Gene Summary

Gene:NAV1; neuron navigator 1
Summary:This gene belongs to the neuron navigator family and is expressed predominantly in the nervous system. The encoded protein contains coiled-coil domains and a conserved AAA domain characteristic for ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities. This gene is similar to unc-53, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene involved in axon guidance. The exact function of this gene is not known, but it is thought to play a role in in neuronal development and regeneration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:neuron navigator 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • Tumor Markers
  • Newborns
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Twins
  • NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Movement
  • NAV1.6 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • siRNA
  • Young Adult
  • Transcription
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Chromosome 1
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter
  • NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Messenger RNA
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Breast Cancer
  • Sodium Channels
  • Apoptosis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Tetrodotoxin
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NAV1 (cancer-related)

Xing D, Wang J, Ou S, et al.
Expression of neonatal Nav1.5 in human brain astrocytoma and its effect on proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of astrocytoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2692-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we designed and conducted a series of assays to determine the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) neonatal isoform Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) in human brain astrocytoma and its effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of astrocytoma U251 cells. The results showed that nNav1.5 mRNA and protein were expressed in both human brain astrocytoma and normal brain tissues, but their expression levels in astrocytoma were significantly higher (P<0.05). In astrocytomas, nNav1.5 mRNA and protein levels were also different (P<0.05) and were correlated with pathological grades. The immunofluorescence confocal microscopy observations demonstrated that nNav1.5 protein was expressed in the nucleus, cytoplasm and membrane of the astrocytoma cells. After transfection, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to nNav1.5 significantly reduced the expression levels of SCN5A/nNav1.5 mRNA and protein by 57.2% (P<0.05) and 66.6% (P<0.05), respectively. The MTT, wound healing, Matrigel invasion and flow cytometric assays confirmed that following siRNA downregulation of the expression of the SCN5A/nNav1.5 gene, the in vitro proliferation and in vitro invasiveness of the U251 cells were significantly reduced (P<0.05 for both comparisons), and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (P<0.05). These results revealed that nNav1.5 expression in human brain astrocytoma was upregulated, and its expression was positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. Additionally, reduced nNav1.5 expression significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasiveness of astrocytoma cells, indicating a new target in the molecular diagnosis and therapy of astrocytoma.

Morrison CD, Liu P, Woloszynska-Read A, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(6):E672-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as "stitchers," to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication-licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer.

Dulong C, Fang YJ, Gest C, et al.
The small GTPase RhoA regulates the expression and function of the sodium channel Nav1.5 in breast cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(2):539-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are highly expressed in several types of carcinomas including breast, prostate and lung cancers as well as in mesothelioma and cervical cancers. Although the VGSCs activity is considered crucial for the potentiation of cancer cell migration and invasion, the mechanisms responsible for their functional expression and regulation in cancer cells remain unclear. In the present study, the role of the small GTPase RhoA in the regulation of expression and function of the Nav1.5 channel in the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 was investigated. RhoA silencing significantly reduced both Nav1.5 channel expression and sodium current indicating that RhoA exerts a stimulatory effect on the synthesis of an active form of Nav1.5 channel in cancer cells. The inhibition of Nav1.5 expression dramatically reduced both cell invasion and proliferation. In addition, a decrease of RhoA protein levels induced by Nav1.5 silencing was observed. Altogether, these findings revealed: i) the key role of the small GTPase RhoA in upregulation of Nav1.5 channel expression and tumor aggressiveness, and ii) the existence of a positive feedback of Nav1.5 channels on RhoA protein levels.

Bird EV, Christmas CR, Loescher AR, et al.
Correlation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channel expression with neuropathic pain in human subjects with lingual nerve neuromas.
Mol Pain. 2013; 9:52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are expressed preferentially in small diameter sensory neurons, and are thought to play a role in the generation of ectopic activity in neuronal cell bodies and/or their axons following peripheral nerve injury. The expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 has been quantified in human lingual nerves that have been previously injured inadvertently during lower third molar removal, and any correlation between the expression of these ion channels and the presence or absence of dysaesthesia investigated.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical processing and quantitative image analysis revealed that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed in human lingual nerve neuromas from patients with or without symptoms of dysaesthesia. The level of Nav1.8 expression was significantly higher in patients reporting pain compared with no pain, and a significant positive correlation was observed between levels of Nav1.8 expression and VAS scores for the symptom of tingling. No significant differences were recorded in the level of expression of Nav1.9 between patients with or without pain.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are present in human lingual nerve neuromas, with significant correlations between the level of expression of Nav1.8 and symptoms of pain. These data provide further evidence that changes in expression of Nav1.8 are important in the development and/or maintenance of nerve injury-induced pain, and suggest that Nav1.8 may be a potential therapeutic target.

