PLA2G4A

Gene Summary

Gene:PLA2G4A; phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)
Aliases: PLA2G4, cPLA2-alpha
Location:1q25
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytosolic phospholipase A2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PLA2G4A (cancer-related)

Wang T, Goodman MA, McGough RL, et al.
Immunohistochemical analysis of expressions of RB1, CDK4, HSP90, cPLA2G4A, and CHMP2B is helpful in distinction between myxofibrosarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2014; 22(7):589-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role and diagnostic efficacy of gene and protein products RB1, CDK4, CHMP2B, HSP90, and cPLA2G4A, all previously shown to be involved in tumor genesis and cell proliferation, were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 32 cases of myxofibrosarcomas and 29 myxoid liposarcomas (all diagnosis had been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization). HSP90 demonstrated strong nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity in all myxoid liposarcoma cases, while only 4 myxofibrosarcomas showed scattered HSP90 positivity. All but 4 cases of myxofibrosarcoma displayed strong positivity for cPLA2G4A, while only 2 myxoid liposarcoma cases were cPLA2G4A positive and both were CHMP2B negative. Overexpression of both cPLA2G4A and CHMP2B also suggested higher tumor grade. In conclusion, HSP90 and cPLA2G4A immunohistochemical stains are useful markers to distinguish myxofibrosarcoma from myxoid liposarcoma.

Jo M, Yun HM, Park KR, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of thiacremonone through down regulation of peroxiredoxin 6.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thiacremonone (2, 4-dihydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-thiophene-3-one) is an antioxidant substance as a novel sulfur compound generated from High-Temperature-High-Pressure-treated garlic. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a member of peroxidases, and has glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. Several studies have demonstrated that PRDX6 stimulates lung cancer cell growth via an increase of glutathione peroxidase activity. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that thiacremonone completely fits on the active site (cys-47) of glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 and interacts with PRDX6. Thus, we investigated whether thiacremonone inhibits cell growth by blocking glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 in the human lung cancer cells, A549 and NCI-H460. Thiacremonone (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decrease of xIAP, cIAP and Bcl2 expression. Thiacremonone further inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity in lung cancer cells. However, the cell growth inhibitory effect of thiacremonone was not observed in the lung cancer cells transfected with mutant PRDX6 (C47S) and in the presence of dithiothreitol and glutathione. In an allograft in vivo model, thiacremonone (30 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression and glutathione peroxidase activity, but increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53. These data indicate that thiacremonone inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity of PRDX6 through interaction. These data suggest that thiacremonone may have potentially beneficial effects in lung cancer.

Zhu C, Sun Z, Li C, et al.
Urocortin affects migration of hepatic cancer cell lines via differential regulation of cPLA2 and iPLA2.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(5):1125-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urocortin (UCN) is a member of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which has been reported to play a role in many biological processes, including inflammation and cancer development. Growing evidence shows that PLA2 (phospholipase A2) enzymes also participate in inflammation and tumor development. The primary aim of the present study was to identify a novel signaling pathway of CRF receptor activation leading to migration of two kinds of hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC-7721, linking the stimulation of PLA2 expression by UCN to UCN-induced tumor cell migration. Pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches (such as stable transfection and siRNAs) were used in this study. Unlike HepG2 cells which express both CRF receptors themselves, SMMC-7721 cells which hardly express these two CRF receptors needed stable transfection with CRFR1 or CRFR2 to observe the effect of UCN. Two types of PLA2 enzymes, cPLA2 and iPLA2, were found to be regulated by UCN. Our data showed that UCN raised cPLA2 expression but lowered iPLA2 expression. Moreover, UCN was found to act on the certain region of iPLA2 promoter to reduce its transcription. UCN promoted tumor cell migration by up-regulating cPLA2 expression via CRFR1 whereas it suppressed tumor cell migration by down-regulating iPLA2 expression via CRFR2. These results indicate the dual roles for UCN in the hepatoma carcinoma cell migration, which involve the regulation of both cPLA2and iPLA2.

Yun HM, Park KR, Lee HP, et al.
PRDX6 promotes lung tumor progression via its GPx and iPLA2 activities.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2014; 69:367-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRDX6 is a bifunctional protein with both glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities, which are concomitantly increased with the expression of PRDX6. PRDX6 promoted lung tumor growth in an in vivo allograft model. Herein, we further studied the vital roles in tumor progression of PRDX6 in lung cancer using nude mice bearing PRDX6-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Nude mice xenografted with PRDX6 showed increases in tumor size and weight compared to control mice. Histopathological and Western blotting examination demonstrated that expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and cyclin-dependent kinases accompanied by increased iPLA2 and GPx activities were increased in the tumor tissues of PRDX6-overexpressing nude mice. In tumor tissues of PRDX6-overexpressing mice, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and AP-1 DNA binding were also increased. The growth of lung cancer cell lines (A549 and NCI-H460) was enhanced by the increase in iPLA2 and GPx activities of PRDX6. In addition, mutant PRDX6 (C47S) attenuated PRDX6-mediated p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 activities as well as its enzyme activities in the A549 and NCI-H460 lines. Furthermore, tumor growth and p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 activities were also inhibited in nude mice bearing mutant PRDX6 (C47S) compared to PRDX6. Therefore, our findings indicate that PRDX6 promotes lung tumor growth via increased glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities.

