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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2008: 23.2m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 78,000
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 244.1
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:23.9%
People dying from cancer /yr: 41,100
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2008)
Taiwan Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Taiwan

Taiwan Cancer Organisations and Resources (5 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Taiwan

Chou ST, Hsiang CY, Lo HY, et al.
Exploration of anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of Zuo-Jin-Wan and its alkaloid components in vitro and in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft immunocompetent mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zuo-Jin-Wan (ZJW), a two-herb formula consisting of Coptis chinensis (CC) and Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancers. However, the efficacies and mechanisms of ZJW and its alkaloid components on cancers are still unclear.
METHODS: Here we investigated the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine in cells and in intrahepatic xenograft mice.
RESULTS: Treatment of HepG2 cells with ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine significantly displayed cytotoxic effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression profiles showed that CC and ZJW shared a similar mechanism for the cytotoxic effects, suggesting that CC was the active ingredient of ZJW for anti-cancer activity. Network analysis further showed that c-myc was the likely key molecule involved in the regulation of ZJW-affected gene expression. A human hepatoma xenograft model was established by intrahepatic injection of HepG2 cells containing nuclear factor-κB-driven luciferase genes in immunocompetent mice. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that cells had been successfully transplanted in mouse liver. Oral administration of ZJW for 28 consecutive days led to a significant decrease in the accumulation of ascites, the ratio of tumor-to-liver, and the number of transplanted cells in livers.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings suggested for the first time that ZJW significantly suppressed human cancer cell growth in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft-bearing immunocompetent mice. Moreover, c-myc might play a potent role in the cytotoxic mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine.

Ting CT, Kuo CJ, Hu HY, et al.
Prescription frequency and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine for liver cancer patients in Taiwan: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is frequently provided to HCC patients. The aim of this study was to understand the prescription frequency and patterns of CHM for HCC patients by analyzing the claims data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan.
METHODS: We identified 73918 newly diagnosed HCC subjects from the database of Registry for Catastrophic Illness during 2002 to 2009 and to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions for HCC patients.
RESULTS: There were a total of 685,079 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 553,952 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions used for 17,373 HCC subjects before 2 years of HCC diagnosis. Among the 13,093 HCC subjects who used CHMs after HCC diagnosis, there were 462,786 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 300,153 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions were counted. By adjusting with person-year and ratio of standardized incidence rate, the top ten prescribed single herbal drugs and Chinese herbal formulas for HCC patients were described in our study. Among them, we concluded that, Oldenlandia diffusa (Chinese herbal name: Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao), Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) and the herbal preparation of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Gan-Lu-Yin, were the most obviously increased and important CHMs been used for HCC patients.
CONCLUSION: We established an accurate and validated method for the actual frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating HCC in Taiwan. We propose that these breakthrough findings may have important implications for HCC therapy, clinical trials and modernization of CHM.

Zeng H, Wu HC, Wang Q, et al.
Telomere Length and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nested Case-control Study in Taiwan Cancer Screening Program Cohort.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):637-644 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) measured in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) might be a useful biomarker to identify elevated cancer risk.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study which included 268 newly-diagnosed HCC cases and 536 matched controls, was conducted. Absolute TL in PBL was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The overall median length of TL was not statistically shorter in HCC cases compared to healthy controls. However, we found a significant synergistic effect of longer TL and HCV infection to increase HCC risk with a relative excess risk of 6.86 (95% CI: 2.14-11.58). Among HCC cases, significant shorter TLs were observed for <5 years (OR=3.93, 95% CI: 2.00-7.72); 5-10 years (OR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.10-4.24) compared to >10 years prior to diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Shorter PBL TL alone was not significantly associated with increased HCC risk. Among HCC cases, significant shorter TLs were observed for <5 years prior to diagnosis.

