TCF7L1

Gene Summary

Gene:TCF7L1; transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)
Aliases: TCF3, TCF-3
Location:2p11.2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. These transcription factors are activated by beta catenin, mediate the Wnt signaling pathway and are antagonized by the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor 7-like 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Translocation
  • Base Sequence
  • Trans-Activators
  • Chromosome 1
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Drug Resistance
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Chromosome 19
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cancer DNA
  • gamma Catenin
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • beta Catenin
  • Signal Transduction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • HMGB Proteins
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs
  • Chromosome 17
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
  • TCF Transcription Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 2
  • Southern Blotting
Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TCF7L1 (cancer-related)

Litwin M, Dubis J, Arczyńska K, et al.
Correlation of HIWI and HILI Expression with Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3317-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a sub-population of tumor cells that possess stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and the ability of differentiation. The presence of CSCs is associated with metastatic potential, treatment resistance and poor patient prognosis. Recently, aberrant expression of P-element induced wimpy testis proteins-PIWI (HIWI and HILI) has been identified in various types of tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the HIWI and HILI expression and its relationship with cancer stem cells markers in 72 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the observed changes on mRNA level and detect tissue localization of PIWI proteins.
RESULTS: Significantly higher mRNA levels of HIWI and decreased HILI mRNA were measured in colorectal cancer tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous samples. The changes in HIWI mRNA level in cancer tissues were correlated with OCT4 expression. Positive correlations between HILI level and SOX2 were also observed in cancerous tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a reciprocal regulation between HIWI, HILI and some CSCs markers in colorectal cancer.

Etchegaray JP, Chavez L, Huang Y, et al.
The histone deacetylase SIRT6 controls embryonic stem cell fate via TET-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(5):545-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
How embryonic stem cells (ESCs) commit to specific cell lineages and yield all cell types of a fully formed organism remains a major question. ESC differentiation is accompanied by large-scale histone and DNA modifications, but the relations between these epigenetic categories are not understood. Here we demonstrate the interplay between the histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) and the ten-eleven translocation enzymes (TETs). SIRT6 targets acetylated histone H3 at Lys 9 and 56 (H3K9ac and H3K56ac), while TETs convert 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). ESCs derived from Sirt6 knockout (S6KO) mice are skewed towards neuroectoderm development. This phenotype involves derepression of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG, which causes an upregulation of TET-dependent production of 5hmC. Genome-wide analysis revealed neural genes marked with 5hmC in S6KO ESCs, thereby implicating TET enzymes in the neuroectoderm-skewed differentiation phenotype. We demonstrate that SIRT6 functions as a chromatin regulator safeguarding the balance between pluripotency and differentiation through Tet-mediated production of 5hmC.

Crescenzo R, Abate F, Lasorsa E, et al.
Convergent mutations and kinase fusions lead to oncogenic STAT3 activation in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(4):516-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A systematic characterization of the genetic alterations driving ALCLs has not been performed. By integrating massive sequencing strategies, we provide a comprehensive characterization of driver genetic alterations (somatic point mutations, copy number alterations, and gene fusions) in ALK(-) ALCLs. We identified activating mutations of JAK1 and/or STAT3 genes in ∼20% of 88 [corrected] ALK(-) ALCLs and demonstrated that 38% of systemic ALK(-) ALCLs displayed double lesions. Recurrent chimeras combining a transcription factor (NFkB2 or NCOR2) with a tyrosine kinase (ROS1 or TYK2) were also discovered in WT JAK1/STAT3 ALK(-) ALCL. All these aberrations lead to the constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway, which was proved oncogenic. Consistently, JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition impaired cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

Deucher AM, Qi Z, Yu J, et al.
BCL6 expression correlates with the t(1;19) translocation in B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(4):547-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Study to date suggests that BCL6 protein expression in B-cell neoplasia predominates in germinal center-derived tumors, but less is known regarding its expression in B-lymphoblastic leukemia. Therefore, we designed a comprehensive study of BCL6 expression in B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
METHODS: BCL6, LMO, and HGAL protein expression in B-lymphoblastic leukemia was investigated using immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded bone marrow specimens. Cryptic TCF3(E2A)-PBX1 rearrangements were investigated using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: Six (12%) of 52 B-lymphoblastic leukemias demonstrated BCL6 protein expression, with B-cell lymphoblastic leukemias containing a t(1;19) translocation demonstrating the strongest staining (three of three). Additional t(1;19) cases beyond the screening study showed similar results. Public microarray expression database mining showed that BCL6 messenger RNA expression levels in B-lymphoblastic leukemia correlated with the protein expression findings. Finally, other markers of B-cell development correlated with BCL6 expression in t(1;19) B-lymphoblastic leukemia cases, with LMO2 and HGAL proteins expressed in six (67%) of nine and eight (89%) of nine cases, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: BCL6 expression is present in a subset of B-lymphoblastic leukemias, especially in cases containing the 1;19 translocation. Investigation for TCF3(E2A)-PBX1 rearrangements may be useful in BCL6-positive B-lymphoblastic leukemia.

