Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PLCE1 (cancer-related)
Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela MGenetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.
The reported risk susceptibility between
Chen Y, Wang D, Peng H, et al.Epigenetically upregulated oncoprotein PLCE1 drives esophageal carcinoma angiogenesis and proliferation via activating the PI-PLCε-NF-κB signaling pathway and VEGF-C/ Bcl-2 expression.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):1 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Neovascularization during tumorigenesis supplies oxygen and nutrients to proliferative tumor cells, and serves as a conduit for migration. Targeting oncogenes involved in angiogenesis is needed to treat organ-confined and locally advanced ESCC. Although the phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) gene was originally identified as a susceptibility gene for ESCC, how PLCE1 is involved in ESCC is unclear.
METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure the methylation status of the PLCE1 promoter region. To validate the underlying mechanism for PLCE1 in constitutive activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, we performed studies using in vitro and in vivo assays and samples from 368 formalin-fixed esophageal cancer tissues and 215 normal tissues with IHC using tissue microarrays and the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset.
RESULTS: We report that hypomethylation-associated up-regulation of PLCE1 expression was correlated with tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis in ESCC cohorts. PLCE1 can activate NF-κB through phosphoinositide-phospholipase C-ε (PI-PLCε) signaling pathway. Furthermore, PLCE1 can bind p65 and IκBα proteins, promoting IκBα-S32 and p65-S536 phosphorylation. Consequently, phosphorylated IκBα promotes nuclear translocation of p50/p65 and p65, as a transcription factor, can bind vascular endothelial growth factor-C and bcl-2 promoters, enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, xenograft tumors in nude mice proved that PLCE1 can induce angiogenesis, inhibit apoptosis, and increase tumor aggressiveness via the NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings not only provide evidence that hypomethylation-induced PLCE1 confers angiogenesis and proliferation in ESCC by activating PI-PLCε-NF-κB signaling pathway and VEGF-C/Bcl-2 expression, but also suggest that modulation of PLCE1 by epigenetic modification or a selective inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of ESCC.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of phospholipase C epsilon gene 1 (
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and EC9706 and normal esophageal epithelial cell line HEEC were cultured. The expression of PLCE1, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50/p65 homodimer in cells were comparatively analyzed. The esophageal cancer cells were divided into si-PLCE1, control siRNA (scramble), and mock groups that were transfected with specific siRNA for PLCE1, control siRNA, and blank controls, respectively. Expression of PLCE1, PKCα, p50, and p65 was detected by Western blotting. Transwell assay was used to detect migration and invasion of Eca109 and EC9706 cells.
RESULTS: Compared with HEEC, the expression of PLCE1, PKCα, p50, and p65 was increased in Eca109 and EC9706 cells. The expression of PLCE1 was positively correlated with the expression of PKCα and p50 (PKCα: r=0.6328,
CONCLUSION: PLCE1 activated NF-κB signaling by up-regulating PKCα, which could promote invasion and migration of esophageal cancer cells.
BACKGROUNDS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility loci in Asians, but their effects on disease outcome are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether these GWAS-identified genetic variants could serve as robust prognostic biomarkers for GC.
METHODS: A multistage clinical cohort, including a total of 2432 GC patients in the Chinese population, was used to identify the association between GWAS-identified risk variants and overall survival of GC. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by Cox regression analysis, and the log-rank P was calculated by the log-rank test with the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: We found that rs2274223 A>G in PLCE1 was associated with increased GC survival in both training set (P = .011), which was independently replicated in validation set 1 (P = .045), but not in validation set 2. The area under the curve (AUC) from receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed this clinical relevance with onset age-dependence, especially in the subgroup of early-onset cases. Moreover, a significant improvement in overall survival prediction was identified when the rs2274223 genetic effect was included in the estimation; this result was also supported by the prognostic nomogram. In addition, patients with lower expression of PLCE1 showed benefits via longer survival, potentially due to the functional effect of rs2274223.
INTERPRETATION: This preliminary study suggests that a GWAS-identified genetic variant in PLCE1 may serve as a potential biomarker for GC survival. Additional replication with larger samples size is warranted to further investigation.
