WISP1

Gene Summary

Gene:WISP1; WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1
Aliases: CCN4, WISP1c, WISP1i, WISP1tc
Location:8q24.22
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like domain. This gene may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. It is expressed at a high level in fibroblast cells, and overexpressed in colon tumors. The encoded protein binds to decorin and biglycan, two members of a family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, and possibly prevents the inhibitory activity of decorin and biglycan in tumor cell proliferation. It also attenuates p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage through activation of the Akt kinase. It is 83% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (9)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • RTPCR
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Movement
  • NOV
  • Base Sequence
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Staging
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cysteine-Rich Protein 61
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Oral Cavity Cancer
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 8
  • Transfection
  • Growth Substances
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: WISP1 (cancer-related)

Chahal MS, Ku HT, Zhang Z, et al.
Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 11-12; 13(6):437-442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells.
RESULTS: Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and metastatic cell lines. One of the most striking new findings was up-regulation of mRNA for the matricellular protein WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (CCN4) in metastatic cells; increased protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Other differentially expressed genes included those for reproductive homeobox 5 (Rhox5; increased in metastatic) and cystatin 7 (Cst7; decreased in metastatic). Differences between PLD2-expressing and parental cell lines were limited but included the signaling proteins Ras guanyl releasing protein 1 (RGS18; increased with PLD2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2; decreased with PLD2).
CONCLUSION: The results provide insights into signaling pathways potentially involved in conferring metastatic ability on lymphoma cells.

Chiang KC, Hsu SY, Lin SJ, et al.
PTEN Insufficiency Increases Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis In Vitro and In Vivo in a Xenograft Zebrafish Model.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3997-4005 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) insufficiency is commonly found in breast cancer patients with metastasis. We investigated the mechanisms by which PTEN affects breast cancer metastatic behavior.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Migration and invasion assay, western blot, immunofluorescent staining and zebrafish animal model were applied.
RESULTS: We showed that PTEN insufficiency induced an increase in MCF-7 cell migration and invasion through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was triggered by up-regulation of the EMT-inducing transcriptional factors Zeb1, Zeb2, Snail, Slug and Twist. Simultaneously, E-cadherin expression was inhibited and P-cadherin was up-regulated. Further, WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) and lipocalin-2 (LCN2) expressions were increased after PTEN knockdown in MCF-7 cells, which also exhibited increased filamentous actin (F-actin) synthesis and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. We further showed that PTEN knockdown in MCF-7 cells could increase cell migration in the xenograft zebrafish model.
CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal new therapeutic targets for breast cancer patients with PTEN insufficiency.

Lin CC, Chen PC, Lein MY, et al.
WISP-1 promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-300 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):9993-10005 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which accounts for nearly 90% of head and neck cancers, is characterized by a poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) has been implicated in lymphangiogenesis and is correlated with cancer metastasis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP)-1/CCN4 is an extracellular matrix-related protein that belongs to the CCN family and stimulates many biological functions. Our previous studies showed that WISP-1 plays an important role in OSCC migration and angiogenesis. However, the effect of WISP-1 on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in OSCC is poorly understood. Here, we showed a correlation between WISP-1 and VEGF-C in tissue specimens from patients with OSCC. To examine the lymphangiogenic effect of WISP-1, we used human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to mimic lymphatic vessel formation. The results showed that conditioned media from WISP-1-treated OSCC cells promoted tube formation and cell migration in LECs. We also found that WISP-1-induced VEGF-C is mediated via the integrin αvβ3/integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/Akt signaling pathway. In addition, the expression of microRNA-300 (miR-300) was inhibited by WISP-1 via the integrin αvβ3/ILK/Akt cascade. Collectively, these results reveal the detailed mechanism by which WISP-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis via upregulation of VEGF-C expression in OSCC. Therefore, WISP-1 could serve as therapeutic target to prevent metastasis and lymphangiogenesis in OSCC.

