Gene Summary

Gene:KRT14; keratin 14
Aliases: K14, NFJ, CK14, EBS3, EBS4
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the keratin family, the most diverse group of intermediate filaments. This gene product, a type I keratin, is usually found as a heterotetramer with two keratin 5 molecules, a type II keratin. Together they form the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes for these keratins are associated with epidermolysis bullosa simplex. At least one pseudogene has been identified at 17p12-p11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:keratin, type I cytoskeletal 14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KRT14 (cancer-related)

Cheung KJ, Padmanaban V, Silvestri V, et al.
Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(7):E854-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14(+) cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14(+) epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs.

Skowron MA, Niegisch G, Fritz G, et al.
Phenotype plasticity rather than repopulation from CD90/CK14+ cancer stem cells leads to cisplatin resistance of urothelial carcinoma cell lines.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumour heterogeneity and resistance to systemic treatment in urothelial carcinoma (UC) may arise from cancer stem cells (CSC). A recent model describes cellular differentiation states within UC based on corresponding expression of surface markers (CD) and cytokeratins (CK) with CD90 and CK14 positive cells representing the least differentiated and most tumourigenic population. Based on the fact that this population is postulated to constitute CSCs and the origin of cisplatin resistance, we enriched urothelial carcinoma cell lines (UCCs) for CD90 and studied the tumour-initiating potential of these separated cells in vitro.
METHODS: Magnetic- and fluorescence-activated- cell sorting were used for separation of CD90(+) and CD90(-) UCCs. Distribution of cell surface markers CD90, CD44, and CD49f and cytokeratins CK14, CK5, and CK20 as well as the effects of short- and long-term treatment with cisplatin were assessed in vitro and measured by qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, reporter assay and flow cytometry in 11 UCCs.
RESULTS: We observed cell populations with surface markers according to those reported in tumour xenografts. However, expression of cytokeratins did not concord regularly with that of the surface markers. In particular, expression of CD90 and CK14 diverged during enrichment of CD90(+) cells by immunomagnetic sorting or following cisplatin treatment. Enriched CD90(+) cells did not exhibit CSC-like characteristics like enhanced clonogenicity and cisplatin resistance. Moreover, selection of cisplatin-resistant sublines by long-term drug treatment did not result in enrichment of CD90(+) cells. Rather, these sublines displayed significant phenotypic plasticity expressing EMT markers, an altered pattern of CKs, and WNT-pathway target genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the correspondence between CD surface markers and cytokeratins reported in xenografts is not maintained in commonly used UCCs and that CD90 may not be a stable marker of CSC in UC. Moreover, UCCs cells are capable of substantial phenotypic plasticity that may significantly contribute to the emergence of cisplatin resistance.

Mohanty SK, Lai JP, Gordon OK, et al.
BRCA-mutated Invasive Breast Carcinomas: Immunohistochemical Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor II mRNA-binding Protein (IMP3), Cytokeratin 8/18, and Cytokeratin 14.
Breast J. 2015 Nov-Dec; 21(6):596-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
To evaluate the expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP3), CK8/18, and CK14 in BRCA mutated and sporadic invasive breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 was performed on 39 cases of invasive breast carcinomas with BRCA mutation (24 BRCA1, 14 BRCA2, and 1 dual BRCA1/BRCA2) and 54 cases of sporadic invasive breast carcinomas. The relationship between the IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 and the tumor grade and molecular phenotypes were analyzed. IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 positivity were present in 20 (51%), 22 (56%), and 14 (36%) of 39 BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas, and 11 (20%), 53 (98%), and 24 (44%) of 54 sporadic breast carcinomas respectively. The rates of IMP3 expression and absence of CK8/18 (44% versus 2%) in BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas was significantly higher than the sporadic breast carcinomas (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed for CK14 among the two groups (p = 0.408). No significant difference was observed among BRCA1-related and BRCA2-related breast carcinomas in the immunoprofile for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14. No significant correlation was identified between the expression of IMP3 and CK8/18 and the tumor grade in both BRCA-mutated and sporadic breast carcinomas (p > 0.05). In cases with luminal A and B phenotypes, the rates of expression of IMP3 and loss of CK8/18 were significantly higher in BRCA-mutated as compared to sporadic breast carcinoma (p < 0.001). In cases with basal-like phenotype, the absence of CK8/18 expression was significantly higher in BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas (54% versus 0%, p = 0.001), while no difference was observed for IMP3 expression (p = 0.435). Regardless of mutation type, histologic grade, or molecular phenotype, the absence of CK8/18 expression and presence of IMP3 expression are seen at much higher rate in BRCA mutated breast carcinomas.

Langbein L, Eckhart L, Fischer H, et al.
Localisation of keratin K78 in the basal layer and first suprabasal layers of stratified epithelia completes expression catalogue of type II keratins and provides new insights into sequential keratin expression.
Cell Tissue Res. 2016; 363(3):735-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among the 26 human type II keratins, K78 is the only one that has not yet been explored with regard to its expression characteristics. Here, we show that, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, K78 is strongly expressed in the basal and parabasal cell layers with decreasing intensity in the lower suprabasal cells of keratinising and non-keratinising squamous epithelia and keratinocyte cultures. The same pattern has been detected at the transcriptional level in the corresponding mouse epithelia. Murine K78 protein, which contains an extraordinary large extension of its tail domain, which is unique among all known keratins, is not detectable by the antibody used. Concomitant studies in human epithelia have confirmed K78 co-expression with the classical basal keratins K5 and K14. Similarly, K78 co-expression with the differentiation-related type I keratins K10 (epidermis) and K13 (non-keratinising epithelia) occurs in the parabasal cell layer, whereas that of the corresponding type II keratins K1 (epidermis) and K4 (non-keratinising epithelia) unequivocally starts subsequent to the respective type I keratins. Our data concerning K78 expression modify the classical concept of keratin pair K5/K14 representing the basal compartment and keratin pairs K1/K10 or K4/K13 defining the differentiating compartment of stratified epithelia. Moreover, the K78 expression pattern and the decoupled K1/K10 and K4/K13 expression define the existence of a hitherto unperceived early differentiation stage in the parabasal layer characterized by K78/K10 or K78/K13 expression.

