Research IndicatorsGraph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SLC9A3R1 (cancer-related)
Greco MR, Bon E, Rubino R, et al.Phosphorylation of NHERF1 S279 and S301 differentially regulates breast cancer cell phenotype and metastatic organotropism.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019; 1865(1):26-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastatic cancer cells are highly plastic for the expression of different tumor phenotype hallmarks and organotropism. This plasticity is highly regulated but the dynamics of the signaling processes orchestrating the shift from one cell phenotype and metastatic organ pattern to another are still largely unknown. The scaffolding protein NHERF1 has been shown to regulate the expression of different neoplastic phenotypes through its PDZ domains, which forms the mechanistic basis for metastatic organotropism. This reprogramming activity was postulated to be dependent on its differential phosphorylation patterns. Here, we show that NHERF1 phosphorylation on S279/S301 dictates several tumor phenotypes such as in vivo invasion, NHE1-mediated matrix digestion, growth and vasculogenic mimicry. Remarkably, injecting mice with cells having differential NHERF1 expression and phosphorylation drove a shift from the predominantly lung colonization (WT NHERF1) to predominately bone colonization (double S279A/S301A mutant), indicating that NHERF1 phosphorylation also acts as a signaling switch in metastatic organotropism.
Wang Q, Song R, Zhao C, et al.HPV16 E6 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by downregulation of NHERF1.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1619-1632 [PubMed
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HPV16 is the predominant type of HPV causing invasive cervical cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the unparalleled carcinogenic power of HPV16 compared to other types of high-risk (HR)-HPV including HPV18 remains elusive. The PDZ binding motif (PBM) of high-risk HPV E6 plays an important role in neoplasia and progression of cervical cancer. HPV16 E6 rather than HPV18 E6, interacted with NHERF1 by its PBM region, and induced degradation of NHERF1. NHERF1 retarded the assembly of cytoskeleton by downregulation of ACTN4, thereby inhibited the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells in both cell and mouse model. HPV16 E6 was confirmed to enhance actin polymerization with increased ACTN4 level by downregulation of NHERF1, and result in enhanced migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. GSEA analysis of cervical cancer specimens also showed that HPV16 E6 rather than HPV18 E6, was significantly associated with actin cytoskeleton assembly. That downregulation of NHERF1 by HPV16 E6 promoted cytoskeleton assembly and cell invasion, was an important cause in cervical cancer carcinogenesis. These findings provided the differential mechanism between HPV16 E6 and HPV18 E6 in the development and progression of cervical cancer, which may partially explain the differences of carcinogenic power between these two types of HR-HPVs.
The degree of intrinsic and interpatient phenotypic heterogeneity and its role in tumor evolution is poorly understood. Phenotypic drifts can be transmitted via inheritable transcriptional programs. Cell-type specific transcription is maintained through the activation of epigenetically defined regulatory regions including promoters and enhancers. Here we have annotated the epigenome of 47 primary and metastatic estrogen-receptor (ERα)-positive breast cancer clinical specimens and inferred phenotypic heterogeneity from the regulatory landscape, identifying key regulatory elements commonly shared across patients. Shared regions contain a unique set of regulatory information including the motif for transcription factor YY1. We identify YY1 as a critical determinant of ERα transcriptional activity promoting tumor growth in most luminal patients. YY1 also contributes to the expression of genes mediating resistance to endocrine treatment. Finally, we used H3K27ac levels at active enhancer elements as a surrogate of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity to track the expansion and contraction of phenotypic subpopulations throughout breast cancer progression. By tracking the clonality of SLC9A3R1-positive cells, a bona fide YY1-ERα-regulated gene, we show that endocrine therapies select for phenotypic clones under-represented at diagnosis. Collectively, our data show that epigenetic mechanisms significantly contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity and evolution in systemically treated breast cancer patients.
