Gene Summary

Gene:TPD52; tumor protein D52
Aliases: D52, N8L, PC-1, PrLZ, hD52
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor protein D52
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Movement
  • Lung Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Western Blotting
  • myc Genes
  • Signal Transduction
  • Base Sequence
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Transcriptome
  • Androgens
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Prostate Cancer
  • TPD52
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Apoptosis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Genome, Human
  • Gene Amplification
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Line
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • FISH
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Chromosome 8
  • Liver Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transfection
  • beta Catenin
  • Gene Dosage
  • Messenger RNA
  • MicroRNAs
  • RT-PCR
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TPD52 (cancer-related)

Sharma P, Bhunia S, Poojary SS, et al.
Global methylation profiling to identify epigenetic signature of gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14687-14699 [PubMed] Related Publications
Promoter methylation in various tumor suppressor genes is reported to influence gallbladder carcinogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify methylation status in gallbladder cancer (GBC) by performing a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. The methylation status of 485,577 CpG sites were investigated using Illumina's Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array in 24 tissues (eight each of tumor, adjacent non-tumor, and gallstone). About 33,443 differentially methylated sites (DMRs) were obtained in the whole human genome, of which 24,188 (72 %) were hypermethylated and 9255 (28 %) were hypomethylated. The data also revealed that majority of the DMRs are localized on the proximal promoter region [Transcription start sites (TSS200, TSS1500) and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)] and first exon. Exclusion of first exon detected a total of 10,123 (79 %) hypermethylated and 2703 (21 %) hypomethylated sites. Comparative analysis of the later with our differential proteomics data resulted in identification of 7 hypermethylated or down-regulated (e.g., FBN1, LPP, and SOD3) and 61 hypomethylated or up-regulated markers (e.g., HBE1, SNRPF, TPD52) for GBC. These genes could be further validated on the basis of their methylation/expression status in order to identify their utility to be used as biomarker/s for early diagnosis and management of GBC.

Tan X, Liu P, Huang Y, et al.
Phosphoproteome Analysis of Invasion and Metastasis-Related Factors in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0152280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mechanisms of abnormal protein phosphorylation that regulate cell invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer remain obscure. In this study, we used high-throughput phosphorylation array to test two pancreatic cancer cell lines (PC-1 cells with a low, and PC-1.0 cells with a high potential for invasion and metastasis). We noted that a total of 57 proteins revealed a differential expression (fold change ≥ 2.0). Six candidate proteins were further validated by western blot with results found to be accordance with the array. Of 57 proteins, 32 up-regulated proteins (e.g. CaMK1-α and P90RSK) were mainly involved in ErbB and neurotrophin signaling pathways as determined using DAVID software, while 25 down-regulated proteins (e.g. BID and BRCA1) were closely involved in apoptosis and p53 signaling pathways. Moreover, four proteins (AKT1, Chk2, p53 and P70S6K) with different phosphorylation sites were found, not only among up-regulated, but also among down-regulated proteins. Importantly, specific phosphorylation sites can affect cell biological functions. CentiScaPe software calculated topological characteristics of each node in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network: we found that AKT1 owns the maximum node degrees and betweenness in the up-regulation protein PPI network (26 nodes, average path length: 1.89, node degrees: 6.62±4.18, betweenness: 22.23±35.72), and p53 in the down-regulation protein PPI network (17 nodes, average path length: 2.04, node degrees: 3.65±2.47, betweenness: 16.59±29.58). In conclusion, the identification of abnormal protein phosphorylation related to invasion and metastasis may allow us to identify new biomarkers in an effort to develop novel therapeutic drug targets for pancreatic cancer treatment.

Nishijima N, Seike M, Soeno C, et al.
miR-200/ZEB axis regulates sensitivity to nintedanib in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):937-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nintedanib (BIBF1120) is a multi-targeted angiokinase inhibitor and has been evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in clinical studies. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of nintedanib in 16 NSCLC cell lines and tried to identify microRNA (miRNA) associated with sensitivity to nintedanib. No correlations between FGFR, PDGFR and VEGFR family activation and sensitivity to nintedanib were found. The difference in miRNA expression profiles between 5 nintedanib-sensitive and 5 nintedanib-resistant cell lines was evaluated by miRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR analysis (qRT-PCR). Expression of miR-200b, miR-200a and miR-141 belonging to the miR-200 family which contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was significantly lower in 5 nintedanib-resistant than in 5 nintedanib-sensitive cell lines. We examined the protein expression of EMT markers in these 10 NSCLC cell lines. E-cadherin expression was lower, and vimentin and ZEB1 expression were higher in 5 nintedanib-resistant cell lines. PC-1 was the most sensitive of the NSCLC cell lines to nintedanib. We established nintedanib-resistant PC-1 cells (PC-1R) by the stepwise method. PC-1R cells also showed decreased expression of miR-200b, miR-141 and miR-429 and increased expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. We confirmed that induction of miR-200b or miR-141 enhanced sensitivity to nintedanib in nintedanib-resistant A549 and PC1-R cells. In addition, we evaluated the response to gefitinib in combination with nintedanib after TGF-β1 exposure of A549 cells. Nintedanib was able to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT and resistance to gefitinib caused by miR-200b and miR-141 upregulation and ZEB1 downregulation. These results suggested that the miR-200/ZEB axis might be predictive biomarkers for sensitivity to nintedanib in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, nintedanib combined with gefitinib might be a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC cells with EMT phenotype and resistance to gefitinib.