Hung TM, Fan KH, Chen EY, et al.
An elective radiation dose of 46 Gy is feasible in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy: A long-term follow-up result.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(6):e6036 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment outcome of different radiation doses of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).In total, 504 patients with nondisseminated NPC who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before radical IMRT between 2000 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on the ENI dose: low ENI when the ENI dose was 46 Gy (n = 446) and high ENI when the ENI doses were 50 to 60 Gy (n = 58). All the patients in both the groups received a median dose of 72 Gy to the gross tumor and involved nodes. The fraction size was 2 Gy per fraction. Matching was performed between low ENI and high ENI in a 2:1 ratio, and the matching criteria were N-stage, T-stage, treatment modality, pathology classification, sex, and age.The median follow-up for all patients was 63.5 months. In all patients, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), regional control (RC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for low ENI and high ENI patients were 69.0% and 63.2% (P = 0.331), 89.0% and 83.9% (P = 0.235), 90.1% and 85.2% (P = 0.246), 86.8% and 76.6% (P = 0.056), 77.5% and 80.8% (P = 0.926), and 84.4% and 82.5% (P = 0.237), respectively. In the matched-pair analysis, the 5-year PFS, LC, RC, DMFS, OS, and CSS for matched low ENI and high ENI patients were 74.1% and 63.2% (P = 0.134), 92.0% and 83.9% (P = 0.152), 90.1% and 85.2% (P = 0.356), 86.2% and 76.6% (P = 0.125), 87.0% and 80.8% (P = 0.102), and 88.6% and 82.5% (P = 0.080), respectively. In the multivariable analysis for all patients, the ENI group was not a significant factor for PFS, LC, RC, DMFS, OS, and CSS.A low ENI dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions is feasible in NPC patients treated with IMRT, and this concept should be validated in the prospective studies.

Lin PY, Tsai CT, Chuang WL, et al.
Chlorella sorokiniana induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Marine microalgae are a source of biologically active compounds and are widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in East Asian countries. It has been reported that Chlorella or Chlorella extracts have various beneficial pharmacological compounds that modulate immune responses; however, no studies have investigated the anti-cancer effects of Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of CS in two human NSCLC cell lines (A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells), and its effects on tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. We also investigated the possible molecular mechanisms governing the pharmacological function of CS.
RESULTS: Our results showed that exposure of the two cell lines to CS resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in cell viability. In addition, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that CS might induce apoptosis in human NSCLC cells. Western blot analysis revealed that exposure to CS resulted in increased protein expression of the cleaved/activated forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP, except caspase-8. ZDEVD (caspase-3 inhibitor) and Z-LEHD (caspase-9 inhibitor) were sufficient at preventing apoptosis in both A549 and CL1-5 cells, proving that CS induced cell death via the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Exposure of A549 and CL1-5 cells to CS for 24 h resulted in decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of Bax protein as well as decreased expression of two IAP family proteins, survivin and XIAP.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that CS induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells via downregulation of Bcl-2, XIAP and survivin. In addition, we also found that the tumors growth of subcutaneous xenograft in vivo was markedly inhibited after oral intake of CS.

Yang CH, Moi SH, Chuang LY, et al.
Interaction of MRE11 and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Recurrence of Breast Cancer: Individual and Cumulated Receiver Operating Characteristic Analyses.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:2563910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interaction between the meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE11) oncoprotein and breast cancer recurrence status remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between MRE11 and clinicopathologic variables in breast cancer. A dataset for 254 subjects with breast cancer (220 nonrecurrent and 34 recurrent) was used in individual and cumulated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of MRE11 and 12 clinicopathologic variables for predicting breast cancer recurrence. In individual ROC analysis, the area under curve (AUC) for each predictor of breast cancer recurrence was smaller than 0.7. In cumulated ROC analysis, however, the AUC value for each predictor improved. Ten relevant variables in breast cancer recurrence were used to find the optimal prognostic indicators. The presence of any six of the following ten variables had a high (79%) sensitivity and a high (70%) specificity for predicting breast cancer recurrence: tumor size ≥ 2.4 cm, tumor stage II/III, therapy other than hormone therapy, age ≥ 52 years, MRE11 positive cells > 50%, body mass index ≥ 24, lymph node metastasis, positivity for progesterone receptor, positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor, and negativity for estrogen receptor. In conclusion, this study revealed that these 10 clinicopathologic variables are the minimum discriminators needed for optimal discriminant effectiveness in predicting breast cancer recurrence.