Wang X, Fan Y, Du Z, et al.Knockdown of Phospholipase Cε (PLCε) Inhibits Cell Proliferation via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN)/AKT Signaling Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:254-263 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), a member of the plc family, has been extensively studied to reveal its role in the regulation of different cell functions, but understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. In the present study, we explored the effects of PLCε on PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) in cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed PLCε and PTEN expression in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-shPLCε (LV-shPLCε) was designed to silence PLCε expression in DU145 and PC3 cell lines, and the effectiveness was tested by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MTT assay and colony formation assay were conducted to observe cell proliferation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to detect changed PTEN expression in DU145. RESULTS We observed that PLCε expression was reduced in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues, while PTEN expression showed the opposite trend. Silencing of the PLCε gene significantly inhibited cell proliferation in DU145 and PC3 cell lines. DU145 is a PTEN-expressing cell, while PC3 is PTEN-deficient. After infection by LV-shPLCε, we noticed that PTEN expression was up-regulated in DU145 cells but not in PC3 cells. Furthermore, we found that PLCε gene knockdown decreased P-AKT protein levels, but AKT protein levels were not affected. Immunofluorescence assays showed that PTEN expression had an intracellular distribution change in the DU145 cell line, and Western blot analysis showed that PTEN was obviously up-regulated in cell nucleus and cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS PLCε is an oncogene, and knockdown of expression of PLCe inhibits PCa cells proliferation via the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway.
Cui X, Wang K, Yang X, et al.Comprehensive bioinformation analysis of the miRNA of PLCE1 knockdown in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018; 442(1-2):111-127 [PubMed
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Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) has been recognized as a novel susceptibility marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The purpose of our study is to investigate its effect on the regulation of miRNA expression so as to translating the data into a novel strategy in control of ESCC. In this study, PLCE1 siRNA and vector-only plasmid were stably transfected into Eca109 and EC9706 cells and then subjected to miRNA array analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR was applied to validate miRNA array data. Then bioinformatic analyses, such as GO and pathway software, were conducted to obtain data on these differentially expressed miRNAs-targeted genes (DEGs) and clarify their function and pathway. The results showed that 36 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in PLCE1 siRNA-transfected cells compared with the control cells. In particular, 28 miRNAs were upregulated while 8 miRNAs were downregulated. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the function of the DEGs included cell cycle arrest, cell-matrix adhesion, apoptosis, etc. After this, the major pathways associated with the DEGs were regulation of actin cytoskeleton, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway and so on. Taken together, these results showed that the knockdown of PLCE1 may play a vital role in the control of ESCC. Further investigation will reveal and verify the function and pathway of the DEGs for the development of novel treatment strategy for the better control of ESCC.
Wei L, Shao M, Zhao Y, et al.Functional role of PLCE1 intronic insertion variant associated with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(2):191-201 [PubMed
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently identified PLCE1 as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility gene; however, the functional role of PLCE1 variants remains to be verified. In this study, we performed fine mapping of the PLCE1 region using our previous ESCC GWAS data and identified 33 additional risk variants in this susceptibility locus. Here, we report the functional characterization of a four-nucleotide insertion/deletion variation (rs71031566 C----/CATTT) in PLCE1 that was associated with risk of developing ESCC. We demonstrate for the first time that rs71031566[CATTT] insertion creates a silencer element, repressing PLCE1 transcription via long-range interaction with PLCE1 promoter mediated by OCT-2 binding. PLCE1 is down-regulated in majority of clinical ESCC samples and overexpression of PLCE1 in ESCC cells suppresses cell growth in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of this gene. Therefore, repression of PLCE1 transcription may be the underlying mechanism for the rs71031566[CATTT] variant to be susceptible to ESCC.
Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with dose-dependent, irreversible damage to the heart. Childhood cancer survivors with hypertension after anthracycline exposure are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity, leading to the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility loci for hypertension may serve as predictors for development of late cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we determined the association between 12 GWAS-identified hypertension-susceptibility loci and cardiotoxicity in a cohort of long-term childhood cancer survivors (N = 108) who received anthracyclines and were screened for cardiac function via echocardiograms. Hypertension-susceptibility alleles of PLCE1:rs9327264 and ATP2B1:rs17249754 were significantly associated with cardiotoxicity risk conferring a protective effect with a 64% (95% CI: 0.18-0.76, P = 0.0068) and 74% (95% CI: 0.07-0.96, P = 0.040) reduction in risk, respectively. In RNAseq experiments of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin, both PLCE1 and ATP2B1 displayed anthracycline-dependent gene expression profiles. In silico functional assessment further supported this relationship - rs9327264 in PLCE1 (P = 0.0080) and ATP2B1 expression (P = 0.0079) were both significantly associated with daunorubicin IC
The authors previously reported that Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) exacerbated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to identify key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and signaling pathways regulated by PLCE1 in ESCC. EC9706 and Eca109 cell lines were transfected with the specific small interfering (si) RNA of PLCE1, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting were performed to detect the expression levels of PLCE1, and subsequently, mRNA array and multiple bioinformatics analysis were conducted. RT‑qPCR was used to verify gene expression array results. The findings of the present study indicated that PLCE1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly suppressed (P<0.05) in the PLCE1 siRNA‑transfected cells. In addition, a total of 223 DEGs with >2‑fold alterations were screened between the PLCE1 siRNA‑treated cells, including 168 upregulated and 53 downregulated DEGs. In particular, inflammation or immune‑associated molecules, including Toll‑like receptor (TLR)‑4 interleukin‑6, ‑8 and chemokine C‑X‑C motif ligand 2 were significantly increased following PLCE1 knockdown. Furthermore, Gene Ontology enrichment revealed terms associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, invasion and metastasis, which may potentially be associated with PLCE1 function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis demonstrated 46 pathways were disturbed by DEGs, including focal adhesion, mitogen activated protein kinase, TLR, p53 and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways. The RT‑qPCR results for validation of the selected DEGs were consistent with that of the microarray data. Overall, the results of the multiple bioinformatic analysis contributes to a systematic understanding of the roles of PLCE1 in ESCC.