Guo Y, Wang M, Jia X, et al.Wnt signaling pathway upregulates DNMT1 to trigger NHERF1 promoter hypermethylation in colon cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):1165-1173 [PubMed
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NHERF1 is downregulated and has been identified as a new marker of colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of NHERF1 downregulation in colon cancer is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the NHERF1 mRNA level was downregulated and correlated with outcomes in colon cancer patients. NHERF1 expression was associated with EMT phenotype. High levels of promoter methylation of NHERF1 in colon cancer were observed. NHERF1 expression was restored by demethylation treatment. In addition, a negative correlation between methylation and mRNA expression of NHERF1 was observed in the TCGA dataset. Moreover, DNMT1 inhibited NHERF1 expression in vivo. DNMT1 expression was found to be negatively correlated with NHERF1 and NHERF1 expression was also restored by a DNMT1 inhibitor. DNMT1 and NHERF1 were regulated by the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, among DNMT1 high expression patients, the Wnt signaling pathway was negatively correlated with NHERF1 expression. In contrast, among DNMT1 low expression patients, the Wnt signaling pathway was not correlated with NHERF1 expression. In conclusion, Wnt signaling increases DNMT1 expression. DNMT1 contributes to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic NHERF1 silencing in colon cancer. In addition, we provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of NHERF1 expression and occurrence/progression of colon cancer.
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.
Nuclear activated β-catenin plays a causative role in colorectal cancers (CRC) but remains an elusive therapeutic target. Using human CRC cells harboring different Wnt/β-catenin pathway mutations in APC/KRAS or β-catenin/KRAS genes, and both genetic and pharmacological knockdown approaches, we show that oncogenic β-catenin signaling negatively regulates the expression of NHERF1 (Na
Yang F, Gu Y, Zhao Z, et al.NHERF1 Suppresses Lung Cancer Cell Migration by Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4405-4414 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) has been reported to interact with many cancer-related proteins and plays an important role in cancer progression. However, little is known about the biological functions of NHERF1 in lung cancer cells. The aim of the current study was to explore whether NHERF1 is involved in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of NHERF1 and EMT-associated markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) and snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SLUG) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The migratory properties of cells were assessed using a wound-healing assay.
RESULTS: TGF-β1-induced a pro-migratory response in the A549 lung cancer cell line, that was consistently associated with corresponding changes in the expression levels of EMT-related genes. The expression of NHERF1 significantly decreased in the TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. Overexpression of NHERF1 significantly inhibited the migratory ability of cells and reversed the TGF-β1-induced mesenchymal phenotype of A549 cells.
CONCLUSION: These data showed an important role of NHERF1 in the EMT of non-small-cell lung cancer cells, as well as migration.
Wang L, Qi Y, Xiong Y, et al.Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin Binding Phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) Suppresses the Metastasis of Breast Cancer and HeLa Cells by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4353-4360 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Expression of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) is correlated with human breast and cervical cancer development, but its effects on the metastasis of breast and cervical cancer and the underlying mechanism are not fully understood.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, EBP50 was overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HeLa cervical cancer cells; moreover, EBP50 was knocked-down in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HeLa cells. Metastasis-related ability and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity of these cells were investigated.
RESULTS: Cell adhesion, wound-healing and invasion were significantly suppressed in EBP50-overexpressing cells. Contrarily, EBP50-knockdown promoted cell adhesion, wound healing and invasion. EBP50 overexpression inhibited MMP-2 activity, and the knockdown of EBP50 promoted the activity of MMP-2, suggesting that EBP50 inhibited cell metastasis via suppression of MMP-2 activity.
CONCLUSION: Our work reveals the anti-metastatic effect and a new mechanism of EBP50 action in breast and cervical cancer cells.
