Gene Summary

Gene:TCF7L1; transcription factor 7 like 1
Aliases: TCF3, TCF-3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. These transcription factors are activated by beta catenin, mediate the Wnt signaling pathway and are antagonized by the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor 7-like 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer DNA
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • DNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Chromosome 17
  • Chromosome 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • gamma Catenin
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Chromosome 19
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • TCF Transcription Factors
  • Chromosome 2
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • beta Catenin
  • Translocation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Transcription Factor Brn-3A
  • Gene Rearrangement
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TCF7L1 (cancer-related)

Tang E, Wang Y, Liu T, Yan B
Gastrin promotes angiogenesis by activating HIF-1α/β-catenin/VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.
Gene. 2019; 704:42-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is recognized as a sign of cancer and facilitates cancer progression and metastasis. Suppression of angiogenesis is a desirable strategy for gastric cancer (GC) management. In this study, we showed a novel role of gastrin in angiogenesis of GC. We observed that treatment with gastrin 17 (G17) increased the proliferation of AGS cells and enhanced tube formation during normoxia and hypoxia. The expression level of VEGF were increased by G17 treatment as well. Experiments on the mechanism showed that G17 promoted HIF-1α expression, which subsequently enhanced β-catenin nuclear localization and activation of TCF3 and LEF1 and finally resulted in angiogenesis by upregulating VEGF. An in vivo experiment confirmed that G17 enhanced GC cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the resultant tumor. In conclusion, our findings indicate that gastrin promotes angiogenesis via activating HIF-1α/β-catenin/VEGF axis in GC.

López C, Kleinheinz K, Aukema SM, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic changes complement each other in the pathogenesis of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1459 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common B-cell lymphoma in children. Within the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), we performed whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of 39 sporadic BL. Here, we unravel interaction of structural, mutational, and transcriptional changes, which contribute to MYC oncogene dysregulation together with the pathognomonic IG-MYC translocation. Moreover, by mapping IGH translocation breakpoints, we provide evidence that the precursor of at least a subset of BL is a B-cell poised to express IGHA. We describe the landscape of mutations, structural variants, and mutational processes, and identified a series of driver genes in the pathogenesis of BL, which can be targeted by various mechanisms, including IG-non MYC translocations, germline and somatic mutations, fusion transcripts, and alternative splicing.

Zhang B, Wu J, Cai Y, et al.
TCF7L1 indicates prognosis and promotes proliferation through activation of Keap1/NRF2 in gastric cancer.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2019; 51(4):375-385 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Although significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment for the cancer, less improvement has been made in overall survival rate. Thus, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the biological aspects of the cancer. The transcription factor transcription factor 7-like 1 (TCF7L1) is an embryonic stem cell signature gene that is upregulated in multiple aggressive cancer types, but its role in gastric cancer has seldom been discussed. In the present study, by using the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset analysis, we demonstrated that patients with higher expression of TCF7L1 could be used to reflect prognosis. An examination of the mechanisms demonstrated that TCF7L1 could positively regulate antioxidant response in gastric cancer cells by positively regulating Keap1/NRF2 [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] pathway. Collectively, our data demonstrated that TCF7L1 is a novel marker for predicting overall survival of gastric cancer and provided the possible underlying molecular mechanism.

Karvonen H, Perttilä R, Niininen W, et al.
Wnt5a and ROR1 activate non-canonical Wnt signaling via RhoA in TCF3-PBX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and highlight new treatment strategies via Bcl-2 co-targeting.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3288-3300 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with TCF3-PBX1 fusion gene expression has constitutively elevated levels of Wnt16b and ROR1 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor), a ligand and a receptor from the Wnt signaling pathway, respectively. Although survival rate is usually high after the initial chemotherapy, many TCF3-PBX1 BCP-ALL patients relapse and subsequently develop treatment resistance, resulting in poor prognosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular signaling associated with Wnt16b and ROR1 overexpression in TCF3-PBX1 cell lines and primary samples, and to identify effective treatment options via ROR1 targeting. We detected higher ROR1 expression on TCF3-PBX1 leukemic cells even at a later stage of patient relapse, providing a strong rationale for the use of ROR1-targeted therapy. We found that Wnt5a-ROR1 signaling enhances proliferation of TCF3-PBX1 cells via RhoA/Rac1 GTPases activation and STAT3 upregulation. Wnt16b also activated the RhoA/Rac1 signaling cascade suggesting the activation of a non-canonical Wnt pathway in TCF3-PBX1 cells. Wnt16 could interact with ROR1 but not in TCF3-PBX1 cells, suggesting that Wnt5a is the ligand signaling via ROR1 in TCF3-PBX1 cells. By high throughput drug-sensitivity testing of TCF3-PBX1 cells before and after ROR1 knockdown we found that targeting ROR1 significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of Bcl-2 family inhibitors venetoclax and navitoclax, and this synergism was confirmed ex vivo using a drug-resistant primary sample from a relapsed TCF3-PBX1 patient. Our work underlines a new type of targeted combination therapy that could be clinically advantageous for patients with TCF3-PBX1 BCP-ALL.