Tang NY, Chueh FS, Yu CC, et al.
Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2089-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are potential biomarkers for glioblastoma therapy.

Li G, Yao L, Zhang J, et al.
Tumor-suppressive microRNA-34a inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion via targeting oncogenic TPD52.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7481-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in breast cancer. Although the oncogenic effects of TPD52 are well recognized, how its expression and the role in migration/invasion is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of microRNA-34a (miR-34a), a tumor suppressive miRNA, on TPD52 expression in breast cancer. The expression of miR-34a was found significantly decreased in breast cancer specimens with lymph node metastases and breast cancer cell lines. The clinicopathological characteristics analyzed showed that lower expression levels of miR-34a were associated with advanced clinical stages. Moreover, TPD52 was demonstrated as one of miR-34a direct targets in human breast cancer cells. miR-34a was further found significantly repress epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion via TPD52. These findings indicate that miR-34a inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis through targeting TPD52. Consequently, our data strongly suggested that oncogenic TPD52 pathway regulated by miR-34a might be useful to reveal new therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

Ross-Adams H, Lamb AD, Dunning MJ, et al.
Integration of copy number and transcriptomics provides risk stratification in prostate cancer: A discovery and validation cohort study.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(9):1133-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Understanding the heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes of prostate cancer is fundamental to improving the way we treat this disease. As yet, there are no validated descriptions of prostate cancer subgroups derived from integrated genomics linked with clinical outcome.
METHODS: In a study of 482 tumour, benign and germline samples from 259 men with primary prostate cancer, we used integrative analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) and array transcriptomics to identify genomic loci that affect expression levels of mRNA in an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach, to stratify patients into subgroups that we then associated with future clinical behaviour, and compared with either CNA or transcriptomics alone.
FINDINGS: We identified five separate patient subgroups with distinct genomic alterations and expression profiles based on 100 discriminating genes in our separate discovery and validation sets of 125 and 103 men. These subgroups were able to consistently predict biochemical relapse (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.016 respectively) and were further validated in a third cohort with long-term follow-up (p = 0.027). We show the relative contributions of gene expression and copy number data on phenotype, and demonstrate the improved power gained from integrative analyses. We confirm alterations in six genes previously associated with prostate cancer (MAP3K7, MELK, RCBTB2, ELAC2, TPD52, ZBTB4), and also identify 94 genes not previously linked to prostate cancer progression that would not have been detected using either transcript or copy number data alone. We confirm a number of previously published molecular changes associated with high risk disease, including MYC amplification, and NKX3-1, RB1 and PTEN deletions, as well as over-expression of PCA3 and AMACR, and loss of MSMB in tumour tissue. A subset of the 100 genes outperforms established clinical predictors of poor prognosis (PSA, Gleason score), as well as previously published gene signatures (p = 0.0001). We further show how our molecular profiles can be used for the early detection of aggressive cases in a clinical setting, and inform treatment decisions.
INTERPRETATION: For the first time in prostate cancer this study demonstrates the importance of integrated genomic analyses incorporating both benign and tumour tissue data in identifying molecular alterations leading to the generation of robust gene sets that are predictive of clinical outcome in independent patient cohorts.

Donzelli S, Mori F, Bellissimo T, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of miR-145-5p contributes to brain metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):35183-201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of lung cancer patients. We assessed whether aberrant expression of specific microRNAs could contribute to brain metastasis. Comparison of primary lung tumors and their matched metastatic brain disseminations identified shared patterns of several microRNAs, including common down-regulation of miR-145-5p. Down-regulation was attributed to methylation of miR-145's promoter and affiliated elevation of several protein targets, such as EGFR, OCT-4, MUC-1, c-MYC and, interestingly, tumor protein D52 (TPD52). In line with these observations, restored expression of miR-145-5p and selective depletion of individual targets markedly reduced in vitro and in vivo cancer cell migration. In aggregate, our results attribute to miR-145-5p and its direct targets pivotal roles in malignancy progression and in metastasis.

