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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 179.9m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 148,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 111.8
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:11.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 101,000
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Pakistan organiations and resources
Latest Research Publications from Pakistan

Pakistan organiations and resources (8 links)

Latest Research Publications from Pakistan

Haque MMU, Whadva RK, Luck NH, Mubarak M
Primary hepaticobiliary tuberculosis mimicking gall bladder carcinoma with liver invasion: a case report.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary hepatic tuberculosis is a rare presentation and sporadically reported in the literature, mostly from our part of the world. Sometimes the presentation can be atypical and mimics hepatic tumor and poses diagnostic challenge. We, herein, present a case of a 58-year-old man who presented to us with abdominal pain and weight loss. Raised serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and imaging raised a suspicion of gall bladder carcinoma with hepatic invasion. Peroperative frozen section revealed hepatic chronic granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis consistent with the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. Surgery was postponed and he was put on antituberculous treatment. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of the space occupying lesion of liver in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal findings on imaging.

Afza F, Khan MA, Sharif M, Rehman A
Microscopic skin laceration segmentation and classification: A framework of statistical normal distribution and optimal feature selection.
Microsc Res Tech. 2019; 82(9):1471-1488 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among precision medical techniques, medical image processing is rapidly growing as a successful tool for cancer detection. Skin cancer is one of the crucial cancer types. It is identified through computer vision (CV) techniques using dermoscopic images. The early diagnosis skin cancer from dermoscopic images can be decrease the mortality rate. We propose an automated system for skin lesion detection and classification based on statistical normal distribution and optimal feature selection. Local contrast is controlled using a brighter channel enhancement technique, and segmentation is performed through a statistical normal distribution approach. The multiplication law of probability is implemented for the fusion of segmented images. In the feature extraction phase, optimized histogram, optimized color, and gray level co-occurrences matrices features are extracted and covariance-based fusion is performed. Subsequently, optimal features are selected through a binary grasshopper optimization algorithm. The selected optimal features are finally fed to a classifier and evaluated on the ISBI 2016 and ISBI 2017 data sets. Classification accuracy is computed using different Support Vector Machine (SVM) kernel functions, and the best accuracy is obtained for the cubic function. The average accuracies of the proposed segmentation on the PH2 and ISBI 2016 data sets are 93.79 and 96.04%, respectively, for an image size 512 × 512. The accuracies of the proposed classification on the ISBI 2016 and ISBI 2017 data sets are 93.80 and 93.70%, respectively. The proposed system outperforms existing methods on selected data sets.

El Hassouni B, Li Petri G, Liu DSK, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of treatments for pancreatic cancer.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2019; 15(6):437-447 [PubMed] Related Publications

Khan N, Raza SS, Khan UI, et al.
Plasma Cell Leukaemia: A Rare Yet Aggressive Plasma Cell Dyscrasia With A Very Poor Response To Conventional Therapy.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Apr-Jun; 31(2):272-275 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) is a very rare plasma cell dyscrasia with a significant number of monoclonal plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is diagnosed by the presence of ≥ 2x109 /L plasma cells in the blood or by plasma cells making up ≥20% of the leukocyte count. It can arise from a leukemic transformation of multiple myeloma, or more commonly it can be primary. Regardless of its origin, it carries a very dire prognosis. It responds very poorly to the traditional chemotherapy regimens used for multiple myeloma. We present the case of a 50 years old female who presented to our hospital with a complicated UTI and severe generalized body aches. She was diagnosed as a case of plasma cell leukaemia and was treated with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, however she failed to go into remission. Her condition deteriorated and she ultimately passed away 1.5 months after diagnosis. The recommended treatment for PCL is aggressive combination chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation. However, there is no consensus regarding the treatment of plasma cell leukaemia, and treatment should be individualized based on the patient profile. Once diagnosed, the prognosis is poor.