Geng H, Hurtz C, Lenz KB, et al.
Self-enforcing feedback activation between BCL6 and pre-B cell receptor signaling defines a distinct subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(3):409-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studying 830 pre-B ALL cases from four clinical trials, we found that human ALL can be divided into two fundamentally distinct subtypes based on pre-BCR function. While absent in the majority of ALL cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling was found in 112 cases (13.5%). In these cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling induced activation of BCL6, which in turn increased pre-BCR signaling output at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, inhibition of pre-BCR-related tyrosine kinases reduced constitutive BCL6 expression and selectively killed patient-derived pre-BCR(+) ALL cells. These findings identify a genetically and phenotypically distinct subset of human ALL that critically depends on tonic pre-BCR signaling. In vivo treatment studies suggested that pre-BCR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are useful for the treatment of patients with pre-BCR(+) ALL.

Zuo M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al.
Novel therapeutic strategy targeting the Hedgehog signalling and mTOR pathways in biliary tract cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(6):1042-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activation of the PI3K/mTOR and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways occurs frequently in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Crosstalk between these pathways occurs in other gastrointestinal cancers. The respective signalling inhibitors rapamycin and vismodegib may inhibit BTC synergistically and suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs).
METHODS: Gene expression profiling for p70S6k and Gli1 was performed with BTC cell lines. Tumour and pathway inhibitory effects of rapamycin and vismodegib were investigated in BTC preclinical models and CSCs.
RESULTS: Rapamycin and vismodegib synergistically reduced BTC cell viability and proliferation. This drug combination arrested BTC Mz-ChA-1 cells in the G1 phase but had no significant effect on the cell cycle of BTC Sk-ChA-1 cells. Combined treatment inhibited the proliferation of CSCs and ALDH-positive cells. Nanog and Oct-4 expression in CSCs was decreased by the combination treatment. Western blotting results showed the p-p70S6K, p-Gli1, p-mTOR, and p-AKT protein expression were inhibited by the combination treatment in BTC cells. In an Mz-ChA-1 xenograft model, combination treatment resulted in 80% inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged tumour doubling time. In 4 of 10 human BTC specimens, tumour p-p70S6K and Gli1 protein expression levels were decreased with the combination treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR and Hhpathways indicates a new avenue for BTC treatment with combination therapy.

Zhang X, He H, Zhang X, et al.
RUNX3 Promoter Methylation Is Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(4):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been reported to be a tumor-suppressing gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. Association between hepatocellular carcinoma and RUNX3 promoter methylation has been investigated in studies with specific ethnic backgrounds and small sample sizes. In this study, a meta-analysis was adopted to combine the data from 11 studies of association between RUNX3 promoter methylation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pooled odds ratio for RUNX3 promoter methylation status in hepatocellular carcinoma versus control liver tissue was 24.37 (95%CI: 12.14, 48.92), p < .00001, indicates a strong association between methylation of the RUNX3 promoter and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Lin JH, Lin JY, Chou YC, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A suppresses MHC class II expression by regulating the B-cell transcription factors E47 and PU.1.
Blood. 2015; 125(14):2228-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses various approaches to escape host immune responses and persist in B cells. Such persistent infections may provide the opportunity for this virus to initiate tumor formation. Using EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as a model, we found that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD74 in B cells is repressed after EBV infection. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of MHC class II-related genes. As expected, CIITA was downregulated in LCLs. We showed that downregulation of CIITA is caused by EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and driven by the CIITA-PIII promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP2A-mediated E47 and PU.1 reduction resulted in CIITA suppression. Mechanistically, the LMP2A immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif was critical for the repression of E47 and PU.1 promoter activity via Syk, Src, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Elimination of LMP2A in LCLs using a shLMP2A approach showed that the expression levels of E47, PU.1, CIITA, MHC class II, and CD74 are reversed. These data indicated that the LMP2A may reduce MHC class II expression through interference with the E47/PU.1-CIITA pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that MHC class II may be detected in tonsils and EBV-negative Hodgkin disease but not in EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and Hodgkin disease.