Wang Y, Peng Z, Meng R, et al.NHERF1 inhibits proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells by suppressing GPER signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(1):221-228 [PubMed
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G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) signaling is activated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); however, the detailed mechanisms of its regulation remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in GPER activation in TNBC. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a TNBC cell line, NHERF1 interaction with GPER was verified by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent staining assays. Overexpression of NHERF1 in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited GPER-mediated proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Furthermore, NHERF1 expression levels were negatively correlated with the gene signatures of GPER activation, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, and cell proliferation in early stage of TNBC tumors from the TCGA data set. Taken together, NHERF1 inhibited the activation of GPER-mediated signaling and suppressed the proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Loss of NHERF1 expression may play a pivotal role in the early stage of TNBC carcinogenesis.
We examined whether the scaffolding protein sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) interacts with the calcium pump PMCA2 and the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2/HER2 in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. NHERF1 interacts with the PDZ-binding motif in PMCA2 in both normal and malignant breast cells. NHERF1 expression is increased in HER2-positive breast cancers and correlates with HER2-positive status in human ductal carcinoma
Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na⁺/H⁺ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors.
Yang X, Du G, Yu Z, et al.A Novel NHERF1 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer and Effects on Malignant Progression.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):67-73 [PubMed
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NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor molecule that interacts with β-catenin, YAP, and PTEN, has been recently implicated in the progression of various human malignancies, including colorectal cancer. We report here that NHERF1 acts as a tumor suppressor in vivo for intestinal adenoma development. NHERF1 is highly expressed at the apical membrane of mucosa intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and serosa mesothelial cells. NHERF1-deficient mice show overall longer small intestine and colon that most likely could be attributed to a combination of defects, including altered apical brush border of absorbtive IECs and increased number of secretory IECs. NHERF1 deficiency in Apc(Min/+) mice resulted in significantly shorter animal survival due to markedly increased tumor burden. This resulted from a moderate increase of the overall tumor density, more pronounced in females than males, and a massive increase in the number of large adenomas in both genders. The analysis of possible pathways controlling tumor size showed upregulation of Wnt-β-catenin pathway, higher expression of unphosphorylated YAP, and prominent nuclear expression of cyclin D1 in NHERF1-deficient tumors. Similar YAP changes, with relative decrease of phosphorylated YAP and increase of nuclear YAP expression, were observed as early as the adenoma stages in the progression of human colorectal cancer. This study discusses a complex role of NHERF1 for intestinal morphology and presents indisputable evidence for its in vivo tumor suppressor function upstream of Wnt-β-catenin and Hippo-YAP pathways.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) plays an important role in mediating the effects of estradiol. High levels of GPER have been implicated to associate with the malignant progress of invasive breast cancer (IBC). However, the mechanisms by which GPER protein levels were regulated remain unclear. In this study, PDZ protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) was found to interact with GPER in breast cancer cells. This interaction was mediated by the PDZ2 domain of NHERF1 and the carboxyl terminal PDZ binding motif of GPER. NHERF1 was demonstrated to facilitate GPER expression at post-transcriptional level and improve GPER protein stability by inhibiting the receptor degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in a GPER/NHERF1 interaction-dependent manner. In addition, GPER protein levels are positively associated with NHERF1 protein levels in a panel of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, analysis of clinical IBC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed no significant difference in GPER mRNA levels between ER-positive IBC and normal breast tissues. However, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that GPER signaling is ultra-activated in ER-positive IBC when compared with normal and its activation is positively associated with NHERF1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our findings identify NHERF1 as a new binding partner for GPER and its overexpression promotes protein stability and activation of GPER in ER-positive IBC. Our data indicate that regulation of GPER stability by NHERF1 may contribute to GPER-mediated carcinogenesis in ER-positive IBC.
