S100A11

Gene Summary

Gene:S100A11; S100 calcium binding protein A11
Aliases: MLN70, S100C, HEL-S-43
Location:1q21
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-A11
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100A11 (cancer-related)

Zhang Q, Zhu M, Cheng W, et al.
Downregulation of 425G>a variant of calcium-binding protein S100A14 associated with poor differentiation and prognosis in gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(4):691-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Altered level of S100 calcium-binding proteins is involved in tumor development and progression. However, their role in gastric cancer (GC) is not well documented. We investigated the expression pattern of S100 proteins and differentiation or prognosis as well as possible mechanisms in GC.
METHODS: RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of S100 family genes in GC. The polymorphisms of promoter and 5'-UTR of S100A14 gene were identified and related to luciferase reporter gene activity. Association of S100A14 expression with clinicopathologic features and survival in GC was analyzed.
RESULTS: We detected upregulated S100A2, S100A6, S100A10, and S100A11 expression and downregulated S100P and S100B expression in GC. Particularly, we detected differential mRNA and protein expression of S100A14 in GC cell lines and primary tumors. Furthermore, S100A14 expression change was related to a differentiated GC phenotype, with an expression in 31/40 (77.5 %) samples of well-differentiated tumors and 29/85 (34.1 %) samples of poorly differentiated tumors (P < 0.001). Moreover, 5-year survival was better in GC cases with positive than negative S100A14 level (P = 0.02). The genetic variant 425G>A on the 5'-UTR of S100A14 was associated with reduced S100A14 expression in GC cells.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of S100A14 with presence of its genetic variant 425G>A may be associated with an undifferentiated phenotype and poor prognosis in GC.

Tyszkiewicz T, Jarzab M, Szymczyk C, et al.
Epidermal differentiation complex (locus 1q21) gene expression in head and neck cancer and normal mucosa.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2014; 52(2):79-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) comprises a number of genes associated with human skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. These genes have also been linked to numerous cancers, among them skin, gastric, colorectal, lung, ovarian and renal carcinomas. The involvement of EDC components encoding S100 proteins, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and other genes in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been previously suggested. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the expression of EDC components on the transcript level in HNSCC. Tissue specimens from 93 patients with HNC of oral cavity and 87 samples from adjacent or distant grossly normal oral mucosawere analyzed. 48 samples (24 tumor and 24 corresponding surrounding tissue) were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. For validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) the total RNA from all180 samples collected in the study was analyzed with Real-Time PCR system and fluorescent amplicon specific-probes. Additional set of samples from 14 patients with laryngeal carcinoma previously obtained by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray was also included in the analyses. The expression of analyzed EDC genes was heterogeneous. Two transcripts (S100A1 and S100A4) were significantly down-regulated in oral cancer when compared to normal mucosa (0.69 and 0.36-fold change, respectively), showing an opposite pattern of expression to the remaining S100 genes. Significant up-regulation in tumors was found for S100A11, S100A7, LCE3D, S100A3 and S100A2 genes. The increased expression of S100A7 was subsequently validated by QPCR, confirming significant differences. The remaining EDC genes, including all encoding SPRR molecules, did not show any differences between oral cancer and normal mucosa. The observed differences were also assessed in the independent set of laryngeal cancer samples, confirming the role of S100A3 and LCE3D transcripts in HNC. In HNC of oral cavity only one family of EDC genes (S100 proteins) showed significant cancer-related differences. A number of other transcripts which showed altered expression in HNC require further validation.

Luo X, Xie H, Long X, et al.
EGFRvIII mediates hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion by promoting S100 calcium binding protein A11 expression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently aberrantly expressed in cancer, and abnormal signalling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumour growth. EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most commonly altered form of EGFR and contains a truncated ligand-binding domain. Aberrant signalling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumour invasion. We previously reported that EGFRvIII can promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasion. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms underlying EGFRvIII-mediated increases in cell motility and invasion in HCC. In this study, we observed that S100A11 was significantly upregulated in Huh-7 cells that overexpressed EGFRvIII. Moreover, S100A11 expression was elevated in HCC tissue samples (68.6%; 35/51), and this elevation was correlated with EGFRvIII expression (p = 0.0020; n = 20). Furthermore, the overexpression of S100A11 can promote HCC cell invasiveness, whereas siRNA against S100A11 can suppress the invasiveness of HCC cells stably transfected with EGFRvIII. Additionally, STAT3 inhibitors can block S100A11 expression and S100A11 promoter activity in HCC cells with stable overexpression of EGFRvIII. Furthermore, mutation in STATx binding sites could abolish the S1000A11 promoter activity stimulation by EGFRvIII. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the EGFRvIII-STAT3 pathway promotes cell migration and invasion by upregulating S100A11.