Zheng L, Hu N, Zhou X
TCF3-activated LINC00152 exerts oncogenic role in osteosarcoma through regulating miR-1182/CDK14 axis.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(2):373-380 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in tumorigenesis and diverse cellular processes in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the role of lncRNA LINC00152 in OS remains elusive. In this study, LINC00152 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, MTT and colony formation assays revealed that knockdown of LINC00152 significantly suppressed cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of LINC00152 knockdown on OS cell migration and invasion was analyzed and demonstrated by transwell assays. Additionally, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays suggested that LINC00152 was transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor TCF3. More importantly, mechanism investigation revealed that LINC00152 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of OS cells and acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in OS by regulating miR-1182/CDK14 axis. Collectively, LINC00152 was activated by TCF3 and promotes cell proliferation and migration in osteosarcoma via miR-1182-CDK14 axis.

Liu N, Song J, Xie Y, et al.
Different roles of E proteins in t(8;21) leukemia: E2-2 compromises the function of AETFC and negatively regulates leukemogenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(3):890-899 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The AML1-ETO fusion protein, generated by the t(8;21) chromosomal translocation, is causally involved in nearly 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. In leukemic cells, AML1-ETO resides in and functions through a stable protein complex, AML1-ETO-containing transcription factor complex (AETFC), that contains multiple transcription (co)factors. Among these AETFC components, HEB and E2A, two members of the ubiquitously expressed E proteins, directly interact with AML1-ETO, confer new DNA-binding capacity to AETFC, and are essential for leukemogenesis. However, the third E protein, E2-2, is specifically silenced in AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, suggesting E2-2 as a negative factor of leukemogenesis. Indeed, ectopic expression of E2-2 selectively inhibits the growth of AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, and this inhibition requires the bHLH DNA-binding domain. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses reveal that, despite some overlap, the three E proteins differentially regulate many target genes. In particular, studies show that E2-2 both redistributes AETFC to, and activates, some genes associated with dendritic cell differentiation and represses MYC target genes. In AML patients, the expression of E2-2 is relatively lower in the t(8;21) subtype, and an E2-2 target gene,

Barbosa TC, Lopes BA, Blunck CB, et al.
A novel PAX5 rearrangement in TCF3-PBX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(1):122 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromosome translocations are a hallmark of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Additional genomic aberrations are also crucial in both BCP-ALL leukemogenesis and treatment management. Herein, we report the phenotypic and molecular cytogenetic characterization of an extremely rare case of BCP-ALL harboring two concomitant leukemia-associated chromosome translocations: t(1;19)(q23;q13.3) and t(9;17)(p13;q11.2). Of note, we described a new rearrangement between exon 6 of PAX5 and a 17q11.2 region, where intron 3 of SPECC1 is located. This rearrangement seems to disrupt PAX5 similarly to a PAX5 deletion. Furthermore, a distinct karyotype between diagnosis and relapse samples was observed, disclosing a complex clonal evolution during leukemia progression.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 16-year-old boy was admitted febrile with abdominal and joint pain. At clinical investigation, he presented with anemia, splenomegaly, low white blood cell count and 92% lymphoblast. He was diagnosed with pre-B ALL and treated according to high risk GBTLI-ALL2009. Twelve months after complete remission, he developed a relapse in consequence of a high central nervous system and bone marrow infiltration, and unfortunately died.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a rearrangement between PAX5 and SPECC1. The presence of TCF3-PBX1 and PAX5-rearrangement at diagnosis and relapse indicates that both might have participated in the malignant transformation disease maintenance and dismal outcome.