The adaptor protein NHERF1 (Na/H exchanger-3 regulatory factor-1) and its associated ezrin-radixin-moesin-merlin/neurofibromin-2 (ERM-NF2) family proteins are required for epithelial morphogenesis and have been implicated in cancer progression. NHERF1 is expressed in ependymal cells and constitutes a highly sensitive diagnostic marker for ependymoma, where it labels membrane polarity structures. Since NHERF1 and ERM-NF2 proteins show polarized expression in choroid plexus (CP) cells, we tested their diagnostic utility in CP neoplasms. NHERF1 immunohistochemistry in 43 adult and pediatric tumors with papillary morphology revealed strong apical plasma membrane staining in CP papilloma (WHO grade I) and cytoplasmic expression in CP carcinoma (WHO grade III). Ezrin and moesin showed similar but less distinctive staining. NHERF1 also labeled papillary tumors of the pineal region in a microlumen and focal apical membrane pattern, suggestive of a transitional morphology between CP papilloma and ependymoma. CP tumors of all grades could be differentiated from metastatic carcinomas with papillary architecture by NF2, which showed polarized membranous staining in CP tumors. NHERF1 and NF2 immunohistochemistry showed enhanced sensitivity and specificity for CP tumors compared to commonly used markers, including cytokeratins and Kir7.1, emerging as reliable diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of papillary tumors of the central nervous system.
Yoshida M, Zhao L, Grigoryan G, et al.Deletion of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 represses colon cancer progress by suppression of Stat3 and CD24.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016; 310(8):G586-98 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) family of proteins is scaffolds that orchestrate interaction of receptors and cellular proteins. Previous studies have shown that NHERF1 functions as a tumor suppressor. The goal of this study is to determine whether the loss of NHERF2 alters colorectal cancer (CRC) progress. We found that NHERF2 expression is elevated in advanced-stage CRC. Knockdown of NHERF2 decreased cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse xenograft tumor model. In addition, deletion of NHERF2 in Apc(Min/+) mice resulted in decreased tumor growth in Apc(Min/+) mice and increased lifespan. Blocking NHERF2 interaction with a small peptide designed to bind the second PDZ domain of NHERF2 attenuated cancer cell proliferation. Although NHERF2 is known to facilitate the effects of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 (LPA2), transcriptome analysis of xenograft tumors revealed that NHERF2-dependent genes largely differ from LPA2-regulated genes. Activation of β-catenin and ERK1/2 was mitigated in Apc(Min/+);Nherf2(-/-) adenomas. Moreover, Stat3 phosphorylation and CD24 expression levels were suppressed in Apc(Min/+);Nherf2(-/-) adenomas. Consistently, NHERF2 knockdown attenuated Stat3 activation and CD24 expression in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, CD24 was important in the maintenance of Stat3 phosphorylation, whereas NHERF2-dependent increase in CD24 expression was blocked by inhibition of Stat3, suggesting that NHERF2 regulates Stat3 phosphorylation through a positive feedback mechanism between Stat3 and CD24. In summary, this study identifies NHERF2 as a novel oncogenic protein and a potential target for cancer treatment. NHERF2 potentiates the oncogenic effects in part by regulation of Stat3 and CD24.
Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires TH, Clapéron A, Mergey M, et al.Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 mediates resistance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human hepatobiliary cancer cells.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 89:34-46 [PubMed
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The development and progression of liver cancer are characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-induced oxidative stress impairs cell proliferation and ultimately leads to cell death. Although liver cancer cells are especially resistant to oxidative stress, mechanisms of such resistance remain understudied. We identified the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2)/heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) signaling pathway mediating defenses against oxidative stress. In addition to MK2 and Hsp27 overexpression in primary liver tumors compared to adjacent nontumorous tissues, the MK2/Hsp27 pathway is activated by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in hepatobiliary cancer cells. MK2 inactivation or inhibition of MK2 or Hsp27 expression increases caspase-3 and PARP cleavage and DNA breaks and therefore cell death. Interestingly, MK2/Hsp27 inhibition decreases antioxidant defenses such as heme oxygenase 1 through downregulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2. Moreover, MK2/Hsp27 inhibition decreases both phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and expression of its ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. A new identified partner of MK2, the scaffold PDZ protein EBP50, could facilitate these effects through MK2/Hsp27 pathway regulation. These findings demonstrate that the MK2/Hsp27 pathway actively participates in resistance to oxidative stress and may contribute to liver cancer progression.