Anania MC, Miranda C, Vizioli MG, et al.
S100A11 overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(10):E1591-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent thyroid tumor and is responsible for the overall increase in thyroid cancer incidence. S100A11 (calgizzarin), a member of the S100 Ca(2+)-binding protein family, is involved in several different biological processes. S100A11 has been found up-regulated in PTC, both at the mRNA and protein levels.
OBJECTIVE: Through a combination of expression analysis and functional in vitro and in vivo studies, we have attempted to gain insight into the relevance of S100A11 overexpression in PTC biology.
DESIGN: The expression of the S100A11 gene in PTC was investigated in several gene expression data sets. The effect of S100A11 silencing on the hallmarks of the malignant phenotype of several PTC-derived cell lines was investigated. In NIH3T3 cells, the cooperation of S100A11 with the different PTC-specific oncogenes was assessed.
RESULTS: We found that the S100A11 gene expression is frequently up-regulated in PTC, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, but not in follicular thyroid carcinoma. S100A11 overexpression was also detected in PTC-derived cell lines, which were then used for functional studies. S100A11 silencing in PTC-derived cell lines did not affect cell proliferation, whereas it reduced the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to anoikis. Cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells showed that overexpression of the S100A11 gene was able to enhance the transforming capabilities of the different PTC-associated oncogenes by affecting the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumor formation.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that S100A11 overexpression exerts a protumoral functional role in PTC pathogenesis.

Wang LN, Tong SW, Hu HD, et al.
Quantitative proteome analysis of ovarian cancer tissues using a iTRAQ approach.
J Cell Biochem. 2012; 113(12):3762-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quantitative proteomics can be used as a screening tool for identification of differentially expressed proteins as potential biomarkers for cancers. Here, we comparatively analyzed the proteome profiles of ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovarian epithelial tissues. Using the high-throughput proteomic technology of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-coupled with two-dimensional-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 1,259 unique proteins were identified. Of those, 205 were potentially differentially expressed between ovarian cancer and normal ovarian tissues. Several of the potentially differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, up-regulation of KRT8, PPA1, IDH2, and S100A11 were validated in ovarian tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry. Silencing of S100A11 expression suppressed the migration and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Our study represents the successful application of iTRAQ technology to an investigation of ovarian cancer. Many of the potentially differentially expressed proteins identified had not been linked to ovarian cancer before, and provide valuable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human ovarian cancer.

Szczepanek J, Pogorzala M, Jarzab M, et al.
Expression profiles of signal transduction genes in ex vivo drug-resistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(2):503-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Identification of signal transduction genes related to drug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo drug resistance in 107 children, divided into study and validation groups, was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) drug resistance assay. The gene expression profile was identified by microarray analysis and validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A set of five genes involved in signal transduction, present in each resistance profile, was identified. The expression of four genes was up-regulated: Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, v-Fgr (FGR), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH1 domain (ARAP1), while the expression of growth hormone 1 (GH1) was found to be down-regulated in resistant leukemia blasts.
CONCLUSION: Ex vivo exposure of leukemia cells to anticancer drugs induces changes in the expression of genes involved in cell signaling pathways. These genes play an important role in the mechanism of cellular drug resistance.

Li J, Riau AK, Setiawan M, et al.
S100A expression in normal corneal-limbal epithelial cells and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma tissue.
Mol Vis. 2011; 17:2263-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the expression and cellular distribution of multiple S100A genes and proteins in normal corneal-limbal epithelium and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue.
METHODS: Normal corneal-limbal tissue was obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, FL. Ocular surface SCC tissues were excised from patients undergoing surgery at Singapore National Eye Centre. S100A mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. S100 protein distribution was determined by immunofluorescent staining analysis.
RESULTS: Twelve S100 mRNAs were identified in human corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10, and A11 mRNA was expressed at high level, while S100A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A12 mRNA expression was low. The intracellular localization of S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 protein was determined in normal corneal-limbal and SCC tissues. S100A2 and S100A10 proteins were enriched in basal limbal epithelial cells of the normal tissue. S100A8 and S100A9 were found only at the surface of peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. S100A6 was uniformly found at the plasma membrane of corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A11 was found at the supralayer limbal epithelial cells adjacent to the conjunctiva. SCC tissue showed typical pathological changes with expression of cytokeartin (CK) 14 and CK4 in the epithelial cells. All SCC epithelial cells were positive of S100A2, S100A10, S100A6 and S100A11 staining. Intracellular staining of S100A8 and S100A9 was found in several layers of SCC epithelium. Expression of S100A2 and S100A10 decreased dramatically in cultured limbal epithelial cells with increased passaging, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA, with no changes of S100A8 gene expression. Serum and growth hormone depletion of the culture serum caused a small reduction of S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA while no changes of S100A8 expression was measured.
CONCLUSIONS: Normal corneal and limbal epithelial cells express a broad spectrum of S100 genes and proteins. Ocular surface SCC express high levels of S100A2, S100A10, S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. The expression of S100A2 and S100A10 is associated with limbal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