Zhu L, Liu J, Ma S, Zhang S
Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Can Predict Metastasis and a Poor Prognosis: a Meta-Analysis.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2015; 21(4):1259-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated expression of MALAT-1 was found in various cancers, and correlated with metastasis and prognostic. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored correlation of MALAT-1 with lymph node metastasis (LNM), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, CNKI, CBM, and the Cochrane Library. The odds ratios (OR) of LNM and DM and hazard ratio (HR) of OS were calculated to assess the association strength. Eight studies with a total of 845 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Six different types of cancer were evaluated, with 2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 1 colorectal cancer (CRC), 1 gastric cancer (GC), 2 pancreatic cancer (PC), 1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and 1 osteosarcoma (OSA). Compared with low MALAT-1 expression, high MALAT-1 expression correlated with more LNM (OR = 2.08, 95 %CI: 1.00-4.32, p = 0.05) by a random-effects model (I (2) = 71 %, p = 0.004). A similar result was seen between MALAT-1 expression and DM, the OR was 3.52 (95 %CI: 1.06-11.71, p = 0.04) adopting a random-effects model (I (2) = 59 %, p = 0.04). Additionally, our analysis showed a poorer OS in patients with high MALAT-1 expression than those with low MALAT-1 expression (HR = 2.12, 95 %CI: 1.60-2.82, p < 0.001) adopting a random-effects model (I (2) = 56 %, p = 0.04). MALAT-1 may serve as a molecular marker for cancer metastasis and prognosis.

Nepomuceno AI, Shao H, Jing K, et al.
In-depth LC-MS/MS analysis of the chicken ovarian cancer proteome reveals conserved and novel differentially regulated proteins in humans.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015; 407(22):6851-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OVC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world due to the combined lack of early-stage diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies. The development and application of advanced proteomics technology and new experimental models has created unique opportunities for translational studies. In this study, we investigated the ovarian cancer proteome of the chicken, an emerging experimental model of OVC that develops ovarian tumors spontaneously. Matched plasma, ovary, and oviduct tissue biospecimens derived from healthy, early-stage OVC, and late-stage OVC birds were quantitatively characterized by label-free proteomics. Over 2600 proteins were identified in this study, 348 of which were differentially expressed by more than twofold (p ≤ 0.05) in early- and late-stage ovarian tumor tissue specimens relative to healthy ovarian tissues. Several of the 348 proteins are known to be differentially regulated in human cancers including B2M, CLDN3, EPCAM, PIGR, S100A6, S100A9, S100A11, and TPD52. Of particular interest was ovostatin 2 (OVOS2), a novel 165-kDa protease inhibitor found to be strongly upregulated in chicken ovarian tumors (p = 0.0005) and matched plasma (p = 0.003). Indeed, RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that OVOS2 mRNA and protein were also upregulated in multiple human OVC cell lines compared to normal ovarian epithelia (NOE) cells and immunohistochemical staining confirmed overexpression of OVOS2 in primary human ovarian cancers relative to non-cancerous tissues. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence for involvement of OVOS2 in the pathogenesis of both chicken and human ovarian cancer.

Yu L, Shang ZF, Wang J, et al.
PC-1/PrLZ confers resistance to rapamycin in prostate cancer cells through increased 4E-BP1 stability.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(24):20356-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An important strategy for improving advanced PCa treatment is targeted therapies combined with chemotherapy. PC-1, a prostate Leucine Zipper gene (PrLZ), is specifically expressed in prostate tissue as an androgen-induced gene and is up-regulated in advanced PCa. Recent work confirmed that PC-1 expression promotes PCa growth and androgen-independent progression. However, how this occurs and whether this can be used as a biomarker is uncertain. Here, we report that PC-1 overexpression confers PCa cells resistance to rapamycin treatment by antagonizing rapamycin-induced cytostasis and autophagy (rapamycin-sensitivity was observed in PC-1-deficient (shPC-1) C4-2 cells). Analysis of the mTOR pathway in PCa cells with PC-1 overexpressed and depressed revealed that eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1(4E-BP1) was highly regulated by PC-1. Immunohistochemistry assays indicated that 4E-BP1 up-regulation correlates with increased PC-1 expression in human prostate tumors and in PCa cells. Furthermore, PC-1 interacts directly with 4E-BP1 and stabilizes 4E-BP1 protein via inhibition of its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Thus, PC-1 is a novel regulator of 4E-BP1 and our work suggests a potential mechanism through which PC-1 enhances PCa cell survival and malignant progression and increases chemoresistance. Thus, the PC-1-4E-BP1 interaction may represent a therapeutic target for treating advanced PCa.

Wang SY, Feng LY, Meng ZQ
Bicluster and pathway enrichment analysis related to tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(7):1191-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most aggressive cancers with poor prognosis worldwide. Tumor progression remains a significant cause of high mortality in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanism underlying tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been completely unraveled currently. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed microarray analysis on 24 tissue specimens obtained at the time of surgical resection or liver transplantation from 24 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database.
RESULTS: Our analysis indicated that several differentially expressed genes might play crucial roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, such as GADD45G, SPTBN1, CDC27, TPD52 and INSIG1. GADD45G and SPTBN1 not only contribute to tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma, but also correlate with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer respectively. Futhermore, we performed pathway enrichment analysis and found enriched pathways, including "Proteasome", "Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism", "TGF-beta signaling pathway", "Wnt signaling pathway", and so on.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed the presence of multiple molecular alterations during tumor progression and indicated the differentially expressed genes might be involved in tumor progression though multiple pathways. Genes GADD45G and SPTBN1 might correlate with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma as has already been shown for other malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract.

