Gene Summary

Gene:LRIG1; leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains 1
Aliases: LIG1, LIG-1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
LRIG1 is implicated in:
- integral to membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 02 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LRIG1 (cancer-related)

Rahane CS, Kutzner A, Heese K
Establishing a human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC)-specific gene mutation signature.
Cancer Genet. 2019; 230:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive tumor whose molecular signaling pathways are not fully understood. Using an in-silico clinical data analysis approach we retrieved human gene mutation data from the highly reputed Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). ACC-specific gene mutations were correlated with proliferation marker FAM72 expression and Mutsig along with the algorithmic implementation of the 20/20 rule were used to validate their oncogenic potential. The newly identified oncogenic driver gene set (ZFPM1, LRIG1, CRIPAK, ZNF517, GARS and DGKZ), specifically and most repeatedly mutated in ACC, is involved in tumor suppression and cellular proliferation and thus could be useful for the prognosis and development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ACC.

Karlsson T, Kvarnbrink S, Holmlund C, et al.
LMO7 and LIMCH1 interact with LRIG proteins in lung cancer, with prognostic implications for early-stage disease.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 125:174-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) protein family comprises the integral membrane proteins LRIG1, LRIG2 and LRIG3. LRIG1 is frequently down-regulated in human cancer, and high levels of LRIG1 in tumor tissue are associated with favorable clinical outcomes in several tumor types including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mechanistically, LRIG1 negatively regulates receptor tyrosine kinases and functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the details of the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood, and even less is known about the functions of LRIG2 and LRIG3. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the functions and molecular interactions of the LRIG proteins.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using a cytosolic LRIG3 peptide as bait. In transfected human cells, co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments were performed. Proximity ligation assay was performed to investigate interactions between endogenously expressed proteins. Expression levels of LMO7 and LIMCH1 in normal and malignant lung tissue were investigated using qRT-PCR and through in silico analyses of public data sets. Finally, a clinical cohort comprising 355 surgically treated NSCLC cases was immunostained for LMO7.
RESULTS: In the yeast two-hybrid screen, the two paralogous proteins LMO7 and LIMCH1 were identified as interaction partners to LRIG3. LMO7 and LIMCH1 co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with both LRIG1 and LRIG3. Endogenously expressed LMO7 was in close proximity of both LRIG1 and LRIG3. LMO7 and LIMCH1 were highly expressed in normal lung tissue and down-regulated in malignant lung tissue. LMO7 immunoreactivity was shown to be a negative prognostic factor in LRIG1 positive tumors, predicting poor patient survival.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that LMO7 and LIMCH1 physically interact with LRIG proteins and that expression of LMO7 is of clinical importance in NSCLC.

Piotto C, Biscontin A, Millino C, Mognato M
Functional validation of miRNAs targeting genes of DNA double-strand break repair to radiosensitize non-small lung cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018; 1861(12):1102-1118 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA-Double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by radiation therapy represent the most efficient lesions to kill tumor cells, however, the inherent DSB repair efficiency of tumor cells can cause cellular radioresistance and impact on therapeutic outcome. Genes of DSB repair represent a target for cancer therapy since their down-regulation can impair the repair process making the cells more sensitive to radiation. In this study, we analyzed the combination of ionizing radiation (IR) along with microRNA-mediated targeting of genes involved in DSB repair to sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MicroRNAs are natural occurring modulators of gene expression and therefore represent an attractive strategy to affect the expression of DSB repair genes. As possible IR-sensitizing targets genes we selected genes of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway (i.e. RAD51, BRCA2, PRKDC, XRCC5, LIG1). We examined these genes to determine whether they may be real targets of selected miRNAs by functional and biological validation. The in vivo effectiveness of miRNA treatments has been examined in cells over-expressing miRNAs and treated with IR. Taken together, our results show that hsa-miR-96-5p and hsa-miR-874-3p can directly regulate the expression of target genes. When these miRNAs are combined with IR can decrease the survival of NSCLC cells to a higher extent than that exerted by radiation alone, and similarly to radiation combined with specific chemical inhibitors of HR and NHEJ repair pathway.

Yan R, Li K, Yuan DW, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA-4295 enhances cisplatin-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis through the EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by targeting LRIG1.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2566-2578 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of microRNA-4295 (miR-4295), which regulates cisplatin (DDP)-induced apoptosis in GC cells through the leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1)-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Two cell lines were selected, one with the highest expression of miR-4295 and one with the lowest expression of LRIG1, for the experiments. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DDP in the human GC MKN-28 and MKN-45 cell lines was calculated, and mitochondrial membrane potentials of the GC cells were detected by tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester, perchlorate staining. The proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells with or without DDP treatment were assessed by MTT assay and plate colony formation, as well as flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were employed to determine the expression of EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related genes and apoptosis-related genes. LRIG1 was identified as a target gene of miR-4295. The expression of miR-4295 was upregulated, and the expression of LRIG1 was downregulated in GC cells. Furthermore, DDP enhanced the decrease in miR-4295 expression and the increase in LRIG1 expression in GC cells. miR-4295 promoted the proliferation and inhibited the DDP-induced apoptosis of GC cells without DDP treatment. In addition, miR-4295 increased the expression levels of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, p-PI3K and p-Akt, suggesting that miR-4295 promotes the activation of the EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by targeting LRIG1. miR-4295 targeted and negatively regulated LRIG1 expression to activate the EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby promoting the proliferation of the GC cells and inhibiting the apoptosis of the GC cells induced by DDP. Therefore, miR-4295 may be a novel therapeutic target in patients with GC.