Liao X, Han C, Qin W, et al.PLCE1 polymorphisms and expression combined with serum AFP level predicts survival of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after hepatectomy.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(17):29202-29219 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polymorphisms in the phospholipase C epsilon (PLCE) 1 gene play a crucial role in the development and progression of several types of cancer. The present study investigated the prognostic significance of PLCE1 gene polymorphisms and expression combined with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by sequencing DNA isolated from surgically resected tumor samples of 421 HBV-related HCC patients, and expression profiles were generated based on the GSE14520 dataset. A joint-effects analysis of PLCE1 haplotypes (Ars2274223Crs3765524; Grs2274223Trs3765524) with AFP level stratified at 20 ng/ml showed a significant association with overall survival(OS) of HBV-related HCC patients(log-rank P=0.0003). Patients with AC and GT haplotypes with AFP level ≥ 20 ng/ml had an increased risk of death as compared to those with the AC haplotype and AFP level < 20 ng/ml (adjusted P=0.029 and 0.041, respectively). Patients with the GT haplotype and AFP level < 20 ng/ml also had an increased risk of death, although with a non-significant P value (adjusted P=0.092). Joint-effects analysis of PLCE1 mRNA expression with serum AFP level stratified at 300 ng/ml was significantly associated with HBV-related HCC recurrence and OS. Our results demonstrate that PLCE1 haplotypes (including rs2274223 and rs3765524) and expression combined with serum AFP level may predict postoperative outcome of HBV-related HCC patients.
Esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus are linked to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study analyzed the expression levels of and correlation between PLCE1 and PRKCA in human esophagitis, carcinogen NMBA-induced rat esophagus, PLCE1 genetic deficient mouse esophageal epithelial tissues and human esophageal cancer cell line, integrated with Online oncology data sets. We found that the expression levels of both PLCE1 and PRKCA were significantly elevated in human esophagitis, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and in NMBA-treated rat esophageal epithelia. However, PRKCA and cytokines were significantly downregulated in PLCE1-deficient mouse esophageal epithelia, and knockdown of PLCE1 in human esophageal cancer cells led to reduction of PRKCA and cytokines. Finally, high expression of both PLCE1 and PRKCA is significantly associated with poor outcomes of the patients with esophageal cancers. In conclusion, this study defined the initiation and progression of esophageal inflammation and malignant transformation, in which the positive correlation of PLCE1 and PRKCA exhibits critical clinical significance.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignancy of the liver. Genomic analysis is conducted to identify genetic alterations in driver genes which are all druggable targets for cancer therapy. In the present study, we performed an exome sequencing of 45 driver genes in 100 paired samples from HCC patients including tumors and matched adjacent normal tissues using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Non-synonymous mutations were ascertained using the iPLEX MassARRAY system and Sanger sequencing. Clinicopathological relevance with genetic variations was assessed using SPSS software. The prognostic analyses of patients with gene mutation status were summarized using Kaplan-Meier curves. Sixty-one non-synonymous somatic mutations were identified in 43% of the HCC patients. The most frequent mutations were: TP53 (20%), RET (6%), PLCE1 (5%), PTEN (4%) and VEGFR2 (3%). Patients with mutations in TP53 had a lower overall survival (OS) (P=0.002) than those without mutations. Recurrent mutations in the Ret proto‑oncogene (RET) were associated with poor outcomes for both disease‑free survival (DFS) (P=0.028) and OS (P=0.001) in HCC patients. The mutational status of sorafenib-targeted genes were associated with decreased DFS (P=0.039), and decreased OS (P=0.15) without statistical significance. Mutual exclusion of TP53 and RET mutations were observed in the present study. In conclusion, patients with TP53 mutations, RET mutations and sorafenib-targeted gene mutations were demonstrated to be associated with poor HCC prognosis, which suggests that both TP53 and RET may serve as biomarkers of prognostic evaluation and targeted therapy in HCC.
