Gene Summary

Gene:IRS1; insulin receptor substrate 1
Aliases: HIRS-1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which is phosphorylated by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II diabetes and susceptibility to insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin receptor substrate 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (49)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Mutation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Transfection
  • IGF1R
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Phosphorylation
  • MicroRNAs
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Transcriptome
  • Chromosome 2
  • Phosphatidate Phosphatase
  • Cell Movement
  • Xenograft Models
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Protein Transport
  • Up-Regulation
  • Somatomedins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Receptor, Insulin
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Southwestern United States
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Sucrose
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • ras Proteins
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • IRS1
  • Breast Cancer
  • Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IRS1 (cancer-related)

Sun Y, Zhou J, Shi L, et al.
MicroRNA‑466 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma by directly targeting insulin receptor substrate 1.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3345-3352 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in osteosarcoma (OS), and the aberrant expression of miRNAs is associated with OS initiation and progression. Previous studies demonstrated that miRNA‑466 (miR‑466) is dysregulated, and serves important roles in various types of human cancer. However, the role of miR‑466 in the formation and progression of OS remains unclear. In the present study, the expression level of miR‑466 was identified to be markedly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. Additionally, miR‑466 overexpression inhibited the proliferative and invasive abilities of OS cells. In the present study, bioinformatics analyses and luciferase assays were employed to show that miR‑466 was able to directly target the 3'‑untranslated region of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene, negatively regulating the mRNA and the protein expression levels of IRS1 in OS cells. Furthermore, IRS1 was upregulated in OS tissues, and the increased expression level of IRS1 exhibited an inverse correlation with the expression level of miR‑466. Furthermore, IRS1 overexpression was able to partially reverse the suppressive effects of miR‑466 overexpression in OS cells. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to suggest that miR‑466 is downregulated in OS and inhibits the progression of OS by directly targeting IRS1. The present results suggested that miR‑466 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with OS.

He T, Liu Y, Zhao S, et al.
Comprehensive assessment the expression of core elements related to IGFIR/PI3K pathway in granulosa cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019; 233:134-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common multisystem endocrinopathy in women, characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. But its etiology remains elusive. A plethora of information suggests phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is key to the pathogenesis of PCOS but little is known about the expression pattern and possible role of insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFIR)/PI3K pathway in PCOS. The goal of this study was to determine whether the core elements of the IGF1R/PI3K pathway were differentially expressed in GCs isolated from PCOS.
STUDY DESIGN: Western blot (WB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for IGF1R, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) related to IGFIR/PI3K pathway were performed in GCs isolated from 60 PCOS patients and 60 controls.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, body mass index (BMI), the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), testosterone (T), luteotropic hormone (LH), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), antral follicle count (AFC) were markedly elevated while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, at both mRNA and protein levels, the expression of IGF1R, IRS1, IRS2 were significantly increased whereas PTEN was dramatically decreased in PCOS patients (p <  0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that IGFIR/PI3K pathway is differently expressed in PCOS GCs compared with controls, with IGFIR, IRS1, IRS2 significantly increased while PTEN decreased. Thus, our study probably provides new evidences about the pathogenesis of PCOS in term of molecular mechanism.

Zucco AJ, Pozzo VD, Afinogenova A, et al.
Neural progenitors derived from Tuberous Sclerosis Complex patients exhibit attenuated PI3K/AKT signaling and delayed neuronal differentiation.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018; 92:149-163 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, and is characterized by tumor susceptibility, brain lesions, seizures and behavioral impairments. The TSC1 and TSC2 genes encode proteins forming a complex (TSC), which is a major regulator and suppressor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling complex that promotes cell growth and proliferation. TSC1/2 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and the subsequent complete loss of TSC regulatory activity in null cells causes mTORC1 dysregulation and TSC-associated brain lesions or other tissue tumors. However, it is not clear whether TSC1/2 heterozygous brain cells are abnormal and contribute to TSC neuropathology. To investigate this issue, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from TSC patients and unaffected controls, and utilized these to obtain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and differentiated neurons in vitro. These patient-derived TSC2 heterozygous NPCs were delayed in their ability to differentiate into neurons. Patient-derived progenitor cells also exhibited a modest activation of mTORC1 signaling downstream of TSC, and a marked attenuation of upstream PI3K/AKT signaling. We further show that pharmacologic PI3K or AKT inhibition, but not mTORC1 inhibition, causes a neuronal differentiation delay, mimicking the patient phenotype. Together these data suggest that heterozygous TSC2 mutations disrupt neuronal development, potentially contributing to the disease neuropathology, and that this defect may result from dysregulated PI3K/AKT signaling in neural progenitor cells.