Vranic S, Marchiò C, Castellano I, et al.
Immunohistochemical and molecular profiling of histologically defined apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(9):1350-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the marked improvement in the understanding of molecular mechanisms and classification of apocrine carcinoma, little is known about its specific molecular genetic alterations and potentially targetable biomarkers. In this study, we explored immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of 37 invasive apocrine carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. IHC revealed frequent E-cadherin expression (89%), moderate (16%) proliferation activity [Ki-67, phosphohistone H3], infrequent (~10%) expression of basal cell markers [CK5/6, CK14, p63, caveolin-1], loss of PTEN (83%), and overexpression of HER2 (32%), EGFR (41%), cyclin D1 (50%), and MUC-1 (88%). MLPA assay revealed gene copy gains of MYC, CCND1, ZNF703, CDH1, and TRAF4 in 50% or greater of the apocrine carcinomas, whereas gene copy losses frequently affected BRCA2 (75%), ADAM9 (54%), and BRCA1 (46%). HER2 gain, detected by MLPA in 38% of the cases, was in excellent concordance with HER2 results obtained by IHC/FISH (κ = 0.915, P < .001). TOP2A gain was observed in one case, while five cases (21%) exhibited TOP2A loss. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: HER2-positive and HER2-negative (P = .03 and .04, respectively). NGS assay revealed mutations of the TP53 (2 of 7, 29%), BRAF/KRAS (2 of 7, 29%), and PI3KCA/PTEN genes (7 of 7, 100%). We conclude that morphologically defined apocrine carcinomas exhibit complex molecular genetic alterations that are consistent with the "luminal-complex" phenotype. Some of the identified molecular targets are promising biomarkers; however, functional studies are needed to prove these observations.

Lin X, Stenvang J, Rasmussen MH, et al.
The potential role of Alu Y in the development of resistance to SN38 (Irinotecan) or oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Irinotecan (SN38) and oxaliplatin are chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, the frequent development of resistance to these drugs represents a considerable challenge in the clinic. Alus as retrotransposons comprise 11% of the human genome. Genomic toxicity induced by carcinogens or drugs can reactivate Alus by altering DNA methylation. Whether or not reactivation of Alus occurs in SN38 and oxaliplatin resistance remains unknown.
RESULTS: We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to investigate the DNA methylome in SN38 or oxaliplatin resistant colorectal cancer cell line models. Moreover, we extended the RRBS analysis to tumor tissue from 14 patients with colorectal cancer who either did or did not benefit from capecitabine + oxaliplatin treatment. For the clinical samples, we applied a concept of 'DNA methylation entropy' to estimate the diversity of DNA methylation states of the identified resistance phenotype-associated methylation loci observed in the cell line models. We identified different loci being characteristic for the different resistant cell lines. Interestingly, 53% of the identified loci were Alu sequences- especially the Alu Y subfamily. Furthermore, we identified an enrichment of Alu Y sequences that likely results from increased integration of new copies of Alu Y sequence in the drug-resistant cell lines. In the clinical samples, SOX1 and other SOX gene family members were shown to display variable DNA methylation states in their gene regions. The Alu Y sequences showed remarkable variation in DNA methylation states across the clinical samples.
CONCLUSION: Our findings imply a crucial role of Alu Y in colorectal cancer drug resistance. Our study underscores the complexity of colorectal cancer aggravated by mobility of Alu elements and stresses the importance of personalized strategies, using a systematic and dynamic view, for effective cancer therapy.

Cheah MT, Chen JY, Sahoo D, et al.
CD14-expressing cancer cells establish the inflammatory and proliferative tumor microenvironment in bladder cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(15):4725-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nonresolving chronic inflammation at the neoplastic site is consistently associated with promoting tumor progression and poor patient outcomes. However, many aspects behind the mechanisms that establish this tumor-promoting inflammatory microenvironment remain undefined. Using bladder cancer (BC) as a model, we found that CD14-high cancer cells express higher levels of numerous inflammation mediators and form larger tumors compared with CD14-low cells. CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein and has been shown to be critically important in the signaling pathways of Toll-like receptor (TLR). CD14 expression in this BC subpopulation of cancer cells is required for increased cytokine production and increased tumor growth. Furthermore, tumors formed by CD14-high cells are more highly vascularized with higher myeloid cell infiltration. Inflammatory factors produced by CD14-high BC cells recruit and polarize monocytes and macrophages to acquire immune-suppressive characteristics. In contrast, CD14-low BC cells have a higher baseline cell division rate than CD14-high cells. Importantly, CD14-high cells produce factors that further increase the proliferation of CD14-low cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that CD14-high BC cells may orchestrate tumor-promoting inflammation and drive tumor cell proliferation to promote tumor growth.