Zamboni M, Civitareale D
TTF-1/Nkx2.1 functional connection with mutated EGFR relies on LRIG1 and β-catenin pathways in lung cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(4):1027-1031 [PubMed] Related Publications
In non-small lung cancer, the expression of the transcription factor TTF-1/Nkx2.1 correlates with the presence of EGFR mutations, therefore TTF-1/Nkx2.1 expression is used to optimize an EGFR testing strategy and to guide clinical treatment. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional connection between EGFR and TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression in lung adenocarcinoma. Using the H1975 cell line as a non-small cell lung cancer model system and short hairpin RNA, we have selected clones with TTF-1/Nkx2.1 silenced expression. We have found that Leucine-rich immunoglobulin repeats-1 (LRIG1) gene is a direct target of TTF-1/Nkx2.1 and the transcription factor binding to the LRIG1 genomic sequence inhibits its gene expression. In TTF-1/Nkx2.1 depleted clones, we have found high levels of LRIG1 and decreased presence of EGFR protein. Furthermore, in TTF-1/Nkx2.1 depleted clones we detected a reduced β-catenin level and we provide experimental evidence indicating that TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression is regulated by β-catenin. Published studies indicate that LRIG1 triggers EGFR degradation and that mutated EGFR induces β-catenin activity. Hence, with the present study we show that mutated EGFR, enhancing β-catenin, stimulates TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression and, at the same time, TTF-1/Nkx2.1, down-regulating LRIG1, sustains EGFR pathway. Therefore, LRIG1 and β-catenin mediate the functional connection between TTF-1/Nkx2.1 and mutated EGFR.

Yu S, Yang M, Lim KM, et al.
Expression of LRIG1, a Negative Regulator of EGFR, Is Dynamically Altered during Different Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis.
Am J Pathol. 2018; 188(12):2912-2923 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG)-1 is a transmembrane protein that antagonizes epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in epithelial tissues. LRIG1 is down-regulated in various epithelial cancers, including bladder, breast, and colorectal cancer, suggesting that it functions as a tumor suppressor. However, its role in gastric carcinogenesis is not well understood. Here, we investigated the changes in LRIG1 expression during the stages of gastric cancer. We used a DMP-777-induced spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia mouse model and a tissue array of human gastric cancer lesions. The effects of LRIG1 knockdown were also assessed using the human gastric cancer cell line SNU638 in a xenograft model. LRIG1 expression varied over the course of gastric carcinogenesis, increasing in spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia lesions but disappearing in intestinal metaplasia and cancer lesions, and the increase was concurrent with the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, LRIG1 knockdown promoted the tumorigenic potential in vitro, which was manifested as increased proliferation, invasiveness, and migration as well as increased tumor size in vivo in the xenograft model. Furthermore, LRIG1 expression was determined to be a positive prognostic biomarker for the survival of gastric cancer patients. Collectively, our findings indicate that LRIG1 expression is closely related wto gastric carcinogenesis and may play a vital role as a tumor suppressor through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor activity.

Xu MD, Liu SL, Zheng BB, et al.
The radiotherapy-sensitization effect of cantharidin: Mechanisms involving cell cycle regulation, enhanced DNA damage, and inhibited DNA damage repair.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(7):822-832 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cantharidin is an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A), and has been frequently used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we proved that cantharidin could arrest cell cycle in G2/M phase. Since cells at G2/M phase are sensitive to radiotherapy, in the present study, we investigated the radiotherapy-sesitization effect of cantharidin and the potential mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Cell growth was determined by MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry. DNA damage was visualized by phospho-Histone H2A.X staining. Expression of mRNA was tested by microarray assay and real-time PCR. Clinical information and RNA-Seq expression data were derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pancreatic cancer cohort. Survival analysis was obtained by Kaplan-Meier estimates.
RESULTS: Cantharidin strengthened the growth inhibition effect of irradiation. Cantharidin drove pancreatic cancer cells out of quiescent G0/G1 phase and arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase. As a result, cantharidin strengthened DNA damage which was induced by irradiation. Moreover, cantharidin repressed expressions of several genes participating in DNA damage repair, including UBE2T, RPA1, GTF2HH5, LIG1, POLD3, RMI2, XRCC1, PRKDC, FANC1, FAAP100, RAD50, RAD51D, RAD51B and DMC1, through JNK, ERK, PKC, p38 and/or NF-κB pathway dependent manners. Among these genes, worse overall survival for pancreatic cancer patients were associated with high mRNA expressions of POLD3, RMI2, PRKDC, FANC1, RAD50 and RAD51B, all of which could be down-regulated by cantharidin.
CONCLUSION: Cantharidin can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to radiotherapy. Multiple mechanisms, including cell cycle regulation, enhanced DNA damage, and inhibited DNA damage repair, may be involved.