Campbell TM, Main MJ, Fitzgerald EM
Functional expression of the voltage-gated Na⁺-channel Nav1.7 is necessary for EGF-mediated invasion in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 21):4939-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various ion channels are expressed in human cancers where they are intimately involved in proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Expression of functional voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) is implicated in the metastatic potential of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms that regulate Nav expression in cancer remain largely unknown. Growth factors are attractive candidates; they not only play crucial roles in cancer progression but are also key regulators of ion channel expression and activity in non-cancerous cells. Here, we examine the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling and Nav in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. We show unequivocally, that functional expression of the α subunit Nav1.7 promotes invasion in H460 NSCLC cells. Inhibition of Nav1.7 activity (using tetrodotoxin) or expression (by using small interfering RNA), reduces H460 cell invasion by up to 50%. Crucially, non-invasive wild type A549 cells lack functional Nav, whereas exogenous overexpression of the Nav1.7 α subunit is sufficient to promote TTX-sensitive invasion of these cells. EGF/EGFR signalling enhances proliferation, migration and invasion of H460 cells but we find that, specifically, EGFR-mediated upregulation of Nav1.7 is necessary for invasive behaviour in these cells. Examination of Nav1.7 expression at mRNA, protein and functional levels further reveals that EGF/EGFR signalling via the ERK1/2 pathway controls transcriptional regulation of channel expression to promote cellular invasion. Immunohistochemistry of patient biopsies confirms the clinical relevance of Nav1.7 expression in NSCLC. Thus, Nav1.7 has significant potential as a new target for therapeutic intervention and/or as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in NSCLC.

Harris RA, Nagy-Szakal D, Kellermayer R
Human metastable epiallele candidates link to common disorders.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(2):157-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastable epialleles (MEs) are mammalian genomic loci where epigenetic patterning occurs before gastrulation in a stochastic fashion leading to systematic interindividual variation within one species. Importantly, periconceptual nutritional influences may modulate the establishment of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation at MEs. Based on these characteristics, we exploited Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip kits in a 2-tissue parallel screen on peripheral blood leukocyte and colonic mucosal DNA from 10 children without identifiable large intestinal disease. This approach led to the delineation of 1776 CpG sites meeting our criteria for MEs, which associated with 1013 genes. The list of ME candidates exhibited overlaps with recently identified human genes (including CYP2E1 and MGMT, where methylation has been associated with Parkinson disease and glioblastoma, respectively) in which perinatal DNA methylation levels where linked to maternal periconceptual nutrition. One hundred 18 (11.6%) of the ME candidates overlapped with genes where DNA methylation correlated (r > 0.871; p < 0.055) with expression in the colon mucosa of 5 independent control children. Genes involved in homophilic cell adhesion (including cadherin-associated genes) and developmental processes were significantly overrepresented in association with MEs. Additional filtering of gene expression-correlated MEs defined 35 genes, associated with 2 or more CpG sites within a 10 kb genomic region, fulfilling the ME criteria. DNA methylation changes at a number of these genes have been linked to various forms of human disease, including cancers, such as asthma and acute myeloid leukemia (ALOX12), gastric cancer (EBF3), breast cancer (NAV1), colon cancer and acute lymphoid leukemia (KCNK15), Wilms tumor (protocadherin gene cluster; PCDHAs) and colorectal cancer (TCERG1L), suggesting a potential etiologic role for MEs in tumorigenesis and underscoring the possible developmental origins of these malignancies. The presented compendium of ME candidates may accelerate our understanding of the epigenetic origins of common human disorders.

Altarescu G, Beeri R, Eldar-Geva T, et al.
PGD for germline mosaicism.
Reprod Biomed Online. 2012; 25(4):390-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to develop and perform a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) assay discriminating between wild-type and mutant alleles in two families with germline mosaicism. Family 1 had two children affected with severe myoclonic epilepsy (SCNA1A del exons 1-22). Family 2 had two children with tuberous sclerosis (TSC2 C1327T) and two healthy children. Neither mutation was detected in genomic DNA derived from the parents in either family. Informative microsatellite markers flanking SCNA1A and TSC2 along with the identified mutations were used to construct haplotypes. For tuberous sclerosis, single spermatozoa were analysed using a multiplex assay that included six informative markers and the TSC2 mutation. In family 1, deletion in the maternal allele was detected in the affected child. In family 2, both affected children and one healthy child shared the same paternal allele. To confirm mutant paternal transmission, single spermatozoa were analysed for the mutation along with six markers. Of 44 single spermatozoa, four showed the mutant T allele, allowing linkage between the mutation and the genetic markers. Both families delivered healthy children following IVF/PGD. In conclusion, germline mosaicism complicates allele assignment when constructing haplotypes for PGD. Sperm analysis is a useful tool for verifying allelic linkage.