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are thought to silence transposon and gene expression during development. However, the roles of piRNAs in somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 555 piRNAs in human lung bronchial epithelial (HBE) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, including 295 that do not exist in databases termed as piRNA-like sncRNAs or piRNA-Ls. Distinctive piRNA/piRNA-L expression patterns are observed between HBE and NSCLC cells. piRNA-like-163 (piR-L-163), the top downregulated piRNA-L in NSCLC cells, binds directly to phosphorylated ERM proteins (p-ERM), which is dependent on the central part of UUNNUUUNNUU motif in piR-L-163 and the RRRKPDT element in ERM. The piR-L-163/p-ERM interaction is critical for p-ERM's binding capability to filamentous actin (F-actin) and ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Thus, piRNA/piRNA-L may play a regulatory role through direct interaction with proteins in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein required for epithelial morphogenesis, has been implicated in the progression of various human malignancies. NHERF1-deficient mice have intestinal brush border structural defects and we report here that they also have disorganized ependymal cilia with development of non-obstructive hydrocephalus. Examination of mouse and human brain tissues revealed highest NHERF1 expression at the apical plasma membrane of ependymal cells. In ependymal tumors, NHERF1 expression was retained in polarized membrane structures, such as microlumens, rosettes and canals, where it co-localized with some of its ligands, such as moesin and PTEN. Analysis of a comprehensive panel of 113 tumors showed robust NHERF1 labeling of microlumens in 100% of ependymomas, subependymomas, and pediatric anaplastic ependymomas, and in 67% of adult anaplastic ependymomas. NHERF1 staining was present in 35% of ependymoma cases that lacked reactivity for EMA, the routine immunohistochemical marker used for ependymoma diagnosis. NHERF1 labeling of microlumens was either absent or rarely seen in other types of brain tumors analyzed, denoting NHERF1 as a reliable diagnostic marker of ependymal tumors. Anaplastic foci and a subset of adult anaplastic ependymomas showed complete absence of NHERF1-labeled polarity structures, consistent with a loss of differentiation in these aggressive tumors. These data highlight a role for NHERF1 in ependymal morphogenesis with direct application to the diagnosis of ependymal tumors.
PTEN has been studied in several tumor models as a tumor suppressor. In this study, we explored the role of PTEN in the inhibition state of polarized M2 subtype of macrophage in tumor microenvironment (TME) and the underlying mechanisms. To elucidate the potential effect in TME, RAW 264.7 macrophages and 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were co-cultured to reconstruct tumor microenvironment. After PTEN was down-regulated with shRNA, the expression of CCL2 and VEGF-A, which are definited to promote the formation of M2 macrophages, have a dramatically increase on the level of both gene and protein in co-cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. And at the same time, NHERF-1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulating factor-1), another tumor suppressor has a similar tendency to PTEN. Q-PCR and WB results suggested that PTEN and NHERF-1 were consistent with one another no matter at mRNA or protein level when exposed to the same stimulus. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence techniques confirmed that PTEN and NHERF-1 were coprecipitated, and NHERF-1 protein expression was properly reduced with rCCL2 effect. In addition, cell immunofluorescence images revealed a profound transferance, in co-cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, an up-regulation of NHERF-1 could promote the PTEN marked expression on the cell membrane, and this form for the interaction was not negligible. These observations illustrate PTEN with a certain synergy of NHERF-1, as well as down-regulation of CCL2 suppressing M2 macrophage transformation pathway. The results suggest that the activation of PTEN and NHERF-1 may impede the evolution of macrophages beyond the M1 into M2 phenotype in tumor microenvironment.
