|Gene:||TOP2B; topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa|
|Aliases: || TOPIIB, top2beta |
|Summary:||This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants; however, the second variant has not yet been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||DNA topoisomerase 2-beta|
|Updated:||14 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and tissue homeostasis
- Control of Gene Expression by Vitamin D Receptor
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology TOP2B
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: TOP2B (cancer-related)
Smith KA, Cowell IG, Zhang Y, et al.The role of topoisomerase II beta on breakage and proximity of RUNX1 to partner alleles RUNX1T1 and EVI1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(2):117-28 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Rearrangements involving the RUNX1 gene account for approximately 15% of balanced translocations in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) patients and are one of the most common genetic abnormalities observed in t-AML. Drugs targeting the topoisomerase II (TOP2) enzyme are implicated in t-AML; however, the mechanism is not well understood and to date a single RUNX1-RUNX1T1 t-AML breakpoint junction sequence has been published. Here we report an additional five breakpoint junction sequences from t-AML patients with the RUNX1- RUNX1T1 translocation. Using a leukemia cell line model, we show that TOP2 beta (TOP2B) is required for induction of RUNX1 chromosomal breaks by the TOP2 poison etoposide and that, while TOP2 alpha (TOP2A) and TOP2B proteins are both present on RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 chromatin, only the TOP2B enrichment reached significance following etoposide exposure at a region on RUNX1 where translocations occur. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TOP2B influences the separation between RUNX1 and two translocation partners (RUNX1T1 and EVI) in the nucleus of lymphoid cells. Specifically, we identified a TOP2B-dependent increase in the number of nuclei displaying juxtaposed RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 loci following etoposide treatment.Related: Etoposide EVI1 gene
Kolar Z, Burdova A, Jamaspishvili T, et al.Relation of ETS transcription factor family member ERG, androgen receptor and topoisomerase 2β expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in prostate cancer.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(1):9-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Eighth International Biennial Conference on RNA polymerases I and III (the 'Odd Pols') was held June 7-11, 2012 at The Airlie Center in Warrenton Virginia, USA. It was sponsored by the Universite Laval and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, and organized by Rich Maraia and Tom Moss. The meeting honored the memory of Pierre Thuriaux (Jan 1, 1950-March 18, 2012) and David Schneider reminisced on the important accomplishments his mentor Masayasu Nomura (1927-2011). The goal of the conference was to bring together the world's experts on RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III to highlight and share their latest results and varied experimental approaches. The meeting drew attendees from twelve countries and most contributed through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into several sessions subdivided into 10 distinct topics. The keynote speaker, Ian Willis, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "New Regulators of Signaling to Odd Pols" and the closing presentation was given by Patrick Cramer with his presentation "Conservation of the RNA polymerase I, II and III transcription initiation machineries". Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Cytosine arabinoside-based chemotherapy coupled with anthracycline is currently the first-line treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), but diverse responses to the regimen constitute obstacles to successful treatment. Therefore, outcome prediction to chemotherapy at diagnosis is believed to be a critical consideration.METHODS:
The mRNA expression of 12 genes closely involved in the actions of cytosine arabinoside and anthracycline was evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), in 54 diagnostic bone marrow specimens of M2-subtype AML.RESULTS:
Low expression levels of ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) and high expression levels of topoisomerase 2 beta (TOP2B) were correlated with longer survival in a univariate analysis. Another interesting finding is that high ratios of TOP2B/RRM2 and TOP2B/TOP2 alpha (TOP2A) in a combined analysis were also shown to have a prognostic impact for longer survival with improved accuracy. Among the four markers, when adjusted for the influence of other clinical factors in multivariate analysis, the TOP2B/TOP2A ratio was significantly correlated with treatment outcomes; patients with high ratios trended toward longer disease-free survival (HR, 0.24; P=0.002) and overall survival (HR, 0.29; P=0.005).CONCLUSION:
Genes with distinct expression profiles such as TOP2B/TOP2A expression ratio at diagnosis can be employed for outcome prediction after the treatment with standard regimens in AML patients with M2 subtype.Related: Cytarabine Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Arivazhagan A, Kumar DM, Sagar V, et al.Higher topoisomerase 2 alpha gene transcript levels predict better prognosis in GBM patients receiving temozolomide chemotherapy: identification of temozolomide as a TOP2A inhibitor.