Zhang X, Chen X, Liu J, et al.
Knockdown of WISP1 inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in ALL Jurkat cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):15489-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
WISP1, a Wnt-induced secreted protein, has been found to have anticancer activity. ALL is a leading cause of death. Here we investigate the WISP1 effects on ALL Jurkat cells. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was monitored using TMRM. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantified using DCFH-DA. Western blot was used to detect the expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis related genes. The results showed that knockdown of WISP1 significantly inhibited proliferation of Jurkat cells. Parallelly, cell cycle distribution was increased at G1 phase and apoptotic rate was induced after WISP1 knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of WISP1 induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells was also associated with loss of MMP and generation of ROS. Western blot results showed that the protein expression p-AKT, PCNA, CDK1, P-ERK, CDK2, VEGF, VEGFR2 and Bcl2 were decreased, while the expression of Bax was up-regulated. In conclusion, WISP1 plays an important role in proliferation and apoptosis of Jurkat cells in mitochondria dependent pathway, the specific mechanisms need further study.

Venkatesan N, Kanwar J, Deepa PR, et al.
Clinico-Pathological Association of Delineated miRNAs in Uveal Melanoma with Monosomy 3/Disomy 3 Chromosomal Aberrations.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To correlate the differentially expressed miRNAs with clinico-pathological features in uveal melanoma (UM) tumors harbouring chromosomal 3 aberrations among South Asian Indian cohort.
METHODS: Based on chromosomal 3 aberration, UM (n = 86) were grouped into monosomy 3 (M3; n = 51) and disomy 3 (D3; n = 35) by chromogenic in-situ hybridisation (CISH). The clinico-pathological features were recorded. miRNA profiling was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UM samples (n = 6) using Agilent, Human miRNA microarray, 8x15KV3 arrays. The association between miRNAs and clinico-pathological features were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. miRNA-gene targets were predicted using Target-scan and MiRanda database. Significantly dys-regulated miRNAs were validated in FFPE UM (n = 86) and mRNAs were validated in frozen UM (n = 10) by qRT-PCR. Metastasis free-survival and miRNA expressions were analysed by Kaplen-Meier analysis in UM tissues (n = 52).
RESULTS: Unsupervised analysis revealed 585 differentially expressed miRNAs while supervised analysis demonstrated 82 miRNAs (FDR; Q = 0.0). Differential expression of 8 miRNAs: miR-214, miR-149*, miR-143, miR-146b, miR-199a, let7b, miR-1238 and miR-134 were studied. Gene target prediction revealed SMAD4, WISP1, HIPK1, HDAC8 and C-KIT as the post-transcriptional regulators of miR-146b, miR-199a, miR-1238 and miR-134. Five miRNAs (miR-214, miR146b, miR-143, miR-199a and miR-134) were found to be differentially expressed in M3/ D3 UM tumors. In UM patients with liver metastasis, miR-149* and miR-134 expressions were strongly correlated.
CONCLUSION: UM can be stratified using miRNAs from FFPE sections. miRNAs predicting liver metastasis and survival have been identified. Mechanistic linkage of de-regulated miRNA/mRNA expressions provide new insights on their role in UM progression and aggressiveness.

Temiz NA, Moriarity BS, Wolf NK, et al.
RNA sequencing of Sleeping Beauty transposon-induced tumors detects transposon-RNA fusions in forward genetic cancer screens.
Genome Res. 2016; 26(1):119-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Forward genetic screens using Sleeping Beauty (SB)-mobilized T2/Onc transposons have been used to identify common insertion sites (CISs) associated with tumor formation. Recurrent sites of transposon insertion are commonly identified using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR). Here, we use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to directly identify transcriptional events mediated by T2/Onc. Surprisingly, the majority (∼80%) of LM-PCR identified junction fragments do not lead to observable changes in RNA transcripts. However, in CIS regions, direct transcriptional effects of transposon insertions are observed. We developed an automated method to systematically identify T2/Onc-genome RNA fusion sequences in RNA-seq data. RNA fusion-based CISs were identified corresponding to both DNA-based CISs (Cdkn2a, Mycl1, Nf2, Pten, Sema6d, and Rere) and additional regions strongly associated with cancer that were not observed by LM-PCR (Myc, Akt1, Pth, Csf1r, Fgfr2, Wisp1, Map3k5, and Map4k3). In addition to calculating recurrent CISs, we also present complementary methods to identify potential driver events via determination of strongly supported fusions and fusions with large transcript level changes in the absence of multitumor recurrence. These methods independently identify CIS regions and also point to cancer-associated genes like Braf. We anticipate RNA-seq analyses of tumors from forward genetic screens will become an efficient tool to identify causal events.