Yang M, Wang X, Jia J, et al.
Tumor protein D52-like 2 contributes to proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2015; 30(1):1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death among women. Tumor protein D52-like 2 (TPD52L2) is one member of the TPD52 family, which has been shown to function in mediating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vehicle trafficking. TPD52 was originally identified in human breast carcinoma. In this study, the authors found that TPD52L2 is extensively expressed in multiple human breast cancer cell lines. To elucidate the functional role of TPD52L2 in breast cancer, the authors employed lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down TPD52L2 in one breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, which showed high TPD52L2 expression. The shRNA-mediated TPD52L2 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and colony formation in ZR-75-30 cells, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Knockdown of TPD52L2 led to an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, knockdown of TPD52L2 promoted GSK3β phosphorylation in ZR-75-30 cells. This investigation indicates that TPD52L2 plays an essential role in the growth of breast cancer cells, which may contribute to provide gene therapy for breast cancer treatment.

Han G, Fan M, Zhang X
microRNA-218 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and promotes apoptosis by repressing TPD52 expression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(3):804-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC) due to gene amplification. Although the oncogenic effect of TPD52 is well recognized, how its expression is regulated is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of miR-218, a tumor suppressing miRNA on TPD52 expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of miR-218 was significantly lower in PC specimens. Based on gain and loss of function analysis, we found miR-218 significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that miR-218 plays a tumor suppressor role in PC cells. In addition, our data firstly demonstrated that miR-218 directly regulates oncogenic TPD52 in PC3 cells and the miR-218-TPD52 axis can regulate growth of this prostate cancer cell line. Knockdown of TPD52 resulted in significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis. Clearly understanding of oncogenic TPD52 pathways regulated by miR-218 might be helpful to reveal new therapeutic targets for PC.

He Y, Chen F, Cai Y, Chen S
Knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Biol Int. 2015; 39(3):264-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor protein D52-like 2 (TPD52L2) and its family members form homo- and hetero-meric complexes essential for cell proliferation in multiple human cancers. TPD52L2 is involved in cell migration and attachment in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To confirm the role of TPD52L2 in OSCC, we employed the lentivirus-delivered small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to knock down TPD52L2 expression in two OSCC cell lines, CAL27, and KB. Knockdown of TPD52L2 by RNA interference markedly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. Cell cycle analysis showed that depletion of TPD52L2 led to CAL27 cells arrest in the S phase. We found an excessive accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase, which can represent apoptotic cells. TPD52L2 silencing also induced the cleavage of PARP. These results suggest that TPD52L2 is involved in OSCC cell growth and serves as a potential therapeutic target in human OSCC.

Wu R, Wang H, Wang J, et al.
EphA3, induced by PC-1/PrLZ, contributes to the malignant progression of prostate cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2657-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study revealed the potential linkage of PC-1/PrLZ, a novel isolated prostate-specific gene, to the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) in vitro and in vivo. To gain more insight into the mechanism of PC-1-induced promotion of PCa, expression analysis of differential genes induced by PC-1 was scanned by microarray. Among all the differentially expressed genes, EphA3 was altered to the greatest extent. EphA3 has been identified to be associated with multiple tumor progression. However, little is known concerning the function of EphA3 in PCa. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether EphA3 is induced by PC-1 and the functional significance of EphA3 expression in PCa. We found that overexpression of PC-1 increased the amount of EphA3 and that knockdown of PC-1 led to a decrease in EphA3 in PCa cells. The functional significance and mechanisms by which EphA3 contributes to PCa was investigated in vitro using cell lines, and in vivo using a mouse model and clinical specimens. The results showed that EphA3 enhanced the proliferation and survival of LNCaP cells and suppression of EphA3 inhibited the survival of C4-2B cells. EphA3 enhanced the tumor development of LNCaP cells in null mice. A positive correlation between the levels of EphA3 and the Gleason grade of PCa was identified in clinical PCa specimens. In addition, cellular localization changed with Gleason grade. We further detected that EphA3 increased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308), indicating that EphA3 activated the Akt pathway. Taken together, EphA3 was induced by PC-1 and contributed to the malignant progression of prostate cancer. Our results provide the first demonstration that EphA3 is a novel promoter of human prostate cancer development and progression.