Nozawa-Suzuki N, Nagasawa H, Ohnishi K, Morishige K
The inhibitory effect of hypoxic cytotoxin on the expansion of cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 457(4):706-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
While an increase in progression free survival time is seen when an angiogenesis inhibitor is used in the treatment of high-relapse rate ovarian cancer, it has little effect on overall survival. A possible cause of treatment-resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors is the growth of stem cells in a hypoxic microenvironment built inside the tumor tissue by angiogenesis inhibition. In this study, we examined the possible suppression of stem cell and cancer stem cell (CSC) expansion by hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-402. TX-402, an analogue of tirapazamine, has been developed as a hypoxia selective prodrug with inhibitory effects of HIF-1 and angiogenesis. We considered TX-402 as a possible molecular-target drug candidate for ovarian cancer due to its inhibition of CSC expansion. In this study, we found that the expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were increased under hypoxia in serous ovarian cancer cell lines. The expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α induced under hypoxia were repressed by TX-402 in a dose-dependent manner. Next, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on the expression levels of stem cell factors, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28, and showed that their expressions were induced by hypoxia. It was also observed that the expressions of putative ovarian cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and CD44 were induced under hypoxia. Furthermore, TX-402 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the expressions of CSC markers and stem cell factors. Oct4 expression was repressed by HIF-2α silencing, but not by HIF-1α silencing, indicating that TX-402 may repress the expression of Oct4 by inhibiting HIF-2α. We constructed CaOV3 spheroids as a 3-dimensional hypoxia model, in which the internal hypoxic region contained CSC-like cells expressing Oct4. The internal hypoxic region, which contained Oct4 expressing cells, disappeared following TX-402 treatment. In conclusion, hypoxia promoted the expansion of CSCs expressing CD133 and CD44 accompanied by an increase of stem cell factors. Its inhibition of hypoxia-induced CSC expansion makes TX-402 promising agent usable in combination for ovarian cancer therapy.

Tang YA, Chen CH, Sun HS, et al.
Global Oct4 target gene analysis reveals novel downstream PTEN and TNC genes required for drug-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(3):1593-608 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2016 Related Publications
Overexpression of Oct4, a stemness gene encoding a transcription factor, has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism by which Oct4 directs transcriptional program that leads to somatic cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we provide mechanistic insight into Oct4-driven transcriptional network promoting drug-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer cell, animal and clinical studies. Through an integrative approach combining our Oct4 chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing and ENCODE datasets, we identified the genome-wide binding regions of Oct4 in lung cancer at promoter and enhancer of numerous genes involved in critical pathways which promote tumorigenesis. Notably, PTEN and TNC were previously undefined targets of Oct4. In addition, novel Oct4-binding motifs were found to overlap with DNA elements for Sp1 transcription factor. We provided evidence that Oct4 suppressed PTEN in an Sp1-dependent manner by recruitment of HDAC1/2, leading to activation of AKT signaling and drug-resistance. In contrast, Oct4 transactivated TNC independent of Sp1 and resulted in cancer metastasis. Clinically, lung cancer patients with Oct4 high, PTEN low and TNC high expression profile significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival. Our study reveals a critical Oct4-driven transcriptional program that promotes lung cancer progression, illustrating the therapeutic potential of targeting Oc4 transcriptionally regulated genes.

Liu F, Kong X, Lv L, Gao J
MiR-155 targets TP53INP1 to regulate liver cancer stem cell acquisition and self-renewal.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(4):500-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In liver cancer, miR-155 up-regulation can regulate cancer-cell invasion. However, whether miR-155 expression is associated with liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. Here, we show that miR-155 expression is up-regulated in tumor spheres. Knock-down of miR-155 resulted in suppression of tumor sphere formation, through a decrease in the proportion of CD90(+) and CD133(+) CSCs and in the expression of Oct4, whereas miR-155 overexpression had the opposite effect. TP53INP1 was determined to be involved in the CSCs-like properties that were regulated by miR-155. Thus, miR-155 may play an important role in promoting the generation of stem cell-like cells and their self-renewal by targeting the gene TP53INP1.

Weissferdt A, Rodriguez-Canales J, Liu H, et al.
Primary mediastinal seminomas: a comprehensive immunohistochemical study with a focus on novel markers.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(3):376-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary mediastinal seminomas are unusual tumors that can present in a pure form or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor. Contrary to testicular seminomas, little is known about the expression of novel immunohistochemical markers in mediastinal seminomas. This study investigates the immunohistochemical features of these tumors with a focus on novel markers. Thirty-two cases of primary mediastinal seminomas were reviewed; and representative whole-tissue sections were selected for immunohistochemical studies using antibodies directed against high molecular weight cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), low molecular weight cytokeratin (CAM5.2), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4), spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), sry-related HMG box 2 (SOX2), SOX17, human T cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1), glypican 3, melanoma associated antigen C2 (MAGEC2), and paired box gene 8 (Pax8). The percentage of positive tumor cells as well as the intensity of staining was evaluated and scored. Thirty-one cases (97%) expressed SOX17, whereas 29 cases (91%) were positive for OCT3/4 and SALL4, respectively. Twenty-eight cases (88%) expressed MAGEC2 and CAM5.2, respectively. Two cases (6%) were positive for Pax8, and a single case (3%) was positive for TCL1. None of the cases stained with CK5/6, GATA-3, SOX2, or glypican 3. Similar to testicular seminomas, mediastinal seminomas show consistent expression of OCT3/4, SALL4, SOX17, and MAGEC2 and are negative for SOX2, glypican 3, GATA-3, and CK5/6. Pax8 positivity is only inconsistently identified in mediastinal seminomas. Contrary to their testicular counterparts, mediastinal tumors show diffuse expression of low-molecular-weight cytokeratin in up to 90% of cases and are commonly negative for TCL1. Although there is some immunohistochemical overlap between testicular and mediastinal seminomas, considerable differences also exist and should be acknowledged when dealing with these tumors.