Minchenko DO, Kharkova AP, Tsymbal DO, et al.
IRE1 inhibition affects the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes and modifies its sensitivity to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells.
Endocr Regul. 2015; 49(4):185-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1/ERN1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1/endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) on the expression of genes encoding different groups of insulin-like growth binding proteins (IGFBP6 and IGFBP7) and CCN family (IGFBP8/CTGF/CCN2, IGFBP9/NOV/CCN3, IGFBP10/CYR61/CCN1, WISP1/CCN4, and WISP2/CCN5) and its sensitivity to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells.
METHODS: The expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP9, IGFBP10, WISP1, and WISP2 genes was studied by qPCR in control U87 glioma cells (wild-type) and its subline with IRE1 signaling enzyme loss of function upon glucose deprivation.
RESULTS: The expression of IGFBP8, IGFBP9, and WISP2 genes was up-regulated in control glioma cells upon glucose deprivation with most significant changes for IGFBP9 gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP10, and WISP1 genes was resistant to glucose deprivation in these glioma cells, but the IGFBP7 gene expression was down-regulated. The inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in glioma cells modified the sensitivity of most studied gene expressions to glucose deprivation condition: introduced sensitivity of IGFBP10 and WISP1 genes to glucose deprivation, enhanced the effect of this deprivation on IGFBP7 and IGFBP9 gene expressions, and reduced this effect on WISP2 gene and induced suppressive effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of IGFBP8 gene. Furthermore, the inhibition of IRE1 strongly affected the expression of all studied genes in glioma cells upon regular growing condition in gene specific manner: up-regulated the expression levels of IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP10, WISP1, and WISP2 genes and down-regulated the IGFBP6 and IGFBP9 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The data of this investigation demonstrate that the expression of IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP9, and WISP2 genes are sensitive to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells and that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function may significantly affect the expression of all studied genes in the presence of glucose as well as modify the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of most studied genes. These data also show that proteins encoded by these genes may participate in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes via IGF/INS receptors and possibly other signaling pathways as well, via IRE1 signaling, which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response and an important component of the tumor growth and metabolic diseases.

van Beuge MM, Ten Dam EJ, Werker PM, Bank RA
Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.
Transl Res. 2015; 166(6):762-771.e3 [PubMed] Related Publications
A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways.

Clausen MJ, Melchers LJ, Mastik MF, et al.
Identification and validation of WISP1 as an epigenetic regulator of metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(1):45-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymph node (LN) metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. However, in approximately one third of OSCC patients nodal metastases remain undetected, and thus are not adequately treated. Therefore, clinical assessment of LN metastasis needs to be improved. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA methylation biomarkers to predict LN metastases in OSCC. Genome wide methylation assessment was performed on six OSCC with (N+) and six without LN metastases (N0). Differentially methylated sequences were selected based on the likelihood of differential methylation and validated using an independent OSCC cohort as well as OSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Expression of WISP1 using immunohistochemistry was analyzed on a large OSCC cohort (n = 204). MethylCap-Seq analysis revealed 268 differentially methylated markers. WISP1 was the highest ranking annotated gene that showed hypomethylation in the N+ group. Bisulfite pyrosequencing confirmed significant hypomethylation within the WISP1 promoter region in N+ OSCC (P = 0.03) and showed an association between WISP1 hypomethylation and high WISP1 expression (P = 0.01). Both these results were confirmed using 148 OSCC retrieved from the TCGA database. In a large OSCC cohort, high WISP1 expression was associated with LN metastasis (P = 0.05), disease-specific survival (P = 0.022), and regional disease-free survival (P = 0.027). These data suggest that WISP1 expression is regulated by methylation and WISP1 hypomethylation contributes to LN metastasis in OSCC. WISP1 is a potential biomarker to predict the presence of LN metastases.