Fayyaz MB, Niazi IK
Diagnostic Accuracy Of Us-Fnac Of Axillary Lymph Nodes In Patients With Primary Breast Cancer Using Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy As Standard Reference.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Apr-Jun; 31(2):242-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The advent of US guided FNAC in the investigation of adenopathy has become a suitable and commonly practiced minimally invasive procedure which is safe, simple, quick, highly cost effective and innocuous. Nowadays, in modern days FNAC is done in almost all cases due to its high specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV) and no complications resulting in fewer SNLB and directly proceeding with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or ALND..
METHODS: A total of 160 females between ages 30-60 years who had clinical palpable breast lump, newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer with palpable axilla nodes were included. Patients who already received neoadjuvant therapy and whose biopsy does not yield enough specimens and needs repeat biopsy were excluded. All the patients were then undergoing ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration. Afterwards, all patients were gone through axillary surgery for the definite histopathology report. FNAC results were compared with pathology after SLNB.
RESULTS: Mean age was 46.61±8.75 years. In 67 FNAC positive patients, 61 were True Positive and 06 were False Positive. Among, 93 FNAC negative patients, 18 were False Negative whereas 75 were True Negative. Overall sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of US guided FNAC of suspicious axilla nodes in patent with primary breast carcinoma was 77.22%, 92.59%, 80.65%, 91.04% and 85.0% respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that US guided FNAC of suspicious axilla nodes in patient with primary breast carcinoma has quite acceptable diagnostic accuracy.

Naz S, Rehman A, Riyaz A, et al.
Leiomyoma: Its Variants And Secondary Changes A Five-Year Study.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Apr-Jun; 31(2):192-195 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common problem encountered by the gynaecologists, leiomyoma being one of the most common causes. An accurate knowledge of the different variants and secondary changes occurring in leiomyoma is essential as some of these may mimic malignancy clinically, radiologically and histologically. Some important examples being atypical, cellular and mitotically active leiomyoma. Similarly, hydropic and myxoid change can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. While dealing with these variants and changes, leiomyosarcoma although a rare tumour has to be excluded because of the difference in management. Hence a comprehensive knowledge of all the variants is mandatory to avoid misdiagnosis.
METHODS: This study was carried out at the Pathology Department of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad where 964 cases of leiomyoma of the female genital tract were studied. These cases were received during the period January 2013 to December 2017.
RESULTS: The most common variant of leiomyoma was cellular leiomyoma while hyaline degeneration was the most common secondary change identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Accurate knowledge of these variants and degenerative changes in leiomyomas are mandatory to prevent misdiagnosis and over treatment along with undue stress to the patient. Secondly it is important to identify variants which require follow-up.

Aribal E, Mora P, Chaturvedi AK, et al.
Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Observational clinical study.
Eur J Radiol. 2019; 115:31-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this paper is to present baseline imaging data and the improvement that was achieved by the participating centers after applying practice-specific interventions that were identified during the course of a multicentric multinational research coordinated project.
INTRODUCTION: The incidence and mortality rates from breast cancer are rising worldwide and particularly rapidly across the countries with limited resources. Due to lack of awareness and screening options it is usually detected at a later stage. Breast cancer screening programs and even clinical services on breast cancer have been neglected in such countries particularly due to lack of available equipment, funds, organizational structure and quality criteria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A harmonized form was designed in order to facilitate uniformity of data collection. Baseline data such as type of equipment, number of exams, type and number of biopsy procedures, stage of cancer at detection were collected from 10 centers (9 countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, North Macedonia, Pakistan, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda) were collected. Local practices were evaluated for good practice and specific interventions such as training of professionals and quality assurance programs were identified. The centers were asked to recapture the data after a 2-year period to identify the impact of the interventions.
RESULTS: The data showed increase in the number of training of relevant professionals, positive changes in the mammography practice and image guided interventions. All the centers achieved higher levels of success in the implementation of the quality assurance procedures.
CONCLUSION: The study has encountered different levels of breast imaging practice in terms of expertise, financial and human resources, infrastructure and awareness. The most common challenges were the lack of appropriate quality assurance programs and lack of trained skilled personnel and lack of high-quality equipment. The project was able to create higher levels of breast cancer awareness, collaboration amongst participating centers and professionals. It also improved quality, capability and expertise in breast imaging particularly in centers involved diagnostic imaging.