Wang L, Du YR, Ji MY, et al.Reduced EBP50 expression or mis-localization of the EBP50 protein is associated with the malignant progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(24):3854-63 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the significance of EBP50 (ezrin-radixin-moesin binding phosphoprotein 50) expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to detect EBP50 expression in pairs of ESCCs and matched non-tumor tissues, and the relationships between EBP50 expression and other clinical factors in ESCC were analyzed. An iRNA targeting EBP50 was transfected into EC9706 cells. MTT and plate colony assays were performed to assess the effects of EBP50 down-regulation on cell growth, and flow cytometry was used to evaluate the influence of inhibiting EBP50 on cell cycle progression.
RESULTS: The real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining results showed that EBP50 expression was significantly lower in ESCCs compared to matched non-tumor tissues. In addition, decreased EBP50 expression correlated with differentiation, T stage, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients with ESCC. The down-regulation of EBP50 may significantly promote the growth and proliferation of EC9706 cells while accelerating cell cycle progression from the G1to S phase.
CONCLUSIONS: EBP50 expression was decreased in ESCC, indicating that EBP50 might play a significant role in the malignant progression of ESCC and be a prognostic marker for patients with ESCC.
The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors.
Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a critical process in tumor cell invasion and requires matrix degrading protrusions called invadopodia. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) has recently been shown to be fundamental in the regulation of invadopodia actin cytoskeleton dynamics and activity. However, the structural link between the invadopodia cytoskeleton and NHE1 is still unknown. A candidate could be ezrin, a linker between the NHE1 and the actin cytoskeleton known to play a pivotal role in invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanistic basis for its role remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ezrin phosphorylated at T567 is highly overexpressed in the membrane of human breast tumors and positively associated with invasive growth and HER2 overexpression. Further, in the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, p-ezrin was almost exclusively expressed in invadopodia lipid rafts where it co-localized in a functional complex with NHE1, EGFR, ß1-integrin and phosphorylated-NHERF1. Manipulation by mutation of ezrins T567 phosphorylation state and/or PIP2 binding capacity or of NHE1s binding to ezrin or PIP2 demonstrated that p-ezrin expression and binding to PIP2 are required for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation and invasion and identified NHE1 as the membrane protein that p-ezrin regulates to induce invadopodia formation and activity.
Cuello-Carrión FD, Cayado-Gutiérrez N, Natoli AL, et al.In MMTV-Her-2/neu transgenic mammary tumors the absence of caveolin-1-/- alters PTEN and NHERF1 but not β-catenin expression.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013; 18(5):559-67 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In a recent study, we have shown that in mammary tumors from mice lacking the Cav-1 gene, there are alterations in specific heat shock proteins as well as in tumor development. With this in mind, we have now investigated other proteins in the same mammary mouse tumor model (Her-2/neu expressing mammary tumors from Cav-1 wild type and Cav-1 null mice), to further comprehend the complex tumor-stroma mechanisms involved in regulating stress responses during tumor development. In this tumor model the cancer cells always lacked of Cav-1, so the KO influenced the Cav-1 in the stroma. By immunohistochemistry, we have found a striking co-expression of β-catenin and Her-2/neu in the tumor cells. The absence of Cav-1 in the tumor stroma had no effect on expression or localization of β-catenin and Her-2/neu. Both proteins appeared co-localized at the cell surface during tumor development and progression. Since Her-2/neu activation induces MTA1, we next evaluated MTA1 in the mouse tumors. Although this protein was found in numerous nuclei, the absence of Cav-1 did not alter its expression level. In contrast, significantly more PTEN protein was noted in the tumors lacking Cav-1 in the stroma, with the protein localized mainly in the nuclei. P-Akt levels were relatively low in tumors from both Cav-1 WT and Cav-1 KO mice. There was also an increase in nuclear NHERF1 expression levels in the tumors arising from Cav-1 KO mice. The data obtained in the MMTV-neu model are consistent with a role for Cav-1 in adjacent breast cancer stromal cells in modulating the expression and localization of important proteins implicated in tumor cell behavior.
Ji MY, Fan DK, Lv XG, et al.The detection of EBP50 expression using quantum dot immunohistochemistry in pancreatic cancer tissue and down-regulated EBP50 effect on PC-2 cells.