Mohseny AB, Cai Y, Kuijjer M, et al.
The activities of Smad and Gli mediated signalling pathways in high-grade conventional osteosarcoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(18):3429-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade conventional osteosarcoma is a malignant tumour predominantly affecting adolescents and, despite multimodal intensive therapy, lethal for one third of the patients. Although there is currently detailed knowledge of normal skeletal development, this has not been integrated into research on the genesis of osteosarcoma. Recently we showed that the canonical Wnt pathway is not active in osteosarcoma and that its reactivation is disadvantageous to osteosarcoma cells. Since Wnt is regulating normal skeletogenesis together with other pathways, here we report on the activities of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and the hedgehog (Hh) pathways in osteosarcoma. Human osteosarcoma samples (n=210), benign bone tumours of osteoblastic lineage called osteoblastoma (n=25) and osteosarcoma cell lines (n=19) were examined. For pathway activity luciferase transcriptional reporter assays and gene and protein expression analyses were performed. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated Smad1 and Smad2, the intracellular effectors of BMP and TGFβ, respectively, showed nuclear expression of both proteins in 70% of the osteosarcoma samples at levels comparable to osteoblastoma. Interestingly cases with lower expression showed significantly worse disease free survival. This may imply that drugs restoring impaired signalling pathways in osteosarcoma might change the tumour's aggressive clinical course, however targeted pathway modulation in vitro did not affect cell proliferation.

Shiferaw K, Lobrinus AJ, Grabherr S, et al.
One case, 3 rare simultaneous findings: intramyocardial bronchogenic cyst, P.H558R variant of SCN5A gene, and granular cell tumor of the esophagus.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2012; 33(4):335-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the sudden death of a 42-year-old white man. The decedent was a healthy young man with a short clinical history of chest pain, fatigue, dizziness, and pyrosis. Two weeks before his death, he underwent medical evaluation for the aforementioned symptoms. Electrocardiogram, chest x-ray, and serum troponin were all within normal limits. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was suspected, and the decedent was treated with omeprazole. Medicolegal autopsy disclosed an incidental intramyocardial bronchogenic cyst and p.H558R variant of the SCN5A gene. The cyst was located between the epicardium and myocardium of the posterior face of the left superior ventricular wall, adjacent to the base of the heart. An incidental granular cell tumor of the esophagus was also identified, which was likely unrelated to death.

Kim HG, Kim HT, Leach NT, et al.
Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies.
Am J Hum Genet. 2012; 91(1):56-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS) is a contiguous gene disorder due to the interstitial deletion of band p11.2 of chromosome 11 and is characterized by multiple exostoses, parietal foramina, intellectual disability (ID), and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Despite the identification of individual genes responsible for multiple exostoses and parietal foramina in PSS, the identity of the gene(s) associated with the ID and CFA phenotypes has remained elusive. Through characterization of independent subjects with balanced translocations and supportive comparative deletion mapping of PSS subjects, we have uncovered evidence that the ID and CFA phenotypes are both caused by haploinsufficiency of a single gene, PHF21A, at 11p11.2. PHF21A encodes a plant homeodomain finger protein whose murine and zebrafish orthologs are both expressed in a manner consistent with a function in neurofacial and craniofacial development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional regulation. Our finding that disruption of PHF21A by translocations in the PSS region is associated with ID adds to the growing list of ID-associated genes that emphasize the critical role of transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling in normal brain development and cognitive function.

Hernandez-Plata E, Ortiz CS, Marquina-Castillo B, et al.
Overexpression of NaV 1.6 channels is associated with the invasion capacity of human cervical cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(9):2013-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional activity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) has been associated to the invasion and metastasis behaviors of prostate, breast and some other types of cancer. We previously reported the functional expression of VGSC in primary cultures and biopsies derived from cervical cancer (CaC). Here, we investigate the relative expression levels of VGSC subunits and its possible role in CaC. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Na(V) 1.6 α-subunit in CaC samples were ∼40-fold higher than in noncancerous cervical (NCC) biopsies. A Na(V) 1.7 α-subunit variant also showed increased mRNA levels in CaC (∼20-fold). All four Na(V) β subunits were also detected in CaC samples, being Na(V) β1 the most abundant. Proteins of Na(V) 1.6 and Na(V) 1.7 α-subunits were immunolocalized in both NCC and CaC biopsies and in CaC primary cultures as well; however, although in NCC sections proteins were mainly relegated to the plasma membrane, in CaC biopsies and primary cultures the respective signal was stronger and widely distributed in both cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Functional activity of Na(V) 1.6 channels in the plasma membrane of CaC cells was confirmed by whole-cell patch-clamp experiments using Cn2, a Na(V) 1.6-specific toxin, which blocked ∼30% of the total sodium current. Blocking of sodium channels VGSC with tetrodotoxin and Cn2 did not affect proliferation neither migration, but reduced by ∼20% the invasiveness of CaC primary culture cells in vitro assays. We conclude that Na(V) 1.6 is upregulated in CaC and could serve as a novel molecular marker for the metastatic behavior of this carcinoma.

Martín Del Valle F, Díaz Negrillo A, Ares Mateos G, et al.
Panayiotopoulos syndrome: probable genetic origin, but not in SCN1A.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2011; 15(2):155-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Panayiotopoulos syndrome is encompassed in the classification of the ILAE in idiopathic focal epilepsies. Mutations in the SCN1A gene have been associated with the development of this syndrome. We present two cases of Panayiotopoulos syndrome in two monozygotic twins, who underwent a molecular analysis of SCN1A, but no alteration was found. These cases suggest a genetic origin, and SCN1A appears to be associated with the outcome but not with the development of this syndrome.