Li JF, Dai YT, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Transcriptional landscape of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on an international study of 1,223 cases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11711-E11720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) can be classified into known major genetic subtypes, while a substantial proportion of BCP ALL remains poorly characterized in relation to its underlying genomic abnormalities. We therefore initiated a large-scale international study to reanalyze and delineate the transcriptome landscape of 1,223 BCP ALL cases using RNA sequencing. Fourteen BCP ALL gene expression subgroups (G1 to G14) were identified. Apart from extending eight previously described subgroups (G1 to G8 associated with

Kehl T, Schneider L, Kattler K, et al.
The role of TCF3 as potential master regulator in blastemal Wilms tumors.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(6):1432-1443 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumors are the most common type of pediatric kidney tumors. While the overall prognosis for patients is favorable, especially tumors that exhibit a blastemal subtype after preoperative chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. For an improved risk assessment and therapy stratification, it is essential to identify the driving factors that are distinctive for this aggressive subtype. In our study, we compared gene expression profiles of 33 tumor biopsies (17 blastemal and 16 other tumors) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The analysis of this dataset using the Regulator Gene Association Enrichment algorithm successfully identified several biomarkers and associated molecular mechanisms that distinguish between blastemal and nonblastemal Wilms tumors. Specifically, regulators involved in embryonic development and epigenetic processes like chromatin remodeling and histone modification play an essential role in blastemal tumors. In this context, we especially identified TCF3 as the central regulatory element. Furthermore, the comparison of ChIP-Seq data of Wilms tumor cell cultures from a blastemal mouse xenograft and a stromal tumor provided further evidence that the chromatin states of blastemal cells share characteristics with embryonic stem cells that are not present in the stromal tumor cell line. These stem-cell like characteristics could potentially add to the increased malignancy and chemoresistance of the blastemal subtype. Along with TCF3, we detected several additional biomarkers that are distinctive for blastemal Wilms tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and that may provide leads for new therapeutic regimens.

Chen X, Wang F, Zhang Y, et al.
Retrospective analysis of 36 fusion genes in 2479 Chinese patients of de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 72:99-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion genes are major molecular biological abnormalities in hematological malignancies. To depict the common recurrent gene-fusion landscape in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 36 recurrent fusion genes in hematologic malignancies were assessed using multiplex-nested RT-PCR in 2479 patients with de novo ALL. 17 kinds of distinct fusion genes were detected in 712 (28.72%) cases. Co-occurrence of different fusion genes was observed in 6 (0.24%) patients. Incidence of fusion genes in B-ALL was significantly higher than in T-ALL (31.40% vs. 14.50%, P < 0.001). Pediatric ALL had higher prevalence of ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and STIL-TAL1, while BCR-ABL1 and SET-NUP214 were more common in adult ALL. BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1, KMT2A-AFF1 and ETV6-RUNX1 were more frequent in B-ALL. On the contrary, KMT2A-MLLT4, SET-NUP214 and STIL-TAL1 were of higher incidence in T-ALL. In comparison with Western cohorts, the incidence of BCR-ABL1 (5.94%) was much higher in our series, while the occurrence of ETV6-RUNX1 (13.19%) was significantly lower in pediatric B-ALL patients in our study than in Western reports. This study provides a genetic landscape of common fusion genes in ALL patients and may serve as a foundation for further improvement of a fusion gene screening panel for clinical applications.

Zhou X, Xian W, Zhang J, et al.
YY1 binds to the E3' enhancer and inhibits the expression of the immunoglobulin κ gene via epigenetic modifications.
Immunology. 2018; 155(4):491-498 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin genes are regulated by enhancers and their binding transcriptional factors that activate or suppress the activities of the enhancers. The immunoglobulin κ (Igκ) gene locus has three important enhancers: the intrinsic enhancer (Ei), 3' enhancer (E3'), and distal enhancer (Ed). Ei and E3' are both required for Igκ gene rearrangement during early stages of B-cell development, whereas optimal expression of the rearranged Igκ gene relies on both E3' and Ed. The transcription factor YY1 affects the expression of many genes involved in B-cell development, probably by mediating interactions between their enhancers and promoters. Herein, we found that YY1 binds to the E3' enhancer and suppresses Igκ expression in B lymphoma cells by epigenetically modifying the enhancer. Knocking down YY1 enhanced Igκ expression, which was associated with increased levels of E2A (encoded by the TCF3 gene) and its binding to the E3' enhancer. Moreover, in germinal centre B cells and plasma cells, YY1 expression was reversely associated with Igκ levels, implying that YY1 might facilitate antibody affinity maturation in germinal centre B cells through the transient attenuation of Igκ expression.