Huang CF, Zhang L, Ma SR, et al.
Clinical significance of Keap1 and Nrf2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83479 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oxidative stress has been reported to play an important role in progression and prognostication in various kinds of cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of oxidative stress markers Keap1 and Nrf2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of oxidative stress markers Keap1 and Nrf2 expression and pathological features in OSCC by using tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 17 normal oral mucosa, 7 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. The association among these proteins and pathological features were analyzed. Expression of oxidative stress markers Keap1, Nrf2, and antioxidants PPIA, Prdx6, as well as CD147 was found to increase consecutively from normal oral mucosa to OSCC, and the Keap1, Nrf2, PPIA, Prdx6, CD147 expression in OSCC were significantly higher when compared to normal oral mucosa. Expression of Keap1, Nrf2 in tumors was not found to be significantly associated with T category, lymph node metastases, and pathological grade. Furthermore, we checked the relationship among these oxidative stress markers and found that Keap1 was significantly correlated with Nrf2, Prdx6 and CD147. Significant relationship between Nrf2 and Prdx6 was also detected. Finally, we found patients with overexpression of Keap1 and Nrf2 had not significantly worse overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. These findings suggest that ROS markers are associated with carcinogenesis and progression of OSCC, which may have prognostic value and could be regarded as potential therapeutic targets in OSCC.

Poczobutt JM, Gijon M, Amin J, et al.
Eicosanoid profiling in an orthotopic model of lung cancer progression by mass spectrometry demonstrates selective production of leukotrienes by inflammatory cells of the microenvironment.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid(1) (AA), which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO) and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a) were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME), but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids.

Chanthammachat P, Promwikorn W, Pruegsanusak K, et al.
Comparative proteomic analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissue from Thailand.
Arch Oral Biol. 2013; 58(11):1677-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at analysing and identifying the proteins that are differentially expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to adjacent non-tumour tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional (2D) sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis accompanied by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) was used to analyse and identify the differentially expressed proteins in 10 pairs of tumours and adjacent non-tumour tissues from five cases of early-stage and five cases of late-stage OSCC. The statistical differences of the protein spots were analysed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A validation study using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 68 proteins (63 up-regulated, five down-regulated) were differentially expressed in early-stage disease, and 39 proteins (37 up-regulated, two down-regulated) were significantly altered in late-stage disease. Among these, 14 proteins were altered in both groups. A total of 44 proteins were identified, including heat shock proteins (HSPs: Hsp90, HSPA5 and HSPA8), keratins (K1, K6A and K17), tubulin, cofilin 1, 14-3-3σ and metabolic enzymes. These proteins are involved in various cellular processes essential for cell growth, survival and cell migration. The validation study on α-tubulin and 14-3-3σ using immunohistochemistry and KIAA1199 expression using real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results in proteomics analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The study identified many proteins, both known and unknown, for cancer cell processes. At least two proteins, KIAA1199 and Horf6, are novel for oral cancer.

Pirman DA, Efuet E, Ding XP, et al.
Changes in cancer cell metabolism revealed by direct sample analysis with MALDI mass spectrometry.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61379 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biomarker discovery using mass spectrometry (MS) has recently seen a significant increase in applications, mainly driven by the rapidly advancing field of metabolomics. Instrumental and data handling advancements have allowed for untargeted metabolite analyses which simultaneously interrogate multiple biochemical pathways to elucidate disease phenotypes and therapeutic mechanisms. Although most MS-based metabolomic approaches are coupled with liquid chromatography, a few recently published studies used matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI), allowing for rapid and direct sample analysis with minimal sample preparation. We and others have reported that prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), derived from COX-2 metabolism of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), inhibited the proliferation of human lung, colon and pancreatic cancer cells. However, how PGE3 metabolism is regulated in cancer cells, particularly human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, is not fully understood. Here, we successfully used MALDI to identify differences in lipid metabolism between two human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, A549 and H596, which could contribute to their differential response to EPA treatment. Analysis by MALDI-MS showed that the level of EPA incorporated into phospholipids in H596 cells was 4-fold higher than A549 cells. Intriguingly, H596 cells produced much less PGE3 than A549 cells even though the expression of COX-2 was similar in these two cell lines. This appears to be due to the relatively lower expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in H596 cells than that of A549 cells. Additionally, the MALDI-MS approach was successfully used on tumor tissue extracts from a K-ras transgenic mouse model of lung cancer to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of EPA in the in vivo model. These results highlight the utility of combining a metabolomics workflow with MALDI-MS to identify the biomarkers that may regulate the metabolism of omega-3 fatty acids and ultimately affect their therapeutic potentials.