Li L, Lee KM, Han W, et al.
Estrogen and progesterone receptor status affect genome-wide DNA methylation profile in breast cancer.
Hum Mol Genet. 2010; 19(21):4273-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification that occurs at the early stages of carcinogenesis. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to evaluate whether the DNA methylation state is different in the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer. Twelve ER+/PR+ and 12 ER-/PR- breast cancer tissues were selected from the biorepository of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study for Infinium Methylation Assay. The difference of the DNA methylation state of 27 578 methylation sites in 14 000 genes between two groups was evaluated by Student's t-test. False discovery rate (FDR) was estimated to evaluate the probability of false positive associations. Of the 27 578 sites, 148 sites (0.54%) were significantly different between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- breast cancers (P < 0.001); 93 hypermethylated and 55 hypomethylated. Five genes, FAM124B (P = 7.26 × 10(-7)), MANEAL (P = 3.38 × 10(-7)), ST6GALNAC1 (P = 2.85 × 10(-6)), NAV1 (P = 5.94 × 10(-6)) and PER1 (P = 6.45 × 10(-6)) remained significant after correction for multiple tests (FDR < 0.05). In a subsequent replication study for five genes, four of the five genes were validated; FAM124B and ST6GALNAC1 were significantly hypermethylated, and NAV1 and PER1 were significantly hypomethylated in ER+/PR+ breast cancers (P < 0.05). In the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling according to the receptor status of breast cancer, we found that ER/PR status affects the DNA methylation state of FAM124B, ST6GALNAC1, NAV1 and PER1 in breast cancer.

House CD, Vaske CJ, Schwartz AM, et al.
Voltage-gated Na+ channel SCN5A is a key regulator of a gene transcriptional network that controls colon cancer invasion.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(17):6957-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) have been implicated in the metastatic potential of human breast, prostate, and lung cancer cells. Specifically, the SCN5A gene encoding the VGSC isotype Na(v)1.5 has been defined as a key driver of human cancer cell invasion. In this study, we examined the expression and function of VGSCs in a panel of colon cancer cell lines by electrophysiologic recordings. Na(+) channel activity and invasive potential were inhibited pharmacologically by tetrodotoxin or genetically by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) specifically targeting SCN5A. Clinical relevance was established by immunohistochemistry of patient biopsies, with strong Na(v)1.5 protein staining found in colon cancer specimens but little to no staining in matched-paired normal colon tissues. We explored the mechanism of VGSC-mediated invasive potential on the basis of reported links between VGSC activity and gene expression in excitable cells. Probabilistic modeling of loss-of-function screens and microarray data established an unequivocal role of VGSC SCN5A as a high level regulator of a colon cancer invasion network, involving genes that encompass Wnt signaling, cell migration, ectoderm development, response to biotic stimulus, steroid metabolic process, and cell cycle control. siRNA-mediated knockdown of predicted downstream network components caused a loss of invasive behavior, demonstrating network connectivity and its function in driving colon cancer invasion.

Clerc RG, Stauffer A, Weibel F, et al.
Mechanisms underlying off-target effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib involve L-type calcium channels.
J Hypertens. 2010; 28(8):1676-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The increased mortality observed with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib is partly due to increased aldosterone production and blood pressure. The mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated.
METHODS: Cytochrome P450 subunit 11B2 (aldosterone synthase), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p44/42) and voltage-gated Cachannel alpha subunit mRNA profiling, aldosterone production, cytosolic calcium and RNA interference were assessed in adrenocarcinoma human cells (H295R). Telemetry was conducted in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
RESULTS: Torcetrapib and angiotensin II (Ang II) but not dalcetrapib (a structurally different cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor) elevated both cytochrome P450 subunit 11B2 mRNA and aldosterone production in H295R cells at 6 h. At days 1-5, torcetrapib produced a sustained increase of cytochrome P450 subunit 11B2 mRNA, unlike Ang II. Although torcetrapib and Ang II potentiated the effect of 25-OH cholesterol and raised pregnenolone levels, torcetrapib increased neither cytosolic Ca at 5 min nor extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting initially divergent pathways. Unlike Ang II, torcetrapib steroidogenesis was not affected by Ang II type 1 receptor antagonism or voltage-gated T-type Ca channel antagonism, but was blocked by several L-type Cachannel antagonists. In unbiased genome-wide screening, Ang II and torcetrapib modulated an overlapping but distinct set of genes in H295R cells. Torcetrapib, but not Ang II, upregulated mRNA levels of the L-type Ca channel alpha 1C subunit. In spontaneously hypertensive rat, torcetrapib had a potent hypertensive effect mediated by the L-type Ca channel.
CONCLUSION: The unique steroidogenic and hypertensive side effects of torcetrapib may be linked and involve voltage-gated L-type Ca channels. Structurally unrelated cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors such as dalcetrapib do not share this effect.