Ji J, Jia S, Jia Y, et al.
WISP-2 in human gastric cancer and its potential metastatic suppressor role in gastric cancer cells mediated by JNK and PLC-γ pathways.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(6):921-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that WISP proteins (Wnt-inducted secreted proteins), a group of intra- and extra-cellular regulatory proteins, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of a variety of tumour types including colorectal and breast cancer. However, the role of WISP proteins in gastric cancer (GC) cells and their clinical implications have not yet been elucidated.
METHODS: The expression of WISP molecules in a cohort of GC patients was analysed using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression of a panel of recognised epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was quantified using Q-PCR in paired tumour and normal tissues. WISP-2 knockdown (kd) sublines using ribozyme transgenes were created in the GC cell lines AGS and HGC27. Subsequently, several biological functions, including cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion, were studied. Potential pathways for the interaction of EMT, extracellular matrix and MMP were evaluated.
RESULTS: Overexpression of WISP-2 was detected in GC and significantly correlated with early tumour node-metastasis staging, differentiation status and positively correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival of the patients. WISP-2 expression was inversely correlated with that of Twist and Slug in paired samples. Kd of WISP-2 expression promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells. WISP-2 suppressed GC cell metastasis through reversing EMT and suppressing the expression and activity of MMP9 and MMP2 via JNK and ERK. Cell motility analysis indicated that WISP-2 kd contributed to GC cells' motility and can be attenuated by PLC-γ and JNK small inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of WISP-2 in GC is positively correlated with favourable clinical features and the survival of patients with GC and is a negative regulator of growth, migration and invasion in GC cells. These findings suggest that WISP-2 is a potential tumour suppressor in GC.

van Kempen PM, Noorlag R, Braunius WW, et al.
Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(10):1525-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC.

Gurbuz I, Chiquet-Ehrismann R
CCN4/WISP1 (WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1): a focus on its role in cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 62:142-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The matricellular protein WISP1 is a member of the CCN protein family. It is induced by WNT1 and is a downstream target of β-catenin. WISP1 is expressed during embryonic development, wound healing and tissue repair. Aberrant WISP1 expression is associated with various pathologies including osteoarthritis, fibrosis and cancer. Its role in tumor progression and clinical outcome makes WISP1 an emerging candidate for the detection and treatment of tumors.

Lin H, Liu W, Fang Z, et al.
Overexpression of DHX32 contributes to the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9247 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous work demonstrates that DHX32 is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to its adjacent normal tissues. However, how overexpressed DHX32 contributes to CRC remains largely unknown. In this study, we reported that DHX32 was overexpressed in human colon cancer cells. Overexpressed DHX32 promoted SW480 cancer cells proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as decreased the susceptibility to chemotherapy agent 5-Fluorouracil. Furthermore, PCR array analyses revealed that depleting DHX32 in SW480 colon cancer cells suppressed expression of WISP1, MMP7 and VEGFA in the Wnt pathway, and anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and CA9, however, elevated expression of pro-apoptotic gene ACSL5. The findings suggested that overexpressed DHX32 played an important role in CRC progression and metastasis and that DHX32 has the potential to serve as a biomarker and a novel therapeutic target for CRC.

Zhang H, Luo H, Hu Z, et al.
Targeting WISP1 to sensitize esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to irradiation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(8):6218-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiotherapy is a primary treatment modality for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, most of patients benefited little from radiotherapy due to refractory radioresistance. We found that WISP1, a downstream target gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was re-expressed in 67.3% of ESCC patients as an oncofetal gene. Expression of WISP1 predicted prognosis of ESCC patients treated with radiotherapy. Overall survival in WISP1-positive patients was significantly poorer than in WISP1-negative patients. Serum concentration of WISP1 after radiotherapy reversely correlated with relapse-free survival. Gain and loss of function studies confirmed that WISP1 mediated radioresistance both in esophageal squamous cancer cells and in xenograft tumor models. Further studies revealed that WISP1 contributed to radioresistance primarily by repressing irradiation-induced DNA damage and activating PI3K kinase. LncRNA BOKAS was up-regulated following radiation and promoted WISP1 expression and resultant radioresistance. Furthermore, WISP1 facilitated its own expression in response to radiation, creating a positive feedback loop and increased radioresistance. Our study revealed WISP1 as a potential target to overcome radioresistance in ESCC.