Martínez-Terroba E, Ezponda T, Bértolo C, et al.
The oncogenic RNA-binding protein SRSF1 regulates LIG1 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(12):1562-1574 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, the relevance of RNA metabolism has been increasingly recognized in a variety of diseases. Modifications in the levels of RNA-binding proteins elicit changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. Here we evaluate whether SRSF1 regulates the expression of DNA repair genes, and whether this regulation has a relevant role in lung carcinogenesis. An in silico analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the expression of SRSF1 and DNA repair genes. In vitro functional analyses were conducted in SRSF1 or DNA ligase 1 (LIG1)-downregulated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In addition, the prognostic value of LIG1 was evaluated in NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. We found a significant correlation between the DNA repair gene LIG1 and SRSF1 in NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, SRSF1 binds to LIG1 mRNA and regulates its expression by increasing its mRNA stability and enhancing its translation in an mTOR-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated LIG1 inhibition reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Finally, the expression of LIG1 was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC, as confirmed in a series of 210 patients. These results show that LIG1 is regulated by the oncoprotein SRSF1 and plays a relevant role in lung cancer cell proliferation and progression. LIG1 is associated with poor prognosis in non-small lung cancer patients.

Kucherlapati M
Examining transcriptional changes to DNA replication and repair factors over uveal melanoma subtypes.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):818 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled replication is a process common to all cancers facilitated by the summation of changes accumulated as tumors progress. The aim of this study was to examine small groups of genes with known biology in replication and repair at the transcriptional and genomic levels, correlating alterations with survival in uveal melanoma tumor progression. Selected components of Pre-Replication, Pre-Initiation, and Replisome Complexes, DNA Damage Response and Mismatch Repair have been observed.
METHODS: Two groups have been generated for selected genes above and below the average alteration level and compared for expression and survival across The Cancer Genome Atlas uveal melanoma subtypes. Significant differences in expression between subtypes monosomic or disomic for chromosome 3 have been identified by Fisher's exact test. Kaplan Meier survival distribution based on disease specific survival has been compared by Log-rank test.
RESULTS: Genes with significant alteration include MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, CDC45, MCM10, CIZ1, PCNA, FEN1, LIG1, POLD1, POLE, HUS1, CHECK1, ATRIP, MLH3, and MSH6. Exon 4 skipping in CIZ1 previously identified as a cancer variant, and reportedly used as an early serum biomarker in lung cancer was found. Mismatch Repair protein MLH3 was found to have splicing variations with deletions to both Exon 5 and Exon 7 simultaneously. PCNA, FEN1, and LIG1 had increased relative expression levels not due to mutation or to copy number variation.
CONCLUSION: The current study proposes changes in relative and differential expression to replication and repair genes that support the concept their products are causally involved in uveal melanoma. Specific avenues for early biomarker identification and therapeutic approach are suggested.

Xiang S, Chen H, Luo X, et al.
Isoliquiritigenin suppresses human melanoma growth by targeting miR-301b/LRIG1 signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):184 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural flavonoid isolated from the root of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), has shown various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, have been reported as post-transcriptional regulators with altered expression levels in melanoma. This study aims to investigate the anti-melanoma effect of ISL and its potential mechanism.
METHODS: We investigated the effect of ISL on the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cell lines with functional assays, such as CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry. The protein level of apoptosis related genes were measured by western blotting. High-throughput genome sequencing was used for screening differentially expressed miRNAs of melanoma cell lines after the treatment of ISL. We performed functional assays to determine the oncogenic role of miR-301b, the most differentially expressed miRNA, and its target gene leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains 1 (LRIG1), confirmed by bioinformatic analysis, luciferase reporter assay, western blotting and immunohistochemical assay in melanoma. Immunocompromised mouse models were used to determine the role of miR-301b and its target gene in melanoma tumorigenesis in vivo. The relationship between miR-301b and LRIG1 was further verified in GEO data set and tissue specimens.
RESULTS: Functional assays indicated that ISL exerted significant growth inhibition and apoptosis induction on melanoma cells. MiR-301b is the most differentially expressed miRNA after the treatment of ISL and significantly downregulated. The suppressive effect of ISL on cell growth is reversed by ectopic expression of miR-301b. Intratumorally administration of miR-301b angomir enhances the inhibitory effect of ISL on tumor growth in vivo. Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-301b may target LRIG1, miR-301b suppresses the luciferase activity of reporter constructs containing 3'UTR of LRIG1 as well as the expression level of LRIG1. And the anti-cancer effect of ISL is mitigated when LRIG1 is silenced in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of the melanoma samples obtained from patients shows that LRIG1 is negatively correlated with miR-301b.
CONCLUSIONS: ISL may inhibit the proliferation of melanoma cells by suppressing miR-301b and inducing its target LRIG1.