Gao R, Shen Y, Cai J, et al.
Expression of voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit in human ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(5):1293-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) play important roles in the development and progression of many cancers. We report the possible roles of VGSC in human ovarian cancer. Relative mRNA expression levels of Nav1.1, Nav1.3, Nav1.4 and Nav1.5, analyzed by RT-PCR, were significantly higher in ovarian cancers cells compared with normal ovarian tissues; relative mRNA expression levels of Nav1.2, Nav1.4, Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 were significantly increased in highly metastatic ovarian cancer cells (Caov-3 and SKOV-3) compared with low-metastatic ovarian cancer cells (Anglne). Treatment of 30 microM tetrodotoxin reduced by 50-60% migration and invasion of Caov-3 and SKOV-3 without affecting proliferation. Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assays revealed that functional expression levels of Nav1.5 might be correlated with the grade and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Our findings suggested that abnormal expression of Nav1.5 could be an integral component of the metastatic process in human ovarian cancer and might serve as a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer treatment.

Chioni AM, Shao D, Grose R, Djamgoz MB
Protein kinase A and regulation of neonatal Nav1.5 expression in human breast cancer cells: activity-dependent positive feedback and cellular migration.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010; 42(2):346-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are expressed in excitable cells (e.g. neurons and muscles), as well as in some classically 'non-excitable' cells (e.g. fibroblasts), and in carcinomas. In general, functional expression of VGSCs in plasma membrane (PM) is hierarchical and dynamic. Previously, we have shown that an activity-dependent positive feedback mechanism involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) plays a significant role in upregulation of VGSCs in strongly metastatic rat prostate cancer Mat-LyLu cells expressing Nav1.7. Here, we investigated the possible role of PKA in VGSC regulation and its functional consequences in strongly metastatic human breast cancer (BCa) MDA-MB-231 cells, where the neonatal splice form of Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) is the predominant VGSC present. Treatment with the PKA activator forskolin for 24h increased mRNA and PM protein levels of nNav1.5, without changing the total VGSC protein level. Opposite effects were obtained by application of the PKA inhibitor KT5720 or the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), the latter implying activity-dependent upregulation. We tested the possibility, therefore, that the activity dependence of VGSC (nNav1.5) expression involved PKA. Indeed, TTX pretreatment reduced the level of phosphorylated PKA and eliminated basal and PKA-stimulated cellular migration. These data suggested that activity-dependent positive feedback mediated by PKA plays an important role in the functional expression of nNav1.5 in BCa, and in turn, this enhances the cells' metastatic potential.

Onkal R, Djamgoz MB
Molecular pharmacology of voltage-gated sodium channel expression in metastatic disease: clinical potential of neonatal Nav1.5 in breast cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2009; 625(1-3):206-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
A variety of ion channels have been detected in cancer cells. In particular, upregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) has been associated pathophysiologically with several strongly metastatic carcinomas. This review emphasises breast cancer. Inhibiting VGSC activity in a number of independent ways, using the highly selective tetrodotoxin (TTX), gene silencing and a blocking polyclonal antibody, suppressed a range of cellular behaviors, especially directional motility and invasion, integral to the metastatic cascade. Conversely, transfecting a VGSC into a weakly invasive human prostate cancer cell line significantly increased invasiveness. In vivo, also, VGSC expression has been correlated positively with metastatic status. It has been suggested, therefore (i) that VGSC upregulation is an early event in metastatic progression and (ii) that VGSC expression is a 'switch,' necessary and sufficient for engaging cancer cells in a highly invasive state. Importantly, where studied, mainly prostate and breast cancers, the dominant VGSC (Nav1.7 and Nav1.5, respectively) was found to be an embryonic/neonatal splice variant, consistent with the gene expression being "oncofoetal." In breast cancer, the molecular difference between the adult and neonatal isoforms of the VGSC/Nav1.5 is largest (31 base pairs, generating 7 amino acid differences). We propose that neonatal Nav1.5 is a novel marker with significant clinical potential for management of metastatic breast cancer and describe a number of approaches which may enable tumour-specific targeting. These include various small-molecule drugs, small-interfering RNA, monoclonal antibody and natural neurotoxins.

Zhang T, Yong SL, Drinko JK, et al.
LQTS mutation N1325S in cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis and contractile dysfunction in mice.
Int J Cardiol. 2011; 147(2):239-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A cause long QT syndrome (LQTS). We previously generated an LQTS mouse model (TG-NS) that overexpresses the LQTS mutation N1325S in SCN5A. The TG-NS mice manifested the clinical features of LQTS including spontaneous VT, syncope and sudden death. However, the long-term prognosis of LQTS on the structure of the heart has not been investigated in this or any other LQTS models and human patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Impaired systolic function and reduced left ventricular fractional shortening were detected by echocardiography, morphological and histological examination in two lines of adult mutant transgenic mice. Histological and TUNEL analyses of heart sections revealed fibrosis lesions and increased apoptosis in an age-dependent manner. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was associated with the increased activation of caspases 3 and 9 in TG-NS hearts. Western blot analysis showed a significantly increased expression of the key Ca(2+) handling proteins L-type Ca(2+) channel, RYR2 and NCX in TG-NS hearts. Increased apoptosis and an altered expression of Ca(2+) handling proteins could be detected as early as 3months of age when echocardiography showed little or no alterations in TG-NS mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed for the first time that the LQTS mutation N1325S in SCN5A causes cardiac fibrosis and contractile dysfunction in mice, possibly through cellular mechanisms involving aberrant cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Therefore, we provide the experimental evidence supporting the notion that some LQTS patients have an increased risk of structural and functional cardiac damage in a prolonged disease course.