Matsuda Y, Ishiwata T, Yoshimura H, et al.
Inhibition of nestin suppresses stem cell phenotype of glioblastomas through the alteration of post-translational modification of heat shock protein HSPA8/HSC71.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(2):602-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nestin, a class VI intermediate filament, was first described as a neuronal stem/progenitor cell marker. We previously reported that knockdown of nestin expression in human glioblastoma cells suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In the present study, we examined the effect of nestin on stemness, and identified molecules involved in modulating nestin function in glioblastoma cells. Nestin expression was shown to be higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas. Furthermore, compared with control cells, nestin short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-transfected glioblastoma cells exhibited reduced sphere formation, decreased expression of NANOG, N-cadherin, CD133, and Oct-4, and decreased tumor size in vivo. To examine the proteins regulated by nestin in glioblastomas, we carried out two-dimensional electrophoresis using nestin shRNA-transfected glioblastoma cells. As a result, nestin shRNA-transfected glioblastoma cells exhibited a decrease in the level of phosphorylation of heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71; gene HSPA8). From immunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrated the direct binding of nestin, HSC71, and cyclin D1 in vitro. Overexpression of nestin in glioblastoma cells increased cell growth, sphere formation, and cell invasion. Transfection with HSC71 siRNA restored nestin expression and cell behavior; therefore, HSC71 knockdown will interfere with enhanced tumorigenic properties of glioblastoma cells that ectopically overexpress nestin. We have demonstrated that HSC71 and nestin regulate each other's expression levels or patterns, and that cyclin D1 is located downstream of nestin and HSC71. In conclusion, nestin regulates stemness, cell growth, and invasion in glioblastoma cells through the alteration of HSC71. Inhibition of nestin and HSC71 may thus be a useful molecular target in the treatment of glioblastomas.

Goodings C, Tripathi R, Cleveland SM, et al.
Enforced expression of E47 has differential effects on Lmo2-induced T-cell leukemias.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(1):100-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
LIM domain only-2 (LMO2) overexpression in T cells induces leukemia but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, Lmo2 is part of a protein complex comprised of class II basic helix loop helix proteins, Tal1and Lyl1. The latter transcription factors heterodimerize with E2A proteins like E47 and Heb to bind E boxes. LMO2 and TAL1 or LYL1 cooperate to induce T-ALL in mouse models, and are concordantly expressed in human T-ALL. Furthermore, LMO2 cooperates with the loss of E2A suggesting that LMO2 functions by creating a deficiency of E2A. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in Lmo2-induced T-ALL cell lines. We transduced these lines with an E47/estrogen receptor fusion construct that could be forced to homodimerize with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. We discovered that forced homodimerization induced growth arrest in 2 of the 4 lines tested. The lines sensitive to E47 homodimerization accumulated in G1 and had reduced S phase entry. We analyzed the transcriptome of a resistant and a sensitive line to discern the E47 targets responsible for the cellular effects. Our results suggest that E47 has diverse effects in T-ALL but that functional deficiency of E47 is not a universal feature of Lmo2-induced T-ALL.

Xiao H, Jiang N, Zhou B, et al.
TAZ regulates cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(2):151-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) has been reported to be one of the nuclear effectors of Hippo-related pathways. TAZ is expressed in many primary tumors and could regulate many biological processes. However, little is known about the role of TAZ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, we show that TAZ regulates cellular proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. TAZ is overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines and upregulation of TAZ correlates with a lower overall survival rate of HCC patients after hepatic resection. TAZ knockdown results in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation through decreases in expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, and SOX2). Reduction in HCC cell migration and invasion is also evident through reversal of EMT by increases E-cadherin expression, decreases in N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, and Slug expression, and suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In a xenograft tumorigenicity model, TAZ knockdown could effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis through reversal of the EMT pathway. In conclusion, TAZ is associated with the proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells, and the TAZ gene may contribute to a novel therapeutic approach against HCC.