Khalid S, Hanif R, Jabeen I, et al.
Pharmacophore modeling for identification of anti-IGF-1R drugs and in-vitro validation of fulvestrant as a potential inhibitor.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0196312 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is an important therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. The alteration in the IGF-1R associated signaling network due to various genetic and environmental factors leads the system towards metastasis. The pharmacophore modeling and logical approaches have been applied to analyze the behaviour of complex regulatory network involved in breast cancer. A total of 23 inhibitors were selected to generate ligand based pharmacophore using the tool, Molecular Operating Environment (MOE). The best model consisted of three pharmacophore features: aromatic hydrophobic (HyD/Aro), hydrophobic (HyD) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA). This model was validated against World drug bank (WDB) database screening to identify 189 hits with the required pharmacophore features and was further screened by using Lipinski positive compounds. Finally, the most effective drug, fulvestrant, was selected. Fulvestrant is a selective estrogen receptor down regulator (SERD). This inhibitor was further studied by using both in-silico and in-vitro approaches that showed the targeted effect of fulvestrant in ER+ MCF-7 cells. Results suggested that fulvestrant has selective cytotoxic effect and a dose dependent response on IRS-1, IGF-1R, PDZK1 and ER-α in MCF-7 cells. PDZK1 can be an important inhibitory target using fulvestrant because it directly regulates IGF-1R.

Tan J, Qian X, Song B, et al.
Integrated bioinformatics analysis reveals that the expression of cathepsin S is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):111-122 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The prognosis of the majority of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is excellent, although there are patients who experience disease recurrence and progression. The aim of the present study was to identify potential prognostic risk markers in PTC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), identified from four Genome Expression Omnibus cohorts were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with Gene Ontology terms and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways. Hub genes, filtered from cytoHubba, were validated using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, and their associations with clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed. A total of 277 DEGs were identified following data preprocessing. DEGs were primarily enriched in 'small cell lung cancer', 'ECM-receptor interaction', 'pathways in cancer'and 'tyrosine metabolism'. Hub genes [APOE, cathepsin S (CTSS), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), KIT, LGALS3, RUNX2 and TGFBR1] were extracted from cytoHubba. Their expression in the TCGA cohort was consistent with that in the GEO cohorts. CTSS (P=0.006) and IRS1 (P=0.005) were associated with disease‑free survival, as determined using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTSS was an independent risk factor for poor disease‑free survival (HR, 2.649; 95% CI, 1.095-6.409; P=0.031). Patients with high expression of CTSS exhibited different histological types (increased tall-cell subtype and reduced follicular subtype; P<0.001), more frequent lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (P=0.049) compared with the low-expression group. High expression of CTSS was independently associated with lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.015; 95% CI, 1.225-3.315; P=0.006). Therefore, CTSS may serve as a predictive risk marker for the progression and prognosis of PTC.

Mercado-Matos J, Janusis J, Zhu S, et al.
Identification of a Novel Invasion-Promoting Region in Insulin Receptor Substrate 2.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(14) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Although the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins IRS1 and IRS2 share considerable homology and activate common signaling pathways, their contributions to breast cancer are distinct. IRS1 has been implicated in the proliferation and survival of breast tumor cells. In contrast, IRS2 facilitates glycolysis, invasion, and metastasis. To determine the mechanistic basis for IRS2-dependent functions, we investigated unique structural features of IRS2 that are required for invasion. Our studies revealed that the ability of IRS2 to promote invasion is dependent upon upstream insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)/insulin receptor (IR) activation and the recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), functions shared with IRS1. In addition, a 174-amino-acid region in the IRS2 C-terminal tail, which is not conserved in IRS1, is also required for IRS2-mediated invasion. Importantly, this "invasion (INV) region" is sufficient to confer invasion-promoting ability when swapped into IRS1. However, the INV region is not required for the IRS2-dependent regulation of glucose uptake. Bone morphogenetic protein 2-inducible kinase (BMP2K) binds to the INV region and contributes to IRS2-dependent invasion. Taken together, our data advance the mechanistic understanding of how IRS2 regulates invasion and reveal that IRS2 functions important for cancer can be independently targeted without interfering with the metabolic activities of this adaptor protein.