Xiao Q, Dong M, Cheng F, et al.
LRIG2 promotes the proliferation and cell cycle progression of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo through enhancing PDGFRβ signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1069-1082 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The leucine‑rich repeats and immunoglobulin‑like domains (LRIG) gene family, comprising LRIG1, 2 and 3, encodes integral membrane proteins. It has been well established that LRIG1 negatively regulates multiple growth factor signaling pathways and is considered to be a tumor suppressor; however, the biological functions of LRIG2 remain largely unexplored. It was previously demonstrated that LRIG2 positively regulates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, the most common aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which promotes GBM growth. In the present study, the effect of LRIG2 on the proliferation of GBM cells was further addressed, as well as the possible mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect of LRIG2 on platelet‑derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling, another common oncogenic RTK signaling pathway in GBM. First, the expression levels of endogenous LRIG2 and PDGFRβ were found to vary notably in human GBM, and the LRIG2 expression level was positively correlated with the expression level of PDGFRβ. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that LRIG2 promoted the PDGF‑BB‑induced proliferation of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo through regulating the PDGFRβ signaling‑mediated cell cycle progression. Mechanistically, LRIG2 has the ability to physically interact with PDGFRβ, promoting the total expression and the activation of PDGFRβ, and enhancing its downstream signaling pathways of Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and the effectors of key regulators of cell cycle progression, resulting in increased GBM cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicated that LRIG2 may serve as a tumor promoter gene in gliomagenesis by positively regulating PDGFRβ signaling, another important oncogenic RTK signaling pathway, in addition to the previously reported EGFR signaling in GBM modulated by LRIG2, and validated LRIG2 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM characterized by multiple aberrant RTK signaling.

Tang L, Deng L, Bai HX, et al.
Reduced expression of DNA repair genes and chemosensitivity in 1p19q codeleted lower-grade gliomas.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(3):563-571 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs, defined as WHO grades II and III) with 1p19q codeletion have increased chemosensitivity when compared to LGGs without 1p19q codeletion, but the mechanism is currently unknown.
METHODS: RNAseq data from 515 LGG patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed to compare the effect of expression of the 9 DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. Chemosensitivity of cells with DNA repair genes knocked down was tested using MTS cell proliferation assay in HS683 cell line and U251 cell line.
RESULTS: The expression of 9 DNA repair genes on 1p and 19q was significantly lower in 1p19q-codeleted tumors (n = 175) than in tumors without the codeletion (n = 337) (p < 0.001). In LGG patients who received chemotherapy, lower expression of LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH was associated with longer PFS and OS. This difference between chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups in the association of gene expression with survival was not observed in non-DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. MTS assays showed that knockdown of DNA repair genes LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH significantly inhibited recovery in response to temozolomide when compared with control group (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that reduced expression of DNA repair genes on chromosome arms 1p and 19q may account for the increased chemosensitivity of LGGs with 1p19q codeletion.

Fan H, Yuan R, Cheng S, et al.
Overexpressed miR-183 promoted glioblastoma radioresistance via down-regulating LRIG1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:1554-1563 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Therapy based on radiation seemed to effectively, while the radioresistance of several glioblastoma cells abolished the therapy. Thus, to employ the potential mechanism underlying the radioresistance is essential for glioma treatment.
METHODS: Radioresistant cells were constructed using the X-ray radiation. Cell viability and apoptosis were detect using CCK-8 and Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to determine gene expression. Luciferase reporter assay was carried out to detect the relationship between miR-183 and LRIG1. Mice xenotransplant model of glioma was established to detect the role of miR-183 in vivo.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-183 was increased, while LRIG1 was decreased in resistant tissues rather than in sensitive tissues. The expression of LRIG1 was lower in radioresistant gliblastoma cell line U251R rather than in normal glioblastoma cell line U251. Overexpressed miR-183 suppressed cell apoptosis in radioresistance U251R cells (U251R). MiR-183 targets LRIG1 to regulate its expression. U251R cells transfected miR-183 inhibitor promoted the expression of LRIG1, and decreased the expression of EFGR and p-Akt, while U251R cells co-transfected with shRNA-LRIG1 abolished the effects of miR-183 knockdown. U251 cells transfected with miR-183 mimic decreased the expression of LRIG1, and promoted the expression of EFGR and p-Akt, while cells co-transfected with pcDNA-LRIG1 abolished the effects of miR-183 overexpression. In vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-183 inhibitor suppressed tumor growth, while miR-183 mimic promoted tumor growth.
CONCLUSION: MiR-183 overexpression promoted radioresistance of glioblastoma via down-regulating LRIG1 and increasing the activity of EFGR/Akt.