Rolfs F, Huber M, Gruber F, et al.
Dual role of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 in skin carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(11):3460-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a key regulator of the cellular redox balance, particularly under stress conditions. We identified Prdx6 as an important player in different phases of skin carcinogenesis. Loss of Prdx6 in mice enhanced the susceptibility to skin tumorigenesis, whereas overexpression of Prdx6 in keratinocytes of transgenic mice had the opposite effect. The tumor-preventive effect of Prdx6, which was observed in a human papilloma virus 8-induced and a chemically induced tumor model, was not due to alterations in keratinocyte proliferation, apoptosis, or in the inflammatory response. Rather, endogenous and overexpressed Prdx6 reduced oxidative stress as reflected by the lower levels of oxidized phospholipids in the protumorigenic skin of Prdx6 transgenic mice and the higher levels in Prdx6-knockout mice than in control animals. In contrast to its beneficial effect in tumor prevention, overexpression of Prdx6 led to an acceleration of malignant progression of existing tumors, revealing a dual function of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Finally, we found strong expression of PRDX6 in keratinocytes of normal human skin and in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinomas, indicating a role of Prdx6 in human skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data point to the potential usefulness of Prdx6 activators or inhibitors for controlling different stages of skin carcinogenesis.

Hua S, Yao M, Vignarajan S, et al.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α sustains pAKT, pERK and AR levels in PTEN-null/mutated prostate cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1831(6):1146-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) is a common feature of cancer caused by genetic alteration in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene and is associated with poor prognosis. This study determined the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and androgen receptor (AR) signaling in PTEN-null/mutated prostate cancer cells. Doxycycline (Dox)-induced expression of cPLA2α led to an increase in pAKT, pGSK3β and cyclin D1 levels in LNCaP cells that possess a PTEN frame-shift mutation. In contrast, silencing cPLA2α expression with siRNA decreased pAKT, pGSK3β and cyclin D1 levels in both PC-3 (PTEN deletion) and LNCaP cells. Silencing of cPLA2α decreased pERK and AR protein levels. The inhibitory effect of cPLA2α siRNA on pAKT and AR protein levels was reduced by the addition of arachidonic acid (AA), whereas the stimulatory effect of AA on pAKT, pERK and AR levels was decreased by an inhibitor of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. Pharmacological blockade of cPLA2α with Efipladib reduced pAKT and AR levels with a concomitant inhibition of PC-3 and LNCaP cell proliferation. These results demonstrate an important role for cPLA2α in sustaining AKT, ERK and AR signaling in PTEN-null/mutated prostate cancer cells and provide a potential molecular target for treating prostate cancer.

Seibold P, Hall P, Schoof N, et al.
Polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes and mortality in breast cancer patients--potential differential effects by radiotherapy?
Breast. 2013; 22(5):817-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis.

Gosenca D, Gabriel U, Steidler A, et al.
HERV-E-mediated modulation of PLA2G4A transcription in urothelial carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49341 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and related elements account for more than 8% of the human genome and significantly contribute to the human transcriptome by long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter activity. In this context, HERVs are thought to intervene in the expression of adjacent genes by providing regulatory sequences (cis-effect) or via noncoding RNA including natural antisense transcripts. To address the potential impact of HERV activity in urothelial carcinoma, we comparatively analyzed the HERV transcription profiles in paired samples of non-malignant urothelium and urothelial carcinoma derived from 13 patients with bladder cancer by means of a retrovirus-specific microarray (RetroArray). We established a characteristic HERV signature consisting of six ubiquitously active HERV subgroups (E4-1, HERV-Rb, ERV9, HERV-K-T47D, NMWV3, HERV-KC4). The transcription pattern is largely identical in human urothelial carcinoma, non-malignant urothelial tissue, four tumor-derived cell lines and in a non-malignant urothelial cell line (UROtsa). Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of HERV-E4-1, HERV-K(HML-6) and HERV-T(S71-TK1) revealed a bias to lower HERV activity in carcinoma samples compared to non-malignant tissue. Determination of active HERV-E4-1 loci by cloning and sequencing revealed six HERV-E4-1 proviral loci that are differentially regulated in urothelial carcinoma cells and normal tissue. Two full-length HERV-E4-1 proviruses, HERV-Ec1 and HERV-Ec6, are located in antisense orientation in introns of the genes PLA2G4A and RNGTT, respectively. PLA2G4A encodes a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that is dysregulated in many human tumors. PLA2G4A and HERV-Ec1 displayed reciprocal transcript levels in 7 of 11 urothelial carcinoma patients. Moreover, reciprocal shifts were observed after treatment of UROtsa cells with HERV-Ec1 and PLA2G4A-directed siRNAs or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza-dC) pointing to an antagonistic regulation of PLA2G4A and HERV-Ec1 transcription in human urothelial cells. We suggest that transcription of HERV-Ec1 contributes to fine tuning of cPLA2 expression, thereby facilitating tumorigenesis.