Hao J, Wang K, Yue Y, et al.
Selective expression of S100A11 in lung cancer and its role in regulating proliferation of adenocarcinomas cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2012; 359(1-2):323-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100A11, one secreted protein, is overexpressed in certain cancers. We investigated S100A11 expression in various subtypes of lung cancer and explored its role in cell proliferation. S100A11 mRNA level was examined in 45 pairs of frozen lung cancer tissues by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The specific expression and subcellular distribution of S100A11 were examined in 78 paraffin-embedded lung cancers, 2 benign lung diseases as well as 22 healthy lung tissues by immunohistochemistry. S100A11 protein level was further analyzed in the sera of 86 lung cancer patients and 50 healthy individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of S100A11 were overexpressed in adenocarcinomas (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) compared with paired non-cancerous lung tissues, while S100A11 was detected downregulated in small cell lung cancers (SCLC). Further immunohistochemistry staining was positive for S100A11 only in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (ADC, SCC, large cell carcinomas, et al.), but not SCLC. Conclusively, we found S100A11 protein level increased in the sera of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, when S100A11 expression was knocked down in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and LTEP-a-2, the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo.

Jung Y, Lee S, Choi HS, et al.
Clinical validation of colorectal cancer biomarkers identified from bioinformatics analysis of public expression data.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(4):700-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Identification of novel biomarkers of cancer is important for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify marker genes of colorectal cancer (CRC) by combining bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data and validation experiments using patient samples and to examine the potential connection between validated markers and the established oncogenes such as c-Myc and K-ras.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Publicly available data from GenBank and Oncomine were meta-analyzed leading to 34 candidate marker genes of CRC. Multiple case-matched normal and tumor tissues were examined by RT-PCR for differential expression, and 9 genes were validated as CRC biomarkers. Statistical analyses for correlation with major clinical parameters were carried out, and RNA interference was used to examine connection with major oncogenes.
RESULTS: We show with high confidence that 9 (ECT2, ETV4, DDX21, RAN, S100A11, RPS4X, HSPD1, CKS2, and C9orf140) of the 34 candidate genes are expressed at significantly elevated levels in CRC tissues compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, high-level expression of RPS4X was associated with nonmucinous cancer cell type and that of ECT2 with lack of lymphatic invasion while upregulation of CKS2 was correlated with early tumor stage and lack of family history of CRC. We also demonstrate that RPS4X and DDX21 are regulatory targets of c-Myc and ETV4 is downstream to K-ras signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified multiple novel biomarkers of CRC. Further analyses of their function and connection to signaling pathways may reveal potential value of these biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of CRC.

McKiernan E, McDermott EW, Evoy D, et al.
The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(3):441-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman's correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

F Lam F, Jankova L, Dent OF, et al.
Identification of distinctive protein expression patterns in colorectal adenoma.
Proteomics Clin Appl. 2010; 4(1):60-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: As a pre-malignant precursor, adenoma provides an ideal tissue for proteome profiling to investigate early colorectal cancer development and provide possible targets for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of differential protein expression that distinguish colorectal adenoma from normal tissue.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty paired samples of adenoma and normal mucosa were analysed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS to detect proteins with ≥2-fold differential expression.
RESULTS: Four proteins were up-regulated in adenoma (Annexin A3, S100A11, S100P and eIF5A-1) and three were down-regulated (Galectin-1, S100A9 and FABPL). S100P, galectin-1, S100A9 and FABPL expression was localised by immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Distinctive patterns of in vivo protein expression in colorectal adenoma were identified for the first time. These proteins have important functions in cell differentiation, proliferation and metabolism, and may play a crucial role in early colorectal carcinogenesis. The ability to recognise premalignant lesions may have important applications in cancer prevention.