Liu L, Zhang Y, Zhu K, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits glioma cell growth via targeting LRIG1.
J BUON. 2018 Mar-Apr; 23(2):403-409 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on the expression of leucine repeat immunoglobulin-like protein 1 (LRIG1) in glioma cell line U251 and the relationship between LRIG1 and U251 cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to clarify other molecular mechanisms of resveratrol and look for possible new targets for the treatment of this condition.
METHODS: U251 cells were treated with 100μM resveratrol for 48 hrs. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the LRIG1 level in glioma cell line U251 and the expressions of related factors after resveratrol treatment. The loss-of-function assay was performed via transfection of LRIG1 small interference and the proliferation and apoptosis of U251 cells in each group were detected via MTT assay and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of LRIG1 in U251 cells were up-regulated after resveratrol treatment, accompanied with decreased Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation rate was decreased after resveratrol treatment, and flow cytometry showed that cell apoptosis was increased. The loss-of-function assay via transfection of LRIG1 small interference showed that resveratrol could reverse the increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis induced by LRIG1 small interference.
CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol can inhibit the growth and proliferation of glioma and promote its apoptosis through upregulating the LRIG1 gene expression, which plays the effect of antiglioma growth, revealing that LRIG1 is a new biological target of resveratrol in antiglioma cell proliferation and growth.

Torigoe H, Yamamoto H, Sakaguchi M, et al.
Tumor-suppressive effect of LRIG1, a negative regulator of ErbB, in non-small cell lung cancer harboring mutant EGFR.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(5):719-727 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB (HER) family that is known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various human cancers. Mutations of the EGFR gene are commonly found as oncogenic driver mutations and have been targeted for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain protein-1 (LRIG1) is a cell-surface protein that is known as a negative regulator of the ErbB (HER) family. In this study, we first confirmed that the expression levels of LRIG1 were much lower in NSCLC than in non-malignant cells or tissues. Next, we focused on the effect of LRIG1 in NSCLC. For this purpose, we established clones stably overexpressing LRIG1, using EGFR-mutant (HCC827, HCC4011 and NCI-H1975) and wild-type (A549) cells. Transfection of LRIG1 was associated with a decrease in the expression and phosphorylation levels of EGFR in the HCC827, HCC4011 and NCI-H1975 cells. It was also associated with strong suppression of the cell proliferative, invasive, migratory and tumorigenic potential of the HCC827 cells. On the other hand, no such effects were observed in the A549 cells. In addition, LRIG1 also downregulated the expression and phosphorylation levels of other tyrosine kinase receptors, such as HER2, HER3, MET and IGF-1R, and prevented the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in the HCC827 cells. These findings suggest that LRIG1 exerts important tumor-suppressive effects in EGFR-mutant NSCLC and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

Zhou L, Li X, Zhou F, et al.
Downregulation of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 by microRNA-20a modulates gastric cancer multidrug resistance.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(4):1044-1054 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) significantly restricts the clinical efficacy of gastric cancer (GC) chemotherapy, and it is critical to search novel targets to predict and overcome MDR. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) has been proved to be correlated with drug resistance in several cancers. The present study revealed that LRIG1 was overexpressed in chemosensitive GC tissues and decreased expression of LRIG1 predicted poor survival in GC patients. We observed that upregulation of LRIG1 enhanced chemosensitivity in GC cells. Interestingly, miR-20a, which was overexpressed in GC MDR cell lines and tissues, was identified to regulate LRIG1 expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region. We also found that inhibition of miR-20a suppressed GC MDR, and upregulation showed opposite effects. Moreover, we demonstrated that the miR-20a/LRIG1 axis regulated GC cell MDR through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Finally, LRIG1 expression in human GC tissues is inversely correlated with miR-20a and EGFR. Taken together, the newly identified miR-20a/LRIG1/EGFR link provides insight into the MDR process of GC, and targeting this axis represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy to block GC chemoresistance.

Lindquist D, Alsina FC, Herdenberg C, et al.
LRIG1 negatively regulates RET mutants and is downregulated in thyroid cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(4):1189-1197 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are characterized by genomic rearrangements and point mutations in the proto-oncogene RET. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a suppressor of various receptor tyrosine kinases, including RET. LRIG1 expression levels are associated with patient survival in many cancer types. In the present study, we investigated whether the oncogenic RET mutants RET2A (C634R) and RET2B (M918T) were regulated by LRIG1, and the possible effects of LRIG1 expression in thyroid cancer were investigated in three different clinical cohorts and in a RET2B-driven mouse model of MTC. LRIG1 was shown to physically interact with both RET2A and RET2B and to restrict their ligand-independent activation. LRIG1 mRNA levels were downregulated in PTC and MTC compared to normal thyroid gland tissue. There was no apparent association between LRIG1 RNA or protein expression levels and patient survival in the studied cohorts. The transgenic RET2B mice developed pre-cancerous medullary thyroid lesions at a high frequency (36%); however, no overt cancers were observed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-cancerous lesions between Lrig1 wild-type and Lrig1-deficient RET2B mice. In conclusion, the findings that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of RET2A and RET2B and is also downregulated in PTC and MTC may suggest that LRIG1 functions as a thyroid tumor suppressor.