Li T, Su L, Lei Y, et al.
DDIT3 and KAT2A Proteins Regulate TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B Expression in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-mediated Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(17):11108-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B are cell surface receptors that bind to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and mediate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, two putative DDIT3 binding sites (-1636/-1625; -374/-364) and a putative AP-1 binding site (-304/-298) were identified in the TNFRSF10A promoter region. We found that DDIT3 interacts with phospho-JUN, and the DDIT3·phospho-JUN complex binds to the AP-1 binding site (-304/-298) within the TNFRSF10A promoter region. In addition, we confirmed that KAT2A physically interacts with the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-26) of DDIT3. Importantly, knockdown of KAT2A down-regulated TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B and dramatically decreased promoter activity of cells transfected with luciferase reporter plasmid containing the AP-1 binding site (-304/-298) of the TNFRSF10A promoter, as well as cells transfected with luciferase reporter plasmid containing DDIT3 binding site (-276/-264) of the TNFRSF10B promoter. ChIP results suggest that KAT2A may participate in a KAT2A·DDIT3·phospho-JUN complex, or may participate in a KAT2A·DDIT3 complex and acetylate H3K9/K14, respectively. Moreover, we verified that TNFRSF10A mediates apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress in human lung cancer cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that DDIT3 and KAT2A cooperatively up-regulate TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B. Our findings highlight novel mechanisms underlying endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B expressions and apoptosis. These findings will be helpful for elucidating mechanisms related to anticancer drugs in mediating apoptosis.

Islam SS, Mokhtari RB, Noman AS, et al.
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling promotes tumorigenicity and stemness via activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in bladder cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(5):537-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway controls tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. Here, we show a role for Shh signaling in the promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumorigenicity, and stemness in the bladder cancer. EMT induction was assessed by the decreased expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1 and increased expression of N-cadherin. The induced EMT was associated with increased cell motility, invasiveness, and clonogenicity. These progression relevant behaviors were attenuated by treatment with Hh inhibitors cyclopamine and GDC-0449, and after knockdown by Shh-siRNA, and led to reversal of the EMT phenotype. The results with HTB-9 were confirmed using a second bladder cancer cell line, BFTC905 (DM). In a xenograft mouse model TGF-β1 treated HTB-9 cells exhibited enhanced tumor growth. Although normal bladder epithelial cells could also undergo EMT and upregulate Shh with TGF-β1 they did not exhibit tumorigenicity. The TGF-β1 treated HTB-9 xenografts showed strong evidence for a switch to a more stem cell like phenotype, with functional activation of CD133, Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4. The bladder cancer specific stem cell markers CK5 and CK14 were upregulated in the TGF-β1 treated xenograft tumor samples, while CD44 remained unchanged in both treated and untreated tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 primary human bladder tumors indicated that Shh expression was positively correlated with tumor grade and stage. Elevated expression of Ki-67, Shh, Gli2, and N-cadherin were observed in the high grade and stage human bladder tumor samples, and conversely, the downregulation of these genes were observed in the low grade and stage tumor samples. Collectively, this study indicates that TGF-β1-induced Shh may regulate EMT and tumorigenicity in bladder cancer. Our studies reveal that the TGF-β1 induction of EMT and Shh is cell type context dependent. Thus, targeting the Shh pathway could be clinically beneficial in the ability to reverse the EMT phenotype of tumor cells and potentially inhibit bladder cancer progression and metastasis.

Shen XB, Huang L, Zhang SH, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of the apolipoprotein F (ApoF) gene by ETS and C/EBPα in hepatoma cells.
Biochimie. 2015; 112:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apolipoprotein F (ApoF) inhibits cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. In the present study, the full-length human ApoF promoter was cloned, and the molecular mechanism of the regulation of ApoF was investigated. The ApoF promoter displayed higher activities in hepatoma cell lines, and the -198 nt to +79 nt promoter region contained the maximum promoter activity. In the promoter region of -198 nt to -2 nt there were four putative binding sites for transcription factors ETS-1/ETS-2 (named EBS-1 to EBS-4) and one for C/EBP. Mutation of EBS-2, EBS4 and the C/EBP binding site abolished the promoter activity, and ETS-1/ETS-2 and C/EBPα could interact with corresponding binding sites. In addition, overexpression of ETS-1/2 or C/EBPα enhanced, while dominant-negative mutants of ETS-1/2 and knockdown of C/EBPα decreased, ApoF promoter activities. ETS-1 and C/EBPα associated physically, and acted synergistically to activate ApoF transcription. These results demonstrated combined activation of the ApoF promoter by liver-enriched and ubiquitous transcription factors. Direct interactions between C/EBPα and ETS-1 were important for high liver-specific expression of ApoF.