Carrithers MD, Chatterjee G, Carrithers LM, et al.
Regulation of podosome formation in macrophages by a splice variant of the sodium channel SCN8A.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(12):8114-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate electrical signaling in excitable cells such as muscle and neurons. They also are expressed in non-excitable cells such as macrophages and neoplastic cells. Previously, in macrophages, we demonstrated expression of SCN8A, the gene that encodes the channel NaV1.6, and intracellular localization of NaV1.6 to regions near F-actin bundles, particularly at areas of cell attachment. Here we show that a splice variant of NaV1.6 regulates cellular invasion through its effects on podosome and invadopodia formation in macrophages and melanoma cells. cDNA sequence analysis of SCN8A from THP-1 cells, a human monocyte-macrophage cell line, confirmed the expression of a full-length splice variant that lacks exon 18. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated NaV1.6-positive staining within the electron dense podosome rosette structure. Pharmacologic antagonism with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in differentiated THP-1 cells or absence of functional NaV1.6 through a naturally occurring mutation (med) in mouse peritoneal macrophages inhibited podosome formation. Agonist-mediated activation of the channel with veratridine caused release of sodium from cationic vesicular compartments, uptake by mitochondria, and mitochondrial calcium release through the Na/Ca exchanger. Invasion by differentiated THP-1 and HTB-66 cells, an invasive melanoma cell line, through extracellular matrix was inhibited by TTX. THP-1 invasion also was inhibited by small hairpin RNA knockdown of SCN8A. These results demonstrate that a variant of NaV1.6 participates in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation and suggest that intracellular sodium release mediated by NaV1.6 may regulate cellular invasion of macrophages and melanoma cells.

Diss JK, Calissano M, Gascoyne D, et al.
Identification and characterization of the promoter region of the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel gene (SCN9A).
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008; 37(3):537-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Nav1.7 sodium channel plays an important role in pain and is also upregulated in prostate cancer. To investigate the mechanisms regulating physiological and pathophysiological Nav1.7 expression we identified the core promoter of this gene (SCN9A) in the human genome. In silico genomic analysis revealed a putative SCN9A 5' non-coding exon approximately 64,000 nucleotides from the translation start site, expression of which commenced at three very closely-positioned transcription initiation sites (TISs), as determined by 5' RACE experiments. The genomic region around these TISs possesses numerous core elements of a TATA-less promoter within a well-defined CpG island. Importantly, it acted as a promoter when inserted upstream of luciferase in a fusion construct. Moreover, the activity of the promoter-luciferase construct ostensibly paralleled endogenous Nav1.7 mRNA levels in vitro, with both increased in a quantitatively and qualitatively similar manner by numerous factors (including NGF, phorbol esters, retinoic acid, and Brn-3a transcription factor over-expression).

Uysal-Onganer P, Djamgoz MB
Epidermal growth factor potentiates in vitro metastatic behaviour of human prostate cancer PC-3M cells: involvement of voltage-gated sodium channel.
Mol Cancer. 2007; 6:76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although a high level of functional voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) expression has been found in strongly metastatic human and rat prostate cancer (PCa) cells, the mechanism(s) responsible for the upregulation is unknown. The concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF), a modulator of ion channels, in the body is highest in prostatic fluid. Thus, EGF could be involved in the VGSC upregulation in PCa. The effects of EGF on VGSC expression in the highly metastatic human PCa PC-3M cell line, which was shown previously to express both functional VGSCs and EGF receptors, were investigated. A quantitative approach, from gene level to cell behaviour, was used. mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blots and immunocytochemistry and digital image analysis. Functional assays involved measurements of transverse migration, endocytic membrane activity and Matrigel invasion.
RESULTS: Exogenous EGF enhanced the cells' in vitro metastatic behaviours (migration, endocytosis and invasion). Endogenous EGF had a similar involvement. EGF increased VGSC Nav1.7 (predominant isoform in PCa) mRNA and protein expressions. Co-application of the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) suppressed the effect of EGF on all three metastatic cell behaviours studied.
CONCLUSION: 1) EGF has a major involvement in the upregulation of functional VGSC expression in human PCa PC-3M cells. (2) VGSC activity has a significant intermediary role in potentiating effect of EGF in human PCa.