Gassner FJ, Schubert M, Rebhandl S, et al.
Imprecision and DNA Break Repair Biased towards Incompatible End Joining in Leukemia.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(3):428-438 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. In addition, cancer cells can rapidly respond to conventional and targeted therapies by accumulating novel and often specific genetic lesions leading to acquired drug resistance and relapsing disease. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, diverse chromosomal aberrations often occur. In many cases, improper repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is a major source for genomic abnormalities. Therefore, this study examined the repair of DNA DSBs by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in CLL by performing plasmid-based repair assays in primary CLL cells and normal B cells, isolated from patients, as well as TALEN/Cas9-induced chromosomal deletions in the CLL cell line Mec1. It is demonstrated that DNA repair is aberrant in CLL cells, featuring perturbed DNA break structure preference with efficient joining of noncohesive ends and more deletions at repair junctions. In addition, increased microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) of DNA substrates was observed in CLL together with increased expression of MMEJ-specific repair factors. In summary, these data identify major differences in DNA repair efficiency between CLL cells and normal B cells isolated from patients.

Krupa R, Czarny P, Wigner P, et al.
The Relationship Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, the Expression of DNA Damage Response Genes, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Polish Population.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(8):693-708 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to DNA damage caused by oxidative stress products induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or C (HCV) infection and exposure to environmental pollutants. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA damage response (DDR) genes may influence individual susceptibility to environmental risk factors and affect DNA repair efficacy, which, in turn, can influence the risk of HCC. The study evaluates a panel of 15 SNPs in 11 DDR genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, MUTYH, LIG1, LIG3, hOGG1, PARP1, NFIL1, FEN1, and APEX1) in 65 HCC patients, 50 HBV- and 50 HCV-infected non-cancerous patients, and 50 healthy controls. It also estimates the mRNA expression of nine DDR genes in cancerous and adjacent healthy liver tissues. Two of the investigated polymorphisms (rs1052133 and rs13181) were associated with HCC risk. For all investigated genes, the level of mRNA was significantly lower in HCC cancer tissue than in non-cancerous liver tissue. Seven of the investigated polymorphisms were statistically related to gene expression in cancer tissues. The disruption of DDR genes may be responsible for hepatocellular transformation in HCV-infected patients.

Zhang J, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al.
Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 and fascin actin-bundling protein 1 expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016; 12(Supplement):C248-C251 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (LRIG1) and fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (Fascin-1) expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-one NSCLC patients were included in this study. The expression of LRIG1 and Fascin-1 was assayed in the tumor tissue and relative normal lung tissue of the 61 NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between LRIG1, Fascin-1 expression pattern and lung cancer patients' clinical pathology characteristics was evaluated.
RESULTS: The positive expression rate of Fascin-1 in cancer tissue and normal tissue was 70.5% (43/61) and 13.1% (8/61), respectively, which indicated cancer tissue much higher than normal tissue (P < 0.05); for LRIG1, the positive expression rate was 54.1% (33/61) and 82.0% (50/61) for tumor tissue and normal tissue with statistical difference (P < 0.05); Fascin-1-positive expression was associated with tumor diameter (P < 0.05) and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Moreover, LRIG1-positive expression was correlated with pathology type (P < 0.05), clinical stage (P < 0.05), and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: LRIG1 and Fascin-1 were differently expressed in cancer and normal lung tissue in patients with NSCLC, which could be a biomarker for mediastinal lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients.

Malik U, Javed A
LRIGs: A Prognostically Significant Family with Emerging Therapeutic Competence against Cancers.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2017; 17(1):3-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains (LRIG) are evolutionary conserved family of single-pass transmembrane proteins. LRIG gene family includes three members, LRIG1 (formerly LIG1), LRIG2 and LRIG3, all of which are differentially expressed in human tissues and have long been proposed to be tumor suppressors. However, recently accumulated evidence on LRIG protein expression in human cancer appears to be inconsistent with this belief, as LRIG proteins have been found to be upregulated in certain tumors. Moreover, LRIG3 has been shown to act in an opposite manner to LRIG1 and LRIG1, in turn, has been shown to attenuate LRIG3 activity by its proteolytic degradation. These remarkable observations underline and reveal the previously unappreciated complexity of LRIG family dynamics. In the current review, the role of LRIG proteins in various human cancers is summarized and their differential regulation and expression is brought to light in order to understand how these proteins are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Moreover, this is the first compilation that highlights the therapeutic potential of LRIG1 and suggests the same to be undertaken for LRIG2 and LRIG3. By virtue of their potential in prognosis of several cancer types, as well as their role as probable therapeutic proteins or in enhancing the receptiveness of the cancer cells to anti-tumor agents, it is strongly proposed that LRIG analysis should be undertaken and consequently be employed as a part of potential cancer treatment strategies.

Deng ZY, Wang YH, Quan HZ, et al.
Investigation of the association between miR‑181b, Bcl‑2 and LRIG1 in oral verrucous carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(4):2991-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the development of and anti‑apoptotic effects in various types of human cancer. However, miRNA‑mediated regulation of oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR‑181b in OVC and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression levels of miR‑181b were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains 1 (LRIG1), were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between Bcl‑2 and LRIG1 expression was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. The expression levels of miR‑181b and Bcl‑2 in OVC were significantly higher compared with normal mucosal tissue (NM); however, lower compared with the OSCC. The key target of miR‑181b was LRIG1 and it was significantly lower in OVC tissues compared with NM tissue; however this was higher when compared with OSCC tissue. The expression levels of Bcl‑2 were correlated with expression levels of LRIG1 in OVC tissues. Therefore, LRIG1 may be associated with anti‑apoptotic function in OVC tissues.