Rad SM, Bamdad T, Sadeghizadeh M, et al.
Transcription factor decoy against stem cells master regulators, Nanog and Oct-4: a possible approach for differentiation therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2621-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor decoys (TFDs) are exogenous oligonucleotides which can compete by cis-elements in promoters or enhancers for binding to TFs and downregulating gene expression in a specific manner. It is believed that tumor mass originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs) which the same with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the properties of both pluripotency and self-renewal (stemness). Many transcription factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, and Sall4 act as master regulators in the maintenance of stemness in both cell types. Differentiation therapy is based on this theory that by differentiation of CSCs, tumor mass can be eliminated with common cancer therapy methods. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of a TFD approach against master regulator of stemness, Nanog, Oct-4, and Klf4, for downregulation purposes in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cell. Different simple and complex decoys against Nanog, OCT-4, Sox2, and Klf4 were designed and used for this purpose. The results showed that the applied decoys especially Nanog-specific decoy decreased the expression of downstream genes.

Fujii T, Shimada K, Tatsumi Y, et al.
Syndecan-1 responsive microRNA-126 and 149 regulate cell proliferation in prostate cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):183-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-24 nt), low molecular weight RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of target genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and development, by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression of miRNA-126 (miR-126) and miR-149 in prostate cancer, and investigated the molecular mechanisms by which they affect syndecan-1 in prostate cancer. Functional analysis of miR-126 and miR-149 was conducted in the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3, Du145, and LNCaP. The expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, Oct4, miR-126 and miR-149 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. After silencing syndecan-1, miR-126, and/or miR-149 in the PC3 cells, cell proliferation, senescence, and p21 induction were assessed using the MTS assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Compared to the Du145 and LNCaP cells, PC3 cells exhibited higher expression of syndecan-1. When syndecan-1 was silenced, the PC3 cells showed reduced expression of miR-126 and miR-149 most effectively. Suppression of miR-126 and/or miR-149 significantly inhibited cell growth via p21 induction and subsequently, induced senescence. The mRNA expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4 were significantly increased in response to the silencing of miR-126 and/or miR-149. Our results suggest that miR-126 and miR-149 are associated with the expression of syndecan-1 in prostate cancer cells. These miRNAs promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. The regulation of these factors by miR-126 and miR-149 is essential for syndecan-1-mediated development of androgen-refractory prostate cancer.

Lee JR, Lee MH, Eo HJ, et al.
The contribution of activating transcription factor 3 to apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells by protocatechualdehyde, a naturally occurring phenolic compound.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014; 564:203-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is one of the important compounds found in barley, green cavendish bananas and grapevine leaves. PCA shows anti-cancer activities in breast, leukemia and colorectal cancer cells. Previous study reported that PCA exerts anti-cancer activity through down-regulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) by PCA has not been studied. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects ATF3 expression and ATF3-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PCA decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HCT116 and SW480 cells. In addition, PCA reduced cell viability in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HepG-2 cells. Exposure of PCA activated the levels of ATF3 protein and mRNA in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2/ by PD98059 and p38 by SB203580 inhibited PCA-induced ATF3 expression and transcriptional activation. ATF3-knockdown inhibited PCA-induced apoptosis and cell viability. In addition, ATF3 overexpression enhanced PCA-mediated cleavage of PARP. These findings suggest that inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis by PCA may be result of ATF3 expression through ERK1/2 and p38-mediated transcriptional activation.

Chen Y, Meng L, Yu Q, et al.
The miR-134 attenuates the expression of transcription factor FOXM1 during pluripotent NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation.
Exp Cell Res. 2015; 330(2):442-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor FOXM1 plays a critical role in maintenance of stem cell pluripotency through stimulating the transcription of pluripotency-related genes in mouse pluripotent stem cells. In this study, we have found that the repression of FOXM1 expression is mediated by FOXM1 3'UTR during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human pluripotent NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cells. FOXM1 3'UTR contains a microRNA response element (MRE) for miR-134, which has been shown to attenuate the expression of pluripotency-related genes post-transcriptionally during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation. We have determined that miR-134 is induced during RA-induced differentiation of NT2/D1 cells and the overexpression of miR-134 represses the expression of FOXM1 protein but not FOXM1 mRNA. Furthermore, the expression of OCT4 is diminished by FOXM1 knockdown and the OCT4 promoter is regulated directly by FOXM1, suggesting that FOXM1 is required for maintaining the expression of OCT4 in NT2/D1 cells. Together, our results suggest that FOXM1 is essential for human pluripotent stem cells and miR-134 attenuates its expression during differentiation.