Xu H, Lee MS, Tsai PY, et al.
Ablation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 suppresses
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(16):4228-4233 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 25% of cases harboring oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma (

Liang W, Sun F
Identification of key genes of papillary thyroid cancer using integrated bioinformatics analysis.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2018; 41(10):1237-1245 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify novel clinically relevant genes in papillary thyroid carcinoma from public databases.
METHODS: Four original microarray datasets, GSE3678, GSE3467, GSE33630 and GSE58545, were downloaded. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were filtered from integrated data. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction. The CentiScape pug-in was performed to scale degree. The genes at the top of the degree distribution (≥ 95% percentile) in the significantly perturbed networks were defined as central genes. UALCAN and The Cancer Genome Atlas Clinical Explorer were used to verify clinically relevant genes and perform survival analysis.
RESULT: 225 commonly changed DEGs (111 up-regulated and 114 down-regulated) were identified. The DEGs were classified into three groups by GO terms. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed DEGs mainly enriched in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, focal adhesion and proteoglycans in cancer. DEGs' protein-protein interaction (PPI) network complex was developed; six central genes (BCL2, CCND1, FN1, IRS1, COL1A1, CXCL12) were identified. Among them, BCL2, CCND1 and COL1A1 were identified as clinically relevant genes.
CONCLUSION: BCL2, CCND1 and COL1A1 may be key genes for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Further molecular biological experiments are required to confirm the function of the identified genes.

Wu L, Li Y, Li J, Ma D
MicroRNA-664 Targets Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 to Suppress Cell Proliferation and Invasion in Breast Cancer.
Oncol Res. 2019; 27(4):459-467 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously demonstrated to be dysregulated in breast cancer (BC), and alterations in miRNA expression may affect the initiation and progression of BC. This study showed that miR-664 expression was obviously reduced in BC tissues and cell lines. Resumption of the expression of miR-664 attenuated the proliferation and invasion of BC cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of BC cell proliferation and invasion by miR-664 were also studied. Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was identified as a novel and direct target of miR-664. In addition, siRNA-mediated silencing of IRS1 expression mimicked the suppressive effects of miR-664 overexpression in BC cells. Rescue experiments demonstrated that recovered IRS1 expression partially antagonized the inhibition of proliferation and invasion of BC cells caused by miR-664 overexpression. Thus, miR-664 may serve as a tumor suppressor in BC by directly targeting IRS1. Moreover, miR-664 downregulation in BC may contribute to the occurrence and development of BC, suggesting that miR-664 may be a novel therapeutic target for patients with BC.

Wang S, Cheng Y, Gao Y, et al.
SH2B1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the IRS1/β-catenin signaling axis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(5):640-652 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most prevalent type of human lung cancer, is characterized by many molecular abnormalities. SH2B1, a member of the SH2-domain containing family, have recently been shown to act as tumor activators in multiple cancers, including LADC. However, the mechanisms underlying SH2B1 overexpression are not completely understood. Here, we reported that SH2B1 expression levels were significantly upregulated and positively associated with EMT markers and poor patient survival in LADC specimens. Modulation of SH2B1 levels had distinct effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and morphology in A549 and H1299 cells in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, overexpression of SH2B1 resulted in the upregulation of the EMT markers, especially induced β-catenin accumulation and activated β-catenin signaling to promote LADC cell proliferation and metastasis, while silencing SH2B1 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SH2B1 in H1299 cells increased IRS1 expression level. Reduced expression of IRS1 considerably inhibited H1299 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion which were driven by SH2B1 overexpression. Collectively, these results provide unequivocal evidence to establish that SH2B1-IRS1-β-catenin axis is required for promoting EMT, and might prove to be a promising strategy for restraining tumor progression in LADC patients.

Wang P, Liu G, Xu W, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA H19 Inhibits Cell Viability, Migration, and Invasion Via Downregulation of IRS-1 in Thyroid Cancer Cells.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 16(6):1102-1112 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine gland malignancy which exhibited rapid increased incidence worldwide in recent decades. This study was aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNA H19 in thyroid cancer. Long noncoding RNA H19 was overexpressed or knockdown in thyroid cancer cells SW579 and TPC-1, and the expression of long noncoding RNA H19 was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cell viability, migration, and invasion were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, Transwell assay, and wound healing assay, respectively. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, and expressions of some factors that were related to phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B and nuclear factor κB signal pathway were measured by Western blotting. This study revealed that cell viability and migration/invasion of SW579 and TPC-1 were significantly decreased by long noncoding RNA H19 overexpression compared with the control group ( P < .05), whereas cell apoptosis was statistically increased ( P < .001). Meanwhile, cell viability and migration/invasion were significantly increased after long noncoding RNA H19 knockdown ( P < .05). Furthermore, long noncoding RNA H19 negatively regulated the expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 and thus effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin receptor substrate 1 regulated the activation of phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinases/AKT and nuclear factor κB signal pathways. In conclusion, long noncoding RNA H19 could suppress cell viability, migration, and invasion via downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 in SW579 and TPC-1 cells. These results suggested the important role of long noncoding RNA H19 in thyroid cancer, and long noncoding RNA H19 might be a potential target of thyroid cancer treatment.