Yu YL, Yang YJ, Lin C, et al.
Analysis of volumetric response of pituitary adenomas receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery with the application of an exponential fitting model.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e4662 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor control rates of pituitary adenomas (PAs) receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK SRS) are high. However, there is currently no uniform way to estimate the time course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the volumetric responses of PAs after CK SRS and investigate the application of an exponential decay model in calculating an accurate time course and estimation of the eventual outcome.A retrospective review of 34 patients with PAs who received adjuvant CK SRS between 2006 and 2013 was performed. Tumor volume was calculated using the planimetric method. The percent change in tumor volume and tumor volume rate of change were compared at median 4-, 10-, 20-, and 36-month intervals. Tumor responses were classified as: progression for >15% volume increase, regression for ≤15% decrease, and stabilization for ±15% of the baseline volume at the time of last follow-up. For each patient, the volumetric change versus time was fitted with an exponential model.The overall tumor control rate was 94.1% in the 36-month (range 18-87 months) follow-up period (mean volume change of -43.3%). Volume regression (mean decrease of -50.5%) was demonstrated in 27 (79%) patients, tumor stabilization (mean change of -3.7%) in 5 (15%) patients, and tumor progression (mean increase of 28.1%) in 2 (6%) patients (P = 0.001). Tumors that eventually regressed or stabilized had a temporary volume increase of 1.07% and 41.5% at 4 months after CK SRS, respectively (P = 0.017). The tumor volume estimated using the exponential fitting equation demonstrated high positive correlation with the actual volume calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as tested by Pearson correlation coefficient (0.9).Transient progression of PAs post-CK SRS was seen in 62.5% of the patients receiving CK SRS, and it was not predictive of eventual volume regression or progression. A three-point exponential model is of potential predictive value according to relative distribution. An exponential decay model can be used to calculate the time course of tumors that are ultimately controlled.

Chung TW, Lin SC, Su JH, et al.
Sinularin induces DNA damage, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sinularin isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been reported to exert potent cytotoxic effects against particular types of cancer. This study was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effects in sinularin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2, and to subsequently explore the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: TheMTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl- tetrazolium bromide) method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of sinularin on HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. Furthermore, the cell cycle distribution assay, apoptosis assay, and western blot analysis in vitro were used to explore the possible mechanisms of action.
RESULTS: From the results of our study, cell viability was obviously inhibited by sinularin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, our results suggested that sinularin triggered DNA damage and subsequently induced cell cycle G2/M arrest associated with up-regulation of p-ATM (Ser(1981)), p-Chk2 (Tyr(68)), p-cdc2 (Tyr(15)), and p53 coupled with increased expression of downstream proteins p21 and down-regulation of p-cdc25 (Ser(216)). Moreover, the results of the apoptosis assay and western blot analysis indicated that the cytotoxic activity could be related to mitochondrial apoptosis, characterized by decrease of Bcl-2 expression, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and sequential activation of caspases and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals for the first time the anti-HCC activities of sinularin, the active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. We believe that our results warrant further evaluation of sinularin as a new anti-HCC chemotherapeutic agent.

Chen TH, Yen AM, Fann JC, et al.
Clarifying the debate on population-based screening for breast cancer with mammography: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on mammography with Bayesian meta-analysis and causal model.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(3):e5684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The recent controversy about using mammography to screen for breast cancer based on randomized controlled trials over 3 decades in Western countries has not only eclipsed the paradigm of evidence-based medicine, but also puts health decision-makers in countries where breast cancer screening is still being considered in a dilemma to adopt or abandon such a well-established screening modality.
METHODS: We reanalyzed the empirical data from the Health Insurance Plan trial in 1963 to the UK age trial in 1991 and their follow-up data published until 2015. We first performed Bayesian conjugated meta-analyses on the heterogeneity of attendance rate, sensitivity, and over-detection and their impacts on advanced stage breast cancer and death from breast cancer across trials using Bayesian Poisson fixed- and random-effect regression model. Bayesian meta-analysis of causal model was then developed to assess a cascade of causal relationships regarding the impact of both attendance and sensitivity on 2 main outcomes.
RESULTS: The causes of heterogeneity responsible for the disparities across the trials were clearly manifested in 3 components. The attendance rate ranged from 61.3% to 90.4%. The sensitivity estimates show substantial variation from 57.26% to 87.97% but improved with time from 64% in 1963 to 82% in 1980 when Bayesian conjugated meta-analysis was conducted in chronological order. The percentage of over-detection shows a wide range from 0% to 28%, adjusting for long lead-time. The impacts of the attendance rate and sensitivity on the 2 main outcomes were statistically significant. Causal inference made by linking these causal relationships with emphasis on the heterogeneity of the attendance rate and sensitivity accounted for the variation in the reduction of advanced breast cancer (none-30%) and of mortality (none-31%). We estimated a 33% (95% CI: 24-42%) and 13% (95% CI: 6-20%) breast cancer mortality reduction for the best scenario (90% attendance rate and 95% sensitivity) and the poor scenario (30% attendance rate and 55% sensitivity), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Elucidating the scenarios from high to low performance and learning from the experiences of these trials helps screening policy-makers contemplate on how to avoid errors made in ineffective studies and emulate the effective studies to save women lives.