Zhang R, Leng H, Huang J, et al.
miR-337 regulates the proliferation and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by targeting HOXB7.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:171 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miRNAs are involved in coordinating a variety of cellular processes by regulating their target genes. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is correlated with various cancers. Previous studies have shown that miR-337 is significantly down-regulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and that its expression is negatively correlated to the expression of HOXB7. Both miR-337 and HOXB7 are associated with the prognosis of PDAC patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms by which miR-337 acts as a tumor suppressor in PDAC.
METHODS: Synthetic miR-337 mimics were transfected into PANC-1 and As-PC-1 cells using Lipofectamine™ 2000. The expression of HOXB7 protein was analyzed by Western blot. Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm that HOXB7 3'UTR was the target of miR-337. The effect of miR-337 on cell proliferation was evaluated by CCK8 assay and colony formation assay, and cell invasion was evaluated by wound healing assay and transwell assay.
RESULTS: Western blot and luciferase activity assays identified HOXB7 as the target of miR-337. A CCK-8 assay showed the absorbance of cells transfected with miR-337 mimics to be less than that of control cells, and that the number of cell clones was significantly decreased by miR-337 expression. A wound healing assay showed the invasion rate of cells transfected with miR-337 mimics at 36 h to be markedly lower than in controls. The average number of cells penetrating the Matrigel was significantly lower than the controls.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that miR-337 targets HOXB7 and effects significant suppression of PDAC cell proliferation and invasion.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Kabir NN, Rönnstrand L, Kazi JU
Keratin 19 expression correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(12):7729-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer expression profiling has been used for determining biomarkers. Using gene expression profiles of 2,400 patients we identified keratin 19 (KRT19) as a highly deregulated gene in breast cancer. KRT19 expression is independent of patient race but correlates with disease grade, and ER, PR or HER2 expression. Expression of TPD52, GATA3 and KRT18 was increased in KRT19 expressing patients. Furthermore, KRT19 expression was associated with ER up-regulation and Luminal B gene signatures, as well as a constitutive RAF1 signaling pathway. Finally, KRT19 expression correlated with poor overall survival. Taken together, our results suggest that KRT19 expression can be used as a prognostic marker.

Wang Z, Sun J, Zhao Y, et al.
Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 inhibits glioma cell proliferation.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2014; 60(1):39-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
TPD52L2 (tumor protein D52-like 2) is a member of TPD52 family which has been implicated in multiple human cancers. Recently, TPD52 protein was shown to be associated with several malignancies, but very little is known about the function of TPD52L2 in cancers, especially in glioma to date, and its roles in glioma occurrence and progression remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down TPD52L2 expression in human glioma cell line U251. We found that knockdown of TPD52L2 significantly not only inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation, but also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that TPD52L2 might play an important role in glioma tumorigenesis.

Goto Y, Nishikawa R, Kojima S, et al.
Tumour-suppressive microRNA-224 inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion via targeting oncogenic TPD52 in prostate cancer.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(10):1973-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our recent study of the microRNA expression signature of prostate cancer (PCa) revealed that microRNA-224 (miR-224) is significantly downregulated in PCa tissues. Here, we found that restoration of miR-224 significantly inhibits PCa cell migration and invasion. Additionally, we found that oncogenic TPD52 is a direct target of miR-224 regulation. Silencing of the TPD52 gene significantly inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, TPD52 expression is upregulated in cancer tissues and negatively correlates with miR-224 expression. We conclude that loss of tumour-suppressive miR-224 enhances cancer cell migration and invasion in PCa through direct regulation of oncogenic TPD52.

Jaganathan A, Chaurasia P, Xiao GQ, et al.
Coactivator MYST1 regulates nuclear factor-κB and androgen receptor functions during proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
Mol Endocrinol. 2014; 28(6):872-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In prostate cancer (PCa), the functional synergy between androgen receptor (AR) and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) escalates the resistance to therapeutic regimens and promotes aggressive tumor growth. Although the underlying mechanisms are less clear, gene regulatory abilities of coactivators can bridge the transcription functions of AR and NF-κB. The present study shows that MYST1 (MOZ, YBF2 and SAS2, and TIP60 protein 1) costimulates AR and NF-κB functions in PCa cells. We demonstrate that activation of NF-κB promotes deacetylation of MYST1 by sirtuin 1. Further, the mutually exclusive interactions of MYST1 with sirtuin 1 vs AR regulate the acetylation of lysine 16 on histone H4. Notably, in AR-lacking PC3 cells and in AR-depleted LNCaP cells, diminution of MYST1 activates the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 that leads to apoptosis. In contrast, in AR-transformed PC3 cells (PC3-AR), depletion of MYST1 induces cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) N1A/p21, which results in G2M arrest. Concomitantly, the levels of phospho-retinoblastoma, E2F1, CDK4, and CDK6 are reduced. Finally, the expression of tumor protein D52 (TPD52) was unequivocally affected in PC3, PC3-AR, and LNCaP cells. Taken together, the results of this study reveal that the functional interactions of MYST1 with AR and NF-κB are critical for PCa progression.

Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Lambrou GI, Spandidos DA
Gene set enrichment analysis of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in multiple myeloma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4987-5005 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of a dysregulated NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP loop was recently established in metastatic prostate cancer cells and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, its involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in MM and how each gene is correlated with the remaining genes of the loop. Using gene set enrichment analysis and gene neighbours analysis in data received from four datasets included in the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium, we identified various enriched gene sets associated with each member of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry. In each dataset, the 20 most co-expressed genes with the circuitry genes were isolated subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment. Among many, we highlighted on FNDC3B, TPD52, BBX, MBNL1 and MFAP2. Many co-expressed genes participated in the regulation of metabolic processes and nucleic acid binding, or were transcription factor binding genes and genes with metallopeptidase activity. The transcription factors FOXO4, GATA binding factor, Sp1 and AP4 most likely affect the expression of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes. Computational analysis of various GEO datasets revealed elevated YY1 and RKIP levels in MM vs. the normal plasma cells, as well as elevated RKIP levels in MM vs. normal B lymphocytes. The present study highlights the relationships of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes with specific cancer-related gene sets in multiple myeloma.

Dai L, Wu J, Guo H, et al.
Mutation p.Leu128Pro in the 1A domain of K16 causes pachyonychia congenita with focal palmoplantar keratoderma in a Chinese family.
Eur J Pediatr. 2014; 173(6):737-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Pachyonychia congenita (PC), a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy, is classified into two main clinical subtypes: PC-1 and PC-2. PC-1 is associated with mutations in the KRT6A or KRT16 genes, whereas PC-2 is linked to KRT6B or KRT17 mutations. Blood samples were collected from three generations of a new Chinese PC-1 family, including three PC patients and five unaffected family members. A novel missense mutation p.Leu128Pro (c.383T>C) was identified in a highly conserved helix motif in domain 1A of K16. The disease haplotype carried the mutation and cosegregated with the affection status. PolyPhen2 and SIFTS analysis rated the substitution as probably damaging; Swiss-Model analysis indicated that the structure of the mutant protein contained an unnormal α-helix. Overexpression of mutant protein in cultured cells led to abnormal cell morphology.
CONCLUSION: The wider spectrum of KRT16 mutations suggests that changes in codons 125, 127, and 132 are most commonly responsible for PC-1 and that proline substitution mutations at codons 127 or 128 may produce more severe disease. This study extends the KRT16 mutation spectrum and adds new information on the clinical and genetic diversity of PC.

Seim I, Jeffery PL, de Amorim L, et al.
Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is expressed in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines and expression is differentially regulated in vitro by ghrelin.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is expressed in the stomach and a range of peripheral tissues, where it frequently acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Ghrelin is modified by a unique acylation required for it to activate its cognate receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which mediates many of the actions of ghrelin. Recently, the enzyme responsible for adding the fatty acid residue (octanoyl/acyl group) to the third amino acid of ghrelin, GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), was identified.
METHODS: We used cell culture, quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the expression of GOAT in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues from patients. Real-time RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the expression of prohormone convertase (PC)1/3, PC2 and furin in prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate-derived cell lines were treated with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin and the effect on GOAT expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: We have demonstrated that GOAT mRNA and protein are expressed in the normal prostate and human prostate cancer tissue samples. The RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 normal prostate-derived cell lines and the LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines express GOAT and at least one other enzyme that is necessary to produce mature, acylated ghrelin from proghrelin (PC1/3, PC2 or furin). Finally, ghrelin, but not desacyl ghrelin (unacylated ghrelin), can directly regulate the expression of GOAT in the RWPE-1 normal prostate derived cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Ghrelin treatment (100nM) for 6 hours significantly decreased GOAT mRNA expression two-fold (P < 0.05) in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, however, ghrelin did not regulate GOAT expression in the DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that GOAT is expressed in prostate cancer specimens and cell lines. Ghrelin regulates GOAT expression, however, this is likely to be cell-type specific. The expression of GOAT in prostate cancer supports the hypothesis that the ghrelin axis has autocrine/paracrine roles. We propose that the RWPE-1 prostate cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line may be useful for investigating GOAT regulation and function.