Duggan C, Baumgartner RN, Baumgartner KB, et al.
Genetic variation in TNFα, PPARγ, and IRS-1 genes, and their association with breast-cancer survival in the HEAL cohort.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 168(2):567-576 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Few data exist on associations between polymorphisms in these genes and mortality in breast cancer survivors.
METHODS: We investigated associations between TNF-α
RESULTS: Carriers of the PPARγ variant allele had statistically significantly lower rates of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.04), lower BMI (P = 0.01), and HOMA scores [P = 0.004; non-Hispanic White (NHWs) only]; carriers of the TNF-α variant A allele had higher serum glucose (P = 0.004, NHW only); and the IRS-1 variant was associated with higher leptin levels (P = 0.003, Hispanics only). There were no associations between any of the polymorphisms and tumor characteristics. Among 141 deaths, 62 were due to breast cancer. Carriers of the TNF-α-variant A allele had a decreased risk of breast-cancer-specific mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.83] and all-cause mortality (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.91).
CONCLUSIONS: Neither the PPARγ nor the IRS-1 polymorphism was associated with mortality outcome. The TNF-α

Liu MM, Li Z, Han XD, et al.
MiR-30e inhibits tumor growth and chemoresistance via targeting IRS1 in Breast Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15929 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
MicroRNA-30e (miR-30e) is downregulated in various tumor types. However, its mechanism in inhibiting tumor growth of breast cancer remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that miR-30e was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues of breast cancer (BC) patients and cell lines, and overexpression of miR-30e inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To understand the potential mechanism of miR-30e in inhibiting tumor growth, we showed that miR-30e blocked the activation of AKT and ERK1/2 pathways, and the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF via directly targeting IRS1. Moreover, miR-30e regulates cell proliferation, migration, invasion and increases chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to paclitaxel by inhibiting its target IRS1. MiR-30e also inhibited tumor growth and suppressed expression of IRS1, AKT, ERK1/2 and HIF-1α in mouse xenograft tumors. To test the clinical relevance of these results, we used 40 pairs of BC tissues and adjacent normal tissues, analyzed the levels of miR-30e and IRS1 expression in these tissues, and found that miR-30e levels were significantly inversely correlated with IRS1 levels in these BC tissues, suggesting the important implication of our findings in translational application for BC diagnostics and treatment in the future.

Li Z, Levine KM, Bahreini A, et al.
Upregulation of IRS1 Enhances IGF1 Response in Y537S and D538G ESR1 Mutant Breast Cancer Cells.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(1):285-296 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Increased evidence suggests that somatic mutations in the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor [ER (ERα/ESR1)] are critical mediators of endocrine-resistant breast cancer progression. Insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF1) is an essential regulator of breast development and tumorigenesis and also has a role in endocrine resistance. A recent study showed enhanced crosstalk between IGF1 and ERα in ESR1 mutant cells, but detailed mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using genome-edited MCF-7 and T47D cell lines harboring Y537S and D538G ESR1 mutations, we characterized altered IGF1 signaling. RNA sequencing revealed upregulation of multiple genes in the IGF1 pathway, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), consistent in both Y537S and D538G ESR1 mutant cell line models. Higher IRS1 expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. ESR1 mutant cells also showed increased levels of IGF-regulated genes, reflected by activation of an IGF signature. IGF1 showed increased sensitivity and potency in growth stimulation of ESR1 mutant cells. Analysis of downstream signaling revealed the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt axis as a major pathway mediating the enhanced IGF1 response in ESR1 mutant cells. Decreasing IRS1 expression by small interfering RNA diminished the increased sensitivity to IGF1. Combination treatment with inhibitors against IGF1 receptor (IGF1R; OSI-906) and ER (fulvestrant) showed synergistic growth inhibition in ESR1 mutant cells, particularly at lower effective concentrations. Our study supports a critical role of enhanced IGF1 signaling in ESR1 mutant cell lines, pointing toward a potential for cotargeting IGF1R and ERα in endocrine-resistant breast tumors with mutant ESR1.