Shahwar D, Iqbal MJ, Nisa MU, et al.
Natural Product Mediated Regulation of Death Receptors and Intracellular Machinery: Fresh from the Pipeline about TRAIL-Mediated Signaling and Natural TRAIL Sensitizers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rapidly developing resistance against different therapeutics is a major stumbling block in the standardization of therapy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated signaling has emerged as one of the most highly and extensively studied signal transduction cascade that induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Rapidly emerging cutting-edge research has helped us to develop a better understanding of the signaling machinery involved in inducing apoptotic cell death. However, excitingly, cancer cells develop resistance against TRAIL-induced apoptosis through different modes. Loss of cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors and imbalance of stoichiometric ratios of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins play instrumental roles in rewiring the machinery of cancer cells to develop resistance against TRAIL-based therapeutics. Natural products have shown excellent potential to restore apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines and in mice xenografted with TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Significantly refined information has previously been added and continues to enrich the existing pool of knowledge related to the natural-product-mediated upregulation of death receptors, rebalancing of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in different cancers. In this mini review, we will set spotlight on the most recently published high-impact research related to underlying mechanisms of TRAIL resistance and how these deregulations can be targeted by natural products to restore TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in different cancers.

El-Sayed NS, Shirazi AN, Sajid MI, et al.
Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activities of Conjugates of Paclitaxel and Camptothecin with a Cyclic Cell-Penetrating Peptide.
Molecules. 2019; 24(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell-penetrating peptide [WR]₅ has been previously shown to be an efficient molecular transporter for various hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. The peptide was synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry, and one arginine was replaced with one lysine to enable the conjugation with the anticancer drugs. Paclitaxel (PTX) was functionalized with an esterification reaction at the C2' hydroxyl group of PTX with glutaric anhydride and conjugated with the cyclic peptide [W(WR)₄K(

Uddin N, Zubair M, Abdul-Ghafar J, et al.
Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC): Clinicopathological and radiological features of a series of 10 cases.
Diagn Pathol. 2019; 14(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) is a rare, developmental odontogenic cyst which was considered in the past to be a variant of Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) later renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The treatment of OOC is by enucleation and the prognosis, following enucleation is excellent with a recurrence rate of less than 2%. On the other hand, OKC has a recurrence rate between 8 and 25% after enucleation. Thus it is important to differentiate between the two entities.
METHODS: All cases reported in our section as OOC during the period 2013 to 2018 were retrieved from the surgical pathology files and slides were reviewed by the authors. All cases which met the histological criteria for OOC were included.
RESULTS: A total of 10 cases were included. 70% patients were males, ages ranged from 23 to 60 years, with mean age of 38.9 years. 70% of cases were located in the mandible and 90% patients presented with swelling. Radiologically, 90% cases were unilocular, all were radiolucent lesions. Mean size was 4.0 cm. Histologically, all cases demonstrated the classic microscopic features. Follow-up was available in 8 patients. All were treated by enucleation. All 8 were alive with no recurrences over a follow-up period ranging from 7 to 62 months.
CONCLUSIONS: OOC has a better prognosis than OKC and needs to be differentiated from OKC due to differences in treatment and prognosis. Large majority of our cases presented with swelling and occurred in the mandibles of young males. All were radiolucent and most were unilocular. All were treated by enucleation and no recurrences occurred over follow up period ranging up to 62 months. Our findings were similar to those described in other published series.

Farooqi AA, Attar R, Bageshlooyafshar B, et al.
Regulation of Kisspeptin mediated signaling by non-coding RNAs in different cancers: the beginning of a new era.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(3):72-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kisspeptin-driven intracellular signaling has captured enormous attention because of its central role in cancer onset and progression. Wealth of information has helped us to develop a better understanding of the critical roles of Kisspeptin-mediated signaling in different cancers. However, astonishingly, we have not yet drilled down deep into the mysterious aspects associated with non-coding RNA mediated regulation of Kisspeptin-driven signaling. Therefore, in this mini-review, we will comprehensively analyze available evidence related to miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) and their ability to modulate Kisspeptin-mediated signaling. There are visible knowledge gaps about interplay between non-coding RNAs and Kisspeptin-mediated signaling. It will be appropriate to say that we have just started to scratch the surface of an entirely new regulatory layer of Kisspeptin-mediated transduction cascade. Mechanistically, it has been revealed that inhibition of Kisspeptin mediated signaling activated and stimulated the entry of NFκB into the nucleus to stimulate expression of proteins which can sequentially inactivate tumor suppressor miRNAs. miRNAs have also an instrumental role in regulation of proteins which post-translationally modify and inhibit KISS1 expression. It is becoming progressively more understandable that LncRNAs act as miRNA sponges and protect oncogenic mRNAs. However, these facets are also incompletely investigated. Identification of LncRNAs which interfere with Kisspeptin-mediated pathway either through acting as miRNA sponges or working with methylation-associated machinery will be helpful in sharpening the resolution of the pixels of the regulatory network which shapes Kisspeptin-mediated signaling.