Cheng SQ, Fan HY, Xu X, et al.
Over-expression of LRIG1 suppresses biological function of pituitary adenoma via attenuation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/Raf/ERK pathways in vivo and in vitro.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016; 36(4):558-563 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are well known as a common intracranial benign tumor, and a portion of PAs are refractory to current therapeutic methods. ErbB receptors family signaling pathway regulates the expression of PAs activation associated gene. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can inhibit proliferation of PAs. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 ( LRIG1), a negative mediated gene of ErbB receptors family, plays a role in many tumors. However, there are seldom researches about the functional role of LRIG1 in PAs. The aim of this study is to explore the potential effect of LRIG1 and its regulating mechanism in PAs. First, we investigated the role of LRIG1 in cell migration, invasion of PAs with transfected LRIG1 or control. Then, we explored its impact on cell proliferation and apoptosis of PAs in vivo. To study the regulating mechanism of LRIG1, we examined the expression of molecular factor of PI3K/AKT and Ras/Raf/ERK pathway using Western blotting in vitro and RT-PCR in vitro and in vivo. It was found that LRIG1 over-expression inhibited cell migration, invasion and proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of PAs in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, LRIG1 suppressed the expression of signaling of PI3K/AKT and Ras/Raf/ERK pathways in PAs. LRIG1, as a negative mediated gene of tumor, can inhibit biological function of PAs via inhibiting PI3K/AKT and Ras/Raf/ERK pathways, and it might be a new target for gene therapy of PAs.

Li D, Li R, Zhang J, et al.
Association Between the LIG1 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of Case-Control Studies.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 73(2):381-387 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one of the pathways used to repair the DNA double-strand breaks. A number of genes involved in NHEJ have been implicated as lung cancer susceptibility genes such as the LIG1. However, some studies have generated conflicting results. The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between the LIG1 gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Studies focusing on the relationship between the LIG1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to lung cancer were selected from several electronic databases, with the last search up to October 25, 2014. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, and the meta-analysis was performed with STATA version 12.0 software, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). According to the inclusion criteria, we included ten studies with a total of 4012 lung cancer cases and 5629 healthy controls in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the rs156641 polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (dominant model: OR 0.694, 95 % CI 0.549-0.878; homozygote model: OR 0.677, 95 % CI 0.526-0.871; heterozygote model: OR 0.712, 95 % CI 0.556-0.913; additive model: OR 0.859, 95 % CI 0.767-0.962), whereas no association was found between rs3730931/rs439132/rs20579 polymorphisms and lung cancer. Our meta-analysis suggested that the rs156641 polymorphism in the LIG1 gene might be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

Jie G, Guozheng X, Ying L, et al.
Expression of LRIG1 in pituitary tumor and its clinical significance.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(10):1969-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of leucine-rich and immunoglobulin-like domain gene1 (LRIG1) in pituitary tumor and its clinical significance.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: hypophysoma group (n = 80) and normal group (normal brain tissue, n = 30). The immune tissue chemical streptavidin avidin-peroxidase was applied to detect the expression of LRIG1 of both groups and to analyze its relationship with the patients' prognosis.
RESULTS: The positive expression rate of LRIG1 in normal brain tissues was significantly higher than that in pituitary adenomas (100% vs. 53.8%) (p < 0.05). The positive expression rate of LRIG1 in pituitary tumors was not significantly related to age and gender, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The positive expression rate of LRIGl in non-invasive pituitary adenomas was higher than that in invasive pituitary tumors (68.4% vs. 21.7%), the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Cox multivariate survival analysis showed that LRIG1 can be used as an independent factor for prognosis evaluation. Meier survival analysis showed that the LRIG1 and pituitary tumor types were significantly associated with the prognosis of patients (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: LRIG1 was involved in the occurrence and development of pituitary tumor, the expression of LRIG1 can be used as an indicator for prognosis evaluation, and low expression indicated a poor prognosis.

Wang X, He XJ, Xu HQ, et al.
Inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to explore the inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1 and its mechanism. For this study, athymic nude mice were injected with either normal pituitary tumor RC-4B/C cells or LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells. We then calculated the volume inhibition rate of the tumors, as well as the apoptosis index of tumor cells and the expression of Ras, Raf, AKt, and ERK mRNA in tumor cells. Tumor cell morphological and structural changes were also observed under electron microscope. Our data showed that subcutaneous tumor growth was slowed or even halted in LRIG1-transfected tumors. The tumor volumes were significantly different between the two groups of mice (χ2 = 2.14, P < 0.05). The tumor apoptosis index was found to be 8.72% in the control group and 39.7% in LRIG1-transfected mice (χ2 = 7.59, P < 0.05). The levels of Ras, Raf, and AKt mRNA in LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells were significantly reduced after transfection (P < 0.01). Transfected subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be in early or late apoptosis under an electron microscope, while only a few subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be undergoing apoptosis in the control group. In conclusion, the LRIG1 gene is able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumors in nude mice. The mechanism of LRIG1 may involve the inhibition of the PI3K/ Akt and Ras/Raf/ERK signal transduction pathways.