Lin A, Cheng FWT, Chiang AKS, et al.
Excellent outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement in Hong Kong.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(12):e27346 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review clinical outcomes and prognosis of paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement.
PATIENTS: All children in Hong Kong diagnosed with ALL with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement over the past two decades were included.
METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-four newly diagnosed patients with ALL from four consecutive studies were enrolled from 1997 to 2016. Patients carrying TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement and patients at intermediate risk without the gene expression were compared for clinical characteristics, overall survival and event-free survival (EFS).
RESULTS: The TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement was detected in 30 of 624 patients (4.8%). Results were consistent across the consecutive clinical trials employed in the past two decades. Compared with 239 intermediate risk patients without TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement, the 5-year overall survival and EFS for patients with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement was superior, with both at 100% (P = 0.12 and P = 0.029).
CONCLUSION: This population-based study over the past 20 years demonstrated that patients with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangement had favourable EFS compared with other intermediate risk patients treated with a similar chemotherapy backbone.

Wang J, Tian Y, Chen H, et al.
Key signaling pathways, genes and transcription factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(6):8153-8160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using bioinformatics approaches. The microarray dataset GSE64041 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 60 tumor liver samples and 60 matched control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and control groups were identified. Then functional enrichment analyses, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network, sub‑network and integrated transcription factor (TF)‑microRNA (miRNA)‑target network analyses were performed for these DEGs. A total of 378 DEGs were obtained, including 101 upregulated and 277 downregulated DEGs. In addition, functional enrichment analysis for DEGs in the sub‑network revealed 'cell division' and 'cell cycle' as key Gene Ontology (GO) terms and pathways. Topoisomerase (DNA) IIα (TOP2A) and integrin subunit α2 (ITGA2) were hub nodes in the PPI network. TOP2A, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and polo like kinase 1 (PLK1) were revealed to be hub nodes in the sub‑network. Finally, 4 TFs including forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4), SIN3 transcription regulator family member A (SIN3A) and transcription factor 7 like 1 (TCF7L1) were obtained through integrated network analysis. TOP2A, ITGA2, PLK1 and CDK1 may be key genes involved in HCC development. 'Cell division' and 'cell cycle' were indicated to act as key GO terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways in HCC. In addition, FOXM1, TCF7L1, E2F4 and SIN3A were revealed to be key TFs associated with HCC.

Takahashi H, Kajiwara R, Kato M, et al.
Treatment outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) Study L04-16.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(1):98-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival rate of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has increased to approximately 90% after substantial progress in risk-oriented treatment strategies. Between 2005 and 2013, the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) conducted a risk-oriented, non-randomized study, L04-16. The principal aim of this study was to assemble background characteristics and treatment outcomes, and gather genetic information on leukemic cells under central diagnosis. This report outlines the background characteristics and treatment outcomes of 1033 children with ALL treated according to a TCCSG platform. The 5-year event-free and overall survival (OS) rates for all children were 78.1 ± 1.3 and 89.6 ± 1.0%, respectively. The OS rate was significantly higher in children with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL (91.9 ± 1.0%, n = 916) than in those with T-ALL (71.9 ± 4.3%, n = 117, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis for BCP-ALL, children aged 1-6 years (5y-OS: 94.2 ± 1.0%), with an initial white blood cell count of < 20,000/μL (94.0 ± 1.0%), high hyperdiploidy (95.4 ± 1.6%), ETV6-RUNX1 (97.4 ± 1.2%) or TCF3-PBX1 (96.9 ± 2.1%), and "Day8NoBlasts" (96.4 ± 1.1%) had the best outcomes. Genetic investigation revealed two novel fusion genes within this cohort: ETV6-ZNF385A and ZNF362-TCF4. Our study highlighted the clinical aspects of genomic features of ALL in Japanese children. We provide fundamental information for the further molecular investigation of this disease.

Kachroo P, Szymczak S, Heinsen FA, et al.
NGS-based methylation profiling differentiates TCF3-HLF and TCF3-PBX1 positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Epigenomics. 2018; 10(2):133-147 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine whether methylation differences between mostly fatal TCF3-HLF and curable TCF3-PBX1 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes can be associated with differential gene expression and remission.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Five (extremely rare) TCF3-HLF versus five (very similar) TCF3-PBX1 patients were sampled before and after remission and analyzed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing.
RESULTS: We identified 7000 differentially methylated CpG sites between subtypes, of which 78% had lower methylation levels in TCF3-HLF. Gene expression was negatively correlated with CpG sites in 23 genes. KBTBD11 clearly differed in methylation and expression between subtypes and before and after remission in TCF3-HLF samples.
CONCLUSION: KBTBD11 hypomethylation may be a promising potential target for further experimental validation especially for the TCF3-HLF subtype.