J Neurooncol. 2012; 107(2):289-97 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The search for molecular markers which predict response to chemotherapy is an important aspect of current neuro-oncology research. MGMT promoter methylation is the only proved marker of glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of topoisomerase expression on glioblastoma survival and study the mechanisms involved. The transcript levels of all isoforms of the topoisomerase family in all grades of diffuse astrocytoma were assessed. A prospective study of patients with glioblastoma treated by a uniform treatment procedure was performed with the objective of correlating outcome with gene expression. The ability of TOP2A enzyme to relax the super coiled plasmid DNA in the presence of temozolomide was evaluated to assess its effect on TOP2A. The temozolomide cyctotoxicity of TOP2A-silenced U251 cells was assessed. The transcript levels of TOP2A, TOP2B, and TOP3A are upregulated significantly in GBM in comparison with lower grades of astrocytoma and normal brain samples. mRNA levels of TOP2A correlated significantly with survival of the patients. Higher TOP2A transcript levels in GBM patients predicted better prognosis (P = 0.043; HR = 0.889). Interestingly, we noted that temozolomide inhibited TOP2A activity in in-vitro enzyme assays. We also noted that siRNA knock down of TOP2A rendered a glioma cell line resistant to temozolomide chemotherapy. We demonstrated for the first time that temozolomide is also a TOP2A inhibitor and established that TOP2A transcript levels determine the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma to temozolomide therapy. Very high levels of TOP2A are a good prognostic indicator in GBM patients receiving temozolomide chemotherapy.Related: Dacarbazine Temozolomide
An emerging model of transcriptional activation suggests that induction of transcriptional programs, for instance by stimulating prostate or breast cells with androgens or estrogens, respectively, involves the formation of DNA damage, including DNA double strand breaks (DSB), recruitment of DSB repair proteins, and movement of newly activated genes to transcription hubs. The DSB can be mediated by the class II topoisomerase TOP2B, which is recruited with the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor to regulatory sites on target genes and is apparently required for efficient transcriptional activation of these genes. These DSBs are recognized by the DNA repair machinery triggering the recruitment of repair proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), ATM, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). If illegitimately repaired, such DSBs can seed the formation of genomic rearrangements like the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion oncogene in prostate cancer. Here, we hypothesize that these transcription-induced, TOP2B-mediated DSBs can also be exploited therapeutically and propose that, in hormone-dependent tumors like breast and prostate cancers, a hormone-cycling therapy, in combination with topoisomerase II poisons or inhibitors of the DNA repair components PARP1 and DNA-PK, could overwhelm cancer cells with transcription-associated DSBs. Such strategies may find particular utility in cancers, like prostate cancer, which show low proliferation rates, in which other chemotherapeutic strategies that target rapidly proliferating cells have had limited success.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Genistein is a bioflavonoid enriched in soy products. However, high levels of maternal soy consumption have been linked to the development of infant leukemia ALL and AML. The majority of infant leukemia is linked to mixed lineage leukemia gene (MLL) translocations. Previous studies have implicated topoisomerase II (Top2) in genistein-induced infant leukemia. In order to understand the roles of the two Top2 isozymes in and the molecular mechanism for genistein-induced infant leukemia, we carried out studies in vitro using purified recombinant human Top2 isozymes, as well as studies in cultured mouse myeloid progenitor cells (32Dc13) and Top2beta knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). First, we showed that genistein efficiently induced both Top2alpha and Top2beta cleavage complexes in the purified system as well as in cultured mouse cells. Second, genistein induced proteasomal degradation of Top2beta in 32Dc13 cells. Third, the genistein-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) signal, gamma-H2AX, was dependent on the Top2beta isozyme and proteasome activity. Fourth, the requirement for Top2beta and proteasome activity was mirrored in genistein-induced DNA sequence rearrangements, as monitored by a DNA integration assay. Together, our results suggest a model in which genistein-induced Top2beta cleavage complexes are processed by proteasome, leading to the exposure of otherwise Top2beta-concealed DSBs and subsequent chromosome rearrangements, and implicate a major role of Top2beta and proteasome in genistein-induced infant leukemia.Related: TOP1 gene Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Yu ZW, Zhong LP, Ji T, et al.MicroRNAs contribute to the chemoresistance of cisplatin in tongue squamous cell carcinoma lines.