Felizola SJ, Nakamura Y, Ozawa Y, et al.
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the human adrenal cortex: its possible involvement in aldosterone biosynthesis.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014; 234(4):249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the cAMP-responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. ATF3 is expressed in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells and considered a rapid-responder gene to angiotensin-II stimulation. However, the functions of ATF3 in human adrenocortical tissues have remained unknown. In this study, we analyzed the localization and possible regulatory mechanisms of ATF3 in human adrenocortical cells and tissues. The expression levels of ATF3 mRNA were analyzed in 66 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and 14 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) using real-time RT-PCR. To localize the ATF3 protein, we performed immunohistochemical analysis in 20 non-pathological adrenal glands, 9 adrenal glands with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), 20 APA, and 5 CPA using a mouse monoclonal antibody against human ATF3. We showed that ATF3 mRNA levels were higher in APA compared to CPA (P = 0.0053). ATF3 was immunolocalized to the zona glomerulosa of non-pathological adrenal glands and adrenal glands with IHA, and diffusely detected in the tumor cells of APA and CPA. Subsequently, H295R cells were treated for 6 h with each inhibitor of Src kinase (SRC), PKC, JAK2, and calcium-dependent calmodulin kinase-II (CaMKII) in the presence or absence of angiotensin-II. The expression levels of ATF3 mRNA were increased by angiotensin-II (about 3.5-fold induction), but the magnitude of the induction was significantly decreased in the presence of an inhibitor for SRC (PP2) or CaMKII (KN93). These results suggest that ATF3 is a downstream target of SRC and CaMKII signaling, and may be involved in adrenocortical aldosterone synthesis.

Gokulnath M, Partridge NC, Selvamurugan N
Runx2, a target gene for activating transcription factor-3 in human breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1923-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating transcription factor (ATF-3) is a stress response gene and is induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in breast cancer cells. In this study, we dissected the functional role of ATF-3 gene in vitro by knocking down its expression stably in human bone metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). Knockdown of ATF-3 expression in these cells decreased cell number, altered cell cycle phase transition, and decreased mRNA expression of cell cycle genes. Knockdown of ATF-3 expression in MDA-MB231 cells also decreased cell migration, and the expression levels of invasive and metastatic genes such as MMP-13 and Runx2 were found to be decreased in these cells. Most importantly, ATF-3 was associated with Runx2 promoter in MDA-MB231 cells and knockdown of ATF-3 expression decreased its association with Runx2 promoter. Hence, our results suggested that ATF-3 plays a role in proliferation and invasion of bone metastatic breast cancer cells in vitro and we identified for the first time that Runx2 is a target gene of ATF-3 in MDA-MB231 cell line.

Lu H, Yan C, Quan XX, et al.
CK2 phosphorylates and inhibits TAp73 tumor suppressor function to promote expression of cancer stem cell genes and phenotype in head and neck cancer.
Neoplasia. 2014; 16(10):789-800 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSC) and genes have been linked to cancer development and therapeutic resistance, but the signaling mechanisms regulating CSC genes and phenotype are incompletely understood. CK2 has emerged as a key signal serine/threonine kinase that modulates diverse signal cascades regulating cell fate and growth. We previously showed that CK2 is often aberrantly expressed and activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), concomitantly with mutant (mt) tumor suppressor TP53, and inactivation of its family member, TAp73. Unexpectedly, we observed that classical stem cell genes Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4, are overexpressed in HNSCC with inactivated TAp73 and mtTP53. However, the potential relationship between CK2, TAp73 inactivation, and CSC phenotype is unknown. We reveal that inhibition of CK2 by pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA inhibits the expression of CSC genes and side population (SP), while enhancing TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, CK2 inhibitor attenuation of CSC protein expression and the SP by was abrogated by TAp73 siRNA. Bioinformatic analysis uncovered a single predicted CK2 threonine phosphorylation site (T27) within the N-terminal transactivation domain of TAp73. Nuclear CK2 and TAp73 interaction, confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, was attenuated by CK2 inhibitor, or a T27A point-mutation of this predicted CK2 threonine phospho-acceptor site of TAp73. Further, T27A mutation attenuated phosphorylation, while enhancing TAp73 function in repressing CSC gene expression and SP cells. A new CK2 inhibitor, CX-4945, inhibited CSC related SP cells, clonogenic survival, and spheroid formation. Our study unveils a novel regulatory mechanism whereby aberrant CK2 signaling inhibits TAp73 to promote the expression of CSC genes and phenotype.

Li C, Cai S, Wang X, Jiang Z
Hypomethylation-associated up-regulation of TCF3 expression and recurrence in stage II and III colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e112005 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcription factor 3 (TCF3) implicates Wnt signaling pathway and regulates E-cadherin expression, which is involved in aggressiveness of tumors. This study aims to investigate the role of TCF3 in predicting prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Real-Time quantitative PCR was performed in 64 fresh CRC tissues and 6 cell lines to examine TCF3 mRNA expression. TCF3 protein expression dynamics were detected by immunohistochemistry of 118 paraffin-embedded specimens, and the clinical significance of TCF3 was assessed by clinical correlation and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Aberrant hypomethylation of TCF3 promoter was also investigated using bisulfite sequencing and methylation specific PCR.
RESULTS: The up-regulation of TCF3 mRNA was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. The expression level of TCF3 protein was significantly correlated with histological type (P = 0.038) and disease-free survival time (P = 0.002). Higher TCF3 expression indicated poor prognostic outcomes (P<0.05, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed strong TCF3 protein expression and perineural invasion were independent adverse prognosticators in CRC (P = 0.010, 0.000). Moreover, it was showed that promoter hypomethylation of TCF3 is associated with its up-expression.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the prognostic value of TCF3 in stage II and III CRC. The up-regulation of TCF3, which is mainly caused by promoter hypomethylation, is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of CRC.