Zhan D, Zhang Y, Xiao P, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identifies novel mutations of epigenetic regulators in chemorefractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 65:20-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic alterations underlying chemotherapy resistance remains poorly characterized in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify gene mutations associated with chemo-resistance in 44 pediatric AML patients. We identified previously unreported mutations involving epigenetic regulators such as KDM5C, SRIT6, CHD4, and PRPF6 in pediatric AML patients. Despite low prevalence in general pediatric AML, mutations involving epigenetic regulators including splicing factors, were collectively enriched as a group in primary chemo-resistance AML patients. In addition, clonal evolution analysis of secondary chemo-resistance AML patients reveals dominant clone at diagnosis could survive several course of intensified chemotherapy. And gain of new mutations in genes such as MVP, TCF3, SS18, and BCL10, may contribute to chemo-resistance at relapse. These results provide novel insights into the genetic basis of treatment failure in pediatric AML.

Jerchel IS, Hoogkamer AQ, Ariës IM, et al.
RAS pathway mutations as a predictive biomarker for treatment adaptation in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(4):931-940 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
RAS pathway mutations have been linked to relapse and chemotherapy resistance in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). However, comprehensive data on the frequency and prognostic value of subclonal mutations in well-defined subgroups using highly sensitive and quantitative methods are lacking. Targeted deep sequencing of 13 RAS pathway genes was performed in 461 pediatric BCP-ALL cases at initial diagnosis and in 19 diagnosis-relapse pairs. Mutations were present in 44.2% of patients, with 24.1% carrying a clonal mutation. Mutation frequencies were highest in high hyperdiploid, infant t(4;11)-rearranged, BCR-ABL1-like and B-other cases (50-70%), whereas mutations were less frequent in ETV6-RUNX1-rearranged, and rare in TCF3-PBX1- and BCR-ABL1-rearranged cases (27-4%). RAS pathway-mutated cells were more resistant to prednisolone and vincristine ex vivo. Clonal, but not subclonal, mutations were linked to unfavorable outcome in standard- and high-risk-treated patients. At relapse, most RAS pathway mutations were clonal (9 of 10). RAS mutant cells were sensitive to the MEK inhibitor trametinib ex vivo, and trametinib sensitized resistant cells to prednisolone. We conclude that RAS pathway mutations are frequent, and that clonal, but not subclonal, mutations are associated with unfavorable risk parameters in newly diagnosed pediatric BCP-ALL. These mutations may designate patients eligible for MEK inhibitor treatment.

Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu HC, et al.
Mutational status of NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 genes is associated with genetic/cytogenetic features in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the frequencies and the association with genetic/cytogenetic abnormalities as well as prognostic relevance of RAS pathway mutations in Taiwanese children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the largest cohort in Asians.
PROCEDURE: Between 1995 and 2012, marrow samples at diagnosis from 535 children were studied for NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 mutations. The mutational status of each gene was correlated with the clinico-hematological features, recurrent genetic abnormalities, and outcomes for those treated with TPOG-ALL-2002 protocol (n = 346).
RESULTS: The frequencies of NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 mutations were 10.8% (57/530), 10.2% (54/530), and 3.0% (16/526), respectively. NRAS mutations were associated with a higher frequency of hyperdiploidy (P = 0.01) and lower frequency of ETV6-RUNX1 (P < 0.01), whereas KRAS mutations were associated with younger age (P < 0.01), a higher frequency of KMT2A rearranged (P < 0.01) but no significant difference if infants with ALL were excluded, and inferior event-free survival (66.6% vs. 80.5%, P = 0.04). None of patients with TCF3-PBX1 had KRAS mutation (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the frequency of KRAS mutations in Taiwan was significantly higher than that reported in Caucasians. The occurrence of RAS pathway mutations was associated with recurrent genetic/cytogenetic abnormalities in pediatric B-precursor ALL.

Bouska A, Bi C, Lone W, et al.
Adult high-grade B-cell lymphoma with Burkitt lymphoma signature: genomic features and potential therapeutic targets.
Blood. 2017; 130(16):1819-1831 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The adult high-grade B-cell lymphomas sharing molecular features with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) are highly aggressive lymphomas with poor clinical outcome. High-resolution structural and functional genomic analysis of adult Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma with BL gene signature (adult-molecularly defined BL [mBL]) revealed the MYC-ARF-p53 axis as the primary deregulated pathway. Adult-mBL had either unique or more frequent genomic aberrations (del13q14, del17p, gain8q24, and gain18q21) compared with pediatric-mBL, but shared commonly mutated genes. Mutations in genes promoting the tonic B-cell receptor (BCR)→PI3K pathway (