Tyagi A, Vishnoi K, Mahata S, et al.
Cervical Cancer Stem Cells Selectively Overexpress HPV Oncoprotein E6 that Controls Stemness and Self-Renewal through Upregulation of HES1.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(16):4170-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Perturbation of keratinocyte differentiation by E6/E7 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses that drive oncogenic transformation of cells in squamocolumnar junction of the uterine cervix may confer "stem-cell like" characteristics. However, the crosstalk between E6/E7 and stem cell signaling during cervical carcinogenesis is not well understood. We therefore examined the role of viral oncoproteins in stem cell signaling and maintenance of stemness in cervical cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Isolation and enrichment of cervical cancer stem-like cells (CaCxSLCs) was done from cervical primary tumors and cancer cell lines by novel sequential gating using a set of functional and phenotypic markers (ABCG2, CD49f, CD71, CD133) in defined conditioned media for assessing sphere formation and expression of self-renewal and stemness markers by FACS, confocal microscopy, and qRT-PCR. Differential expression level and DNA-binding activity of Notch1 and its downstream targets in CaCxSLCs as well as silencing of HPVE6/Hes1 by siRNA was evaluated by gel retardation assay, FACS, immunoblotting, and qRT-PCR followed by in silico and in vivo xenograft analysis.
RESULTS: CaCxSLCs showed spheroid-forming ability, expressed self-renewal and stemness markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lrig1, and CD133, and selectively overexpressed E6 and HES1 transcripts in both cervical primary tumors and cancer cell lines. The enriched CaCxSLCs were highly tumorigenic and did recapitulate primary tumor histology in nude mice. siRNA silencing of HPVE6 or Hes1 abolished sphere formation, downregulated AP-1-STAT3 signaling, and induced redifferentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the possible mechanism by which HPVE6 potentially regulate and maintain stem-like cancer cells through Hes1. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4170-84. ©2016 AACR.

Willis S, Villalobos VM, Gevaert O, et al.
Single Gene Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas.
METHODS: A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer's method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method.
RESULTS: Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82).
CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts.

An Y, Zhao Z, Ou P, Wang G
Expression of LRIG1 is Associated With Good Prognosis for Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(47):e2081 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Somatic mutations, which are associated with a certain rate of response to targeted therapies, are ubiquitously found in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is largely unknown which group of patients may benefit from the respective treatments targeting different somatic mutations. Therefore, more effective prognostic and predictive markers are desperately needed for the treatment of NSCLC harboring different somatic mutations. The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG)-1 is a tumor suppressor gene that belongs to the LRIG family. LRIG1 expression has prognostic significance in various human cancers.In this study, we first used the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of 36 and 182 NSCLC patient tissues to analyze the LRIG1 expression respectively. To investigate the prognostic value of LRIG1 in NSCLC, we examined the correlation between clinical features and overall survival (OS) with Cox proportional hazard regression. We also compared the sensitivity and specificity of LRIG1 in NSCLC prognosis by logistic regression to further evaluate the prognostic efficiency of LRIG1 in NSCLC.We found that the LRIG1 expression was associated with pathological type, differentiation status, and stage of NSCLC. The result showed that LRIG1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS of NSCLC patients. LRIG1 in combination with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than clinicopathological risk factors alone.Thus, the LRIG1 expression potentially offered a significant clinical value in directing personal treatment for NSCLC patients.

Yokdang N, Hatakeyama J, Wald JH, et al.
LRIG1 opposes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits invasion of basal-like breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(22):2932-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
LRIG1 (leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain containing), a member of the LRIG family of transmembrane leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, is a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and a tumor suppressor. LRIG1 expression is broadly decreased in human cancer and in breast cancer and low expression of LRIG1 has been linked to decreased relapse-free survival. Recently, low expression of LRIG1 was revealed to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer metastasis and death. These findings suggest that LRIG1 may oppose breast cancer cell motility and invasion, cellular processes that are fundamental to metastasis. However, very little is known of LRIG1 function in this regard. In this study, we demonstrate that LRIG1 is downregulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that LRIG1 expression may represent a barrier to EMT. Indeed, depletion of endogenous LRIG1 in human mammary epithelial cells expands the stem cell population, augments mammosphere formation and accelerates EMT. Conversely, expression of LRIG1 in highly invasive Basal B breast cancer cells provokes a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition accompanied by a dramatic suppression of tumorsphere formation and a striking loss of invasive growth in three-dimensional culture. LRIG1 expression perturbs multiple signaling pathways and represses markers and effectors of the mesenchymal state. Furthermore, LRIG1 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly slows their growth as tumors, providing the first in vivo evidence that LRIG1 functions as a growth suppressor in breast cancer.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. LRIG1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999