Saeed S, Khan JA, Iqbal N, et al.
Cancer and how the patients see it; prevalence and perception of risk factors: a cross-sectional survey from a tertiary care centre of Karachi, Pakistan.
BMC Public Health. 2019; 19(1):360 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cancer is rising but data available regarding prevalence of cancer and patient perception of the disease in Pakistan is limited. It is difficult to deal with Cancer if the main causes are negligence towards risk factors and bizarre myths. This study was aimed to investigate common cancer presentations at a government sector hospital and to gain insight into patient knowledge of the disease.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on cancer patients from Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre. A self-made questionnaire was used to assess the norms related to cancer prevalence in our society, associated myths, and the most common risk factors per them.
RESULTS: A total of 402 participants consented to participate in the study (mean age 42.3 ± 15.07 years), 204(50.7%) were females and 190(47.3%) were illiterate. Biomass exposure was found in 147(37%), drug abuse in 132(33%) and smoking in 63(16%). We found 103(25.6%) had positive family histories of cancer. The most common primary tumor site was breast for females 98(48%) and Head and neck 66(33.3%) for males. Patients considered fate 328(82%), gutka 284(71%) and injuries 282(70%) as the most common causes for cancer; while 222(55.5%) considered black magic and 236(58.75%) considered evil eye as a risk factor for cancer. Cancer treatment caused significant financial stress in 376(93.5%) patients.
CONCLUSION: Breast and head and neck cancers were found to be prevalent among patients. It was noted that patients are negligent in daily life regarding the consumption of substances that commonly cause cancer. Individuals had diminished knowledge and majority linked cancer to unrelated causes and myths like black magic and fate. Almost all the patients complained of severe financial stress imposed by the disease.

Usmani S, Rasheed R, Al Kandari F, et al.
225Ac Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Posttherapy α Imaging: Comparing 2 and 3 Photopeaks.
Clin Nucl Med. 2019; 44(5):401-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ac-based PSMA-targeted therapy has emerged as promising agent for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Posttherapy image is used for tracer localization and dosimetry. Prior 2 photopeaks of 440 and 218 KeV were reported for posttherapy imaging. Our study of gamma ray spectrum, phantom, and clinical images show that imaging with 3 major photopeaks of 78, 218, and 440 KeV gives better quality images, high count statistics, and higher number of lesion delineations. It is therefore suggested that posttherapy imaging may be carried out using 3 major abundant photopeaks.

Hashmi AA, Mudassir G, Irfan M, et al.
Prognostic Significance of High Androgen Receptor Expression in Prostatic Acinar Adenocarcinoma
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):893-896 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Quantitative immunohistochemical expression of Androgen receptor (AR) has not been evaluated as a prognostic biomarker of prostate cancer in our population, therefore in the current study we aimed to evaluate the association of AR expression in prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma with various prognostic parameters like tumor quantification, Gleason score, WHO grade group and perineural invasion. Methods: Total 121 cases of biopsy proven prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma were selected from records of pathology department archives from January 2013 till December 2017. Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved and new sections were cut where necessary. Slides of all cases were reviewed by two senior histopathologists and pathologic characteristics like Gleason score, WHO grade, tumor quantification, perineural and lymphovascular invasion were evaluated. Androgen receptor immunohistochemistry was applied on all cases. Results: Low AR expression was noted in 53 cases (43.8%) while high AR expression was seen in 68 cases (56.2%). Significant association of AR expression was noted with total Gleason score, WHO grade and percentage of tissue involvement (tumor quantification). Univariate binary logistic regression showed patients with low Gleason scores (scores 6,7 or 8) and low WHO grade (grade 1, 2 or 3) were less likely to express high AR expression in comparison to high Gleason score (score 9) and high WHO grade group (grade 5) respectively. Similarly, cases with low tissue involvement by carcinoma (<50%) were less likely to show high AR expression in comparison to cases with >50% tissue involvement by carcinoma. Conclusion: Significant association of AR expression was noted with total Gleason score, WHO grade and percentage of tissue involvement (tumor quantification) which are among the most important markers of tumor progression; therefore we suggest that AR expression should be performed in patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma for prognostic stratification of the patients.