Jung SY, Rohan T, Strickler H, et al.
Genetic variants and traits related to insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin resistance and their interaction with lifestyles on postmenopausal colorectal cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186296 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Genetic variants and traits in metabolic signaling pathways may interact with lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical activity, and exogenous estrogen (E), influencing postmenopausal colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but these interrelated pathways are not fully understood. In this case-cohort study, we examined 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/ insulin resistance (IR) traits and signaling pathways, using data from 704 postmenopausal women in Women's Health Initiative Observation ancillary studies. Stratifying by the lifestyle modifiers, we assessed the effects of IGF-I/IR traits (fasting total and free IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) on CRC risk as a mediator or influencing factor. Six SNPs in the INS, IGF-I, and IGFBP3 genes were associated with CRC risk, and those associations differed between non-obese/active and obese/inactive women and between E nonusers and users. Roughly 30% of the cancer risk due to the SNP was mediated by IGF-I/IR traits. Likewise, carriers of 11 SNPs in the IRS1 and AKT1/2 genes (signaling pathway-related genetic variants) had different associations with CRC risk between strata, and the proportion of the SNP-cancer association explained by traits varied from 30% to 50%. Our findings suggest that IGF-I/IR genetic variants interact with obesity, physical activity, and exogenous E, altering postmenopausal CRC risk, through IGF-I/IR traits, but also through different pathways. Unraveling gene-phenotype-lifestyle interactions will provide data on potential genetic targets in clinical trials for cancer prevention and intervention strategies to reduce CRC risk.

Wang G, Pan J, Zhang L, et al.
Long non-coding RNA CRNDE sponges miR-384 to promote proliferation and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells through upregulating IRS1.
Cell Prolif. 2017; 50(6) [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE), a vital cancer-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been brought to reports for playing quintessential functions in the growth and progression of several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the expression as well as the functional mechanisms of CRNDE in pancreatic cancer is not known so for. This study aimed at investigating the biological and clinical importance of CRNDE in human pancreatic cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of CRNDE in pancreatic cancer tissues as well as cell lines were identified with the help of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the analysis of the relationship between CRNDE expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with pancreatic cancer was also performed. Novel target of CRNDE was identified with the use of bioinformatics analysis and confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed was knocked down using siRNA in pancreatic cancer cells. Thereafter, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were examined. Tumour xenograft was created to explore the function of CRNDE in tumorigenesis in vivo.
RESULTS: Upregulation of the expression of CRNDE was found in pancreatic cancer tissues as well as cell lines, in comparison with the adjacent non-tumour tissues and human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. High expression of CRNDE was correlated with poor clinicpathological characteristics and shorter overall survival. We identified miR-384 as a direct target for CRNDE. Moreover, the CRNDE knockdown considerably inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion not only in vitro but also in vivo. In addition, CRNDE positively regulated IRS1 expression through sponging miR-384.
CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed performed an oncogenic function in cell proliferation as well as metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Our results suggest that CRNDE is likely to serve as an efficient therapeutic approach in respect of pancreatic cancer treatment.

He X, Ding X, Wen D, et al.
Exploration of the pathways and interaction network involved in bladder cancer cell line with knockdown of Opa interacting protein 5.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(9):1059-1066 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In our previous study, we displayed that knockdown of Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) inhibited cell growth, disturbed cell cycle and increased cell apoptosis in bladder cancer (BC) cell line. Our present study aimed to explore the underlying pathways and interaction network involved in the roles of OIP5 in BC.
METHODS: Microarray analysis was conducted to obtain mRNA expression profiling of OIP5 knockdown (shOIP5) and control (shCtrl) BC cell lines. Bioinformatics analyses were performed including differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) identification, protein-protein interaction network construction, biological functions of prediction and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). Western Blotting (WB) was subjected to validate the protein expression levels of candidate DEGs in shOIP5 BC cell line.
RESULTS: Respective 255 up- and 184 down-regulated DEGs were identified in shOIP5 group compared with shCtrl group. In the PPI network, CAND1 and MYC had the highest connectivity with DEGs. 439 DEGs were significantly enriched in inflammatory response, regulation of cell proliferation, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and bladder cancer. In the disease and function enrichment, DEGs were obviously involved in cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, cancer, inflammatory response, cell death and survival. In the OIP5 regulatory network, CDH2, IRS1, IRAK3, ID1, TNF, IL6, ITGA6, MYC and SOD2 interacted with OIP5. The WB validation results were compatible with our bioinformatics analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: OIP5 interaction network might function as an oncogene in BC progression based on aberrant inflammatory responses. Our study might provide valuable information for investigation of tumorigenesis mechanism in BC.