Esophageal cancer is among the most deadly malignant diseases. However, the genetic factors contributing to its occurrence are poorly understood. Multiple studies with large clinic-based cohorts revealed that variations of the phospholipase C epsilon (PLCE1) gene were associated with esophageal cancer susceptibility. However, the causative role of PLCE1 in esophageal cancer is not clear. We inactivated the functional alleles of PLCE1 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. The resultant PLCE1 inactivated cells were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that loss of PLCE1 dramatically decreased the invasion and proliferation capacity of esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro. Moreover, such PLCE1 inactivated tumor grafts exhibited significantly decreased tumor size in mice. We found that PLCE1 was required to maintain protein level of snail a key transcription factor responsible for invasion. Our further transcriptomic data revealed that deficient cells were significantly decreased in expression of genes enriched as targets of Snail. Strikingly, recovery of Snail protein at least partially rescued the invasion and proliferation capacity in PLCE1 inactivated cells. In ESCC clinical specimens, PLCE1 was correlated with tumor stage (P<.0001). Interestingly, PLCE1 expression was positively correlated Snail by immunohistochemistry in such specimens (P<.0001). Therefore, our functional experiments showed the essential roles of PLCE1 in esophageal carcinoma cells and provided evidences that targeting PLCE1 and its downstream molecules could be effective therapies for esophageal cancer.
Ezgi O, Merve A, Hakan YT, Gül ÖGenetic Variations in Phospholipase C-epsilon 1 (PLCE1) and Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer Risk.
Biochem Genet. 2016; 54(6):826-829 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality and causes almost a million deaths worldwide each year. Genetic and environmental factors have gained importance in CRC as well as other types of cancer due to contribution to development of malignancies. Phosholipase C-epsilon 1 PLCE1 is one of the phospholipase family of enzymes and controls cellular responses leading to cell growth, differentiation and gene expression. Therefore, it was evaluated the effects of PLCE1 variations on developing CRC. Rs2274223 was significantly associated with CRC risk (OR = 2.018) while rs3765524 did not significantly differ (p > 0.05). The findings are the first results of PLCE1 profiles in the Turkish and could provide an understanding of aetiology in CRC.
Chen G, Hu J, Huang Z, et al.MicroRNA-1976 functions as a tumor suppressor and serves as a prognostic indicator in non-small cell lung cancer by directly targeting PLCE1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 473(4):1144-1151 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for over 80% of lung cancer-related deaths. Identifying novel molecular biomarker that can inhibit the progression of lung cancer will facilitate the development of new treatment strategies. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) is a susceptibility gene in NSCLC. Nevertheless, the role of PLCE1 in NSCLC tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-1976 is a tumor-suppressor miRNA in NSCLC progression. We found that expression of miR-1976 was decreased obviously in NSCLC tissues. Down-regulation of miR-1976 was associated with TNM stage and postoperative survival. Overexpression of miR-1976 inhibited the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. The PLCE1 was a direct target of miR-1976 and promoted the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Further study showed that PLCE1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-1976 on growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data highlight the pivotal role of miR-1976 in the progression of NSCLC. Thus, miR-1976 may be a potential prognostic marker and of treatment relevance for NSCLC progression intervention.
Qu Y, Zhang S, Cui L, et al.Two novel polymorphisms in PLCE1 are associated with the susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese population.