Chiang KC, Yeh CN, Chung LC, et al.
WNT-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 enhances growth and tumorigenesis in human breast cancer.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:8686 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) plays a key role in many cellular functions in a highly tissue-specific manner; however the role of WISP1 in breast cancer is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that WISP1 acts as an oncogene in human breast cancer. We demonstrated that human breast cancer tissues had higher WISP1 mRNA expression than normal breast tissues and that treatment of recombinant WISP1 enhanced breast cancer cell proliferation. Further, ectopic expression of WISP1 increased the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. WISP1 transfection also induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in MCF-7 cells, leading to higher migration and invasion. During this EMT-inducing process, E-cadherin was repressed and N-cadherin, snail, and β-catenin were upregulated. Filamentous actin (F-actin) remodeling and polarization were also observed after WISP1 transfection into MCF-7 cells. Moreover, forced overexpression of WISP1 blocked the expression of NDRG1, a breast cancer tumor suppressor gene. Our study provides novel evidence that WISP1-modulated NDRG1 gene expression is dependent on a DNA fragment (-128 to +46) located within the human NDRG1 promoter. Thus, we concluded that WISP1 is a human breast cancer oncogene and is a potential therapeutic target.

Chakrabarti S, Multani S, Dabholkar J, Saranath D
Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples.

Chen J, Yin JY, Li XP, et al.
Association of Wnt-Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein 1 Genetic Polymorphisms With Lung Cancer Susceptibility and Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Response.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2015; 16(4):298-304.e1-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the main treatment method for lung cancer patients. The genetic polymorphisms of Wnt-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) were reported to be associated with the development of diverse lung diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of WISP1 genetic polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response in Chinese lung cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 556 lung cancer patients and 254 healthy controls were enrolled onto this study. The 28 polymorphisms of the WISP1 gene were genotyped by the Sequenom MassARRAY system.
RESULTS: We found that WISP1 rs16893344, rs2977530, rs2977537, and rs62514004 (P = .009, .033, .049, and .036, respectively) polymorphisms were related to susceptibility of lung cancer; and WISP1 rs11778573 (P = .023, nonsmokers), rs16893344 (P = .013, ≥ 50 years old), rs2977536 (P = .039, ≥ 50 years old; P = .044, nonsmokers; P = .047, non-small-cell lung cancer, respectively), rs2977549 (P = .013, smokers), and rs62514004 (P = .033, ≥ 50 years old) polymorphisms were significantly associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: Genotypes of WISP1 may be novel and useful biomarkers for diagnosis of lung cancer and evaluation of platinum-based chemotherapy response in lung cancer patients.

Zhang H, Li W, Huang P, et al.
Expression of CCN family members correlates with the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(3):1481-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have reported that the CCN family of proteins plays an important role in stimulating tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between the CCN protein family members and the features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the expression levels of CCN protein family members and the features of HCC. Expression levels of the CCN family of proteins in 80-paired primary HCC samples and 11 normal liver samples were determined by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Enhanced expression of nephroblastoma overexpressed protein (NOV) and decreased expression of Wnt-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1), cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were found in HCC samples when compared to levels in matched non-cancerous tissues. No significant difference in WISP2 was found between matched-pair samples; only a few samples showed WISP3 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of NOV, WISP1 and CYR61 were closely correlated with certain clinical features, including venous invasion, cellular differentiation, pTNM stage, disease-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that HCC progression may be enhanced by NOV and suppressed by WISP1 and CYR61. Our statistical analysis suggests that these proteins may be valuable in determining the prognosis of this deadly disease and directs attention to modulating the levels of these proteins as a potential mode of therapy.

Chen J, Yin J, Li X, et al.
WISP1 polymorphisms contribute to platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):21011-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity is always one of the serious problems from which lung cancer patients suffer. The genetic polymorphism of WISP1 was revealed to be associated with susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response in our previous studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of WISP1 genetic polymorphisms with platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients. A total of 412 lung cancer patients were enrolled in this study, and 28 polymorphisms of the WISP1 gene were genotyped by SequenomMassARRAY. We found that WISP1 polymorphisms (rs2929965, rs2929969, rs2929970, rs2929973 and rs754958) were related to the overall chemotherapy toxicity of lung cancer in subgroup analyses. Rs16904853, rs2929970, rs2977549 and rs2977551 (p = 0.021, 0.028, 0.024, 0.048, respectively) polymorphisms were significantly associated with hematologic toxicity. Rs2929946, rs2929970, rs2977519, rs2977536, rs3739262 and rs754958 (p = 0.031, 0.046, 0.029, 0.016, 0.042, 0.035, respectively) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the gastrointestinal toxicity of lung cancer. Genotypes of WISP1 may be novel and useful biomarkers for predicting platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients.