Martino B, Mammì C, Labate C, et al.
Genetic risk of prediabetes and diabetes development in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with nilotinib.
Exp Hematol. 2017; 55:71-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes represent adverse events in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. An unweighted genetic risk score (uGRS) for the prediction of insulin resistance, consisting of 10 multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms, has been proposed. We evaluated uGRS predictivity in 61 CML patients treated with nilotinib. Patients were genotyped for IRS1, GRB14, ARL15, PPARG, PEPD, ANKRD55/MAP3K1, PDGFC, LYPLAL1, RSPO3, and FAM13A1 genes. The uGRS was based on the sum of the risk alleles within the set of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Molecular response (MR)

Gocher AM, Azabdaftari G, Euscher LM, et al.
Akt activation by Ca
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(34):14188-14204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Hyperactivation of Akt is associated with oncogenic changes in the growth, survival, and chemoresistance of cancer cells. The PI3K/phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) 1 pathway represents the canonical mechanism for phosphorylation of Akt at its primary activation site, Thr-308. We observed that Ca

Bailey KL, Agarwal E, Chowdhury S, et al.
TGFβ/Smad3 regulates proliferation and apoptosis through IRS-1 inhibition in colon cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0176096 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
In this study, we have uncovered a novel crosstalk between TGFβ and IGF-1R signaling pathways. We show for the first time that expression and activation of IRS-1, an IGF-1R adaptor protein, is decreased by TGFβ/Smad3 signaling. Loss or attenuation of TGFβ activation leads to elevated expression and phosphorylation of IRS-1 in colon cancer cells, resulting in enhanced cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and increased tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of IRS-1 expression reversed Smad3 knockdown-mediated oncogenic phenotypes, indicating that TGFβ/Smad3 signaling inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis at least partially through the inhibition of IRS-1 expression and activation. Additionally, the TGFβ/Smad3/IRS-1 signaling axis regulates expression of cyclin D1 and XIAP, which may contribute to TGFβ/Smad3/IRS-1-mediated cell cycle progression and survival. Given that loss of TGFβ signaling occurs frequently in colon cancer, an important implication of our study is that IRS-1 could be a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer treatment.

Zhang XF, Ou-Yang L, Yan H
Node-based differential network analysis in genomics.
Comput Biol Chem. 2017; 69:194-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene dependency networks often undergo changes in response to different conditions. Understanding how these networks change across two conditions is an important task in genomics research. Most previous differential network analysis approaches assume that the difference between two condition-specific networks is driven by individual edges. Thus, they may fail in detecting key players which might represent important genes whose mutations drive the change of network. In this work, we develop a node-based differential network analysis (N-DNA) model to directly estimate the differential network that is driven by certain hub nodes. We model each condition-specific gene network as a precision matrix and the differential network as the difference between two precision matrices. Then we formulate a convex optimization problem to infer the differential network by combing a D-trace loss function and a row-column overlap norm penalty function. Simulation studies demonstrate that N-DNA provides more accurate estimate of the differential network than previous competing approaches. We apply N-DNA to ovarian cancer and breast cancer gene expression data. The model rediscovers known cancer-related genes and contains interesting predictions.

Mokashi P, Khanna A, Pandita N
Flavonoids from Enicostema littorale blume enhances glucose uptake of cells in insulin resistant human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line via IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 90:268-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diabetes mellitus has spread over the world with 347 million people affected. Insulin resistance is a main pathogenic event in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) leading to a reduction in glucose uptake by peripheral tissue and increased hepatic glucose output. In this study, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions fraction A (FA), fraction B (FB), fraction C (FC) and fraction D (FD) from Enicostema littorale. All the fractions were preliminary screened for TLC fingerprinting, total flavonoid content. Total eight flavonoids were identified by LC/MS. Insulin resistant HepG2 (IR/HepG2) model was established by inducing insulin resistance in HepG2 cells to investigate the effect of these fractions on IR/HepG2 cell line for their glucose uptake. The results showed the significant dose dependant increase in glucose uptake of cells treated with FD. It showed significant activity at a concentration of 10μg/ml. The LC/MS results of FD demonstrated the presence of C-glycoside Swertisin which could be responsible for the effect. Further, to investigate the mechanism of action, gene expression for insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt-2) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) genes were evaluated by real time PCR. A significant upregulation of these genes was observed in FD treated samples, thereby indicating the enhancement of glucose uptake rate of cells via IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway.