Hammam O, Wishahiz M, Khalil H, et al.
Expression of cytokeratin 7, 20, 14 in urothelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the Egyprian urinary bladder cancer.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2014; 44(3):733-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study estimated the expression of CK-7, CK14, and CK-20 protein in human bladder carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma (UC) in comparison to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to show its possible correlation to clinicopathologic parameters (grade and stage and bilharziasis), and investigate whether cytokeratin 14 immunostaining may be useful to detect early squamous metaplasia in bladder biopsies and in association with UC. We evaluated the bladder tissues of 200 patients with bladder carcinoma, 150 patients had UC, and 50 patients had SCC. Imunohistochemical technique was used for detection of CK7, CK14 and CK20 monoclonal antibodies. The mean age of the patients was 55 years (range 51-70 years). The UC were classified according to grades into grade I, II and III in 20, 40 and 90 cases, respectively. Stages of UC were: Ta in 10, T1 in 60 and 90 patients with muscle-invasive T2-3. In UC cases 105 /150 (70%) were positive for over expression of CK20. In the same group of UC 120/150 (80) were positive for over expression of CK7. Negative expression was found in SCC cases. A High grades of the UC were associated with decrease expression of CK 20, there were 20 (100%) in GI, 35 (87.5%) in GII, 50 (68.6%) in GIII (P <0.01), and an increase expression of CK7 4 (20%) in GI, 26 (65%) in GII, 90(100%) in GIII (P <0.01). CK20 expression decreased as the tumor stages increased, it was 15 (100%) in Ta, 50 (83.3%) in T1, 40 (50%) in T2-3 (P <0.01), while CK7 showed increase expression in 2 cases with Ta tumor (20%), 38 (47.5%) in T1, 80 (100%) in T2-T3 (P <0.01). The present study confirmed that CK14 is expressed in SCC and in UC with squamous differentiation.

Skálová A, Weinreb I, Hyrcza M, et al.
Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):338-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.

Ju F, Lu L, Zhao QY, et al.
Systematic analysis of gene expression and molecular interactions in cardiac and non-cardiac gastric carcinomas.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1835-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: : This study aims to comparing the gene expression profiles and molecular interactions among gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas (GCA), gastric noncardiac adenocarcinomas (GNCA) and their adjacent normal tissues.
METHODOLOGY: Gene expression profile of GSE29272 was downloaded from Gene expression omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the cut-off of p-value ≤ 0.01. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was further performed for the DEGs, and then the binding sites of the transcriptional factors and the specific protein-protein interactions were analyzed.
RESULTS: Total 1024 DEGs were screened, including 741 up-regulated genes and 283 down-regulated genes. VSNL1 (visinin-like protein-1) is expressed relatively higher in the GNCA and could be its molecular biomarker, as KRT14 (cytokeratin 14) in the GCA. GO analysis showed that the analogous cancer-relevant factors network appears in these two cancer subgroups. The DEGs in the GCA tend to be bound by SPIB and ZNF354C. FN1 lies in the center of the protein-protein interaction networks of the two cancer subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: We found out the RNA expression level of the two gastric cancers varied greatly from the normal tissues while gene expression profile of them were very similar, however, the different biomarker and transcriptional factors indicate the differences of two mechanisms.

Szasz AM, Szirtes I, Tihanyi B, et al.
Basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas--clinicopathological presentation and oncogenetic snapshot of a rare entity.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):237-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of basaloid pancreatic carcinoma with clinical, pathological, and genomic data. The 73-year-old male patient had jaundice, acholic stool, diarrhea, weight loss, and a large, painless gall bladder. His GGT was highly elevated. The pancreatic head contained a tumor, which was resected by partial pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreato-gastric anastomosis, cholecystectomy, and lymphadenectomy. On gross examination, a 3.8-cm white firm nodule was found, which microscopically was composed of basaloid cell nests with a less than usual desmoplastic stromal background and focally PANIN. Immunohistochemical profile displayed strong CK5/6, CK19, p63, EGFR, vimentin, and evident CK14 expression and absence of expression of CK7, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and BRCA1. A high Ki-67 index and p53 expression were noted. Sequencing of the most frequent 46 oncogenes with ionTorrent (AmpliSeq PCR) method identified PIK3CA, KRAS, and TP53 genes as drivers and variants of the FGFR3, PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, RET, and ATM genes. The tumor we report displays histopathological appearances similar to the previously described case and a genomic landscape fitting to the general population of pancreatic carcinomas. We hypothesize that this tumor may belong to the group of DNA damage repair-deficient pancreatic carcinoma subgroup.

Caliari D, Zappulli V, Rasotto R, et al.
Triple-negative vimentin-positive heterogeneous feline mammary carcinomas as a potential comparative model for breast cancer.
BMC Vet Res. 2014; 10:185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease classified by molecular subtyping into luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing, basal-like, claudin-low and normal-breast like. The routinely applied and standardized immunohistochemical-based surrogates of this classification group together the last three entities as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBCs) that show the most diverse and complex heterogeneity and represent a therapeutic challenge. In the present work 156 feline mammary lesions consisting of feline mammary carcinomas (FMCs), benign neoplasms, and hyperplastic/dysplastic tissues were evaluated histologically and by immunohistochemistry for expression of basal and luminal cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (a), and progesterone receptor (PR). Thirty-seven FMCs with 27 matched non-neoplastic controls were also investigated for gene expression of ERa, ER beta, PR, and HER2.
RESULTS: A large group of hormone receptors (HRs)-negative aggressive carcinomas - that did not overexpress HER2 - could be distinguished from the less aggressive (10.8%) and benign (8%) HRs + tumors, that showed bilineage (luminal and myoepithelial) differentiation. Immunohistochemical evaluations of cytoplasmic filaments indicated that HRs- FMCs are vimentin+, CK14+, and CK5_6+ carcinomas that may resemble the TNBCs (basal like/claudin low) described in women. The identification of luminal and myoepithelial progenitors within the mammary ductal system suggested potential cells/sites of origin of these tumors. A diffuse and never previously described CKs/vimentin luminal cell co-expression was detected in the non-neoplastic ducts, indicating a potential bilineage progenitor.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate and potentially explain the high incidence of triple-negative, vimentin + aggressive tumors in cats that may used to elucidate some of the challenging features of TNBCs in women.