Li WF, Zhang L, Li HY, et al.
WISP-1 contributes to fractionated irradiation-induced radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and mice.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy.

Yang ZH, Zheng R, Gao Y, et al.
Abnormal gene expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma with high-throughput RNA sequencing.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(2):74-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore the universal law of the abnormal gene expression and the structural variation of genes related to lung adenocarcinoma, the gene expression profile of GSE37765 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed with t-test and NOISeq tool, and the core DEGs were screened out by combining with another RNA-seq data containing totally 77 pairs of samples in 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the functional annotation of the core DEGs was performed by using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery following selection of oncogene and tumor suppressor by combining with tumor suppressor genes and Cancer Genes database, and motif-finding of core DEGs was performed with motif-finding algorithm Seqpos. We also used Tophat-fusion tool to further explore the fusion genes. In total, 850 downregulated DEGs and 206 upregulated DEGs were screened out in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Next, we selected 543 core DEGs, including 401 downregulated and 142 upregulated genes, and vasculature development (P=1.89E-06) was significantly enriched among downregulated core genes, as well as mitosis (P=6.26E-04) enriched among upregulated core genes. On the basis of the cellular localization analysis of core genes, wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) identified mainly located in extracellular region and extracellular space. We also screened one oncogene, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2). Moreover, transcription factor GATA2 was mined by motif-finding analysis. Finally, four fusion genes belonged to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. WISP1, RAMP1, MYBL2 and GATA2 could be potential targets of treatment for lung adenocarcinoma and the fusion of HLA family genes might have important roles in lung adenocarcinoma.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Klinke DJ
Induction of Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 correlates with invasive breast cancer oncogenesis and reduced type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity: a retrospective study.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2014; 10(1):e1003409 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Innate and type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity function as important extracellular control mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is an important cytokine that links innate immunity with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity. We recently observed in vitro that tumor-derived Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 (WISP1) exerts paracrine action to suppress IL12 signaling. The objective of this retrospective study was three fold: 1) to determine whether a gene signature associated with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with overall survival, 2) to determine whether WISP1 expression is increased in invasive breast cancer, and 3) to determine whether a gene signature consistent with inhibition of IL12 signaling correlates with WISP1 expression. Clinical information and mRNA expression for genes associated with anti-tumor immunity were obtained from the invasive breast cancer arm of the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Patient cohorts were identified using hierarchical clustering. The immune signatures associated with the patient cohorts were interpreted using model-based inference of immune polarization. Reverse phase protein array, tissue microarray, and quantitative flow cytometry in breast cancer cell lines were used to validate observed differences in gene expression. We found that type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with increased survival in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with invasive triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenic transformation in invasive breast cancer was associated with an increase in WISP1. The gene expression signature in invasive breast cancer was consistent with WISP1 as a paracrine inhibitor of type 1 cell-mediated immunity through inhibiting IL12 signaling and promoting type 2 immunity. Moreover, model-based inference helped identify appropriate immune signatures that can be used as design constraints in genetically engineering better pre-clinical models of breast cancer.

