrate toward CCL21.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ITGA4, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/ITGA4.htm Accessed:

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