Zhao L, Teklemariam T, Hantash BM
Heterelogous expression of mutated HLA-G decreases immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells and their epidermal derivatives.
Stem Cell Res. 2014; 13(2):342-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are capable of extensive self-renewal and expansion and can differentiate into any somatic tissue, making them useful for regenerative medicine applications. Allogeneic transplantation of hESC-derived tissues from results in immunological rejection absent adjunctive immunosuppression. The goal of our study was to generate a universal pluripotent stem cell source by nucleofecting a mutated human leukocyte antigen G (mHLA-G) gene into hESCs using the PiggyBac transposon. We successfully generated stable mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC lines using chEF1α promoter system that stably expressed mHLA-G protein during prolonged undifferentiated proliferation andin differentiated embryoid bodies as well as teratomas. Morphology, karyotype, and telomerase activity of mHLA-G expressing hESC were normal. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis revealed persistent expression of pluripotent markers, OCT-3/4 and SSEA-4, in undifferentiated mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC. Nucleofected hESC formed teratomas and when directed to differentiate into epidermal precursors, expressed high levels of mHLA-G and keratinocyte markers K14 and CD29. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays demonstrated a significant decrease in lysis of mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC targets relative to control cells. Similar results were obtained with mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC-derived epidermal progenitors (hEEP). One way mixed T lymphocyte reactions unveiled that mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC and -hEEP restrained the proliferative activity of mixed T lymphocytes. We conclude that heterologous expression of mHLA-G decreases immunogenicity of hESCs and their epidermal differentiated derivatives.

Tan HL, Haffner MC, Esopi DM, et al.
Prostate adenocarcinomas aberrantly expressing p63 are molecularly distinct from usual-type prostatic adenocarcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(3):446-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have described a rare group of prostate adenocarcinomas that show aberrant expression of p63, a protein strongly expressed in prostatic basal cells and absent from usual-type acinar prostate cancers. The partial basal-like immunophenotype of these tumors is intriguing in light of the persistent debate surrounding the cell-of-origin for prostate cancer; however, their molecular phenotype is unknown. We collected 37 of these tumors on radical prostatectomy and biopsy and assessed subsets for a diverse panel of molecular markers. The majority of p63-expressing tumors were positive for the ΔNp63 isoform (6/7) by immunofluorescence and p63 mRNA (7/8) by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Despite p63 positivity, these tumors uniformly expressed luminal-type cytokeratin proteins such as CK18 (13/13), CK8 (8/8), and markers of androgen axis signaling commonly seen in luminal cells, including androgen receptor (10/11), NKX3.1 (8/8), and prostein (12/13). Conversely, basal cytokeratins such as CK14 and CK15 were negative in all cases (0/8) and CK5/6 was weakly and focally positive in 36% (4/11) of cases. Pluripotency markers including β-catenin, Oct4, and c-kit were negative in p63-expressing tumors (0/11). Despite nearly universal expression of androgen receptor and downstream androgen signaling targets, p63-expressing tumors lacked ERG rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (0/14) and ERG protein expression (0/37). No tumors expressed SPINK1 or showed PTEN protein loss (0/19). Surprisingly, 74% (14/19) of p63-expressing tumors expressed GSTP1 protein at least focally, and 33% (2/6) entirely lacked GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation by bisulfite sequencing. In contrast to usual prostatic adenocarcinomas, prostate tumors with p63 expression show a mixed luminal/basal immunophenotype, uniformly lack ERG gene rearrangement, and frequently express GSTP1. These data strongly suggest that p63-expressing prostate tumors represent a molecularly distinct subclass and further study of this rare tumor type may yield important insights into the role of p63 in prostatic biology and the prostate cancer cell-of-origin.

Shui R, Li A, Yang F, et al.
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with unusual basal-HER2 phenotype.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):5203-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To report three cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with an unusual "basal-HER2" phenotype.
METHODS: Clinical data were analyzed. Morphological features were observed. Immunohistochemical study for ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, CK 5/6, CK10/13, CK14, EGFR, P63 and FISH detection of HER2 gene amplification were performed.
RESULTS: Three patients were all female with 26, 57 and 66 years old. The tumors were 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm in size respectively. Morphologically, all three tumors were pure squamous cell carcinoma and entirely composed metaplastic squamous cells. Two tumors were moderately differentiated and one was poorly differentiated. All three patients were positive for P63 or CK10/13. All three tumors exhibited basal-HER2 phenotype: negative for ER and PR, positive for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification, and positive for at least two basal markers.
CONCLUSIONS: SCC with basal-HER2 phenotype is an extremely rare subset of breast carcinoma. Since it may have worse prognosis than typical basal-like SCC, recognization of this unusual SCC in routine work may have obvious clinical significance.

Wang L, Feng Z, Wu H, et al.
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 as a potential prognostic biomarker and second primary malignancy indicator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):10977-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
The significance of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24) expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate and evaluate the clinical significance of MDA-7/IL-24 expression in HNSCC by detecting expression by immunostaining in 131 HNSCC specimens. The function of MDA-7/IL-24 was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot in Ad5.mda-7-infected HNSCC cell lines. Our results showed that MDA-7/IL-24 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of HNSCC cells. MDA-7/IL-24 high patients presented with a favorable postoperative prognosis compared with MDA-7/IL-24 low patients, and high expression of MDA-7/IL-24 was significantly correlated with a lower incidence of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in the head and neck regions. In vitro assays showed that high expression of MDA-7/IL-24 could upregulate the expression of the epithelial terminal differentiation markers cytokeratin (KRT) 1, KRT4, KRT13, phosphorylated endoplasmic reticulum stress protein (p)-EIF2a, and the apoptosis-related protein cleaved caspase-3. It also downregulated the epithelial proliferative markers KRT5, KRT14, Integrin β4, and anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2, which might be partially involved in the underlying mechanisms of Ad.mda-7-mediated HNSCC differentiation and apoptosis. Our results indicate that MDA-7/IL-24 can be a prognostic biomarker and an indicator of second primary malignancies (SPM) in HNSCC.