Javaid A, Shabbir Z, Din IU
Tuberous Sclerosis.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2019; 69(3):445 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a multisystem disorder involving brain, eye, skin, kidney and lungs which manifest in late childhood. We present a typical case of tuberous sclerosis in a young female patient.Extensive work-up including MRI brain, MRI abdomen and CT Thorax was performed. The clinical and radiological findingswere consistent with thediagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.

Laghari AA, Ahmed SI, Qadeer N, Shamim MS
Choice of therapeutic anti-seizure medication in patients with brain tumour.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2019; 69(3):442-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
Seizures are common in patients with brain tumours, even though prophylactic anti-seizure treatment for all patients with brain tumours is not recommended. Newer anti-epileptic drugs have shown benefits that outweigh the side effects of treatment and can also be given in combination with traditional anti-epileptic drugs. The authors have reviewed the literature on the various combinations of anti-epileptics in patients with seizures and brain tumours.

Majeed FA, Azeem AR, Farhan N
Lung cancer in Pakistan, where do we stand?
J Pak Med Assoc. 2019; 69(3):405-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cancer in males and second most common in females after breast cancer. We have compared our data with the international statistics to see where do we stand. In Pakistan, we do not have a valid central cancer registry at present which can provide a true picture of lung cancer. Therefore, we used statistics of GLOBOCON 2012, in order to evaluate the true burden of lung cancer in our population through the recently established data by PHRC (Pakistan Health and Research council). Our analysis showed that data depicting true incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Pakistan are lacking. GLOBOCON 2012 placed lung cancer as the 3rd most common cancer in Pakistan while PHRC 2016 placed it as the 10th most common cancer irrespective of the rise in smoking incidence in Pakistan over the past one decade. This calls for an urgent need to formulate a valid central cancer registry in the country in association with the local bodies.

Amir H, Khan MA, Feroz S, et al.
CARLo-7-A plausible biomarker for bladder cancer.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2019; 100(1):25-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Cancer is defined as undifferentiated and unchecked growth of cells damaging the surrounding tissue. Cancers manifest altered gene expression. Gene expression is regulated by a diverse array of non-protein-coding RNA. Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been recently found to have functional consequences in cancers. In the current study, we report CARLo-7 as the only bladder cancer-specific lncRNA from the CARLos cluster. The expression of this lncRNA correlates with bladder cancer grade. We propose that CARLo-7 has an oncogenic potential and might be regulator of cell proliferation. Furthermore, by comparison the expression of proto-oncogene MYC, which is the only well-annotated gene close to the cancer - associated linkage disequilibrium blocks of this region, does not show a pronounced change in expression between the low- and high-grade tumours. Our results indicate that CARlo-7 can act as a prognostic marker for bladder cancer.

Fagan R, Bokhari SSN, Inayat F
Vitamin D and vitamin B
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Carcinoid tumours have the ability to secrete various peptides and bioamines that lead to carcinoid syndrome manifested as cutaneous flushing, diarrhoea, bronchial constriction and cardiac involvement. The deficiencies of vitamins D and B

Iftikhar H, Ikram M, Iqbal MU, Ghaloo SK
Prostate Cancer Metastasis To Cervical Node Chain-An Unusual Clinic-Pathological Finding.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Jan-Mar; 31(1):134-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in males all around the world. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is amongst the leading carcinoma (HNSCC) in men especially in the sub-continent. There are around 150 lymph nodes on either side in the neck and cervical lymph nodes are a common site for head and neck malignancies to metastasize however carcinoma of prostate may in rare cases metastasize to cervical chain, therefore warranting a neck dissection. In case of unknown primary of head and neck extensive work up is required to find the primary site. Our case provided a similar picture with a single enlarged node which on biopsy to our surprise revealed adenocarcinoma of prostate.

Bilal M, Uddin Z, Khan MA
Incidentally Found Metastatic Prostatic Carcinoma In A Therapeutic Orchiectomy Specimen.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Jan-Mar; 31(1):129-130 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic tumour involving the testis is a rare event. Incidental discovery of metastatic cancer in a therapeutic orchiectomy is even rarer. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma prostate found incidentally in one of the bilateral therapeutic orchiectomy specimens. The patient was a 55-year-old man presenting with back ache and generalized body aches. Clinical examination showed malignant feel of prostate. Bone scan revealed metastatic disease and a serum PSA level of >100 ng/ml. Clinical diagnosis of carcinoma prostate was established and subsequent bilateral orchiectomy for hormonal deprivation was performed. On gross examination of left testis, there was a small 0.7 X 0.6 cm suspicious area. Microscopically, this area showed an infiltrating tumour in the interstitium with entrapped seminiferous tubules. Focal intravascular tumour deposit was also noted. Immunohistochemical stain for prostate-specific antigen was positive in the tumour, which confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma.