Prabhu VV, Lulla AR, Madhukar NS, et al.
Cancer stem cell-related gene expression as a potential biomarker of response for first-in-class imipridone ONC201 in solid tumors.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0180541 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) correlate with recurrence, metastasis and poor survival in clinical studies. Encouraging results from clinical trials of CSC inhibitors have further validated CSCs as therapeutic targets. ONC201 is a first-in-class small molecule imipridone in Phase I/II clinical trials for advanced cancer. We have previously shown that ONC201 targets self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant colorectal CSCs via Akt/ERK inhibition and DR5/TRAIL induction. In this study, we demonstrate that the anti-CSC effects of ONC201 involve early changes in stem cell-related gene expression prior to tumor cell death induction. A targeted network analysis of gene expression profiles in colorectal cancer cells revealed that ONC201 downregulates stem cell pathways such as Wnt signaling and modulates genes (ID1, ID2, ID3 and ALDH7A1) known to regulate self-renewal in colorectal, prostate cancer and glioblastoma. ONC201-mediated changes in CSC-related gene expression were validated at the RNA and protein level for each tumor type. Accordingly, we observed inhibition of self-renewal and CSC markers in prostate cancer cell lines and patient-derived glioblastoma cells upon ONC201 treatment. Interestingly, ONC201-mediated CSC depletion does not occur in colorectal cancer cells with acquired resistance to ONC201. Finally, we observed that basal expression of CSC-related genes (ID1, CD44, HES7 and TCF3) significantly correlate with ONC201 efficacy in >1000 cancer cell lines and combining the expression of multiple genes leads to a stronger overall prediction. These proof-of-concept studies provide a rationale for testing CSC expression at the RNA and protein level as a predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarker of ONC201 response in ongoing clinical studies.

Boer JM, den Boer ML
BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: From bench to bedside.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 82:203-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) occurs in approximately 1:1500 children and is less frequently found in adults. The most common immunophenotype of ALL is the B cell lineage and within B cell precursor ALL, specific genetic aberrations define subtypes with distinct biological and clinical characteristics. With more advanced genetic analysis methods such as whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, novel genetic subtypes have recently been discovered. One novel class of genetic aberrations comprises tyrosine kinase-activating lesions, including translocations and rearrangements of tyrosine kinase and cytokine receptor genes. These newly discovered genetic aberrations are harder to detect by standard diagnostic methods such as karyotyping, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because they are diverse and often cryptic. These lesions involve one of several tyrosine kinase genes (among others, v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 1 (ABL1), v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 2 (ABL2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide (PDGFRB)), each of which can be fused to up to 15 partner genes. Together, they compose 2-3% of B cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), which is similar in size to the well-known fusion gene BCR-ABL1 subtype. These so-called BCR-ABL1-like fusions are mutually exclusive with the sentinel translocations in BCP-ALL (BCR-ABL1, ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements) and have the promising prospect to be sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors similar to BCR-ABL1. In this review, we discuss the types of tyrosine kinase-activating lesions discovered, and the preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of this novel subtype of ALL.

Onaindia A, Medeiros LJ, Patel KP
Clinical utility of recently identified diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(10):1338-1366 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic profiling studies have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of mature B-cell neoplasms and have identified markers with prognostic impact. Recurrent mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, BIRC3, ATM), and common signaling pathways, such as the B-cell receptor (CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, TCF3, ID3), Toll-like receptor (MYD88), NOTCH (NOTCH1/2), nuclear factor-κB, and mitogen activated kinase signaling, have been identified in B-cell neoplasms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, hairy cell leukemia, and marginal zone lymphomas of splenic, nodal, and extranodal types represent examples of B-cell neoplasms in which novel molecular biomarkers have been discovered in recent years. In addition, ongoing retrospective correlative and prospective outcome studies have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the clinical utility of novel biomarkers. This progress is reflected in the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms, which lists as many as 41 mature B-cell neoplasms (including provisional categories). Consequently, molecular genetic studies are increasingly being applied for the clinical workup of many of these neoplasms. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic utility of molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.