Chavali PL, Saini RK, Zhai Q, et al.
TLX activates MMP-2, promotes self-renewal of tumor spheres in neuroblastoma and correlates with poor patient survival.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1502 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (Drosophila tailless homolog) is essential for the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cell self-renewal, but its role in neuroblastoma (NB) is not well understood. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the formation of tumor spheres in three different NB cell lines, when grown in neural stem cell media. We demonstrate that the knock down of TLX in IMR-32 cells diminishes its tumor sphere-forming capacity. In tumor spheres, TLX is coexpressed with the neural progenitor markers Nestin, CD133 and Oct-4. In addition, TLX is coexpressed with the migratory neural progenitor markers CD15 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in xenografts of primary NB cells from patients. Subsequently, we show the effect of TLX on the proliferative, invasive and migratory properties of IMR-32 cells. We attribute this to the recruitment of TLX to both MMP-2 and Oct-4 gene promoters, which resulted in the respective gene activation. In support of our findings, we found that TLX expression was high in NB patient tissues when compared with normal peripheral nervous system tissues. Further, the Kaplan-Meier estimator indicated a negative correlation between TLX expression and survival in 88 NB patients. Therefore, our results point at TLX being a crucial player in progression of NB, by promoting self-renewal of NB tumor-initiating cells and altering their migratory and invasive properties.

Liu T, Sun B, Zhao X, et al.
OCT4 expression and vasculogenic mimicry formation positively correlate with poor prognosis in human breast cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):19634-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
To evaluate the prognostic value of OCT4 expression and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in human breast cancer, we examined OCT4 expression and VM formation using immunohistochemistry and CD31/PAS (periodic acid-schiff) double staining on 90 breast cancer specimens. All patients were followed up for five-149 months following surgery. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression model to assess the prognostic values. Results showed positive correlation between OCT4 expression and VM formation (p<0.05). Both OCT4 expression and VM were also positively correlated with lymph node metastasis, higher histological grade, and Nottingham prognostic index (p<0.05). Patients with OCT4 expression or VM formation exhibited poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) than OCT4-negative or VM-negative patients (p<0.05). OCT4-positive/VM-positive patients also had the worst OS and DFS (p<0.05). In multivariate survival analysis, VM, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), and Her2 were independent prognostic factors related to OS and OCT4-positive/VM-positive patients, whereas NPI and Her2 were independent predictors of DFS. These results suggest that a combined OCT4 expression/VM could improve the prognostic judgment for breast cancer patients.

Lönnroth C, Andersson M, Asting AG, et al.
Preoperative low dose NSAID treatment influences the genes for stemness, growth, invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2208-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Preclinical data, and an increasing list of clinical investigations, show anti-inflammatory agents to favourably influence the biology of colorectal tumor. We have earlier reported on re-expression of activated immune cells after three days preoperative treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma, randomized to receive oral NSAID (indomethacin or celebrex). Antisecretory prophylaxis (esomeprasol) was provided to all patients and served as sham treatment. Concomittant to MHC locus activation, Prominin1/CD133, a marker associated with stemness and poor prognosis in several solid tumors, was downregulated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of additional regulators belonging to the stem cell niche, OCT4, SOX2 and BMP7, as well as some microRNAs, reported to act as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. Peroperative tumor biopsies were analyzed by microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The stem cell master regulator SOX2 was increased by NSAIDs (p<0.01), as well as the tumor suppressor miR-630 (p<0.01), while BMP7, a marker for poor prognosis in CRC, was downregulated by NSAID (indomethacin, p<0.02). The upregulation of SOX2, but not of its heterodimer binding partner OCT4, could imply a negative feed-back loop, with a switch‑off for stemness preservation of tumor cells. This is supported by the overall evaluation of gene expression profiles with subsequent events, indicating less aggressive tumors following NSAID treatment.