Misemer BS, Skubitz AP, Carlos Manivel J, et al.
Expression of FAP, ADAM12, WISP1, and SOX11 is heterogeneous in aggressive fibromatosis and spatially relates to the histologic features of tumor activity.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(1):81-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) represents a group of tumors with a variable and unpredictable clinical course, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. The optimal treatment for AF remains unclear. Identification and validation of genes whose expression patterns are associated with AF may elucidate biological mechanisms in AF, and aid treatment selection. This study was designed to examine the protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of four genes, ADAM12, FAP, SOX11, and WISP1, that were found in an earlier study to be uniquely overexpressed in AF compared with normal tissues. Digital image analysis was performed to evaluate inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, and correlate protein expression with histologic features, including a histopathologic assessment of tumor activity, defined by nuclear chromatin density ratio (CDR). AF tumors exhibited marked inter- and intratumor histologic heterogeneity. Pathologic assessment of tumor activity and digital assessment of average nuclear size and CDR were all significantly correlated. IHC revealed protein expression of all four genes. IHC staining for ADAM12, FAP, and WISP1 correlated with CDR and was higher, whereas SOX11 staining was lower in tumors with earlier recurrence following excision. All four proteins were expressed, and the regional variation in tumor activity within and among AF cases was demonstrated. A spatial correlation between protein expression and nuclear morphology was observed. IHC also correlated with the probability of recurrence following excision. These proteins may be involved in AF pathogenesis and the corresponding pathways could serve as potential targets of therapy.

Wu CL, Tsai HC, Chen ZW, et al.
Ras activation mediates WISP-1-induced increases in cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase expression in human osteosarcoma.
Cell Signal. 2013; 25(12):2812-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matrix cellular proteins. Osteosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. In this study, we first found that the expression of WISP-1 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than that in normal bone and corrected with tumor stage. Exogenous treatment of osteosarcoma cells with WISP-1 promoted cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, the Ras and Raf-1 inhibitor or siRNA abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and MMP expression. On the other hand, activation of the Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signaling pathway after WISP-1 treatment was demonstrated, and WISP-1-induced expression of MMPs and migration activity were inhibited by the specific inhibitor, and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB cascades. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of osteosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through the integrin receptor, Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signal transduction pathway.

Knoblich K, Wang HX, Sharma C, et al.
Tetraspanin TSPAN12 regulates tumor growth and metastasis and inhibits β-catenin degradation.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014; 71(7):1305-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ablation of tetraspanin protein TSPAN12 from human MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased primary tumor xenograft growth, while increasing tumor apoptosis. Furthermore, TSPAN12 removal markedly enhanced tumor-endothelial interactions and increased metastasis to mouse lungs. TSPAN12 removal from human MDA-MB-231 cells also caused diminished association between FZD4 (a key canonical Wnt pathway receptor) and its co-receptor LRP5. The result likely explains substantially enhanced proteosomal degradation of β-catenin, a key effecter of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with disrupted canonical Wnt signaling, TSPAN12 ablation altered expression of LRP5, Naked 1 and 2, DVL2, DVL3, Axin 1, and GSKβ3 proteins. TSPAN12 ablation also altered expression of several genes regulated by β-catenin (e.g. CCNA1, CCNE2, WISP1, ID4, SFN, ME1) that may help to explain altered tumor growth and metastasis. In conclusion, these results provide the first evidence for TSPAN12 playing a role in supporting primary tumor growth and suppressing metastasis. TSPAN12 appears to function by stabilizing FZD4-LRP5 association, in support of canonical Wnt-pathway signaling, leading to enhanced β-catenin expression and function.

Bizama C, Benavente F, Salvatierra E, et al.
The low-abundance transcriptome reveals novel biomarkers, specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes associated with advanced gastric cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(4):755-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies on the low-abundance transcriptome are of paramount importance for identifying the intimate mechanisms of tumor progression that can lead to novel therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers and targetable genes and pathways in advanced human gastric cancer through analyses of the low-abundance transcriptome. The procedure involved an initial subtractive hybridization step, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays. We observed profound differences, both at the single gene and gene ontology levels, between the low-abundance transcriptome and the whole transcriptome. Analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome led to the identification and validation by tissue microarrays of novel biomarkers, such as LAMA3 and TTN; moreover, we identified cancer type-specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes, such as IRS2, IL17, IFNγ, VEGF-C, WISP1, FZD5 and CTBP1 that were not detectable by whole transcriptome analyses. We also demonstrated that knocking down the expression of CTBP1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to mainstay chemotherapeutic drugs. We conclude that the analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome provides useful insights into the molecular basis and treatment of cancer.