Manzoor R, Yasmeen N
Upfront Nephrectomy Versus Preoperative Chemotherapy In Wilm's Tumour.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Jan-Mar; 31(1):104-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumour is the most common renal tumour in paediatric age group. This study was done to compare the two approaches used for treatment, namely upfront nephrectomy versus pre-operative chemotherapy..
METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done enrolling all the patients of Wilms tumour reporting to Oncology unit Children's Hospital during the study period. A total of 80 patients were divided into 2 groups. One group (n=40) had upfront surgery while the other (n=40) received pre-op chemotherapy before surgery. Both groups were compared for outcomes including whether treatment completed and declared cured, lost during treatment against medical advice, or died during treatment.
RESULTS: It was found that stage 2 patients were more likely to get upfront surgery done while stage 3, 4 and 5 were likely to get pre-operative chemotherapy before nephrectomy. Also, favourable histology was associated with better outcome overall outcome.

Fatima N, Mohiuddin S, Hosein S, Mervyn M
Socio-Economic Implications Of A Younger Aged Female Predilection In Malignant Transformation Of Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Jan-Mar; 31(1):16-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the age, gender and pattern of associated chewing habits among cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) presenting with, (OSMFCa) and without, (Ca-OSMF) pre-existing clinical oral submucous fibrosis in Karachi, Pakistan.
METHODS: A cross sectional, multi centric study of (n=1009) cases with histologically confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma seen at both public, private tertiary care hospitals and clinics over a period of eight years. A non-probability convenience sampling was used for selection of cases. Of these n=472 cases were reported as malignant transformation of clinical OSMF into OSCC: (OSMFCa) and n=537 were of OSCC without clinical evidence of OSMF: (Ca-OSMF). Qualitative analysis for gender and chewing patterns as well as chi square was performed for association. Age comparison between the OSMFCa and Ca-OSMF groups were performed by independent t test..
RESULTS: A total of n=1009 cases presenting with OSCC were examined. Of these 46.78% (n=472) cases were reported as OSMFCa and 53.22% (n=537) as Ca-OSMF. The comparison of age differences at presentation of OSMFCa and Ca- OSMF cases by independent t test was statistically significant (p<0.049). Both gender and chewing habits showed significant association with OSMFCa and Ca-OSMF.
CONCLUSIONS: Common to both affected groups was consumption of betel quid, chewing tobacco and variants with males tending to move on to more complex combinations. An overall male trend was noted in OSCC, particularly in Ca- OSMF. However, proportion of females with OSMFCa was significantly higher than males. A significantly younger female affectation in this group has significant potential socio-economic consequences.

Wazir U, Orakzai MMAW, Martin TA, et al.
Correlation of
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Mar-Apr; 16(2):121-127 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has a well-known role in carcinogenesis due to its functions in inducing cell immortality and preventing senescence. In this study, the relationships between TERT and a panel of known stem cell markers was examined in order to direct future enquiries into the role of 'stem-ness' in human breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissues (n=124) and adjacent normal tissues (n=30) underwent reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Transcript levels were analyzed for the correlation with that of TERT.
RESULTS: A significant direct correlation was found in cancerous tissue between TERT and BMI1 proto-oncogene polycomb ring finger 4 (BMI1; n=88, p<0.001), nestin (NES; n=88, p<0.001), POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 (POU5F1; n=88, p<0.001), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A2 (ALDH1A2; n=87, p=0.0298), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; n=88, p<0.001), integrin subunit beta 1 (ITGNB1; n=88, p<0.001), integrin subunit alpha 6 (ITGA6; n=88, p<0.001), cluster of differentiation antigen 24 (CD24; n=88, p=0.0114), MET proto-oncogene (MET; n=78, p<0.001) and noggin (NOG; n=88, p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The evidence presented in this article of possible interactions between TERT and a discrete subset of known stem cell markers would significantly contribute to further enquiries regarding clonal dynamics in the context of human breast cancer.