Wu J, Mu Q, Thiviyanathan V, et al.
Cancer stem cells are enriched in Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2365-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) patients have an increased risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at a higher rate with no apparent risk factors. HNSCC of FA patients is an aggressive tumor characterized by multifocal origin, early metastases and frequent recurrences. Given that cancer stem cells (CSC) drive tumorigenesis, tumor recurrence and metastasis, in this study, we characterized the CSC population in FA and sporadic HNSCC. The Aldefluor assay was used to characterize and isolate CSC with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity (ALDHpos) in cell lines derived from FA and sporadic HNSCC. Isolated ALDHpos and ALDHneg cells were examined for the expression of stemness genes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) array. Tumor cell-derived FA and sporadic HNSCC were examined for their ability to form tumorspheres in vitro. Stem-like cell population in FA and sporadic HNSCC in human and mouse xenograft tumors were evaluated using ALDH isoform 1 (ALDH1) immunohistochemistry. FA‑HNSCC cell lines harbor a greater proportion of ALDHpos cells (15-31%) compared to sporadic HNSCC (10%). Expression of Nanog, Oct-3/4 and Stella, molecular markers of undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells were detected in the ALDHpos FA‑HNSCC cells and not in the ALDHneg cells. FA‑HNSCC cell lines revealed enhanced in vitro tumorsphere formation compared to sporadic HNSCC cells. A higher percentage of ALDH1pos tumor cells are noted in the human and mouse xenograft tumors of FA‑HNSCC compared to sporadic HNSCC tumors. FA‑HNSCC are highly enriched for CSC and may serve as a model to develop CSC-targeted therapies for HNSCC.

Park GH, Park JH, Song HM, et al.
Anti-cancer activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) leaf through the expression of activating transcription factor 3 in human colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:408 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ginger leaf (GL) has long been used as a vegetable, tea and herbal medicine. However, its pharmacological properties are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro studies to evaluate anti-cancer properties of ginger leaf and then elucidate the potential mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ATF3 expression level was evaluated by Western blot or RT-PCR and ATF3 transcriptional activity was determined using a dual-luciferase assay kit after the transfection of ATF3 promoter constructs. In addition, ATF3-dependent apoptosis was evaluated by Western blot after ATF3 knockdown using ATF3 siRNA.
RESULTS: Exposure of GL to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells) reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL reduced cell viability in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HepG-2 cells. ATF3 knockdown attenuated GL-mediated apoptosis. GL increased activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expressions in both protein and mRNA level and activated ATF3 promoter activity, indicating transcriptional activation of ATF3 gene by GL. In addition, our data showed that GL-responsible sites might be between -318 and -85 region of the ATF3 promoter. We also observed that ERK1/2 inhibition by PD98059 attenuated GL-mediated ATF3 expression but not p38 inhibition by SB203580, indicating ERK1/2 pathway implicated in GL-induced ATF3 activation.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the reduction of cell viability and apoptosis by GL may be a result of ATF3 promoter activation and subsequent increase of ATF3 expression through ERK1/2 activation in human colorectal cancer cells.

Guo C, Ren F, Wang D, et al.
RUNX3 is inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2580-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of epigenetic inactivation of the runt-related transcription factor 3 gene (RUNX3) in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis. Samples obtained by microdissection and scraping included 30 malignant ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 30 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) group, 19 benign ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 22 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis (EM) group and 22 normal eutopic endometrium tissues from the control endometrium (CE) group. RUNX3 methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, while levels of RUNX3 and ERα protein expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the benign ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EM group. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the eutopic endometrium from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the EM and CE groups. An inverse correlation between positive RUNX3 protein expression and methylation was observed and a positive correlation was shown between RUNX3 methylation and ERα protein expression. In the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group, there was no significant correlation between methylation frequency of the RUNX3 gene and histological type. However, the percentage of RUNX3 gene methylation was significantly higher in the tissue samples from patients with surgical stage IC EAOC than the percentage in patients with stage IA and IB disease. These results suggest that RUNX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the progression of malignant transformation of ovarian EM and is closely related to estrogen metabolism. Negative protein expression and abnormal RUNX3 methylation in the eutopic endometrium could be used as diagnostic markers in patients with ovarian EM who may be at an increased risk of developing EAOC.

Hajingabo LJ, Daakour S, Martin M, et al.
Predicting interactome network perturbations in human cancer: application to gene fusions in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Mol Biol Cell. 2014; 25(24):3973-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Genomic variations such as point mutations and gene fusions are directly or indirectly associated with human diseases. They are recognized as diagnostic, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. However, predicting the functional effect of these genetic alterations beyond affected genes and their products is challenging because diseased phenotypes are likely dependent of complex molecular interaction networks. Using as models three different chromosomal translocations-ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1), BCR-ABL1, and TCF3-PBX1 (E2A-PBX1)-frequently found in precursor-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (preB-ALL), we develop an approach to extract perturbed molecular interactions from gene expression changes. We show that the MYC and JunD transcriptional circuits are specifically deregulated after ETV6-RUNX1 and TCF3-PBX1 gene fusions, respectively. We also identified the bulk mRNA NXF1-dependent machinery as a direct target for the TCF3-PBX1 fusion protein. Through a novel approach combining gene expression and interactome data analysis, we provide new insight into TCF3-PBX1 and ETV6-RUNX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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