Kalinina EV, Berezov TT, Shtil' AA, et al.
Expression of peroxiredoxin 1, 2, 3, and 6 genes in cancer cells during drug resistance formation.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012; 153(6):878-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the expression of peroxiredoxin genes (PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, and PRDX6) in human erythroleukemia K652, human breast carcinoma MCF-7, and human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells during cisplatin resistance development. It was found that drug resistance formation was accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, PRDX6 genes in all cancer cell strains, which confirms the important contribution of redox-dependent mechanisms into the development of cisplatin resistance of cancer cells.

Roller DG, Axelrod M, Capaldo BJ, et al.
Synthetic lethal screening with small-molecule inhibitors provides a pathway to rational combination therapies for melanoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11(11):2505-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent data show that extracellular signals are transmitted through a network of proteins rather than hierarchical signaling pathways, suggesting that the inhibition of a single component of a canonical pathway is insufficient for the treatment of cancer. The biologic outcome of signaling through a network is inherently more robust and resistant to inhibition of a single network component. In this study, we conducted a functional chemical genetic screen to identify novel interactions between signaling inhibitors that would not be predicted on the basis of our current understanding of signaling networks. We screened over 300 drug combinations in nine melanoma cell lines and have identified pairs of compounds that show synergistic cytotoxicity. The synergistic cytotoxicities identified did not correlate with the known RAS and BRAF mutational status of the melanoma cell lines. Among the most robust results was synergy between sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor with activity against RAF, and diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Drug substitution experiments using the NSAIDs celecoxib and ibuprofen or the MAP-ERK kinase inhibitor PD325901 and the RAF inhibitor RAF265 suggest that inhibition of COX and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling are targets for the synergistic cytotoxicity of sorafenib and diclofenac. Cotreatment with sorafenib and diclofenac interrupts a positive feedback signaling loop involving extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cellular phospholipase A2, and COX. Genome-wide expression profiling shows synergy-specific downregulation of survival-related genes. This study has uncovered novel functional drug combinations and suggests that the underlying signaling networks that control responses to targeted agents can vary substantially, depending on unexplored components of the cell genotype.

Huang WS, Kuo YH, Chin CC, et al.
Proteomic analysis of the effects of baicalein on colorectal cancer cells.
Proteomics. 2012; 12(6):810-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Baicalein is the flavonoids with multiple pharmacological activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of baicalein on colorectal cancer (CRC) and to recognize the targets of baicalein treatment. To better understand baicalein's target, proteomic approaches were used to purify and identify the protein substrates using 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) to elucidate proteins differential display. Results from this study investigate that baicalein treatment of CRC cells results in reduced cell proliferation. As a result, differential protein displays between baicalein-treated and untreated CRC were determined and validated. There were 11 differentially expressed proteins between baicalein-treated and untreated CRC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that baicalein inhibits cancer cell proliferation and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up-regulating the levels of peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6). Knockdown of PRDX6 in baicalein-treated CRC cells by specific small interfering RNA resulted in ROS production and proliferation, opposite of the baicalein treatment scenario as indicated by cell cycle distribution. These results illustrate that baicalein up-regulates the expression of PRDX6, which attenuates the generation of ROS and inhibits the growth of CRC cells, whereas baicalein treatment have no effect on normal epithelial cells.