Oral Oncol. 2010; 46(4):317-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as negative regulators of gene expression. They are strongly implicated in human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Evidence for the involvement of miRNAs as important regulators of chemosensitivity and chemoresistance in OSCC is not well understood. In this study, miRNA microarray was firstly used to compare the differential miRNAs levels between the cisplatin-sensitive tongue squamous cell carcinoma line (Tca8113) and its cisplatin-resistant subline (Tca/cisplatin). Three miRNAs of miR-21, -214, and -23a were validated by miRNAs real-time PCR, and intervened by anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (miR-214 and -23a) and pre-miRNA plasmid transfection (miR-21). Further relationship between miR-23a and DNA topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) on the chemoresistance against cisplatin was studied. There were 19 out of 480 differential miRNAs between the Tca8113 and Tca/cisplatin cells. miR-214 and -23a were found increased as with chemoresistance against cisplatin in the Tca/cisplatin cells while miR-21 was found decreased as with chemosensitivity for cisplatin in the Tca/cisplatin cells. Intervention of these three miRNAs could decrease the chemoresistance against cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin cells. Transfection of anti-miR-23a into the Tca/cisplatin cells could increase the TOP2B protein expression. Our results suggest the existence of differential miRNAs with chemosensitivity and chemoresistance between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant tongue squamous cell carcinoma lines. miR-21 serves as a chemosensitive miRNA, while miR-214 and -23a serve as chemoresistant miRNAs in the tongue squamous cell carcinoma lines. miR-23a is an up-stream regulator of TOP2B to realize the chemoresistance of cisplatin.Related: Cisplatin
McNamara S, Nichol JN, Wang H, Miller WHTargeting PKC delta-mediated topoisomerase II beta overexpression subverts the differentiation block in a retinoic acid-resistant APL cell line.
Leukemia. 2010; 24(4):729-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) relieves the maturation block in t(15:17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), leading to granulocytic differentiation. However, RA treatment alone invariably results in RA resistance, both in vivo and in vitro. RA-resistant cell lines have been shown to serve as useful models for elucidation of mechanisms of resistance. Previously, we identified topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) as a novel mediator of RA-resistance in APL cell lines. In this study, we show that both TOP2B protein stability and activity are regulated by a member of the protein kinase C (PRKC) family, PRKC delta (PRKCD). Co-treatment with a pharmacologic inhibitor of PRKCD and RA resulted in the induction of an RA responsive reporter construct, as well as the endogenous RA target genes, CEBPE, CYP26A1 and RIG-I. Furthermore, the co-treatment overcame the differentiation block in RA-resistant cells, as assessed by morphological analysis, restoration of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, induction of CD11c cell surface expression and an increase in nitro-blue-tetrazolium reduction. Cumulatively, our data suggest a model whereby inhibition of PRKCD decreases TOP2B protein levels, leading to a loss of TOP2B-mediated repressive effects on RA-induced transcription and granulocytic differentiation.