Dis Esophagus. 2017; 30(1):1-7 [PubMed
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Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) gene was found to be associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by three large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese populations. To evaluate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLCE1 gene and ESCC risk, a case-control study including 550 patients with ESCC and 550 age, gender-matched controls was carried out to investigate the genetic susceptibility of three SNPs (rs3765524 C/T and two unreported potentially functional SNPs rs10882379 G/A and rs829232 G/A) as well as the interactions of gene-gene and gene-environment in the development of ESCC. And the results showed that GA genotype of rs10882379 was significantly associated with reduced ESCC risk compared with GG genotype (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.51, 0.86]), while AA genotype of rs829232 was significantly associated with increased ESCC risk compared with GG genotype (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.12, 1.67]). The haplotype analysis showed increased ESCC risk in Grs10882379Crs3765524Ars829232 and Grs10882379Trs3765524Ars829232 haplotypes with OR (95% CI) of 1.40 (1.13, 1.73) and 1.66 (1.18, 2.34), respectively and inversely reduced ESCC risk in Ars10882379Crs3765524Grs829232 haplotype with OR (95% CI) of 0.74 (0.61, 0.91). The gene-environment interaction analysis emerged a best model consisted of four factors (rs10882379, rs3765524, rs829232 and family history of ESCC) that could increase the ESCC risk in the 'high risk group' with 4.45-fold (OR [95% CI]: 5.45 [4.13, 7.19]), compared to the 'low risk group.' Our results further validate that the SNPs in PLCE1 gene may contribute to the ESCC susceptibility in Chinese Han population. Also the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play a certain crucial role in the ESCC progression.
Hillen LM, Kamsteeg EJ, Schoots J, et al.Refining the Diagnosis of Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome on Long-term Stored Tissue: c.1097G>A (p.(Arg366His)) WT1 Mutation Causing Denys Drash Syndrome.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2016; 35(2):112-9 [PubMed
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Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) caused by a mutation in the Wilms tumor 1 suppressor gene (WT1) is part of Denys Drash Syndrome or Frasier syndrome. In the framework of genetic counseling, the diagnosis of CNS can be refined with gene mutation studies on long-term stored formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from postmortem examination. We report a case of diffuse mesangial sclerosis with perinatal death caused by a de novo mutation in the WT1 gene in a girl with an XY-genotype. This is the first case of Denys Drash Syndrome with the uncommon missense c.1097G>A [p.(Arg366His)] mutation in the WT1 gene which has been diagnosed on long-term stored formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue in 1993. This emphasizes the importance of retained and adequately stored tissue as a resource in the ongoing medical care and counseling.
Han N, Zhao W, Zhang Z, Zheng PMiR-328 suppresses the survival of esophageal cancer cells by targeting PLCE1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 470(1):175-180 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the vital role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EC development and diagnosis. In our study, qPCR analysis showed that miRNA-328 was expressed at significantly low levels in EC109 and EC9706 cells. The results also showed that overexpression of miR-328 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, and enhanced apoptosis; whereas, inhibition of miR-328 significantly promoted cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-328 directly targeted phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) by binding to target sequences in the 3'-UTR. qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that the PLCE1 was overexpressed in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Additionally, we found that miR-328 overexpression decreased PLCE1 mRNA and protein levels, while miR-328 inhibition enhanced the PLCE1 expression. Further analysis showed that PLCE1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-328 on cell proliferation and invasion, and repressed the promotive effect of miR-328 on cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-328 suppresses the survival of EC cells by regulating PLCE1 expression, which might be a potential therapeutic method for EC.
Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) is a susceptibility gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Nevertheless, the role of PLCE1 in ESCC tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we determined the function of PLCE1 and its regulatory microRNA (miRNA) in ESCC. PLCE1 protein was excessively expressed in ESCC and precancerous lesions compared with that in normal tissues. High PLCE1 expression levels in ESCC were significantly linked with poor overall survival. Knockdown of PLCE1 promoted the apoptosis, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs but abrogated the proliferation and EMT phenotype of ESCC in vitro. Notably, miR-145 was newly identified as a potent repressor of PLCE1 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of PLCE1. MiR-145 also inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis, as well as controlled the cytoskeleton dynamics of esophageal cancer. Moreover, miR-145 was expressed at low levels in a large cohort of patients with ESCC and was inversely correlated with PLCE1 protein expression in cancer cells and tissues. These findings demonstrate that PLCE1 functions as tumor promoter in ESCC and can be suppressed by miR-145 through inhibition of PLCE1 translation. Hence, delivery of PLCE1-targeting miR-145 is a potential therapeutic approach for esophageal cancer.
Mou X, Li T, Wang J, et al.Genetic Variation of BCL2 (rs2279115), NEIL2 (rs804270), LTA (rs909253), PSCA (rs2294008) and PLCE1 (rs3765524, rs10509670) Genes and Their Correlation to Gastric Cancer Risk Based on Universal Tagged Arrays and Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015; 11(11):2057-66 [PubMed
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With the help of Fe3O4 nagnetic nanoparticles as a solid carrier and an excellent tool for separation, six SNP loci (rs2279115 of BCL2 gene, rs804270 of NEIL2 gene, rs909253 of LTA gene, rs2294008 of PSCA gene, rs3765524 and rs10509670 of PLCE1 gene) were selected to evaluate their relation to gastric cancer risk. Using two kinds of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and universal tagged arrays, the whole operation procedure including genome DNA extraction and SNP genotyping was performed. All genotypes and allele frequencies were calculated in the cases and controls respectively to analyze their association with gastric cancer risk. Totally 200 pathological samples and 134 normal control subjects were collected. The results demonstrated that four SNP loci (rs2279115, rs804270, rs909253 and rs3765524) showed a potential association with gastric cancer risk, and the other two (rs2294008, rs10509670) possessed no difference/association among cases and controls.