Pashaei E, Pashaei E, Ahmady M, et al.
Meta-analysis of miRNA expression profiles for prostate cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0179543 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading reason of death in men and the most diagnosed malignancies in the western countries at the present time. After radical prostatectomy (RP), nearly 30% of men develop clinical recurrence with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels. An important challenge in PCa research is to identify effective predictors of tumor recurrence. The molecular alterations in microRNAs are associated with PCa initiation and progression. Several miRNA microarray studies have been conducted in recurrence PCa, but the results vary among different studies.
METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 6 available miRNA expression datasets to identify a panel of co-deregulated miRNA genes and overlapping biological processes. The meta-analysis was performed using the 'MetaDE' package, based on combined P-value approaches (adaptive weight and Fisher's methods), in R version 3.3.1.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis of six miRNA datasets revealed miR-125A, miR-199A-3P, miR-28-5P, miR-301B, miR-324-5P, miR-361-5P, miR-363*, miR-449A, miR-484, miR-498, miR-579, miR-637, miR-720, miR-874 and miR-98 are commonly upregulated miRNA genes, while miR-1, miR-133A, miR-133B, miR-137, miR-221, miR-340, miR-370, miR-449B, miR-489, miR-492, miR-496, miR-541, miR-572, miR-583, miR-606, miR-624, miR-636, miR-639, miR-661, miR-760, miR-890, and miR-939 are commonly downregulated miRNA genes in recurrent PCa samples in comparison to non-recurrent PCa samples. The network-based analysis showed that some of these miRNAs have an established prognostic significance in other cancers and can be actively involved in tumor growth. Gene ontology enrichment revealed many target genes of co-deregulated miRNAs are involved in "regulation of epithelial cell proliferation" and "tissue morphogenesis". Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that these miRNAs regulate cancer pathways. The PPI hub proteins analysis identified CTNNB1 as the most highly ranked hub protein. Besides, common pathway analysis showed that TCF3, MAX, MYC, CYP26A1, and SREBF1 significantly interact with those DE miRNA genes. The identified genes have been known as tumor suppressors and biomarkers which are closely related to several cancer types, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, PCa, gastric, and hepatocellular carcinomas. Additionally, it was shown that the combination of DE miRNAs can assist in the more specific detection of the PCa and prediction of biochemical recurrence (BCR).
CONCLUSION: We found that the identified miRNAs through meta-analysis are candidate predictive markers for recurrent PCa after radical prostatectomy.

Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.
Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.

El-Aarag SA, Mahmoud A, Hashem MH, et al.
In silico identification of potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2017; 10(1):40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. Like other cancers, it is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease involving multiple signaling pathways. Identifying potential therapeutic targets is critical for the development of effective treatment strategies.
METHODS: We used a systems biology approach to identify potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer. We first identified genes that were differentially expressed between smokers with normal lungs and those with cancerous lungs, then integrated these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with data from a protein-protein interaction database to build a network model with functional modules for pathway analysis. We also carried out a gene set enrichment analysis of DEG lists using the Kinase Enrichment Analysis (KEA), Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) hubs, and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases.
RESULTS: Twelve transcription factors were identified as having potential significance in lung cancer (CREB1, NUCKS1, HOXB4, MYCN, MYC, PHF8, TRIM28, WT1, CUX1, CRX, GABP, and TCF3); three of these (CRX, GABP, and TCF) have not been previously implicated in lung carcinogenesis. In addition, 11 kinases were found to be potentially related to lung cancer (MAPK1, IGF1R, RPS6KA1, ATR, MAPK14, MAPK3, MAPK4, MAPK8, PRKCZ, and INSR, and PRKAA1). However, PRKAA1 is reported here for the first time. MEPCE, CDK1, PRKCA, COPS5, GSK3B, BRCA1, EP300, and PIN1 were identified as potential hubs in lung cancer-associated signaling. In addition, we found 18 pathways that were potentially related to lung carcinogenesis, of which 12 (mitogen-activated protein kinase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Toll-like receptor, ErbB, and insulin signaling; purine and ether lipid metabolism; adherens junctions; regulation of autophagy; snare interactions in vesicular transport; and cell cycle) have been previously identified.
CONCLUSION: Our systems-based approach identified potential key molecules in lung carcinogenesis and provides a basis for investigations of tumor development as well as novel drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