J Mol Histol. 2012; 43(5):517-26 [PubMed
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Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is a putative tumor suppressor that is correlated with many human cancers. However, the function of EBP50 in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been described. In this paper, the EBP50 expression level in PC tissues was characterized. In vitro, the effects of EBP50 down-regulation by siRNA in PC-2 and MiaPaCa-2 cells were evaluated. In addition, possible mechanisms that mediate the influence of EBP50 were examined. Our results show that the EBP50 expression pattern changes during transformation as there is a loss of the normal apical membrane distribution and an ectopic cytoplasmic over-expression of EBP50; furthermore, the EBP50 expression level is subsequently decreased during malignant progression. Down-regulation of EBP50 promoted cancer cell proliferation, increased the colony-forming ability of cells and accelerated the G1-to-S progression. Additionally, the loss of EBP50 accentuated β-catenin activity, increased cyclin E and phosphorylated Rb expression, and attenuated p27 expression compared to control cells. Our results suggest that EBP50 may function as a potential tumor suppressor.
Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation, potentially through its regulatory effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Thus in our studies, we aimed to determine the effect of EBP50 expression on EGF-induced cell proliferation and activation of EGFR signaling in the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In MDA-MB-231 cells, which express low levels of EBP50, EBP50 overexpression inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. In MCF-7 cells, which express high levels of EBP50, EBP50 knockdown promoted EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Knockdown of EBP50 in EBP50-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and restoration of EBP50 expression in EBP50-knockdown MCF-7 cells rescued the inhibition of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, further confirming that the activation of EGF-induced downstream molecules could be specifically inhibited by EBP50 expression. Since EGFR signaling was triggered by EGF ligands via EGFR phosphorylation, we further detected the phosphorylation status of EGFR in the presence or absence of EBP50 expression. Overexpression of EBP50 in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of EBP50 in MCF-7 cells enhanced EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation. Meanwhile, total expression levels of EGFR were unaffected during EGF stimulation. Taken together, our data shows that EBP50 can suppress EGF-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation and blocking EGFR downstream signaling in breast cancer cells. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanism by which EBP50 regulates the development and progression of breast cancer.
Lin YY, Hsu YH, Huang HY, et al.Aberrant nuclear localization of EBP50 promotes colorectal carcinogenesis in xenotransplanted mice by modulating TCF-1 and β-catenin interactions.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(5):1881-94 [PubMed
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Dysregulation of canonical Wnt signaling is thought to play a role in colon carcinogenesis. β-Catenin, a key mediator of the pathway, is stabilized upon Wnt activation and accumulates in the nucleus, where it can interact with the transcription factor T cell factor (TCF) to transactivate gene expression. Normal colonic epithelia express a truncated TCF-1 form, called dnTCF-1, that lacks the critical β-catenin-binding domain and behaves as a transcriptional suppressor. How the cell maintains a balance between the two forms of TCF-1 is unclear. Here, we show that ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) modulates the interaction between β-catenin and TCF-1. We observed EBP50 localization to the nucleus of human colorectal carcinoma cell lines at low cell culture densities and human primary colorectal tumors that manifested a poor clinical outcome. In contrast, EBP50 was primarily membranous in confluent cell lines. Aberrantly located EBP50 stabilized conventional β-catenin/TCF-1 complexes and connected β-catenin to dnTCF-1 to form a ternary molecular complex that enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling events, including the transcription of downstream oncogenes such as c-Myc and cyclin D1. Genome-wide analysis of the EBP50 occupancy pattern revealed consensus binding motifs bearing similarity to Wnt-responsive element. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that EBP50 bound to genomic regions highly enriched with TCF/LEF binding motifs. Knockdown of EBP50 in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines compromised cell cycle progression, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. We therefore suggest that nuclear EBP50 facilitates colon tumorigenesis by modulating the interaction between β-catenin and TCF-1.