Ku YH, Chen SC, Shyr BU, et al.
Pancreatic groove cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5640 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic groove cancer is very rare and can be indistinguishable from groove pancreatitis. This study is to clarify the characteristics, clinical features, managements, and survival outcomes of this rare tumor.Brief descriptions were made for each case of pancreatic groove cancer encountered at our institute. Individualized data of pancreatic groove cancer cases described in the literature were extracted and added to our database to expand the study sample size for a more complete analysis.A total of 33 patients with pancreatic groove cancer were included for analysis, including 4 cases from our institute. The median tumor size was 2.7 cm. The most common symptom was nausea or vomiting (89%), followed by jaundice (67%). Duodenal stenosis was noted by endoscopy in 96% of patients. The histopathological examination revealed well differentiated tumor in 43%. Perineural invasion was noted in 90%, and lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement in 83%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 93.3%, and 3- or 5-year survival rate was 62.2%, with a median survival of 11.0 months. Survival outcome for the well-differentiated tumors was better than those of the moderate/poorly differentiated ones.Early involvement of duodenum causing vomiting is often the initial presentation, but obstructive jaundice does not always happen until the disease progresses. Tumor differentiation is a prognostic factor for survival outcome. The possibility of pancreatic groove cancer should be carefully excluded before making the diagnosis of groove pancreatitis for any questionable case.

Chen JR, Chien HP, Chen KS, et al.
Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan.
METHODS: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials.

Li CZ, Li CC, Hsieh CC, et al.
Fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The fatal type of antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare but life-threating condition. It may be triggered by surgery or infection. Endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery is a common procedure for pituitary tumor. We report a catastrophic case of a young woman died of fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery.
METHODS AND RESULT: A 31-year-old woman of a history of stroke received endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor. The whole procedure was smooth. However, the patient suffered from acute delirium on postoperative day 4. Then, her consciousness became comatose state rapidly with dilatation of pupils. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging of brain demonstrated multiple acute lacunar infarcts. The positive antiphosphoipid antibody and severe thrombocytopenia were also noted. Fatal antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed. Plasma exchange, corticosteroids, anticoagulant agent were prescribed. The hemodynamic condition was gradually stable. However, the consciousness was still in deep coma. The patient died of organ donation 2 months later.
CONCLUSION: If patients have a history of cerebral stroke in their early life, such as a young stroke, the APS and higher risk of developing fatal APS after major surgery should be considered. The optimal management of APS remains controversial. The best treatment strategies are only early diagnosis and aggressive therapies combing of anticoagulant, corticosteroid, and plasma exchange. The intravenous immunoglobulin is prescribed for patients with refractory APS.

Lu CS, Liu JH
Pneumonitis in cancer patients receiving anti-PD-1 and radiotherapies: Three case reports.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5747 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: In development of novel therapies for the treatment of patient with cancer, the use of radiotherapy (RT) can produce significant local control and, in recent studies, has also been shown to mediate anti-tumor responses at distant sites by triggering and enhancing the endogenous cellular immune responses. Although RT induces an abscopal effect in some patients due to enhanced immune response to the tumor, immune-escape mechanisms, including up-regulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells, limit this benefit in other patients. Hence, many studies have promoted the synergy of RT and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) treatment for antitumor immunity. However, outcome may be improved when more therapies are combined, but risk of side effects can be increased.
CASE PRESENTATION: We herein present 3 advanced cancer patients with pulmonary metastasis and who received RT. Later, they underwent anti-PD-1 treatment and unfortunately suffered from anti-PD-1-related pneumonitis over the nonirradiated areas after 4 cycles of treatment. The upregulation of cellular PD-1 expression in these areas was considered and the immune overreaction by anti-PD-1 treatment may cause these severe pulmonary adverse effects.
CONCLUSION: Our review of 3 cases warrants careful workup to reduce the risk of side effects by combinative therapy with RT and anti-PD-1 treatment.