Fatima F, Saleem S, Hameed A, et al.
Association analysis and allelic distribution of deletion in CC chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5Δ32) among breast cancer patients of Pakistan.
Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(2):2387-2394 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokine CC receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface receptor that has high affinity for chemotropic cytokines called chemokines. The CCR5 gene contains a 32 base pairs (bp) deletion (CCR5Δ32). This deletion may result in a malformed and nonfunctional receptor, reported to be responsible for the development and dissemination of different cancers. CCR5Δ32 exists in two allelic forms i.e. deletion (D) and wild type (WT). This study aims to detect the role of CCR5Δ32 in breast cancer development. Blood samples were collected from breast cancer patients (330) and controls of same gender (306). Along with this histopathologically diagnosed malignant tissue samples were also excised from breast lesions of 100 patients. Genetic variations within the blood and tissue samples were examined by PCR then observed through gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Obtained DNA sequences were aligned and analyzed by MEGA6 software. Genotypic and association analyses were done by SPSS software version 17.0. Deletion of 32 bp in CCR5 gene has been analyzed. Genotypic variations of CCR5Δ32 are; homozygous wild type (WT/WT), heterozygous deletion (WT/D) and homozygous deletion (D/D). Statistical analyses of CCR5Δ32 data revealed that WT/D was significantly higher in blood samples of breast cancer patients (7.27% (24/330)) as compare to controls (1.30% (4/306)). In tumor tissue samples WT/WT being the most frequent genotype (99.00% (99/100)) with 1.00 (1/100) of D/D which suggested that it may be acquired. Hence, association analysis showed that CCR5Δ32 is positively associated with breast cancer in Pakistan (p < 0.001). The risk ratio of CCR5Δ32 was 5.6610 (95% confidence interval: 2.0377 to 15.7267) and odds ratio was calculated to be 6.0335 (95% confidence interval: 2.1288 to 17.0999) which signifies that deletion also increases the risk of breast cancer development. Moreover, association analyses also revealed that clinicopathological features do not have any impact on the CCR5Δ32 genotype of breast cancer. This suggests that deletion of 32 bp in CCR5 gene may be associated with breast cancer. CCR5 signals the activation and migration of immune cells at the site of tumor formation. Because of deletion; deformed CCR5 receptor might be unable to express and function properly which may subdue the immunity against cancer hence, leading to its progression.

Rahim Y, Tareen FZ, Ahmed R, Khan JA
Primary pulmonary plasmacytoma presenting with rare IgG lambda monoclonal gammopathy.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Extramedullaryplasmacytoma (EMP) represents a peculiar and typically progressive malignancy that can originate outside the bone marrow. Primary pulmonary plasmacytoma (PPP) is a rare subset of EMP, confined to the lung. A 55-year-old man, diabetic, non-smoker presented to our clinic with a right chest wall swelling. A routine chest radiograph showed a well-circumscribed opacity in the right upper lung zone. A CT of the chest revealed a large right upper lobe mass with extensive local infiltration. Biopsy and immunohistochemical evaluation led to a diagnosis of PPP. Screening for multiple myeloma was negative. Serum immunofixation showed an IgG lambda monoclonal gammopathy, found in a minority of PPP patients. In view of disease extent, treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy was initiated. The patient is currently in out patient follow-up and has shown a favourable response to the treatment with a considerable decrease in serum IgG levels.

Ara C, Inayat K, Hanif A, et al.
A Study Of Agreement Between Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid Of Cervix And Pap Smear For Cervical Cancer Screening.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2018 Oct-Dec; 30(Suppl 1)(4):S668-S670 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: One of the common causes of mortality and morbidity among young women is cervical cancer. Following a wash of cervix through acetic acid, the Papanicolaou (PAP) smears and the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), are compared. Objective of the study was to check the level of agreement between the PAP smear for cancer of cervix and VIA.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. All patients were put in lithotomy position and vaginal speculum was applied and pap smear taken followed by 5% acetic acid application to cervix and changes in the cervix noted down.
Results: Patients with mean age 48±7.795 years were included. In 30 (12%) and 61 (24.4%) patients diagnosis of cervical cancer was positive on PAP smear and VIA respectively. The agreement between two test was significant with Kappa value = 0.322 and p-value ≤ 0.00.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that agreement of PAP smear is almost 80%. VIA on the other hand can be used when there is no access to PAP smear.