Tseng SH, Yang CC, Yu EH, et al.
K14-EGFP-miR-31 transgenic mice have high susceptibility to chemical-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis that is associating with Ku80 repression.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(6):1263-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurring in the head and neck region and the esophagus causes tremendous cancer mortality around the world. miR-31 is among the most eminently upregulated MicroRNAs in SCC, when it occurs in the head and neck region and the esophagus. We established miR-31 transgenic mouse lines, in which miR-31 is under the control of the K14 promoter. 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) is a mutagen that causes double strand breaks. The transgenic mice exhibited a higher potential for tumor induction than wild-type (Wt) mice of the tongue and esophagus after 4NQO treatment. After 4NQO treatment or irradiation, p-γH2AX expression in squamous epithelium of transgenic mice was increased more than in Wt mice. Exogenous expression of miR-31 was also found to be associated with the higher p-γH2AX expression induced by 4NQO in human oral SCC (OSCC) cell lines. The repair genes PARP1 and Ku80 were validated as new targets of miR-31 in human OSCC cell lines, and were found to be downregulated in the squamous epithelium of the tongue in transgenic mice. However, only the downregulation of Ku80 was essential for maintaining the high level of p-γH2AX induced by 4NQO in OSCC cells. Inverse expression profiles for miR-31 and Ku80 were noted in human OSCC tissue. Our study identifies the high sensitivity of K14-EGFP-miR-31 transgenic mice to chemical carcinogen-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis and shows that this seems to be associated with the downregulation of Ku80 and an impairment of repair activity in squamous cells, which are mediated by miR-31.

Sizemore GM, Sizemore ST, Seachrist DD, Keri RA
GABA(A) receptor pi (GABRP) stimulates basal-like breast cancer cell migration through activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2).
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(35):24102-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of distinct subtypes predictive of patient outcome. Tumors of the basal-like subtype have a poor prognosis due to inherent aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapeutics. Basal-like tumors typically lack estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and HER2/ERBB2, or in other words they are triple negative (TN). Continued evaluation of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) biology is essential to identify novel therapeutic targets. Expression of the pi subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABRP) is associated with the BLBC/TN subtype, and herein, we reveal its expression also correlates with metastases to the brain and poorer patient outcome. GABRP expression in breast cancer cell lines also demonstrates a significant correlation with the basal-like subtype suggesting that GABRP functions in the initiation and/or progression of basal-like tumors. To address this postulate, we stably silenced GABRP in two BLBC cell lines, HCC1187 and HCC70 cells. Decreased GABRP reduces in vitro tumorigenic potential and migration concurrent with alterations in the cytoskeleton, specifically diminished cellular protrusions and expression of the BLBC-associated cytokeratins, KRT5, KRT6B, KRT14, and KRT17. Silencing GABRP also decreases phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in both cell lines and selective inhibition of ERK1/2 similarly decreases the basal-like cytokeratins as well as migration. Combined, these data reveal a GABRP-ERK1/2-cytokeratin axis that maintains the migratory phenotype of basal-like breast cancer. GABRP is a component of a cell surface receptor, thus, these findings suggest that targeting this new signaling axis may have therapeutic potential in BLBC.

Petrova A, Celli A, Jacquet L, et al.
3D In vitro model of a functional epidermal permeability barrier from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cell Reports. 2014; 2(5):675-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cornification and epidermal barrier defects are associated with a number of clinically diverse skin disorders. However, a suitable in vitro model for studying normal barrier function and barrier defects is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the generation of human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). HEEs are structurally similar to native epidermis, with a functional permeability barrier. We exposed a pure population of hESC/iPSC-derived keratinocytes, whose transcriptome corresponds to the gene signature of normal primary human keratinocytes (NHKs), to a sequential high-to-low humidity environment in an air/liquid interface culture. The resulting HEEs had all of the cellular strata of the human epidermis, with skin barrier properties similar to those of normal skin. Such HEEs generated from disease-specific iPSCs will be an invaluable tool not only for dissecting molecular mechanisms that lead to epidermal barrier defects but also for drug development and screening.

Shahrabi-Farahani S, Wang L, Zwaans BM, et al.
Neuropilin 1 expression correlates with differentiation status of epidermal cells and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
Lab Invest. 2014; 94(7):752-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuropilins (NRPs) are cell surface receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SEMA3 (class 3 semaphorin) family members. The role of NRPs in neurons and endothelial cells has been investigated, but the expression and role of NRPs in epithelial cells is much less clear. Herein, the expression and localization of NRP1 was investigated in human and mouse skin and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Results indicated that NRP1 mRNA and protein was expressed in the suprabasal epithelial layers of the skin sections. NRP1 staining did not overlap with that of keratin 14 (K14) or proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but did co-localize with staining for keratin 1, indicating that differentiated keratinocytes express NRP1. Similar to the expression of NRP1, VEGF-A was expressed in suprabasal epithelial cells, whereas Nrp2 and VEGFR2 were not detectable in the epidermis. The expression of NRP1 correlated with a high degree of differentiation in human SCC specimens, human SCC xenografts, and mouse K14-HPV16 transgenic SCC. UVB irradiation of mouse skin induced Nrp1 upregulation. In vitro, Nrp1 was upregulated in primary keratinocytes in response to differentiating media or epidermal growth factor-family growth factors. In conclusion, the expression of NRP1 is regulated in the skin and is selectively produced in differentiated epithelial cells. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester VEGF ligand within the epithelial compartment, thereby modulating its bioactivity.