Yu Y, Zhang M, Pan Y, et al.
PLA2G4A mutants modified protective effect of tea consumption against colorectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012; 27(8):1005-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to respectively evaluate PLA2G4A mutants modifying protective effect of tea consumption against colorectal cancer (CRC), colon and rectal cancer.
METHODS: All participants were recruited from January 2006 to April 2008. The information about tea consumption was collected by a structured questionnaire. CRC patients were diagnosed based on histology. Four single-nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4A gene were selected. Multiple logistic regression models were used for assessing the joint effects between tea consumption and SNPs on CRC, colon and rectal cancer.
RESULTS: Three hundred patients with CRC and 296 controls well-matched were used in the final analyses. The significant individual associations between four SNPs (rs6666834, rs10911933, rs4650708 and rs7526089) and CRC were not observed. However, their CTAC haplotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of CRC (OR = 3.06; 95%CI = 1.52-6.19), compared with TCAC haplotype. Drinking tea was correlated with a decreased risk of CRC after adjustment for covariates (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.39-0.97). Meanwhile, compared with no-tea drinkers with TT/CT genotype of rs6666834, tea drinkers with TT/CT or CC had significant lower risk of CRC (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.36-1.00 for TT/CT; 0.38, 0.19-0.74 for CC). The joint effects between the remaining three SNPs and drinking tea on CRC were observed as well. Similar findings were observed on colon and rectal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Tea consumption and haplotype of mutants in PLA2G4A gene were respectively associated with the risk of CRC. PLA2G4A mutants modified the protective effect of tea consumption against CRC, colon and rectal cancers in Chinese population.

Zhang B, Wang K, He G, et al.
Polymorphisms of peroxiredoxin 1, 2 and 6 are not associated with esophageal cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(4):621-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Peroxiredoxins, which reduced intracellular peroxides as a noval kind of antioxidant protein, were extensively expressed in various types of cancers and were thought as a biomarker of cancer cells. In this work, we performed genotyping analyses for tag SNP of Prdx 1, 2 and 6, and then evaluated the association with susceptibility and clinic stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a case-control study.
METHODS: The protein level of these Prdx isoforms in ESCC cancer samples was evaluated by Western blot. Then 356 ESCC cancer cases and 315 controls were genotyped by SNPshot assay. Differences in frequencies of the genotypes of the SNPs variant between the cases and controls were evaluated by using the chi-square test.
RESULTS: Our result of Western blot confirmed the aberrant expression of Prdx 1, 2 and 6 in ESCC samples, which was coincident with other studies. After genotyping by SNPshot assay, the result showed that the allele and genotype frequencies did not differ between the patients and controls. And no association between the polymorphism and the progression of ESCC including tumor grade and stage was found.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that polymorphisms of Prdx 1, 2 and 6 were not associated with esophageal cancer.

Liao WL, Wang WC, Chang WC, Tseng JT
The RNA-binding protein HuR stabilizes cytosolic phospholipase A2α mRNA under interleukin-1β treatment in non-small cell lung cancer A549 Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(41):35499-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α) plays an important role in initiating the inflammatory response. The regulation of cPLA(2)α mRNA turnover has been proposed to control cPLA(2)α gene expression under cytokine and growth factor stimulation. However, the detailed mechanism is still unknown. In this report, we have demonstrated that the cPLA(2)α mRNA stability was increased under IL-1β treatment in A549 cells. By using EMSAs, HuR was identified as binding with the cPLA(2)α mRNA 3'-UTR, and the binding region was located at nucleotides 2716-2807, a fragment containing AUUUA flanked by U-rich sequences. IL-1β treatment enhanced the association of cPLA(2)α mRNA with cytosolic HuR. The reduction of HuR expression by RNA interference technology inhibited IL-1β-induced cPLA(2)α mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, blocking the p38 MAPK signaling pathway with SB203580 abolished the effect of IL-1β-induced cPLA(2)α gene expression. Phosphorylation at residue Thr-118 of HuR is crucial in regulating the interaction between HuR and its target mRNAs. Mutation of HuR Thr-118 reduced the association between HuR and cPLA(2)α mRNA under IL-1β treatment. This inhibitory effect was also observed in binding with COX-2 mRNA. This result indicated that p38 MAPK-mediated Thr-118 phosphorylation may play a key role in regulating the interaction of HuR with its target mRNAs in inflammation.

Tian G, Wang X, Zhang F, et al.
Downregulation of cPLA2γ expression inhibits EGF-induced chemotaxis of human breast cancer cells through Akt pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011; 409(3):506-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phospholipids play an important role in mediating cell migration. In the present study, we investigated the role of cPLA(2)γ in chemotaxis of human breast cancer cells. Inhibition of cPLA(2)γ expression by small interference RNA severely inhibits EGF-induced chemotaxis in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-30 cells. Furthermore, silencing cPLA(2)γ expression also impaired directional migration, adhesion and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which cPLA(2)γ regulated migration. Knockdown of cPLA(2)γ suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt at both Thr308 and Ser473. Phosphorylation of PKCζ, downstream of Akt, was also dampened. Knockdown of cPLA(2)γ also impaired the phosphorylation of integrin β1 and cofilin, key regulators of cell adhesion and actin polymerization, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that cPLA(2)γ plays an important role in cancer cell chemotaxis.