Kupcinskas J, Gyvyte U, Bruzaite I, et al.Common Genetic Variants of PSCA, MUC1 and PLCE1 Genes are not Associated with Colorectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):6027-32 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of genes encoding PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 have been associated with the risk of different cancers in genome wide association studies (GWAS). Up to date there are limited data on the role of these genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes encoding PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 and the presence of CRC in European populations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 574 European subjects (controls: n=382; CRC: n=192). PSCA C>T (rs2294008), PSCA G>A (rs2976392), MUC1 A>G (rs4072037) and PLCE1 A>G (rs2274223) SNPs were genotyped by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes for all four SNPs was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (rs2294008, P=0.153; rs2976392, P=0.269; rs4072037, P=0.609; rs2274223, P=0.858). The distribution of genotypes and alleles of PSCA C>T, PSCA G>A, MUC1 A>G and PLCE1 A>G SNPs was similar among controls and CRC patient groups (P>0.05). GG genotype of MUC1 SNP was more frequent in CRC patients (24.0%) than in controls (20.2%); however, this association failed to reach significance (OR-1.45, P=0.15). Overall, in the present study SNPs of PSCA (rs2294008, rs2976392), MUC1 (rs4072037) and PLCE1 (rs2274223) genes were not associated with the presence of CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene polymorphisms of PSCA, PLCE1 and MUC1 genes are not associated with the presence of CRC in European subjects.
Guo LY, Zhang S, Suo Z, et al.PLCE1 gene in esophageal cancer and interaction with environmental factors.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(7):2745-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the PLCE1 gene rs2274223 polymorphism with regard to esophageal cancer and its interaction with diet, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors in Southwest Shandong province.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case series study (case-case) was conducted. Questionnaire data were collected and 3 ml-5 ml venous blood was drawn for DNA extraction among the qualified research subjects. PLCE1 gene polymorphism was detected after PCR amplification of DNA. SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis of the data.
RESULTS: The three genotypes A/A, A/G and G/G PLCE1 gene rs2274223 was 31, 16 and 4 cases, accounting for 60.8%, 31.4%, 0.08% respectively. The difference of three genotypes (AA/GA/GG) proportion between negative and positive family history of patients was statistically significant, χ2=6.213, p=0.045. There was no statistically significant relationship between PLCE1 gene rs2274223 polymorphism and smoking, drinking, χ2=0.119, p=0.998, and χ2=1.727, p=0.786. There was no linkage of the three rs2274223 PLCE1 gene genotypes (AA/GA/GG) proportion with eating fried, pickled, hot, mildew, overnight, smoked, excitant food, eat speed, salt taste or not (p>0.05). or with living environment pollution and nine risk factors of occupational exposure (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in TS scores between different genotype of rs2274223 PLCE1 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: The PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism has a relationship with family history of esophageal cancer, but does not have any significant association with age, gender, smoking, alcohol drinking, food hygiene, eating habits, living around the environment and occupation in cases.
Ma GF, Zhang RF, Ying KJ, Wang DEffect evaluation of cisplatin-gemcitabine combination chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients using microarray data.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(4):578-85 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cisplatin-gemcitabine combination chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dataset GSE39345 from patients who underwent cisplatin-gemcitabine combination chemotherapy and normal controls was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Limma package and divided into 3 datasets: unique DEGs in NSCLC before chemotherapy vs. control samples (dataset A), common DEGs (dataset B), unique DEGs in NSCLC after chemotherapy vs. control samples (dataset C). Enrichment analysis was to identify functions or pathways of DEGs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis was to identify hub nodes and interacting pairs in dataset C and constructed into PPI network using Cytoscape software, followed by screening of small molecules using Connectivity Map.
RESULTS: Herein, 230 unique DEGs in dataset A, 584 common DEGs in dataset B and 1562 unique DEGs in dataset C were obtained. The 230 DEGs were significantly enriched in methylation and positive regulation of cell differentiation; the 584 DEGs were significantly enriched in positive regulation of cell differentiation and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway; the 1562 DEGs were enriched in functions associated with defense response. RELA and PLCB3 correlated with PLCE1 and INADL were hub nodes in the PPI network. Cefoperazone was the small molecule negatively correlated with DEGs.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy could prevent genes from aberrant methylation, partially restore cell differentiation process, fail to regulate cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and induce weakened defense response. Cefoperazone could be used as a supplementary drug.