Thangavelu M, Godla UR, Paul Solomon FD, Maddaly R
Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 genes in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Genet. 2017; 96(1):87-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the pathogenesis of PCOS. A hospital-based, observational case-control study was carried on 169 PCOS and 169 control women in the southern region of India. Genotype was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A chi-square (χ

Gan TQ, Xie ZC, Tang RX, et al.
Clinical value of miR-145-5p in NSCLC and potential molecular mechanism exploration: A retrospective study based on GEO, qRT-PCR, and TCGA data.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317691683 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been reported to be involved in various biological processes. Here, we performed a systematic analysis to explore the clinical value and potential molecular mechanism of miR-145-5p in non-small cell lung cancer. First, a meta-analysis was performed with eligible literature, followed by microRNA microarrays in the Gene Expression Omnibus database, to verify the diagnostic and prognostic values of miR-145-5p. A cohort of 125 clinical paired non-small cell lung cancer samples was next used to detect the level of miR-145-5p and to explore the relationship of miR-145-5p with clinicopathological parameters. The Cancer Genome Atlas database was additionally applied to investigate the role of miR-145-5p in non-small cell lung cancer. The potential targets of miR-145-5p were predicted using 12 online prediction databases to explore the prospective molecular mechanism of miR-145-5p in non-small cell lung cancer. The expression of miR-145-5p in non-small cell lung cancer was significantly lower than that in healthy tissues. And miR-145-5p tended to show better diagnostic performance in lung squamous cell carcinoma than in lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the expression of miR-145-5p was closely associated with lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. Gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed that the target genes were mainly enriched with enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathways, SH3 domain binding, cell leading edge, and adherens junction. The protein-protein interaction network showed that eight hub genes (SMAD4, SMAD2, IRS1, FOXO1, ERBB4, NRAS, ACTB, and ACTG1) might be the key target genes of miR-145-5p in non-small cell lung cancer. The information we obtained might offer new perspectives for clinical diagnosis and treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

Keum N, Yuan C, Nishihara R, et al.
Dietary glycemic and insulin scores and colorectal cancer survival by tumor molecular biomarkers.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(12):2648-2656 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests that post-diagnostic insulin levels may influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Yet, no previous study has examined CRC survival in relation to a post-diagnostic diet rich in foods that increase post-prandial insulin levels. We hypothesized that glycemic and insulin scores (index or load; derived from food frequency questionnaire data) may be associated with survival from specific CRC subtypes sensitive to the insulin signaling pathway. We prospectively followed 1,160 CRC patients from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012), resulting in 266 CRC deaths in 10,235 person-years. CRC subtypes were defined by seven tumor biomarkers (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations, and IRS1, IRS2, FASN and CTNNB1 expression) implicated in the insulin signaling pathway. For overall CRC and each subtype, hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for an increase of one standard deviation in each of glycemic and insulin scores were estimated using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model. We found that insulin scores, but not glycemic scores, were positively associated with CRC mortality (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.38 for index; HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04-1.47 for load). The significant positive associations appeared more pronounced among PIK3CA wild-type cases and FASN-negative cases, with HR ranging from 1.36 to 1.60 across insulin scores. However, we did not observe statistically significant interactions of insulin scores with PIK3CA, FASN, or any other tumor marker (p interaction > 0.12). While additional studies are needed for definitive evidence, a high-insulinogenic diet after CRC diagnosis may contribute to worse CRC survival.

Reddy BM, Kommoju UJ, Dasgupta S, Rayabarapu P
Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus genes in polycystic ovary syndrome aetiology among women from southern India.
Indian J Med Res. 2016; 144(3):400-408 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrine disorder of premenopausal women. Given the phenotypic overlap between PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this study was carried out to investigate whether genes implicated in T2DM were also involved in the susceptibility to PCOS among women from southern India.
METHODS: A total of 248 women with PCOS and 210 healthy women as controls were genotyped for a panel of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the nine T2DM genes, such as TCF7L2, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, IRS1, CAPN10 and PPARG, on Sequenom MassARRAY platform.
RESULTS: None of the 15 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with PCOS after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, either in the univariate or multivariate context. The cumulative effect of risk alleles observed with reference to T2DM was also not seen with reference to PCOS.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The nine T2DM genes considered in this exploratory study might not be the primary susceptibility factors for PCOS among Indian women. Our results supplement the lack of evidence of the association of T2DM genes with PCOS among the Chinese and Caucasians hinting at the possible universality of this pattern. Specifically designed comprehensive studies that include women with T2DM and PCOS are required to explore the precise role of the diabetes genes.

Lu CC, Chu PY, Hsia SM, et al.
Insulin induction instigates cell proliferation and metastasis in human colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(2):736-744 [PubMed] Related Publications
The progression of colorectal cancer has been reported to have a positive correlation with the combination of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in diabetic patients, leading to a lower survival rate. However, how insulin acts on colorectal cancer remains not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of insulin on colon cancer cell proliferation and its underlying molecular signaling as well as the impact of insulin-induced in vitro metastasis. Our results showed that insulin markedly promoted cell proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Insulin‑regulated insulin receptors (IRs) stimulate insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and interact with the downstream signals, causing a rise in HCT-116 cell proliferation. Moreover, insulin significantly induced the migration ability of HCT-116 cells. The metastatic ability of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA and activity was activated by insulin. Overall, insulin-triggered cell proliferation and metastatic effects on colorectal cancer cells are mediated by IRS-1 and downstream molecules and by increasing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, insulin induction might have the potential to induce colorectal cancer progression in diabetes patients.