Li M, Zhao ZW, Zhang Y, Xin Y
Over-expression of Ephb4 is associated with carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56(3):698-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in the world. The gene expression profile and molecular grouping of gastric cancer has been a challenging task due to its inherent complexity and variation among individuals.
AIMS: To determine the molecular mechanism associated with gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: We analyzed the gene expression profiles of 20 cancerous tissues and their tumor-adjacent tissue from patients with gastric cancer by using a 14 K cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes and their products were verified by semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry of gastric cancer and normal tissue samples.
RESULTS: A total of 69 genes were found to be differentially regulated in the cancerous tissue. Among them, genes such as CDH17, ETV4, S100A6, S100A11, Ephb4, and KLK10 were confirmed by RT-PCR to be up-regulated, while genes such as NK4 and PPP2R1B were down-regulated. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry indicated that Ephb4 was over-expressed and localized to the cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, Ephb4 protein was observed as being significantly related to tumor size and pN category (p = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These newly identified genes might provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular mechanism associated with the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and for finding potential diagnostic markers of gastric cancer.

Shankar J, Messenberg A, Chan J, et al.
Pseudopodial actin dynamics control epithelial-mesenchymal transition in metastatic cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(9):3780-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
A key cellular process associated with the invasive or metastatic program in many cancers is the transformation of epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal state, a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT. Actin-dependent protrusion of cell pseudopodia is a critical element of mesenchymal cell migration and therefore of cancer metastasis. However, whether EMT occurs in human cancers and, in particular, whether it is a prerequisite for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, remains a subject of debate. Microarray and proteomic analysis of actin-rich pseudopodia from six metastatic human tumor cell lines identified 384 mRNAs and 64 proteins common to the pseudopodia of six metastatic human tumor cell lines of various cancer origins leading to the characterization of 19 common pseudopod-specific proteins. Four of these (AHNAK, septin-9, eIF4E, and S100A11) are shown to be essential for pseudopod protrusion and tumor cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of each of these proteins in metastatic cells resulted in reduced actin cytoskeleton dynamics and induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) that could be prevented by the stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin-dependent pseudopodial protrusion and tumor cell migration are therefore determinants of EMT. Protein regulators of pseudopodial actin dynamics may represent unique molecular targets to induce MET and thereby inhibit the metastatic potential of tumor cells.

Tyburczy ME, Kotulska K, Pokarowski P, et al.
Novel proteins regulated by mTOR in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and new therapeutic implications.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(4):1878-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are rare brain tumors associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in enhancement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, dysregulation of cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Signaling via mTOR plays a role in multifaceted genomic responses, but its effectors in the brain are largely unknown. Therefore, gene expression profiling on four SEGAs was performed with Affymetrix Human Genome arrays. Of the genes differentially expressed in TSC, 11 were validated by real-time PCR on independent tumor samples and 3 SEGA-derived cultures. Expression of several proteins was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The differentially-regulated proteins were mainly involved in tumorigenesis and nervous system development. ANXA1, GPNMB, LTF, RND3, S100A11, SFRP4, and NPTX1 genes were likely to be mTOR effector genes in SEGA, as their expression was modulated by an mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in SEGA-derived cells. Inhibition of mTOR signaling affected size of cultured SEGA cells but had no influence on their proliferation, morphology, or migration, whereas inhibition of both mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways led to significant alterations of these processes. For the first time, we identified genes related to the occurrence of SEGA and regulated by mTOR and demonstrated an effective modulation of SEGA growth by pharmacological inhibition of both mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, which could represent a novel therapeutic approach.

Petersson S, Shubbar E, Enerbäck L, Enerbäck C
Expression patterns of S100 proteins in melanocytes and melanocytic lesions.
Melanoma Res. 2009; 19(4):215-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100 proteins are differentially expressed in tumours of epithelial origin. Little is known about their expression in melanocyte-derived tumours of neuroectodermal origin. We have analysed the expression of some S100 proteins in this line of lesions using SAGE Genie informatics, cell culture and human tumour tissue. The pattern of expression of six S100 proteins was investigated at both the mRNA and protein levels, using quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. No differential expression was observed with respect to S100A4, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and S100A11. In contrast, S100A10 was downregulated in three melanoma cell lines compared with normal melanocytes. Using SAGE informatics, two-dimensional displays of microarray expression data from the NCI60_Novartis cell lines displayed a positive correlation between the expression of S100A10 and the expression of the proliferation marker, Ki67. Our data suggest that S100A10, like its binding partners S100A7 and annexin A2, is an oxidant-sensitive protein. In addition, higher expression of S100A10 was detected in melanocyte cell lines with long projections compared with melanoma cell lines with small ripples. In a panel of 47 melanocyte-derived lesions comprising melanocytic naevi and melanomas, S100A10 was expressed to varying degrees in the melanocytic lesions. The antigen was primarily expressed in regions with a strong proliferating or differentiating capacity, especially in regions in or near the epidermis. We suggest that S100A10 may play a role in the regulation of the proliferation or early maturation sequence of melanocytic lesions, and that it merits further study as a potential biomarker of activity.