Caiazza F, McCarthy NS, Young L, et al.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2-α expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.
Br J Cancer. 2011; 104(2):338-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)α expression correlated with EGFR/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines.
METHODS: The importance of differential cPLA(2)α activity in clinical breast cancer was established by relating the expression of cPLA(2)α in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, and two microarray-based gene expression datasets to different clinicopathological and therapeutic parameters.
RESULTS: High cPLA(2)α mRNA expression correlated with clinical parameters of poor prognosis, which are characteristic of highly invasive tumours of the HER2-positive and basal-like subtype, including low oestrogen receptor expression and high EGFR expression. High cPLA(2)α expression decreased overall survival in patients with luminal cancers, and correlated with a reduced effect of tamoxifen treatment. The cPLA(2)α expression was an independent predictive parameter of poor response to endocrine therapy in the first 5 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: This study shows a role of cPLA(2)α in luminal breast cancer progression, in which the enzyme could represent a novel therapeutic target and a predictive marker.

Sokolowska M, Stefanska J, Wodz-Naskiewicz K, Pawliczak R
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IVA influence on GM-CSF expression in human lung cells: a pilot study.
Med Sci Monit. 2010; 16(9):BR300-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an important mediator in the differentiation, maturation, and survival of inflammatory cells. It might play a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV A (cPLA2alpha) is able to activate gene expression, through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma response elements (PPRE). In the promoter regions of GM-CSF gene (CSF2), we have found potential PPRE. The goal of the current study was to investigate the influence of cPLA2 overexpression and activation on CSF2 gene expression in human lung cells.
MATERIAL/METHODS: Subconfluent A549 cells were transfected with GM-CSF reporter gene and cPLA2alpha overexpression vector. Transfected cells were treated with or without calcium ionophore, A23187, or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Cell lysates were collected and assayed for dual luciferase activity. Some cultures were preincubated with a potent cPLA2alpha inhibitor, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP); a secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor, thioetheramide-PC; a calcium-independent phospholipase A2 inhibitor, bromoenol lactone (BEL); or vehicle. After preincubation, cells were treated with A23187. Expression of GM-CSF messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction mRNA quantification.
RESULTS: Overexpression of cPLA2alpha or activation of endogenous cPLA2alpha by calcium ionophore or EGF caused a significant increase in GM-CSF relative luciferase activity. Calcium ionophore significantly increased GM-CSF mRNA in A549 human lung cells. These effects were at least in part inhibited by MAFP treatment, but not by BEL or thioetheramide-PC.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data might suggest an influence of cPLA2alpha on GM-CSF gene expression in human lung cells, which could play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

Moestue SA, Borgan E, Huuse EM, et al.
Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:433 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood.
METHODS: The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer.
RESULTS: In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The differences in choline metabolite concentrations corresponded well with differences in gene expression, demonstrating distinct metabolic profiles in the xenograft models representing basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer. The same characteristics of choline metabolite profiles were also observed in patient material from ER+/PgR+ and triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that the xenografts are relevant model systems for studies of choline metabolism in luminal-like and basal-like breast cancer.

Lim SC, Cho H, Lee TB, et al.
Impacts of cytosolic phospholipase A2, 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions on tumor progression in colorectal cancer.
Yonsei Med J. 2010; 51(5):692-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which is related to prostaglandin E2 synthesis, other enzymes such as cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), and 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) have been suggested to be related to carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of cPLA2, COX-2, mPGES-1, and 15-PGDH in tumor progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: cPLA2, COX-2, mPGES-1, 15-PGDH, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions were immunohistochemically examined in 89 CRC, and their expressions were compared with each other or clinicopathologic parameters as well as VEGF as tumor progression parameters.
RESULTS: cPLA2 was expressed in 54.5%, COX-2 in 80.5%, mPGES-1 in 96.4%, 15-PGDH in 46.1%, and VEGF in 65.9%. The expression of cPLA2 correlated with VEGF expression. COX-2 expression was correlated with the depth of invasion, tumor stage, cPLA2, and VEGF expressions. Moreover, VEGF revealed the highest expression in the tissues positive for both cPLA2 and COX-2. Furthermore, 15-PGDH expression was inversely correlated with VEGF expression.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that cPLA2 and mPGES-1, in addition to COX-2, are constitutively overexpressed, and that 15-PGDH might be attenuated in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, cPLA2 and 15-PGDH as well as COX-2 could have an important role in tumor progression.