Li Q, Li J, Dai W, et al.
Differential regulation analysis reveals dysfunctional regulatory mechanism involving transcription factors and microRNAs in gastric carcinogenesis.
Artif Intell Med. 2017; 77:12-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most incident malignancies in the world. Although lots of featured genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to explore the dysfunctional mechanisms of GC, we developed a novel approach to identify carcinogenesis relevant regulatory relationships, which is characterized by quantifying the difference of regulatory relationships between stages. Firstly, we applied the strategy of differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) to transcriptomic datasets including paired mRNA and miRNA of gastric samples to identify a set of genes/miRNAs related to gastric cancer progression. Based on these genes/miRNAs, we constructed conditional combinatorial gene regulatory networks (cGRNs) involving both transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs. Enrichment of known cancer genes/miRNAs and predicted prognostic genes/miRNAs was observed in each cGRN. Then we designed a quantitative method to measure differential regulation level of every regulatory relationship between normal and cancer, and the known cancer genes/miRNAs proved to be ranked significantly higher. Meanwhile, we defined differentially regulated link (DRL) by combining differential regulation, differential expression and the regulation contribution of the regulator to the target. By integrating survival analysis and DRL identification, three master regulators TCF7L1, TCF4, and MEIS1 were identified and testable hypotheses of dysfunctional mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis related to them were generated. The fine-tuning effects of miRNAs were also observed. We propose that this differential regulation network analysis framework is feasible to gain insights into dysregulated mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and other phenotypic changes.

Mareschal S, Pham-Ledard A, Viailly PJ, et al.
Identification of Somatic Mutations in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type by Massive Parallel Sequencing.
J Invest Dermatol. 2017; 137(9):1984-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine whether the mutational profile of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is unique by comparison with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes, we analyzed a total cohort of 20 PCLBCL-LT patients by using next-generation sequencing with a lymphoma panel designed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We also analyzed 12 pairs of tumor and control DNA samples by whole-exome sequencing, which led us to perform resequencing of three selected genes not included in the lymphoma panel: TBL1XR1, KLHL6, and IKZF3. Our study clearly identifies an original mutational landscape of PCLBCL-LT with a very restricted set of highly recurrent mutations (>40%) involving MYD88 (p.L265P variant), PIM1, and CD79B. Other genes involved in B-cell signaling, NF-κB activation, or DNA modeling were found altered, notably TBL1XR1 (33%), MYC (26%) CREBBP (26%), and IRF4 (21%) or HIST1H1E (41%). MYD88

Rosales-Rodríguez B, Fernández-Ramírez F, Núñez-Enríquez JC, et al.
Copy Number Alterations Associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Children. A report from The Mexican Inter-Institutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.
Arch Med Res. 2016; 47(8):706-711 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) represents a worldwide public health issue. Particularly, Mexico is one of the countries with the highest incidence of ALL in children. Between the multiple factors involved in ALL etiology, genetic alterations are clearly one of the most relevant features. In this work, a group of 24 B-ALL patients, all negative for the four most frequent gene fusions (ETV6-RUNX1, BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1 and MLL-AF4), were included in a high-resolution microarray analysis in order to evaluate genomic copy-number alterations (CNAs). The results of this preliminary report showed a broad genomic heterogeneity among the studied samples; 58% of the patients were hyperdiploid and 33% displayed a chromosome 9p deletion of variable length affecting genes CDKN2A/B, two patients displayed genomic instability with a high number of focal CNAs, three patients presented unique duplications affecting 2q, 12p and 1q, respectively, and one patient displayed no copy number imbalances. The copy-number profile of 44 genes previously related to B-ALL was heterogeneous as well. Overall results highlight the need for a detailed description of the genetic alterations in ALL cancer cells in order to understand the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and to identify any prognostic markers with clinical significance.

Ku AT, Shaver TM, Rao AS, et al.
TCF7L1 promotes skin tumorigenesis independently of β-catenin through induction of LCN2.
Elife. 2017; 6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The transcription factor

Eshelman MA, Shah M, Raup-Konsavage WM, et al.
TCF7L1 recruits CtBP and HDAC1 to repress DICKKOPF4 gene expression in human colorectal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 487(3):716-722 [PubMed] Related Publications
The T-cell factor/Lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF; hereafter TCF) family of transcription factors are critical regulators of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth. Of the four TCF family members, TCF7L1 functions predominantly as a repressor of gene expression. Few studies have addressed the role of TCF7L1 in CRC and only a handful of target genes regulated by this repressor are known. By silencing TCF7L1 expression in HCT116 cells, we show that it promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo by driving cell cycle progression. Microarray analysis of transcripts differentially expressed in control and TCF7L1-silenced CRC cells identified genes that control cell cycle kinetics and cancer pathways. Among these, expression of the Wnt antagonist DICKKOPF4 (DKK4) was upregulated when TCF7L1 levels were reduced. We found that TCF7L1 recruits the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to the DKK4 promoter to repress DKK4 gene expression. In the absence of TCF7L1, TCF7L2 and β-catenin occupancy at the DKK4 promoter is stimulated and DKK4 expression is increased. These findings uncover a critical role for TCF7L1 in repressing DKK4 gene expression to promote the oncogenic potential of CRCs.

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