Zhu D, Tu M, Zeng B, et al.
Up-regulation of miR-497 confers resistance to temozolomide in human glioma cells by targeting mTOR/Bcl-2.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(2):452-462 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The occurrence of an inherent or acquired resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major burden for patients suffering from glioma. Recently, studies have demonstrated that microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of tumor properties in cancers. However, whether miR-497 contributes to glioma resistance to chemotherapy is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that the expression of miR-497 was markedly up-regulated in TMZ-resistant glioma cells; high miR-497 expression level was associated with TMZ-resistant phenotype of glioma cells. The down-regulation of miR-497 in glioma cells enhanced the apoptosis-induction and growth inhibition effects of TMZ both in vitro and in vivo, whereas promotion of miR-497 increased the chemosensitization of glioma cells to TMZ. The increased level of miR-497 in TMZ-resistant glioma cells was concurrent with the up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) pathway-related proteins, that is, IGF1R, IRS1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Bcl-2. In addition, the knockdown of mTOR and Bcl-2 reduced the tolerance of glioma cells to TMZ. Our results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-497 is significantly correlated with TMZ resistance in glioma cells by regulating the IGF1R/IRS1 pathway. Therefore, miR-497 may be used as a new target for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant glioma.

Wang J, Xu Y, Li L, et al.
FOXC1 is associated with estrogen receptor alpha and affects sensitivity of tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(1):275-287 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
FOXC1 is a member of Forkhead box transcription factors that participates in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that FOXC1 was highly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer. However, it remains unclear what is the relation between FOXC1 and ERα and if FOXC1 regulates expression of ERα. To explore relation between FOXC1 and ERα and discover regulation of ERα expression by FOXC1 in breast cancer, we analyzed data assembled in the Oncomine and TCGA, and found that there was significantly higher FOXC1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer than that in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of FOXC1 reduced expression of ERα and cellular responses to estradiol (E2) and tamoxifen in the MCF-7 FOXC1 and T47D FOXC1 cells, while knockdown of FOXC1 induced expression of ERα and improved responses to estradiol (E2) and tamoxifen in BT549 FOXC1 shRNA and HCC1806 FOXC1 shRNA cells. In addition, overexpression of FOXC1 reduced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and XBP1 (X-Box Binding Protein 1) and significantly reduced luciferase activity caused by E2 using ERE luciferase reporter assay. These results suggested that FOXC1 regulated expression of ERα and affected sensitivity of tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer, and that FOXC1 may be used as a potential therapeutic target in ERα-negative breast cancer.

Fernandes JC, Rodrigues Alves APN, Machado-Neto JA, et al.
IRS1/β-Catenin Axis Is Activated and Induces MYC Expression in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(7):1774-1781 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its receptor IGF1R regulate normal cell growth and contribute to cell transformation through activation of downstream signaling pathways. In fibroblast cells, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), through IGF1 signaling, was found to be the key protein for nuclear translocation of β-catenin and MYC transcription activation. We herein investigated the IRS1/β-catenin axis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Samples were obtained from 45 patients with ALL and 13 healthy donors. ALL cell lines were used. Gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Protein expression, associations, and cellular localization were evaluated by immunoprecipitation, subcellular fractionation, and confocal microscopy. Cells were submitted to IGF1 stimulation and/or IGF1R pharmacological inhibition (OSI-906). IRS1, β-catenin, and MYC mRNA expression were significantly elevated in ALL patients, compared to normal controls. MYC mRNA expression positively correlated with β-catenin and IRS1. Increased age and MYC expression negatively affected overall survival by univariate analysis. Total and phospho-IGF1R and IRS1, MYC and β-catenin protein expression were higher in ALL cells, compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IRS1 and β-catenin were found to be colocalized in the nuclei and the cytoplasm of ALL cell lines, whereas both proteins were only slightly detected in the cytoplasm of normal PBMC. In Jurkat cells, a constitutive IRS1 and β-catenin protein interaction were observed; OSI-906 treatment decreased IGF1R tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS1 expression and phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, IRS1 and β-catenin association, and MYC protein expression. In conclusion, the IRS1/β-catenin axis is activated in ALL cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1774-1781, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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