Hassan A, Siddique M, Riaz S, et al.
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Prognostic Variables And Tumour Markers Affecting Survival.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2018 Oct-Dec; 30(Suppl 1)(4):S627-S632 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid malignancy and its clinical course varies among patients due to its familial association. A number of prognostic factors have been studied, but the significance of these factors remains controversial. We evaluated the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of MTC and its association with tumour marker rising velocity and serum calcitonin (Ct) doubling time (DT).
Methods: Analysis of 83 (8.7%) consecutive MTC patients registered at a single centre between 1995 and 2015. The impact of tumour respectability, TNM stage, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome, local recurrence, Ct DT and Ct rising velocity on PFS and OS was analysed. Median follow-up was 4.3 years (range: 1-18 years).
Results: Eighty-three (8.7%) of all thyroid cancers registered at our centre were MTC. Fifty-five males, 28 females. Mean age 39 years [range: 17-72 years]. Twenty-two were unresectable and 61 resectable. Five-year and 10-year OS was 84% and 77% respectively. Of 68 with follow up greater than a year; 20 (29.4%) were cured, 15 (22.1%) had biochemical evidence of disease, three (4.4%) had stable macroscopic disease and 30 (44.1%) had recurrent/progressive disease. Sixteen (23.5%) died. On multivariate analysis, T4 tumour, male gender, nodal and distant metastases, tumour resectibility, Ct DT less than two years and tumour marker rising velocity of greater than 0.05pg/ml/month were poor prognostic factors (pvalue <0.05). Age and association with MEN syndrome had no statistically significant survival impact. Radiotherapy reduced local relapse in patients with nodal disease. Total thyroidectomy with nodal clearance lessened relapses.
Conclusion: Clinical stage and pathological aspects are predictors of disease progression. Persistent biochemical evidence of MTC does not affect OS, however, Ct DT < 2 years and rapid rate of tumour marker rise predict disease progression.

Kashif RU, Faizan M, Anwar S
Pediatric Malignant Mediastinal Masses.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2019; 29(3):258-262 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome-associated variables of pediatric malignant mediastinal masses in a resource-limited setting.
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.
PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from October 2016 to November 2017.
METHODOLOGY: Children with malignant mediastinal masses were enrolled. The variables studied were median age at presentation, gender distribution, immunisation status, socio-economic background, causes of delayed presentation, presenting complaints, complications of disease, methods for mass biopsy, final diagnosis, staging, and outcome of the disease. Results were described in terms of descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 7.5 years with male-to-female ratio of 2:1. The commonest presenting complaint was fever (82%), respiratory distress (58%), and lymphadenopathy (51%). Seventy-eight percent patients belonged to lower socio-economic class. Eighty-six percent of patients had delayed presentation to the tertiary care hospital and the most common reason was delayed diagnosis by the medical professionals (49%). Fifty-one percent patients had weight-for-age less than 5th percentile. Common complications were airway obstruction (35%), pericardial effusion (19.6%), superior vena cava syndrome and gross pleural effusion (13.7% each). Commonest diagnosis was T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (35%) followed by lymphoblastic lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma (15.7% each). Fourtyfive percent patients expired, 2% defaulted treatment and 5.9% completed treatment; 25% patients were under treatment, 3.9% patients had progressive disease while outcome of 17.6% of patients could not be known. The most significant factor associated with the outcome primary diagnosis (p<0.001), delayed presentation (p=0.007) and educational status of the family.
CONCLUSION: The pattern of clinical presentation, complications and diagnoses of pediatric malignant mediastinal masses showed some variation from the already reported. Low literacy rate and delay in presentation are common and contribute significantly to the poor outcome.

Khan Y, Iqbal S, Fatimi S
Pleomorphic liposarcoma of chest wall: a rare entity with challenging management.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2019; 27(4):310-312 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleomorphic liposarcoma is the rarest subtype of liposarcoma, with a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. We present the case of young man with a rapidly growing large anterior chest wall liposarcoma that was excised, but he suffered 3 local recurrences in one year, showing the aggressive nature of the disease. If not completely resected with a tumor-free margin, the patient may have to endure multiple extensive surgeries in quick succession, increasing the chances of metastasis and a fatal outcome. Pleomorphic liposarcoma should be radically excised along with radiotherapy and strict follow-up of such patients.

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