Tian T, Hao J, Xu A, et al.
Determination of metastasis-associated proteins in non-small cell lung cancer by comparative proteomic analysis.
Cancer Sci. 2007; 98(8):1265-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of metastasis is the leading cause of death and an enormous therapeutic challenge in cases of non-small cell lung cancer. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis process and to discover novel potential clinical markers for non-small cell lung cancer, comparative proteomic analysis of two non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, the non-metastatic CL1-0 and highly metastatic CL1-5 cell lines, was carried out using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified unambiguously, among which 16 proteins were significantly upregulated and 17 proteins were downregulated in highly metastatic CL1-5 cells compared with non-metastatic CL1-0 cells. Subsequently, 8 of 33 identified proteins were selected for further validation at the mRNA level using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and three identified proteins, S100A11, PGP 9.5 and HSP27, were confirmed by western blotting. The protein S100A11 displaying significant differential expression at both the protein and mRNA levels was further analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in 65 primary non-small cell lung cancer tissues and 10 matched local positive lymph node specimens to explore its relationship with metastasis. The results indicated that the upregulation of S100A11 expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues was significantly associated with higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.001) and positive lymph node status (P = 0.011), implying that S100A11 might be an important regulatory molecule in promoting invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer.

Yao R, Davidson DD, Lopez-Beltran A, et al.
The S100 proteins for screening and prognostic grading of bladder cancer.
Histol Histopathol. 2007; 22(9):1025-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S100 gene family, which is composed of at least 24 members carrying the Ca2+ binding EF-hand motif, has been implicated in both intracellular and extracellular functions, including enzyme activities, immune responses, cytoskeleton dynamics, Ca2+ homeostasis, cell growth and cell differentiation. Altered S100 protein levels are associated with a broad range of diseases, including cardiomyopathy, inflammatory and immune disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Although the precise role of S100 protein in carcinogenesis is poorly understood, it seems that formation of homo- and hetero-dimers, binding of Ca2+ and interaction with effector molecules are essential for the development and progression of many cancers. Several studies have suggested that S100 proteins promote cancer progression and metastasis through cell survival and apoptosis pathways. In animal models of bladder cancer, several S100 proteins are differentially expressed in bladder tumors relative to normal urothelium. In human bladder cancer, overexpression of S100A4, S100A8 or S100A11 are associated with stage progression, invasion, metastasis and poor survival. This review summarizes these findings and evaluates their implications for human bladder cancer management.

Sonegawa H, Nukui T, Li DW, et al.
Involvement of deterioration in S100C/A11-mediated pathway in resistance of human squamous cancer cell lines to TGFbeta-induced growth suppression.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2007; 85(7):753-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we demonstrated that S100C/A11 comprises an essential pathway for growth suppression by TGFbeta in normal human keratinocytes. Nuclear transfer of S100C/A11 was a hallmark of the activation of the process. In the present study, we examined the possible deterioration in the pathway in human squamous cancer cell lines, focusing on intracellular localization of S100C/A11 and its functional partners Smad3 and Smad4. All four human squamous cancer cell lines examined (A431, BSCC-93, DJM-1, and HSC-5) were resistant to growth suppression by TGFbeta. In BSCC-93, DJM-1, and HSC-5 cells exposed to TGFbeta, S100C/A11 was not transferred to the nuclei, and p21(WAF1) was not induced. Overexpression of nucleus-targeted S100C/A11 partially recovered induction of p21(WAF1) and p15(INK4B) and growth suppression by TGFbeta1 in these cells. These results indicate that the deterioration in the S100C/A11-mediated pathway conferred upon the cancer cell lines resistance to TGFbeta. In A431 cells, S100C/A11, Smad3, and Smad4 were simultaneously transferred to the nuclei, and p21(WAF1) was induced upon exposure to TGFbeta. We provide evidence to indicate that refractoriness of A431 cells to TGFbeta was probably because the amount of p21(WAF1) induced by TGFbeta was insufficient to counteract cyclin A, which is highly overexpressed in A431 cells. Thus, the newly found S100C/A11-mediated pathway is at least partly involved in conferring upon human squamous cell cancers resistant to TGFbeta-induced growth suppression, which is considered to play a critical role for the initiation and progression of many human cancers.