Diaz D, Delgadillo DM, Hernández-Gallegos E, et al.
Functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary cultures of human cervical cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2007; 210(2):469-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer (CaC) is the third most frequent cause of death from cancer among women in the world and the first in females of developing countries. Several ion channels are upregulated in cancer, actually potassium channels have been suggested as tumor markers and therapeutic targets for CaC. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) activity is involved in proliferation, motility, and invasion of prostate and breast cancer cells; however, the participation of this type of channels in CaC has not been explored. In the present study, we identified both at the molecular and electrophysiological level VGSC in primary cultures from human cervical carcinoma biopsies. With the whole cell patch clamp technique, we isolated and identified a voltage-gated Na(+) current as the main component of the inward current in all investigated cells. Sodium current was characterized by its kinetics, voltage dependence, sensitivity to tetrodotoxin (TTX) block and dependence to [Na(+)](o). By analyzing the expression of mRNAs encoding TTX-sensitive Na(+) channel alpha subunits with standard RT-PCR and specific primers, we detected Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, Na(v)1.6, and Na(v)1.7 transcripts in total RNA obtained from primary cultures and biopsies of CaC. Restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products was consistent with the molecular nature of the corresponding genes. Notably, only transcripts for Na(v)1.4 sodium channels were detected in biopsies from normal cervix. The results show for the first time the functional expression of VGSC in primary cultures from human CaC, and suggest that these channels might be considered as potential molecular markers for this type of cancer.

Isbilen B, Fraser SP, Djamgoz MB
Docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3) blocks voltage-gated sodium channel activity and migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006; 38(12):2173-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to play an important role in cancer prevention/progression, on the one hand, and in modulation of membrane ion channels on the other. We investigated whether docosahexaenoic acid would influence the in vitro migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. An important follow-up question was whether any effect would involve voltage-gated Na(+) channels, shown previously to occur in human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and to correlate with metastatic potential. Short-term (acute) and long-term (24-72 h) application of docosahexaenoic acid suppressed the activity of the channel activity in a dose-dependent manner. At the working concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid used (0.05-0.5 microM), there was no effect on proliferation. Long-term treatment with docosahexaenoic acid down-regulated mRNA and protein (total and plasma membrane) levels of neonatal Nav1.5 voltage-gated Na(+) channel, known to be predominant in these cells. Docosahexaenoic acid suppressed migration of the MDA-MB-231 cells to the same extent as tetrodotoxin, a highly specific blocker of voltage-gated Na(+) channels, but the two effects were not additive. It was concluded that the docosahexaenoic acid-induced suppression of cellular migration occurred primarily via down-regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel (neonatal Nav1.5) mRNA and functional protein expression.

Fulgenzi G, Graciotti L, Faronato M, et al.
Human neoplastic mesothelial cells express voltage-gated sodium channels involved in cell motility.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006; 38(7):1146-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Given the pivotal role of ion channels in neoplastic transformation, the aim of the present study has been to assess possible differences in the expression patterns of voltage-gated monovalent cationic (Na(+) and K(+)) currents between normal and neoplastic mesothelial cells (NM, MPM, respectively), and to evaluate the role of specific ion channels in mesothelioma cells proliferation, apoptosis, and motility. To achieve this aim, membrane currents expressed in NM and MPM cells derived from surgically-removed human specimens were investigated by means of patch-clamp electrophysiology. NM cells were found to express three main classes of K(+) currents, which were defined as K(IR), maxiK(Ca), and K(V) currents on the basis of their biophysical and pharmacological properties. Each of these K(+) currents was absent in MPM cells; by contrast, MPM cells revealed the novel appearance of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated Na(+) currents undetected in normal mesothelial cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR analysis of MPM cells transcripts showed significant expression of the mRNAs encoding for Na(V)1.2, and Na(V)1.6, and Na(V)1.7 (and less so for Na(V)1.3, Na(V)1.4, and Na(V)1.5) main voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) alpha-subunit(s). Interestingly, blockade of VGSCs with TTX decreased mesothelioma cell migration in in vitro motility assays; on the other hand, TTX failed to interfere with cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis progression triggered by UV exposure. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that VGSCs expression in MPM cells may favor the increased motility of the neoplastic cells, a phenotypic feature often associated with the malignant phenotype.

Diss JK, Faulkes DJ, Walker MM, et al.
Brn-3a neuronal transcription factor functional expression in human prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006; 9(1):83-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine differentiation has been associated with prostate cancer (CaP). Brn-3a (short isoform) and Brn-3c, transcriptional controllers of neuronal differentiation, were readily detectable in human CaP both in vitro and in vivo. Brn-3a expression, but not Brn-3c, was significantly upregulated in >50% of tumours. Furthermore, overexpression of this transcription factor in vitro (i) potentiated CaP cell growth and (ii) regulated the expression of a neuronal gene, the Nav1.7 sodium channel, concomitantly upregulated in human CaP, in an isoform-specific manner. It is concluded that targeting Brn-3a could be a useful strategy for controlling the expression of multiple genes that promote CaP.

Ou SW, Kameyama A, Hao LY, et al.
Tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channels in human neuroblastoma cells are encoded by new variants of Nav1.5/SCN5A.
Eur J Neurosci. 2005; 22(4):793-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) voltage-dependent Na+ channels are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line NB-1, but a gene encoding the TTX-R Na+ channel has not been identified. In this study, we have cloned cDNA encoding the alpha subunit of the TTX-R Na+ channel in NB-1 cells and designated it hNbR1. The longest open reading frame of hNbR1 (accession no. AB158469) encodes 2016 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis has indicated that hNbR1 is highly homologous with human cardiac Nav1.5/SCN5A with > 99% amino acid identity. The presence of a cysteine residue (Cys373) in the pore-loop region of domain I is consistent with the supposition that hNbR1 is resistant to TTX. Analysis of the genomic sequence of SCN5A revealed a new exon encoding S3 and S4 of domain I (exon 6A). In addition, an alternative splicing variant, lacking exon 18, that encodes 54 amino acids in the intracellular loop between domains II and III was found (hNbR1-2; accession no. AB158470). Na+ currents in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected with hNbR1 or hNbR1-2 showed electrophysiological properties similar to those for TTX-R I(Na) in NB-1 cells. The IC50 for the TTX block was approximately 8 microM in both variants. These results suggest that SCN5A has a newly identified exon for alternative splicing and is more widely expressed than previously thought.