Mrklić I, Spagnoli GC, Juretić A, et al.
Co-expression of cancer testis antigens and topoisomerase 2-alpha in triple negative breast carcinomas.
Acta Histochem. 2014; 116(5):740-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumor biology, lack of targeted treatments and poor prognosis. Anthracyclins were shown to induce immunogenic death in target cells, potentially leading to "endogenous" vaccination. We comparatively assessed expression of cancer testis antigens (CTA) and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOPO2A), a well defined molecular target of anthracyclins, in TNBC fully characterized for basal-like (BL) immunophenotype, BL morphology and conventional clinicopathological factors. The study included 83 patients undergoing surgery between January 2003 and December 2009. Tissue sections were stained with CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, Ki-67, TOPO2A, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A10, NY-ESO and multi-MAGE-A specific reagents. Of the 83 TNBC, >66.3% had BL immunophenotype and 48.2% had BL morphology. MAGE-A1 specific staining was most frequently detectable (69.2%), followed by multi-MAGE-A (58%), NY-ESO (27.1%) and MAGE-A10 (16%) specific staining. MAGE-A10 expression significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.026). Furthermore, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A10 and multi-MAGE-A specific stainings significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage (p=0.024, p=0.041, p=0.031, respectively). We found no significant association between CTA expression and disease free (DFS) or overall survival (OS). Most interestingly, a significant correlation was observed between expression of MAGE-A10 and NY-ESO and expression of TOPO2A (p=0.005, p=0.013). Expression of defined CTA and TOPO2A are significantly correlated in TNBC. Considering the limited therapeutic options for TNBC, these findings might suggest novel forms of combination therapies that should be further explored.

Holderfield M, Lorenzana E, Weisburd B, et al.
Vemurafenib cooperates with HPV to promote initiation of cutaneous tumors.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(8):2238-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment with RAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib causes the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) or keratoacanthomas as a side effect in 18% to 30% of patients. It is known that RAF inhibitors activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and stimulate growth of RAS-mutated cells, possibly accounting for up to 60% of cSCC or keratoacanthoma lesions with RAS mutations, but other contributing events are obscure. To identify such events, we evaluated tumors from patients treated with vemurafenib for the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA and identified 13% to be positive. Using a transgenic murine model of HPV-driven cSCC (K14-HPV16 mice), we conducted a functional test to determine whether administration of RAF inhibitors could promote cSCC in HPV-infected tissues. Vemurafenib treatment elevated MAPK markers and increased cSCC incidence from 22% to 70% in this model. Furthermore, 55% of the cSCCs arising in vemurafenib-treated mice exhibited a wild-type Ras genotype, consistent with the frequency observed in human patients. Our results argue that HPV cooperates with vemurafenib to promote tumorigenesis, in either the presence or absence of RAS mutations.

Jiang YJ, Bikle DD
LncRNA profiling reveals new mechanism for VDR protection against skin cancer formation.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt A:87-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence strongly suggests a protective role of vitamin D signaling against chemical and UVR-induced skin cancer formation. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Recently, the emerging role of long, non-coding RNA (lncRNA) as a hallmark of cancer has become better appreciated. LncRNAs are mRNA-like transcripts ranging in length from 200 bases to 100kb lacking significant open reading frames, which are involved in a broad spectrum of tumorigenic/metastatic processes. In this study we profiled 90 well-annotated mouse lncRNAs from cultured mouse keratinocytes after deleting the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (∼90%) vs. control cells using an lncRNA array analysis. We found that several well-known oncogenes, including H19, HOTTIP and Nespas, are significantly increased (6.3-1.8-fold), whereas tumor suppressors (Kcnq1ot1, lincRNA-p21) are decreased (up to 50-70%) in VDR deleted keratinocytes. A similar pattern of lncRNA profiling is observed in the epidermis of K14 driven, tamoxifen-regulated epidermal-specific VDR null vs. wild-type control mice. Additionally there is an increase in the expression levels of other oncogenes (mHOTAIR, Malat1 and SRA) and a decrease of other tumor suppressors (Foxn2-as, Gtl2-as, H19-as). The increased expression levels of HOTTIP and H19 were further confirmed by real-time PCR analysis with individually designed primer sets. The major finding of this study is a novel mechanism for protection by VDR against skin cancer formation by maintaining the balance of oncogenic to tumor suppressing lncRNAs. In keratinocytes lacking VDR this balance is disturbed with increased expression of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressors, a mechanism that predisposes the VDR deficient mice to skin cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Vitamin D Workshop".