Finn SP, Smyth P, Cahill S, et al.
Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.
Virchows Arch. 2007; 450(3):249-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful in the diagnosis of PTC, its accuracy and utility would be greatly facilitated by the development of specific markers for PTC and its common variants. We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology). TaqMan(R) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the expression portfolios of 50 selected transcripts. Our data corroborates potential biomarkers previously identified in the literature, such as LGALS3, S100A11, LYN, BAX, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms. Diminished expression of metallothioneins featured strongly among these and suggests a possible role for this family as tumour suppressors in PTC. Fifteen transcripts were significantly associated with FVPTC morphology. Surprisingly, these genes were associated with an extremely narrow repertoire of functions, including the major histocompatibility complex and cathepsin families.

Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ohhashi S, et al.
S100A11, a putative tumor suppressor gene, is overexpressed in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(18):5417-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent microarray analyses revealed that expression of S100A11 is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of S100A11 with pancreatic carcinogenesis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured S100A11 mRNA expression in various clinical samples related to pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.
RESULTS: Levels of S100A11 were significantly higher in pancreatic cancer (n=22) and IPMN (n=18) bulk tissues than in nonneoplastic bulk tissues (n=22; P<0.0001 for both). Levels of S100A11 did not differ between pancreatic cancer and IPMN bulk tissues. In microdissection analyses, however, IPMN cells (n=21) expressed significantly higher levels of S100A11 than did cancer cells (n=23; P=0.003). The median level of S100A11 expression was higher in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells (n=6) than in cancer cells. In pancreatic juice analyses, cancer-related (n=24; P=0.004) and IPMN-related (n=18; P=0.001) juice expressed significantly higher levels of S100A11 than did chronic pancreatitis-related juice (n=23).
CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that expression of S100A11, a putative tumor suppressor gene, is increased in the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis and decreased during subsequent progression to cancer. Analysis of the S100A11 level in pancreatic juice may be an effective tool for screening of patients with high-risk lesions that could progress to pancreatic cancer or detecting early-stage pancreatic cancer.

Rust R, Visser L, van der Leij J, et al.
High expression of calcium-binding proteins, S100A10, S100A11 and CALM2 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2005; 131(5):596-608 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are characterised by the presence of CD30-positive large cells, which usually are of T-cell type. Based on the presence or absence of translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) locus, ALCL cases can be divided into two groups. To gain more insight in the biology of ALCL, we applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) on the Karpas299 cell line and identified 25 up- and 19 downregulated genes. Comparison of the differentially expressed genes with DNA copy number changes in Karpas299 revealed that two overexpressed genes, S100A10 and S100A11, were located in an amplicon suggesting that the increased mRNA levels were caused by DNA amplification. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 5 ALCL cell lines and 12 ALCL tissues confirmed the SAGE data for 13 out of 14 up- and one out of four downregulated genes. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of S100A10, a calcium-binding protein, in three out of five ALK+ and all 7 ALK- ALCL cases. S100A11 staining was confirmed in all ALK+ and six of seven ALK- ALCL cases. Three of the upregulated genes represented calcium-binding proteins, which suggest that altered intracellular signaling might be associated with the oncogenesis of ALCL.

Li N, Guo R, Li W, et al.
A proteomic investigation into a human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 treated with diallyl trisulfide.
Carcinogenesis. 2006; 27(6):1222-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Garlic is generally used as a therapeutic reagent against various diseases worldwide. Although a great effort is made to understand the pharmaceutical mechanisms of garlic and its derivatives, there are many mysteries to be uncovered. Using proteomic means, herein we have systematically studied the responses of protein expression in BGC823 cells, a gastric cancer cell line, induced by diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a major component of garlic derivatives. A total of 41 unique proteins in BGC823 were detected with significant changes in their expression levels corresponding with DATS administration. Of these proteins, five typical ones, glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi), voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC-1), Annexin I, Galectin and S100A11, were further examined by Western blotting, resulting in coincident data with the proteomic evidence. Moreover quantitative real-time RT-PCR experiments offered dynamic data of mRNA expression, indicating the responses of Annexin I and GST-pi expression within a short period after DATS treatment. Interestingly, approximately 50% of DATS-sensitive proteins (19/41) in BGC823 are tightly associated with apoptotic pathways. These proteomic results presented, therefore, provide additional support to the hypothesis that garlic is a strong inducer of apoptosis in tumor cells.