Almeida MQ, Azevedo MF, Xekouki P, et al.
Activation of cyclic AMP signaling leads to different pathway alterations in lesions of the adrenal cortex caused by germline PRKAR1A defects versus those due to somatic GNAS mutations.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(4):E687-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: The overwhelming majority of benign lesions of the adrenal cortex leading to Cushing syndrome are linked to one or another abnormality of the cAMP or protein kinase pathway. PRKAR1A-inactivating mutations are responsible for primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, whereas somatic GNAS activating mutations cause macronodular disease in the context of McCune-Albright syndrome, ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia, and, rarely, cortisol-producing adenomas.
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The whole-genome expression profile (WGEP) of normal (pooled) adrenals, PRKAR1A- (3) and GNAS-mutant (3) was studied. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were used to validate WGEP findings.
RESULTS: MAPK and p53 signaling pathways were highly overexpressed in all lesions against normal tissue. GNAS-mutant tissues were significantly enriched for extracellular matrix receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways when compared with PRKAR1A-mutant (fold enrichment 3.5, P < 0.0001 and 2.1, P < 0.002, respectively). NFKB, NFKBIA, and TNFRSF1A were higher in GNAS-mutant tumors (P < 0.05). Genes related to the Wnt signaling pathway (CCND1, CTNNB1, LEF1, LRP5, WISP1, and WNT3) were overexpressed in PRKAR1A-mutant lesions.
CONCLUSION: WGEP analysis revealed that not all cAMP activation is the same: adrenal lesions harboring PRKAR1A or GNAS mutations share the downstream activation of certain oncogenic signals (such as MAPK and some cell cycle genes) but differ substantially in their effects on others.

Tang Q, Jiang X, Li H, et al.
Expression and prognostic value of WISP-1 in patients with endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011; 37(6):606-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: It has been well established that the aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal correlates to endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC). As an effector of the Wnt/β-catenin mediated antiapoptotic signal, the role of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) in EEC still remains unclear.
METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time RT-PCR to examine the expression of WISP-1, the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in 86 cases of EEC, with 20 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, 20 of proliferative endometrium and 20 of secretory endometrium used as the control group. We also correlated the expression of WISP-1 with various clinicopathologic factors and prognostic values in patients with EEC.
RESULTS: A high expression of WISP-1 was observed in 26 of the 86 cases of EEC (30.2%). The expression rate of WISP-1 in EEC was significantly higher than that in secretory endometrium (P < 0.005). Histopathological grades and PR were associated with high WISP-1 expression (P = 0.002, P = 0.027, respectively). The estimated five-year survival rate of patients with low-to-moderate expression of WISP-1 was significantly higher than those with high WISP-1 expression (91.3% vs 65%, P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis revealed that high WISP-1 expression and positive lymphovascular space invasion were independent prognostic factors for survival.
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of WISP-1 was related to tumor cell dedifferentiation and PR loss. WISP-1 might be a new molecular marker to predict the prognosis of patients with EEC.

Nagai Y, Watanabe M, Ishikawa S, et al.
Clinical significance of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1/CCN4) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(3):991-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The expression of Wingless/int-1 (Wnt)-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1/CCN4), a member of the Cyr61-CTGF-Nov (CCN) family, has been examined in several types of cancer. However, the correlation between the WISP-1 expression and the clinical features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the expression of WISP-1 protein in patients with ESCC and also to examine the function of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells in vitro.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred and ninety patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma underwent transthoracic subtotal esophagectomy-between 2005 and 2009. All patients that had received previous therapy were excluded and 105 out of the 190 ESCC samples were analyzed immunohistochemically using WISP-1 antibody. The expression of WISP-1 mRNA in esophageal cancer cell lines was analyzed by RT-PCR. Growth assay and invasion assays were performed using WISP-1 transfected cells.
RESULTS: The immunohistochemical analysis showed that WISP-1-positive cases were closely associated with tumor size, tumor type, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. There were significantly more WISP-1-positive infiltrative type tumors than expanding type tumors. In the esophageal cancer cell lines examined, only TE8 expressed WISP-1 mRNA. The growth of WISP-1-transfected cells was significantly increased in comparison to the control cells, but no differences in the invasion activity were observed between the transfected cells and control cells.
CONCLUSION: The expression of WISP-1 may play an important role in the progression of ESCC. WISP-1 could therefore be a clinical marker for a poor prognosis in patients with ESCC and may also be a therapeutic target to control the progression of ESCC.

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