Györffy B, Lanczky A, Eklund AC, et al.An online survival analysis tool to rapidly assess the effect of 22,277 genes on breast cancer prognosis using microarray data of 1,809 patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123(3):725-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Validating prognostic or predictive candidate genes in appropriately powered breast cancer cohorts are of utmost interest. Our aim was to develop an online tool to draw survival plots, which can be used to assess the relevance of the expression levels of various genes on the clinical outcome both in untreated and treated breast cancer patients. A background database was established using gene expression data and survival information of 1,809 patients downloaded from GEO (Affymetrix HGU133A and HGU133+2 microarrays). The median relapse free survival is 6.43 years, 968/1,231 patients are estrogen-receptor (ER) positive, and 190/1,369 are lymph-node positive. After quality control and normalization only probes present on both Affymetrix platforms were retained (n = 22,277). In order to analyze the prognostic value of a particular gene, the cohorts are divided into two groups according to the median (or upper/lower quartile) expression of the gene. The two groups can be compared in terms of relapse free survival, overall survival, and distant metastasis free survival. A survival curve is displayed, and the hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals and logrank P value are calculated and displayed. Additionally, three subgroups of patients can be assessed: systematically untreated patients, endocrine-treated ER positive patients, and patients with a distribution of clinical characteristics representative of those seen in general clinical practice in the US. Web address: www.kmplot.com . We used this integrative data analysis tool to confirm the prognostic power of the proliferation-related genes TOP2A and TOP2B, MKI67, CCND2, CCND3, CCNDE2, as well as CDKN1A, and TK2. We also validated the capability of microarrays to determine estrogen receptor status in 1,231 patients. The tool is highly valuable for the preliminary assessment of biomarkers, especially for research groups with limited bioinformatic resources.Related: Breast Cancer
Topoisomerase II (Top2) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional stress in chromosomal DNA during various cellular processes. Agents that target Top2, involving etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone, are among the most effective anticancer drugs used in the clinic. Mammalian cells possess two genetically distinct Top2 isoforms, both of which are the target of these agents. Top2alpha is essential for cell proliferation and is highly expressed in vigorously growing cells, whereas Top2beta is nonessential for growth and has recently been implicated in treatment-associated secondary malignancies, highlighting the validity of a Top2alpha-specific drug for future cancer treatment; however, no such agent has been hitherto reported. Here we show that NK314, a novel synthetic benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, targets Top2alpha and not Top2beta in vivo. Unlike other Top2 inhibitors, NK314 induces Top2-DNA complexes and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in an alpha isoform-specific manner. Heterozygous disruption of the human TOP2alpha gene confers increased NK314 resistance, whereas TOP2beta homozygous knock-out cells display increased NK314 sensitivity, indicating that the alpha isoform is the cellular target. We further show that the absence of Top2beta does not alleviate NK314 hypersensitivity of cells deficient in non-homologous end-joining, a critical pathway for repairing Top2-mediated DSBs. Our results indicate that NK314 acts as a Top2alpha-specific poison in mammalian cells, with excellent potential as an efficacious and safe chemotherapeutic agent. We also suggest that a series of human knock-out cell lines are useful in assessing DNA damage and repair induced by potential topoisomerase-targeting agents.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Nebral K, Schmidt HH, Haas OA, Strehl SNUP98 is fused to topoisomerase (DNA) IIbeta 180 kDa (TOP2B) in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with a new t(3;11)(p24;p15).