Niknami M, Vignarajan S, Yao M, et al.
Decrease in expression or activity of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha increases cyclooxygenase-1 action: A cross-talk between key enzymes in arachidonic acid pathway in prostate cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1801(7):731-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The eicosanoid pathway is activated in many types of cancers including prostate. Eicosanoids are synthesized from intracellular arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from membrane glycerophospholipids mainly by the action of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha). Thus, targeting cPLA(2)alpha has been proposed as a treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cPLA(2)alpha inhibition on cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and PGE(2) production. Inhibition of cPLA(2)alpha expression by siRNA or activity by Efipladib in prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and LNCaP) led to an increase in COX-1 protein and PGE(2) levels in a dose-dependent manner from 24 to 72 h. The COX-2 response was less evident. Efipladib treatment increased COX-1 promoter transcriptional activity without changing the rate of COX-1 protein degradation. Treatment with Efipladib also led to a decrease in most LOX products (HETEs) as measured by LC/MS/MS. Replenishing 5- and 12-HETEs abolished Efipladib-induced COX-1 and PGE(2) levels. Decreasing 5- and 12-HETE production, as a result of treating cells with inhibitors MK886 and Baicalein, respectively, mimicked the effect of Efipladib on COX-1 and PGE(2) levels. Hence, the mechanism underlying the cPLA(2)alpha inhibition-induced COX-1 is likely due to a decrease in LOX products, which may exert a negative feedback on COX-1 gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Considering that PGE(2) is a potent promoter of cancer cell proliferation and survival, understanding the mechanism coupling cPLA(2)alpha with COX-1 is of potential clinical significance.

Caiazza F, Harvey BJ, Thomas W
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation correlates with HER2 overexpression and mediates estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell growth.
Mol Endocrinol. 2010; 24(5):953-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane glycerol-phospholipids to release arachidonic acid as the first step of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. This pathway contributes to proliferation in breast cancer, and numerous studies have demonstrated a crucial role of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E(2) release in breast cancer progression. The role of cPLA(2)alpha activation is less clear, and we recently showed that 17beta-estradiol (E2) can rapidly activate cPLA(2)alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Overexpression or gene amplification of HER2 is found in approximately 30% of breast cancer patients and correlates with a poor clinical outcome and resistance to endocrine therapy. This study reports the first evidence for a correlation between cPLA(2)alpha enzymatic activity and overexpression of the HER2 receptor. The activation of cPLA(2)alpha in response to E2 treatment was biphasic with the first phase dependent on trans-activation through the matrix metalloproteinase-dependent release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor. EGFR/HER2 heterodimerization resulted in downstream signaling through the ERK1/2 cascade to promote cPLA(2)alpha phosphorylation at Ser505. There was a correlation between HER2 and cPLA(2)alpha expression in six breast cancer cell lines examined, and inhibition of HER2 activation or expression in the SKBR3 cell line using herceptin or HER2-specific small interfering RNA, respectively, resulted in decreased activation and expression of cPLA(2)alpha. Pharmacological blockade of cPLA(2)alpha using a specific antagonist suppressed the growth of both MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells by reducing E2-induced proliferation and by stimulating cellular apoptosis and necrosis. This study highlights cPLAalpha(2) as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in endocrine-dependent and endocrine-independent breast cancer.

Sun B, Zhang X, Yonz C, Cummings BS
Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activates p38 MAPK signaling pathways during cytostasis in prostate cancer cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2010; 79(12):1727-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways activated during cytostasis induced by Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibition in prostate cancer cells were investigated. iPLA2 inhibition using siRNA, or the selective inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) and it's enantiomers, decreased growth in LNCaP (p53 positive) and PC-3 (p53 negative) human prostate cancer cells. Decreased cell growth correlated to time- and concentration-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 in both cell lines. Inhibition of cytosolic iPLA(2)beta using S-BEL, induced significantly higher levels of P-p53, p53, p21 and P-p38 expression than inhibition of microsomal iPLA2 gamma using R-BEL. Inhibition of p38 using SB202190 or SB203580 inhibited BEL-induced increases in P-p53 (ser15), p53 and p21, and altered the number of cells in G1 in LNCaP cells, and S-phase in PC-3 cells. BEL treatment also induced reactive species in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, which was partially reversed by pretreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). NAC subsequently inhibited BEL-induced activation of p38 and p53 in LNCaP cells. In addition, treatment of cells with NAC partially reversed the effect of BEL on cell growth and preserved cell morphology. Collectively, these data demonstrate the novel findings that iPLA2 inhibition activates p38 by inducing reactive species, and further suggest that this signaling kinase is involved in p53 activation, cell cycle arrest and cytostasis.