Melle C, Ernst G, Schimmel B, et al.
Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 28(1):195-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to detect proteomic markers usable to distinguish colorectal carcinoma from colon adenoma for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the process of tumourigenesis. Therefore, we microdissected colon carcinoma tissue, epithelial colon adenoma tissue as well as normal adjacent colon epithelium and determined protein profiles by SELDI-TOF MS. A multitude of significantly different signals was detected. For their identification colon biopsis were lysed and subjected to a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation. Subsequently, we identified nearly 100 proteins by tryptic digestion, peptide fingerprint mapping and database search. Calgizzarin (S100A11; S100C) identified by peptide fingerprint mapping correlated very well with a significantly differentially expressed signal found in prior protein profiling. Using an immunodepletion assay we confirmed the identity of this signal as calgizzarin. To localise calgizzarin in tissues we performed immunohistochemistry. For further confirmation of the identity of calgizzarin we re-analysed IHC-positive as well as IHC-negative tissue sections on ProteinChip arrays. This work demonstrates that biomarkers in colorectal cancer can be detected, identified and assessed by a proteomic approach comprising tissue-microdissection, protein profiling and immunological techniques.

Song HY, Liu YK, Feng JT, et al.
Proteomic analysis on metastasis-associated proteins of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006; 132(2):92-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A comparative proteomic approach was used to identify and analyze proteins related to metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Proteins extracted from 12 HCC tissue specimens (six with metastases and six without) were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The protein spots exhibiting statistical alternations between the two groups through computerized image analysis were then identified by mass spectrometry. In addition immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to verify the expression of certain candidate proteins.
RESULTS: 16 proteins including HSP27, S100A11, CK18 were annotated by mass spectrometry, relevant to chaperone function, cell mobility, cytoskeletal architecture, respectively. Most were previously unconnected with metastasis of HCC. Of these HSP27 was found overexpressed consistently in 2-DE patterns of all metastatic HCC tissues compared with nonmetastatic ones. IHC and Western blotting of HCC tissues confirmed this difference while RT-PCR did not.
CONCLUSION: There are various proteins joined together in HCC metastasis. The overexpression of HSP27 may serve as a biomarker for early detection and therapeutic targets unique to the metastatic phenotype of HCC.

Li G, Gentil-Perret A, Lambert C, et al.
S100A1 and KIT gene expressions in common subtypes of renal tumours.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005; 31(3):299-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the S100A1 and KIT as gene markers for the differentiation of common subtypes of renal tumours.
METHODS: Fifty-five tissue samples (15 clear cell RCCs, 15 papillary RCCs, 7 chromophobe RCCs, 8 oncocytomas and 10 normal renal tissues) were studied The gene expressions of S100A1 and KIT were analysed by one-step RT-PCR by using the specific primers.
RESULTS: S100A1 was expressed in 2/15 clear cell RCCs, 11/15 papillary RCCs, 7/8 oncocytomas and in 0/7 chromophobe RCCs. KIT gene was expressed in 6/7 chromophobe RCCs and 7/8 oncocytomas while 0/15 clear cell RCCs and 1/15 papillary RCCs expressed kit gene. Normal tissue expressed neither S100A1 nor KIT gene.
CONCLUSION: S100A1 and KIT can be used as gene markers for the differentiation of common subtypes of renal tumours.

Memon AA, Sorensen BS, Meldgaard P, et al.
Down-regulation of S100C is associated with bladder cancer progression and poor survival.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(2 Pt 1):606-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to identify proteins down-regulated during bladder cancer progression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By using comparative proteome analysis and measurement of mRNA, we found a significant down-regulation of S100C, a member of the S100 family of proteins, in T24 (grade 3) as compared with RT4 (grade 1) bladder cancer cell lines. Moreover, quantification of the mRNA level revealed that decreased expression of the protein reflects a low level of transcription of the S100C gene. Based on this observation, we quantified the S100C mRNA expression level with real-time PCR in bladder cancer biopsy samples obtained from 88 patients followed for a median of 23 months (range, 1-97 months).
RESULTS: We found a significantly lower mRNA expression of S100C in connective tissue invasive tumors (T1, P = 0.0030) and muscle invasive tumors [(T2-T4), P < 0.0001] compared with superficial tumors (Ta). A negative correlation between S100C and histopathologic grade (P = 0.0003) was also observed. Furthermore, the papillary type showed higher expression of S100C than did the solid type of the tumor (P < 0.0001). Importantly, we found that loss of S100C was associated with survival in bladder cancer patients (P = 0.0006).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that low expression of S100C is associated with poor survival in patients with bladder cancer. Furthermore, loss of S100C in T1 as compared with Ta stage tumors emphasize that S100C expression is suppressed early during bladder cancer development.