Mocellin S, Verdi D, Pooley KA, Nitti DGenetic variation and gastric cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.
Gut. 2015; 64(8):1209-19 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Data on genetic susceptibility to sporadic gastric carcinoma have been published at a growing pace, but to date no comprehensive overview and quantitative summary has been available.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between DNA variation and risk of developing stomach cancer. To assess result credibility, summary evidence was graded according to the Venice criteria and false positive report probability (FPRP) was calculated to further validate result noteworthiness. Meta-analysis was also conducted for subgroups, which were defined by ethnicity (Asian vs Caucasian), tumour histology (intestinal vs diffuse), tumour site (cardia vs non-cardia) and Helicobacter pylori infection status (positive vs negative).
RESULTS: Literature search identified 824 eligible studies comprising 2 530 706 subjects (cases: 261 386 (10.3%)) and investigating 2841 polymorphisms involving 952 distinct genes. Overall, we performed 456 primary and subgroup meta-analyses on 156 variants involving 101 genes. We identified 11 variants significantly associated with disease risk and assessed to have a high level of summary evidence: MUC1 rs2070803 at 1q22 (diffuse carcinoma subgroup), MTX1 rs2075570 at 1q22 (diffuse), PSCA rs2294008 at 8q24.2 (non-cardia), PRKAA1 rs13361707 5p13 (non-cardia), PLCE1 rs2274223 10q23 (cardia), TGFBR2 rs3087465 3p22 (Asian), PKLR rs3762272 1q22 (diffuse), PSCA rs2976392 (intestinal), GSTP1 rs1695 11q13 (Asian), CASP8 rs3834129 2q33 (mixed) and TNF rs1799724 6p21.3 (mixed), with the first nine variants characterised by a low FPRP. We also identified polymorphisms with lower quality significant associations (n=110).
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several high-quality biomarkers of gastric cancer susceptibility. These data will form the backbone of an annually updated online resource that will be integral to the study of gastric carcinoma genetics and may inform future screening programmes.
BACKGROUND: Several genetic variants including PSCA rs2294008 C>T and rs2976392 G>A, MUC1 rs4072037 T>C, and PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G have shown significant association with stomach cancer risk in the previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs).
METHODS: To evaluate associations of these SNPs in the Han Chinese, an independent hospital based case-control study was performed by genotyping these four polymorphisms in a total of 692 stomach cancer cases and 774 healthy controls acquired by using frequency matching for age and gender. False-positive report probability (FPRP) analysis was also performed to validate all statistically significant findings.
RESULTS: In the current study, significant association with stomach cancer susceptibility was observed for all the four polymorphisms of interest. Specifically, a significant increased stomach cancer risk was associated with PSCA rs2294008 (CT vs. CC: adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.74, and CT/TT vs.CC: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.63), PSCA rs2976392 (AG vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.65, and AG/AA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.00-1.59), or PLCE1 rs2274223 (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.90, and AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.14-1.84), respectively. In contrast, MUC1 rs4072037 was shown to decrease the cancer risk (CT vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60-0.98). Patients with more than one risk genotypes had significant increased risk to develop stomach cancer (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64), when compared with those having 0-1 risk genotypes. Stratified analysis indicated that the increased risk was more pronounced in younger subjects, men, ever smokers, smokers with pack years ≤ 27, patients with high BMI, or non-cardia stomach cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiated the associations between four previous reported genetic variants and stomach cancer susceptibility in an independent Han Chinese population. Further studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities are warranted to validate our findings.
Kupcinskas J, Wex T, Link A, et al.PSCA and MUC1 gene polymorphisms are associated with gastric cancer and pre-malignant gastric conditions [corrected].
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(12):7167-75 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Genome-wide association studies revealed a link between gastric cancer (GC) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) and mucin-1 (MUC1) genes. Herein, we aimed to evaluate associations between PSCA (C>T, rs2294008; G>A, rs2976392), MUC1 (C>T, rs4072037) and PLCE1 (A>G, rs2274223) SNPs and GC or high-risk gastritis (HRAG).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using TaqMan system, SNPs were genotyped in 252 patients with GC, 136 patients with HRAG and 246 controls.
RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 allele T was associated with risk of GC (odds ratio (OR)=1.88, p<0.001) and HRAG (OR=1.49, p=0.009). Allele A of PSCA rs2976392 was associated with development of GC (OR=1.88, p<0.001) and HRAG (OR=1.56, p<0.01). MUC1 rs4072037 allele G was protective against development of GC (OR=0.64, p=0.0005), while no differences were found for PLCE1 rs2274223.
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of PSCA (rs2976392, rs2294008) and MUC1 (rs4072037) genes are associated with GC and HRAG.
Guo LY, Yang N, Hu D, et al.PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9107-12 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To investigate and study the relationship between the PLCE1 rs2274223 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer by meta-analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was searched in Wanfang, CNKI, PubMed, CBM, Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier and Cochrane databases from the date of January 1st 2004 to April 1st 2014 to collect case-control studies on the PLCE1 polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer. For the population genotype distributions of both esophagus cancer and control groups, their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were taken as effect indexes. Disqualified studies were excluded. Odds ratios of PLCE1 rs2274223 genotype distributions in the group of patients with esophageal cancer and the group of healthy control were calculated. The meta- analysis software, RevMan5.0, was applied for heterogeneity test, pooled OR and 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also explored.
RESULTS: A total of twelve case-control studies were included, covering a total of 9, 912 esophageal cancer cases and 13, 023 controls were included. The pooled odds ratio of PLCE1 rs2274223 genotype GA vs AA was 1.29 (95%CI=1.17~1.43), p<0.01, GG vs AA was 1.65 (95%CI=1.32~2.05), p<0.01, GG/GA vs AA was 1.30 (95%CI=1.16~1.46), p<0.01 and GG vs GA/AA was 1.48 (95%CI=1.22~1.80), p<0.01. The PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism was thus associated with risk of esophageal cancer in all genetic models. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, and source of controls, no significantly increased risk was observed for white persons. There was no obvious publication bias detected.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed there was a significantly association between PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and esophageal cancer in yellow race populations. Due to some minor limitations, our findings should be confirmed in further studies.
Lo Vasco VR, Leopizzi M, Stoppoloni D, Della Rocca CSilencing of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C ε remodulates the expression of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway in human osteosarcoma cell lines.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(8):4069-75 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Ezrin, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family, is involved in the metastatic spread of osteosarcoma. Ezrin binds phosphatydil inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a crucial molecule of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway. PIP2 levels are regulated by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes. PI-PLCε isoform, a well-characterized direct effector of rat sarcoma (RAS), is at a unique convergence point for the broad range of signaling pathways that promote RAS GTPase-mediated signalling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using molecular biology methods and microscopic analyses, we analyzed the expression of ezrin and PLC genes after silencing of PLCE (OMIM *608414) in 143B and Hs888 cell lines.
RESULTS: The growth rate of the cells was slowed, and the expression of ezrin, PLCB1, PLCG2 and PLCD4 was significantly modified. Ezrin displacement from the plasma membrane was observed.
CONCLUSION: The present results corroborate the hypothesis that ezrin and the PI signal transduction system are involved in a common network.
Zhao L, Wei ZB, Yang CQ, et al.Effects of PLCE1 gene silencing by RNA interference on cell cycling and apoptosis in esophageal carcinoma cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(13):5437-42 [PubMed
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignancies with a poor prognosis. The phospholipase C? gene (PLCE1) encodes a novel ras-related protein effector mediating the effects of R-Ras on the actin cytoskeleton and membrane protrusion. However, molecular mechanisms pertinent to ESCC are unclear. We therefore designed PLCE1-special small interfering RNA and transfected to esophageal squamous cell (EC) 9706 cells to investigate the effects of PLCE1 gene silencing on the cell cycle and apoptosis of ESCC and indicate its important role in the development of ESCC. Esophageal cancer tissue specimens and normal esophageal mucosa were obtained and assayed by immunohistochemical staining to confirm overexpression of PLCE1 in neoplasias. Fluorescence microscopy was used to examine transfection efficiency, while the result of PLCE1 silencing was examined by reverse transcription (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry and annexin V apoptosis assays were used to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Expression of cyclin D1 and caspase-3 was detected by Western-blotting. The level of PLCE1 protein in esophageal cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. After transfection, the expression of PLCE1 mRNA in EC 9706 was significantly reduced, compared with the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry results suggested that the PLCE1 gene silencing arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase; apoptosis was significantly higher than in the negative control group and mock group. PLCE1 gene silencing by RNAi resulted in decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of caspase-3. Our study suggests that PLCE1 may be an oncogene and play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis through regulating proteins which control cell cycling and apoptosis.