Lv XG, Ji MY, Dong WG, et al.EBP50 gene transfection promotes 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through Bax- and Bcl-2-triggered mitochondrial pathways.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(5):1220-6 [PubMed
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5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) plays an important role in the chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer. However, genetic factors that affect therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU warrant further investigation. In the present study, using stable transfection of the ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) gene, we explored the genetic influences on 5-FU-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells. Stable overexpression of the EBP50 gene was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and western blot analysis. After treatment with 5-FU, cell growth activities in vitro were investigated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Compared with the BGC823 or BGC823/neo cells, EBP50 mRNA and protein levels in the BGC823/EBP50 cells (EBP50-transfected BGC823 cells) were markedly higher. Chemosensitivity and apoptosis rates of the BGC823/EBP50 cells were higher compared to the BGC823 and BGC823/neo cells following treatment with 5-FU. Stable overexpression of extrinsic EBP50 distinctly increases the 5-FU-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, and is a novel strategy by which to improve the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer to 5-FU.
Troncoso M, Cuello Carrión FD, Guiñazu E, et al.Expression of NHERF1 in colonic tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats is independent of plasma ovarian steroids.
Horm Cancer. 2011; 2(4):214-23 [PubMed
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In normal embryonic fibroblasts, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) stabilizes E-cadherin/β-catenin binding and the lack of NHERF1 expression promotes cell transformation thus acting as a tumor suppressor gene. We here tested the hypothesis that NHERF1 could act as a tumor suppressor gene in colon cancer as a mediator of estrogens' protective actions in colon carcinogenesis. We studied the expression and localization of NHERF1 and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in colonic tumors induced by 1,2 dimethylhidrazine (DMH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. One group of the rats treated with the carcinogen was ovariectomized (OVX) in the middle of the tumor induction, simulating a human menopausal condition. We observed a protective role of estrogens in colon cancer, as non-ovariectomized rats (DMH) had a reduced tumor area compared with the ovariectomized group (DMH + OVX; mean ± SE) 28.98 ± 4.65 vs. 67.58 ± 8.69 (p < 0.00380). Despite the lack of plasma estrogen stimulation, we found abundant expression of NHERF1 in colon tumors from ovariectomized rats. NHERF1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of the adenocarcinoma cells and lost the apical localization previously reported in normal colon tissue. We also detected expression of NHERF1 by western blot in the SW48, CACO-2, and HT29 colon cancer cell lines. Non-estrogenic factors in plasma or the tumor microenvironment may regulate NHERF1 expression in transformed colon epithelial cells. Further studies are required to understand the regulation of NHERF1 expression in colon cancer tissue.
Mangia A, Malfettone A, Saponaro C, et al.Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1, and breast cancer susceptibility gene-1 as new biomarkers for familial breast cancers.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(11):1589-95 [PubMed
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the analysis of markers related with progression, to further characterize familial breast cancers. Here, we investigated the expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 in 187 microarrayed breast carcinomas from 94 familial and 93 sporadic breast cancer patients by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, the expression levels of these biomarkers were compared with triple-negative phenotype. Familiarity was significantly associated with younger age (P < .000), higher tumor grade (P = .038), negative estrogen receptor hormonal status (P = .036), and high proliferative activity (P = .029). The familial cancers were immunonegative for membranous Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression compared with sporadic cancers (P = .001); notably, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 staining correlated with cytoplasmic Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression in familial tumors (P = .009). In multivariate analysis, the "new biomarkers," including negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (odds ratio, 4.538; 95% confidence interval, 1.756-11.728), negative membranous Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression (odds ratio, 7.686; 95% confidence interval, 1.876-31.483) and positive nuclear breast cancer susceptibility gene-1 (odds ratio, 0.3982; 95% confidence interval, 0.169-0.936), significantly correlated with family history of breast cancer. We hypothesize that the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1, and breast cancer susceptibility gene-1 could be clinically useful to identify familial breast tumors and to select patients candidate to breast cancer susceptibility genes 1/2 gene sequencing.