Reichling T, Goss KH, Carson DJ, et al.
Transcriptional profiles of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) mice are unique from those of embryonic intestine and identify novel gene targets dysregulated in human colorectal tumors.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(1):166-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is a major regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in normal intestinal epithelium. APC, in conjunction with AXIN and GSK-3beta, forms a complex necessary for the degradation of beta-catenin, thereby preventing beta-catenin/T-cell factor interaction and alteration of growth-controlling genes such as c-MYC and cyclin D1. Inappropriate activation of the Wnt pathway, via Apc/APC mutation, leads to gastrointestinal tumor formation in both the mouse and human. In order to discover novel genes that may contribute to tumor progression in the gastrointestinal tract, we used cDNA microarrays to identify 114 genes with altered levels of expression in Apc(Min) mouse adenomas from the duodenum, jejunum, and colon. Changes in the expression of 24 of these 114 genes were not observed during mouse development at embryonic day 16.5, postnatal day 1, or postnatal day 14 (relative to normal adult intestine). These 24 genes are not previously known Wnt targets. Seven genes were validated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis, whereas four genes were validated by in situ hybridization to mouse adenomas. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of human colorectal cancer cell lines and adenocarcinomas revealed that altered expression levels were also observed for six of the genes Igfbp5, Lcn2, Ly6d, N4wbp4 (PMEPA1), S100c, and Sox4.

Kanamori T, Takakura K, Mandai M, et al.
Increased expression of calcium-binding protein S100 in human uterine smooth muscle tumours.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2004; 10(10):735-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100 proteins belong to the EF-hand Ca(2+ )-binding protein family and regulate a variety of cellular processes via interaction with different target proteins. Several diseases, including cancer and melanoma, are related to the abnormal expression of S100 proteins, which are expressed in cell- and tissue-specific manners. We investigated the expression of S100 family members in human uterine smooth muscle tumours. Expression of six members of the S100 protein family: S100A1, A4, A6, A7, A10 and A11, was found in human uterine leiomyoma and myometrium tissue, but expression of other members was not detected by RT-PCR. Real-time PCR showed that S100A11 expression was significantly increased in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Suppression of S100A11 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to apoptosis, and the overexpression of S100A11 inhibited apoptosis in human uterine smooth muscle tumour cells. These findings suggest that S100A11 has an anti-apoptotic function and is related to the process of growth of human uterine leiomyoma.

Makino E, Sakaguchi M, Iwatsuki K, Huh NH
Introduction of an N-terminal peptide of S100C/A11 into human cells induces apoptotic cell death.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2004; 82(9):612-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100 proteins belong to the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein family and are involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes. Individual S100 proteins are expressed in cell- and tissue-specific manners, and functional deterioration of S100 proteins leads to a number of human diseases, including cancer. We previously demonstrated that S100C/A11 was translocated to nuclei and inhibited DNA synthesis in human keratinocytes when exposed to high Ca2+. In the present study we examined the effects of synthetic partial peptides of S100C/A11 on human carcinoma cell lines. Only an N-terminal peptide with 19 amino acid residues (MAK19) showed cytotoxicity to the cell lines in dose- and time-dependent manners when introduced into cells by flanking the HIV-TAT protein transduction domain (TAT-MAK19). Pulse field electrophoresis revealed that DNA of the treated cells was partially degradated. Annexin V, a marker of cellular apoptosis, was detected in the cells treated with TAT-MAK19 by immunostaining and flow cytometry. The induction of apoptotic cell death was apparently independent of p53, p21WAF1/CIP1, and caspase activity, but treatment with TAT-MAK19 resulted in partial translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the cytoplasm to nuclei. These results indicate that MAK19 induces apoptosis in human cell lines and may therefore lead to the establishment of a new molecular target for the treatment of human cancer.

Ji J, Zhao L, Wang X, et al.
Differential expression of S100 gene family in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004; 130(8):480-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the differential expression of the S100 gene family at the RNA level in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to find the relationship of the S100 gene family with ESCC.
METHODS: Firstly, the specific primers were designed for the different S100 genes with Software Primer 3, which required that both primer sequences of each S100 gene were from two different exons respectively. Then, the differential expression of 16 S100 genes was examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 62 cases of ESCC versus the corresponding normal esophageal mucosa. All RT-PCR products were analyzed by 1.5% agarose gel. With Fluor-S MultiImager and Multi-Analyst software, the electrophoresis images were evaluated with statistics analysis using SAS 8.1 software.
RESULTS: Eleven out of 16 S100 genes were significantly downregulated ( p<0.05) in ESCC versus the normal counterparts such as S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A12, S100A14, S100B, and S100P genes. Only the S100A7 gene in the S100 family was markedly upregulated ( p<0.05). Moreover, the S100B gene was significantly correlated with histological differentiation of ESCC ( p=0.0247), and the deregulation of some S100 genes was closely correlated ( p<0.05), such as S100A10/S100A11, S100A2/S100A8, S100A2/S100A14, S100A8/S100A14, and S100A2/S100P etc.
CONCLUSIONS: The S100 gene family is closely associated with ESCC.

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