Singh J, Xie C, Yao M, et al.
Food extracts consumed in Mediterranean countries and East Asia reduce protein concentrations of androgen receptor, phospho-protein kinase B, and phospho-cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha in human prostate cancer cells.
J Nutr. 2010; 140(4):786-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Active surveillance is an emerging management option for the rising number of men with low-grade, clinically localized prostate cancer. However, 30-40% of men on active surveillance will progress to high-grade disease over 5 y. With the ultimate aim of developing a food-based chemoprevention strategy to retard cancer progression in these otherwise healthy men, we have developed a blend of food extracts commonly consumed in Mediterranean countries and East Asia. The effect of the food extracts known as Blueberry Punch (BBP) on prostate cancer cell growth and key signaling pathways were examined in vitro and in vivo. BBP reduced prostate cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (0.08-2.5%) at 72 h in vitro due to the reduction in cell proliferation and viability. Prostate cancer cell xenograft-bearing mice, administered 10% BBP in drinking water for 2 wk, had a 25% reduction in tumor volume compared with the control (water only). In vitro, BBP reduced protein concentrations in 3 signaling pathways necessary for the proliferation and survival of prostate cancer cells, namely androgen receptor, phospho-protein kinase B/protein kinase B, and phospho-cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha. The downstream effectors of these pathways, including prostate-specific antigen and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, were also reduced. Thus, this palatable food supplement is a potential candidate for testing in clinical trials and may ultimately prove effective in retarding the progression of low-grade, early-stage prostate cancer in men managed by active surveillance.

Walsh B, Pearl A, Suchy S, et al.
Overexpression of Prdx6 and resistance to peroxide-induced death in Hepa1-6 cells: Prdx suppression increases apoptosis.
Redox Rep. 2009; 14(6):275-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxiredoxins are thiol-specific antioxidants that catalyze the reduction of cellular peroxides and protect cells from ROS-mediated damage and death. Peroxiredoxin gene expression is up-regulated in a number of cancers, suggesting a possible role in cancer cell maintenance. Prdx6, a cytoplasmic protein elevated in certain cancers, is highly expressed in liver and transcriptionally regulated by various oxidative stresses. In the present study, we found that the cancerous Hepa1-6 hepatoma cell line is significantly more resistant to peroxide-induced cytotoxicity than the non-cancerous H2.35 cell line. We also demonstrated that Hepa1-6 cells express approximately 3-fold more Prdx6 mRNA and 2.5-fold more Prdx6 protein than H2.35 cells. Treatment with mithramycin A resulted in a nearly 20% reduction in Prdx6 mRNA in Hepa1-6 cells, suggesting a possible role for Sp1 in Prdx6 up-regulation. We hypothesized that suppression of Prdx6 in Hepa1-6 cells would increase susceptibility to peroxide-induced cell death. Transient transfection of Hepa1-6 cells with Prdx6 siRNA led to a marked reduction in Prdx6 expression, and an increase in peroxide-induced cytotoxicity by apoptosis. Together, these data demonstrate an important anti-apoptotic function for Prdx6 in cancerous liver cells, and suggest that its up-regulation may be a tumor-supportive adaptation in cancerous states.

Lee SB, Ho JN, Yoon SH, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 6 promotes lung cancer cell invasion by inducing urokinase-type plasminogen activator via p38 kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Akt.
Mol Cells. 2009; 28(6):583-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The peroxiredoxin family of peroxidase has six mammalian members (Prx 1-6). Considering their frequent up-regulation in cancer cells, Prxs may contribute to cancer cells' survival in face of oxidative stress. Here, we show that Prx 6 promotes the invasiveness of lung cancer cells, accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the phosphorylation of p38 kinase and Akt, and the protein levels of uPA. Functional studies reveal that these components support Prx 6-induced invasion in the sequence p38 kinase/PI3K, Akt, and uPA. The findings provide a new understanding of the action of Prx 6 in cancer.

Umeno J, Matsumoto T, Esaki M, et al.
Impact of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene polymorphisms on phenotypic features of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010; 25(3):293-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha) plays a key role in tumorigenesis via generating arachidonic acids as the substrate of cyclooxygenase. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible associations between cPLA ( 2 )alpha gene polymorphisms and phenotypic features of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-based genotype-phenotype association study of the cPLA ( 2 )alpha gene was conducted in 73 Japanese patients from 59 families with FAP. Based on the HapMap database, seven tag SNPs of the cPLA ( 2 )alpha gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing analysis. The genotype-phenotype association in relation to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation was also assessed.
RESULTS: The single SNP analysis showed that rs3820185 C allele [odds ratio (OR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-4.9] and rs127446200 GG genotype (OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 1.6-69.8), were more frequent in patients with gastric fundic gland polyposis (FGP) than in those without. Rs12749354 C allele was more frequently found in patients with small intestinal adenoma (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.5-30.4; p = 0.008). This association was also significant when adjusted for covariates (age, sex, and APC mutation) in a logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.2-64.2; p = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: The cPLA ( 2 )alpha gene may be a possible disease modifier gene in FAP.

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