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(18):6489-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The nucleoporin 98 kDa (NUP98) gene has been reported to be fused to 17 different partner genes in various hematologic malignancies with 11p15 aberrations. Cytogenetic analysis of an adult de novo acute myelogenous leukemia (M5a) revealed a t(3;11)(p24;p15), suggesting rearrangement of NUP98 with a novel partner gene.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the involvement of NUP98 in the t(3;11)(p24;p15). Selection of possible NUP98 partner genes was done by computer-aided analysis of the 3p24 region using the University of California Santa Cruz genome browser. Fusion gene-specific FISH and reverse transcription-PCR analyses were done to verify the presence of the new NUP98 fusion.RESULTS:
FISH analysis using a NUP98-specific clone showed a split signal, indicating that the NUP98 gene was affected by the translocation. Of the genes localized at 3p24, TOP2B was selected as a possible fusion partner candidate gene. Dual-color fusion gene-specific FISH and reverse transcription-PCR analysis verified that NUP98 was indeed fused to TOP2B. In addition to reciprocal NUP98-TOP2B and TOP2B-NUP98 in-frame fusion transcripts, an alternatively spliced out-of-frame TOP2B-NUP98 transcript that resulted in a premature stop codon was detected. Analysis of the genomic breakpoints revealed typical signs of nonhomologous end joining resulting from error-prone DNA repair.CONCLUSIONS:
TOP2B encodes a type II topoisomerase, which is involved in DNA transcription, replication, recombination, and mitosis, and besides TOP1, represents the second NUP98 fusion partner gene that belongs to the topoisomerase gene family. This finding emphasizes the important role of topoisomerases in malignant transformation processes.Related: Chromosome 11 Chromosome 3 FISH
Vey N, Mozziconacci MJ, Groulet-Martinec A, et al.Identification of new classes among acute myelogenous leukaemias with normal karyotype using gene expression profiling.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(58):9381-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Conventional cytogenetic analysis currently stratifies acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) into prognostically relevant groups. However, approximately 50% of adult AMLs have normal cytogenetics (NC-AMLs), and represent a heterogeneous and poorly understood group. We analysed gene expression in 55 AML samples including 53 cases from adult patients with NC-AML (n = 36), trisomy 8, t(15;17), t(8;21), t(11;19), 7q deletion, and two cell lines using 9000-gene DNA microarrays. Global hierarchical clustering showed that NC-AMLs are a heterogeneous group. Supervised analysis distinguished two subgroups of NC-AML: one subgroup constituted a homogeneous NC cluster ('pure NC-AML'), and the other NC-AMLs were close to the AML cases with translocations ('translocation like'). Gene expression signatures were also derived for patients with trisomy 8, as well as FLT3 and MLL gene duplications. Importantly, samples from 24 NC-AML patients who could be evaluated for clinical outcome were analysed. In all, 43 genes that discriminated two classes of patients with significantly different prognosis were identified. The poor prognosis class contained a majority of 'pure NC-AMLs', whereas the 'translocation-like' AMLs were in the good prognosis class. Discriminator genes included genes involved in drug resistance (TOP2B), protein transport (MTX2, SLC35A2), and cell signalling (MAPK1, PRKAB2). Our results demonstrate the transcriptional heterogeneity of NC-AMLs, and suggest the existence of 'translocation-like' NC-AMLs and of a gene expression signature that may predict response to chemotherapy.Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) MLL gene FLT3 gene
Ding S, Gong BD, Yu J, et al.Methylation profile of the promoter CpG islands of 14 "drug-resistance" genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10(23):3433-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To establish the DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands of 14 "drug-resistance" genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:
The methylation specific polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with sequencing verification was used to establish the methylation patterns of the 14 genes in the liver tissues of four healthy liver donors, as well as tumor and the paired non-cancerous tissues of 30 HCC patients.RESULTS:
While 11 genes (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2(ABCG2), activating transcription factor (ATF2), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), occludin (OCLN), v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (RAF1), ralA binding protein 1 (RALBP1), splicing factor (45 kD) (SPF45), S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45) (SKP2), tumor protein p53 (Li-Fraumeni syndrome) (TP53) and topoisomerase (DNA) II beta (TOP2B)) maintained the unmethylated patterns, three genes displayed to various extents the hypermethylation state in tumor tissues in comparison with the normal counterparts. The catalase (CAT) was hypermethylated in tumor and the neighboring non-cancerous tissue of one case (3.3%). Both glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) (80%, 24/30 in tumor and 56.7%, 17/30 in the paired non-cancerous tissues) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, ATP-binding cassette (sub-family C, member 7) (CFTR) (77%, 23/30 in tumor and 50%, 15/30 in the paired non-cancerous tissues) genes were prevalently hypermethylated in HCC as well as their neighboring non-cancerous tissues. No significant difference in the hypermethylation occurrence was observed between the HCC and its neighboring non-cancerous tissues.CONCLUSION:
Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands of both CFTR and GSTpi genes occurs prevalently in HCC, which may correlate with the low expression of these two genes at the mRNA level and has the profound etiological and clinical implications. It is likely to be specific to the early phase of HCC carcinogenesis.Related: Liver Cancer