Diss JK, Stewart D, Pani F, et al.
A potential novel marker for human prostate cancer: voltage-gated sodium channel expression in vivo.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005; 8(3):266-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunits (VGSCalphas), specifically Nav1.7, is associated with strong metastatic potential in prostate cancer (CaP) in vitro. Furthermore, VGSC activity in vitro directly potentiates processes integral to metastasis. To investigate VGSCalpha expression in CaP in vivo, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed on human prostate biopsies (n>20). VGSCalpha immunostaining was evident in prostatic tissues and markedly stronger in CaP vs non-CaP patients. Importantly, RT-PCRs identified Nav1.7 as the VGSCalpha most strikingly upregulated (approximately 20-fold) in CaP, and the resultant receiver-operating characteristics curve demonstrated high diagnostic efficacy for the disease. It is concluded that VGSCalpha expression increases significantly in CaP in vivo and that Nav1.7 is a potential functional diagnostic marker.

Fraser SP, Diss JK, Chioni AM, et al.
Voltage-gated sodium channel expression and potentiation of human breast cancer metastasis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(15):5381-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ion channel activity is involved in several basic cellular behaviors that are integral to metastasis (e.g., proliferation, motility, secretion, and invasion), although their contribution to cancer progression has largely been ignored. The purpose of this study was to investigate voltage-gated Na(+) channel (VGSC) expression and its possible role in human breast cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Functional VGSC expression was investigated in human breast cancer cell lines by patch clamp recording. The contribution of VGSC activity to directional motility, endocytosis, and invasion was evaluated by in vitro assays. Subsequent identification of the VGSC alpha-subunit(s) expressed in vitro was achieved using reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot techniques and used to investigate VGSCalpha expression and its association with metastasis in vivo.
RESULTS: VGSC expression was significantly up-regulated in metastatic human breast cancer cells and tissues, and VGSC activity potentiated cellular directional motility, endocytosis, and invasion. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that Na(v)1.5, in its newly identified "neonatal" splice form, was specifically associated with strong metastatic potential in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. An antibody specific for this form confirmed up-regulation of neonatal Na(v)1.5 protein in breast cancer cells and tissues. Furthermore, a strong correlation was found between neonatal Na(v)1.5 expression and clinically assessed lymph node metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of neonatal Na(v)1.5 occurs as an integral part of the metastatic process in human breast cancer and could serve both as a novel marker of the metastatic phenotype and a therapeutic target.

John VH, Main MJ, Powell AJ, et al.
Heterologous expression and functional analysis of rat Nav1.8 (SNS) voltage-gated sodium channels in the dorsal root ganglion neuroblastoma cell line ND7-23.
Neuropharmacology. 2004; 46(3):425-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8 (SNS, PN3) is thought to be a molecular correlate of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tetrodotoxin resistant (TTX-R) Na+ current. TTX-R/NaV1.8 is an attractive therapeutic drug target for inflammatory and neuropathic pain on the basis of its specific distribution in sensory neurones and its modulation by inflammatory mediators. However, detailed analysis of recombinant NaV1.8 has been hampered by difficulties in stably expressing the functional protein in mammalian cells. Here, we show stable expression and functional analysis of rat NaV1.8 (rNaV1.8) in the rat DRG/mouse N18Tg2 neuroblastoma hybridoma cell line ND7-23. Rat NaV1.8 Na+ currents were recorded (789 +/- 89 pA, n=62, over 20-cell passages) that qualitatively resembled DRG TTX-R in terms of gating kinetics and voltage-dependence of activation and inactivation. The local anaesthetic drug tetracaine produced tonic inhibition of rNaV1.8 (mean IC50 value 12.5 microM) and in repeated gating paradigms (2-10 Hz) also showed frequency-dependent block. There was a correlation between the ability of several analogues of the anticonvulsant/analgesic compound lamotrigine to inhibit TTX-R and rNaV1.8 (r=0.72, P<0.001). RT-PCR analysis of wild type ND7-23 cells revealed endogenous expression of the beta1 and beta3 accessory Na+ channel subunits-the possibility that the presence of these subunits assists and stabilises expression of rNaV1.8 is discussed. We conclude that the neuroblastoma ND7-23 cell line is a suitable heterologous expression system for rNaV1.8 Na+ channels in that it allows stable expression of a channel with biophysical properties that closely resemble the native TTX-R currents in DRG neurones. This reagent will prove useful in the search for pharmacological inhibitors of rNaV1.8 as novel analgesics.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. NAV1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 06 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999