Cheung KJ, Gabrielson E, Werb Z, Ewald AJ
Collective invasion in breast cancer requires a conserved basal epithelial program.
Cell. 2013; 155(7):1639-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carcinomas typically invade as a cohesive multicellular unit, a process termed collective invasion. It remains unclear how different subpopulations of cancer cells contribute to this process. We developed three-dimensional (3D) organoid assays to identify the most invasive cancer cells in primary breast tumors. Collective invasion was led by specialized cancer cells that were defined by their expression of basal epithelial genes, such as cytokeratin-14 (K14) and p63. Furthermore, K14+ cells led collective invasion in the major human breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, luminal cancer cells were observed to convert phenotypically to invasive leaders following induction of basal epithelial genes. Although only a minority of cells within luminal tumors expressed basal epithelial genes, knockdown of either K14 or p63 was sufficient to block collective invasion. Our data reveal that heterotypic interactions between epithelial subpopulations are critical to collective invasion. We suggest that targeting the basal invasive program could limit metastatic progression.

Janbandhu VC, Moik D, Fässler R
Cre recombinase induces DNA damage and tetraploidy in the absence of loxP sites.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(3):462-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The spatiotemporal manipulations of gene expression by the Cre recombinase (Cre) of bacteriophage P1 has become an essential asset to understanding mammalian genetics. Accumulating evidence suggests that Cre activity can, in addition to excising targeted loxP sites, induce cytotoxic effects, including abnormal cell cycle progression, genomic instability, and apoptosis, which can accelerate cancer progression. It is speculated that these defects are caused by Cre-induced DNA damage at off-target sites. Here we report the formation of tetraploid keratinocytes in the epidermis of keratin 5 and/or keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre (KRT5- and KRT14-Cre) expressing mouse skin. Biochemical analyses and flow cytometry demonstrated that Cre expression also induces DNA damage, genomic instability, and tetraploidy in HCT116 cells, and live-cell imaging revealed an extension of the G 2 cell cycle phase followed by defective or skipping of mitosis as cause for the tetraploidy. Since tetraploidy eventually leads to aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer, our findings highlight the importance of distinguishing non-specific cytopathic effects from specific Cre/loxP-driven genetic manipulations when using Cre-mediated gene deletions.

Agboola AO, Musa AA, Ayoade BA, et al.
Clinicopathological and molecular significance of Sumolyation marker (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9)) expression in breast cancer of black women.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(1):10-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of breast cancers (BC) in Nigerian women are triple negative and show breast cancer-associated gene 1 (BRCA1) deficiency as well as the basal like phenotype, with a high mortality rate. In contrast to the well-defined predictive factors for the hormonal therapy, there is a paucity of information on the BRCA1 deficiency breast tumor biology, particularly among African women. BRCA1 Sumoylation (UBC9) has been speculated to be involved in the ER transcription activity, BRCA1 deficiency and triple negative BC. We therefore hypothesized that UBC9, a SUMOylation marker, may have contributed to the aggressive nature of BRCA1 tumor phenotype observed in Nigerian women. This study investigated the immunoprofiles of UBC9 in tissue microarray (TMA) of 199 Nigerian women and correlated their protein expression with clinical outcome, pathological responses and the expression of other biomarkers to demonstrate the functional significance in Nigerian women. The protein expression of UBC9, as compared with other biomarkers, showed an inverse correlation with steroid hormones (ER, progesterone (PgR)), BRCA1, p27, p21 and MDM4, and a positive correlation with triple negative, basal cytokeratins (CK14 and CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), basal-like breast cancer phenotype, p53, phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3KCA), placental cadherin, (P-cadherin) and BRCA1 regulators (metastasis tumor antigen-1 (MTA1). Survival analysis showed that those tumors positive for UBC9 expression had a significantly poorer breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) as compared with those showing negative expression. UBC9 remained an independent predictor of outcome for BCSS. This study demonstrates that UBC9 appears to play an important role in the tumor biology of Nigerian women. Therefore, a novel UBC9 targeted therapy in black women with BC could enhance a better patient outcome.

Fulzele A, Malgundkar SA, Govekar RB, et al.
Proteomic profile of keratins in cancer of the gingivo buccal complex: consolidating insights for clinical applications.
J Proteomics. 2013; 91:242-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Keratins play a major role in several cellular functions. Each tissue type expresses a specific set of keratins. The immense potential of keratins as diagnostic and prognostic markers for different cancers is emerging. Oral cancer is the fifteenth most common cancer worldwide. However, comprehensive information on the profile of keratins in the oral cavity is not available. Several independent reports have identified keratins using antibody based techniques which have pitfalls due to the cross reactivity of the antibodies to this set of very homologous proteins. A few recent proteomic studies have reported the identification of keratins in head and neck cancer. Majority of the studies have used tissues from the head and neck region without specifying subsites. This study reports the analysis of enriched preparations of keratins from cancer of the gingivo buccal complex (GBC) using MS, 2DE, WB, silver staining of 2DE gels and IHC. Our study reveals the absence of K4 and K13 and presence of K14, K16, and K17, in cancers of the GBC and combination of these expression patterns in the cut margins. This report also shows that K13 is glycosylated. This well characterized profile of keratins may have potential to be used in clinics.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In recent years the immense potential of keratins as diagnostic and prognostic markers for different cancers is emerging. However, comprehensive information on the profile of keratins in the oral cavity is not available. Several independent reports have identified keratins using only antibody based techniques which have pitfalls due to the cross reactivity of the antibodies to this set of very homologous proteins. This study reports the analysis of enriched preparations of keratins from a subsite of the oral cavity, the gingivo buccal complex (GBC) using mass spectrometry, 2DE, western blotting, silver staining of 2DE gels and IHC. The proteomic analysis shows the absence of K4 and K13 and presence of K14, K16, and K17 in cancers of the GBC and combination of these expression patterns in the cut margins. This well characterized profile of keratins from the gingivo buccal complex provides defined markers which may have potential to be used in the clinics.

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