Roslan N, Bièche I, Bright RK, et al.
TPD52 represents a survival factor in ERBB2-amplified breast cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(10):807-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
TPD52 and ERBB2 co-expression has been persistently reported in human breast cancer and animal models of this disease, but the significance of this is unknown. We identified significant positive associations between relative TPD52 and ERBB2 transcript levels in human diagnostic breast cancer samples, and maximal TPD52 expression in the hormone receptor (HR)- and ERBB2-positive sub-group. High-level TPD52 expression was associated with significantly reduced metastasis-free survival, within the overall cohort (log rank test, P = 8.6 × 10(-4), n = 375) where this was an independent predictor of metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.59-4.54, P = 2.2 × 10(-4), n = 359), and the HR- and ERBB2-positive sub-group (log rank test, P = 0.035, n = 47). Transient TPD52 knock-down in the ERBB2-amplified breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and BT-474 produced significant apoptosis, both singly and in combination with transient ERBB2 knock-down. Unlike ERBB2 knock-down, transient TPD52 knock-down produced no reduction in pAKT levels in SK-BR-3 or BT-474 cells. We then derived multiple SK-BR-3 cell lines in which TPD52 levels were stably reduced, and measured significant inverse correlations between pERBB2 and TPD52 levels in viable TPD52-depleted and control cell lines, all of which showed similar proliferative capacities. Our results therefore identify TPD52 as a survival factor in ERBB2-amplified breast cancer cells, and suggest complementary cellular functions for TPD52 and ERBB2.

Hu YL, Zhong D, Pang F, et al.
HNF1b is involved in prostate cancer risk via modulating androgenic hormone effects and coordination with other genes.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(2):1327-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Genome wide association studies have revealed HNF1b to be a major risk gene for prostate cancer susceptibility. We examined the mechanisms of involvement of HNF1b in prostate cancer development. We integrated data from Gene Expression Omnibus prostate cancer genes from the Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Prostate Cancer, and used meta-analysis data to generate a panel of HNF1b-associated prostate cancer risk genes. An RT-PCR was used to assess expression levels in DU145, PC3, LNCaP, and RWEP-1 cells. Twelve genes (BAG1, DDR1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, NR4A1, PAWR, PIK3CG, RAP2A, and TPD52) were found to be associated with both HNF1b and prostate cancer risk. Six of them (BAG1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, NR4A1, and PIK3CG) were mapped to the KEGG pathway, and submitted to further gene expression assessment. HNF1b, NR4A1, and HSPD1 were found to be highly expressed in the LNCaP androgenic hormone-dependent cell line. Compared to expression levels in wild-type prostate cancer cells, NR4A1, HSPD1, ERBB4, and ESR1 expression levels were also found to be significantly increased in the HNF1b-transfected cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of HNF1b in prostate cancer involves modulation of the association between androgenic hormone and prostate cancer cells. Gene-gene interaction and coordination should be taken into account to determine relationships between specific loci and diseases.

Liu W, Xie CC, Thomas CY, et al.
Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy.
Cancer. 2013; 119(13):2405-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), by evaluating chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlating these with clinicopathologic features and outcome.
METHODS: CNAs in tumor DNA samples from 125 patients in the discovery cohort who underwent prostatectomy were assayed with high-resolution Affymetrix 6.0 single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm.
RESULTS: The assays revealed 20 significant regions of CNAs, 4 of them novel, and identified the target genes of 4 of the alterations. By univariate analysis, 7 CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and MYC (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial prostate-specific antigen level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (odds ratio = 53; 95% CI = 6.92-405, P = 1 × 10(-4)). Analyses of 333 tumors from 3 additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality.

Mukudai Y, Kondo S, Fujita A, et al.
Tumor protein D54 is a negative regulator of extracellular matrix-dependent migration and attachment in oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell lines.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2013; 36(3):233-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tumor protein D54 (TPD54) belongs to the TPD52 family of proteins and is expressed in several types of cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we investigated relationships between various OSCC-related characteristics and TPD54 expression in vitro.
METHODS: The expression of TPD54 in several OSCC-derived cell lines and normal, non-malignant, cells was assessed. Based on the results obtained, OSCC-derived SAS cells were subsequently subjected to exogenous over-expression of alternative splice variants (ASVs) of TPD54 and to TPD54 knock-down, mediated by siRNA. Next, the role of TPD54 in cellular growth, apoptosis, invasion, migration and extracellular-matrix (ECM)-dependent migration and attachment was investigated, as also the concomitant expression of integrins and integrin-related proteins by the OSCC-derived cells.
RESULTS: Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that several TPD54 ASVs were expressed in the OSCC-derived cell lines tested. Neither exogenous ASV over-expression nor TPD54 knock-down modulated the proliferation or invasion of SAS cells in a monolayer culture assay. However, exogenous ASV over-expression did decrease anchorage-independent growth and TPD54 knock-down did increase anchorage-independent growth, irrespective of caspase activities. The same effects were observed on ECM-dependent cellular migration and cell attachment to the ECM. The expression levels of the major α and β integrin subunits, and of E-cadherin, were found to be similar to those observed in the non-transfected control cells, whereas talin1 expression was found to be increased after TPD54 knock-down. Also Akt was found to be activated after TPD54 knock-down, even in the absence of serum stimulation. Very similar effects were observed in the OSCC-derived cell lines HSC 2 and HSC 3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that TPD54 affects OSCC cell attachment to the ECM, OSCC cell migration, and Akt/PKB activation by modulating integrin activation via a talin1-mediated inside-out signal of the ECM. Based on these results, we suggest that TPD54 may serve as a novel biomarker for OSCC and as a putative target for OSCC therapy.

Yamaga R, Ikeda K, Horie-Inoue K, et al.
RNA sequencing of MCF-7 breast cancer cells identifies novel estrogen-responsive genes with functional estrogen receptor-binding sites in the vicinity of their transcription start sites.
Horm Cancer. 2013; 4(4):222-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a key transcription factor in breast cancer, which plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of the disease by regulating the expression of various target genes. In the present study, we performed deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) as an unbiased high-throughput technique for comprehensive transcriptome analysis in ERα-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, to facilitate the elucidation of ERα regulatory gene networks. From the 17,336 mapped RefSeq genes from the sequenced fragments of the cell samples treated with estrogen time dependently, substantial numbers of sequence reads were observed in 3,386 genes (>100 tags per million reads per sample at any of the six time points studied). ERα occupancy within and in the proximal regions of the genes (<10-kb upstream and downstream regions) was significantly enriched in the subgroup of the 3,386 genes compared to the whole 17,336 RefSeq genes. Of the 3,386 genes, we focused on 29 genes, which included ERα occupancy adjacent to their transcription start sites and whose expression was estrogen dependently altered by >3-fold. Knockdown studies using siRNAs specific to the 29 genes validated that prototypic ERα targets V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog and cyclin D1 promote both proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells and further identified novel candidate ERα targets EIF3A and tumor protein D52-like 1, which will also facilitate the proliferation or migration of MCF-7 cells. Taken together, the present findings provide a valuable dataset that will elucidate ERα regulatory mechanisms in breast cancer biology, based on the integrative analysis of RNA-seq combined with the genome-wide information for ERα occupancy.

Kazmi SJ, Byer SJ, Eckert JM, et al.
Transgenic mice overexpressing neuregulin-1 model neurofibroma-malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor progression and implicate specific chromosomal copy number variations in tumorigenesis.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 182(3):646-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop benign plexiform neurofibromas that frequently progress to become malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). A genetically engineered mouse model that accurately models plexiform neurofibroma-MPNST progression in humans would facilitate identification of somatic mutations driving this process. We previously reported that transgenic mice overexpressing the growth factor neuregulin-1 in Schwann cells (P(0)-GGFβ3 mice) develop MPNSTs. To determine whether P(0)-GGFβ3 mice accurately model human neurofibroma-MPNST progression, cohorts of these animals were monitored through death and were necropsied; 94% developed multiple neurofibromas, with 70% carrying smaller numbers of MPNSTs. Nascent MPNSTs were identified within neurofibromas, suggesting that these sarcomas arise from neurofibromas. Although neurofibromin expression was maintained, P(0)-GGFβ3 MPNSTs exhibited Ras hyperactivation, as in human NF1-associated MPNSTs. P(0)-GGFβ3 MPNSTs also exhibited abnormalities in the p16(INK4A)-cyclin D/CDK4-Rb and p19(ARF)-Mdm-p53 pathways, analogous to their human counterparts. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated reproducible chromosomal alterations in P(0)-GGFβ3 MPNST cells (including universal chromosome 11 gains) and focal gains and losses affecting 39 neoplasia-associated genes (including Pten, Tpd52, Myc, Gli1, Xiap, and Bbc3/PUMA). Array comparative genomic hybridization also identified recurrent focal copy number variations affecting genes not previously linked to neurofibroma or MPNST pathogenesis. We conclude that P(0)-GGFβ3 mice represent a robust model of neurofibroma-MPNST progression useful for identifying novel genes driving neurofibroma and MPNST pathogenesis.

Li L, Xie H, Liang L, et al.
Increased PrLZ-mediated androgen receptor transactivation promotes prostate cancer growth at castration-resistant stage.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(2):257-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most advanced prostate cancers (PCa) will develop into the castration-resistant stage following androgen deprivation therapy, yet the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found PrLZ, a newly identified Prostate Leucine Zipper gene that is highly expressed in PCa could interact with the androgen receptor (AR) directly leading to enhance AR transactivation in the castration-resistant condition. PrLZ might enhance AR transactivation via a change of AR conformation that leads to promotion of AR nuclear translocation and suppression of AR degradation via modulating the proteasome pathway, which resulted in increased prostate-specific antigen expression and promoted PCa growth at the castration-resistant stage. Clinical PCa sample survey from same-patient paired specimens found increased PrLZ expression in castration-resistant PCa following the classical androgen deprivation therapy. Targeting the AR-PrLZ complex via ASC-J9® or PrLZ-siRNA resulted in suppression of PCa growth in various human PCa cells and in vivo mouse PCa models. Together, these data not only strengthen PrLZ roles in the transition from androgen dependence to androgen independence during the castration-resistant stage, but they may also provide a new potential therapy to battle PCa at the castration-resistant stage.

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