Chang SM, Christian W, Wu MH, et al.
Novel indolizino[8,7-b]indole hybrids as anti-small cell lung cancer agents: Regioselective modulation of topoisomerase II inhibitory and DNA crosslinking activities.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 127:235-249 [PubMed] Related Publications
A novel series of bis(hydroxymethyl)indolizino[8,7-b]indole hybrids composed of β-carboline (topoisomerase I/II inhibition) and bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole (DNA cross-linking) are synthesized for antitumor evaluation. Of tumor cell lines tested, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines are the most sensitive to the newly synthesized compounds. These hybrids induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, trigger tumor cell apoptotic death, and display diverse mechanisms of action involving topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibition and induction of DNA cross-linking. Intriguingly, the substituent at N(11) (H or Me) plays a critical role in modulating Topo II inhibition and DNA cross-linking activities. N(11)-Me derivatives predispose to induce DNA crosslinks, whereas N(11)-H derivatives potently inhibit Topo II. Computational analysis implicates that N(11)-Me restrict the torsion angles of the two adjacent OH on pyrrole resulting in a favorable of DNA cross-linking. Among these hybrids, compound 17a with N(11)-H is more effective than cisplatin and etoposide, but as potent as irinotecan, against the growth of SCLC H526 cells in xenograft model.

Chung YC, Chen CH, Tsai YT, et al.
Litchi seed extract inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and growth of Two Non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Litchi seeds possess rich amounts of phenolics and have been shown to inhibit proliferation of several types of cancer cells. However, the suppression of EGFR signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by litchi seed extract (LCSE) has not been fully understood.
METHODS: In this study, the effects of LCSE on EGFR signaling, cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis in A549 adenocarcinoma cells and NCI- H661 large-cell carcinoma cells were examined.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that LCSE potently reduced the number of cancer cells and induced growth inhibition, cell-cycle arrest in the G1 or G2/M phase, and apoptotic death in the cellular experiment. Only low cytotoxicity effect was noted in normal lung MRC-5 cells. LCSE also suppressed cyclins and Bcl-2 and elevated Kip1/p27, Bax and caspase 8, 9 and 3 activities, which are closely associated with the downregulation of EGFR and its downstream Akt and Erk-1/-2 signaling.
CONCLUSION: The results implied that LCSE suppressed EGFR signaling and inhibited NSCLC cell growth. This study provided in vitro evidence that LCSE could serve as a potential agent for the adjuvant treatment of NSCLC.

Wang CT, Chen TM, Mei CT, et al.
The Functional Haplotypes of CHRM3 Modulate mRNA Expression and Associate with Bladder Cancer among a Chinese Han Population in Kaohsiung City.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4052846 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is one of the major cancer types and both environmental factors and genetic background play important roles in its pathology. Kaohsiung is a high industrialized city in Taiwan, and here we focused on this region to evaluate the genetic effects on bladder cancer. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) was reported as a key receptor in different cancer types. CHRM3 is located at 1q42-43 which was reported to associate with bladder cancer. Our study attempted to delineate whether genetic variants of CHRM3 contribute to bladder cancer in Chinese Han population in south Taiwan. Five selected SNPs (rs2165870, rs10802789, rs685550, rs7520974, and rs3738435) were genotyped for 30 bladder cancer patients and 60 control individuals and genetic association studies were performed. Five haplotypes (GTTAT, ATTGT, GCTAC, ACTAC, and ACCAC) were found significantly associated with low CHRM3 mRNA level and contributed to increased susceptibility of bladder cancer in Kaohsiung city after rigid 10000 consecutive permutation tests. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study that reveals the genetic contribution of CHRM3 gene in bladder cancer etiology.

Yang MH, Chen KC, Chiang PW, et al.
Proteomic Profiling of Neuroblastoma Cells Adhesion on Hyaluronic Acid-Based Surface for Neural Tissue Engineering.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1917394 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The microenvironment of neuron cells plays a crucial role in regulating neural development and regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) biomaterial has been applied in a wide range of medical and biological fields and plays important roles in neural regeneration. PC12 cells have been reported to be capable of endogenous NGF synthesis and secretion. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of HA biomaterial combining with PC12 cells conditioned media (PC12 CM) in neural regeneration. Using SH-SY5Y cells as an experimental model, we found that supporting with PC12 CM enhanced HA function in SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Through RP-nano-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, we identified increased expression of HSP60 and RanBP2 in SH-SY5Y cells grown on HA-modified surface with cotreatment of PC12 CM. Moreover, we also identified factors that were secreted from PC12 cells and may promote SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Here, we proposed a biomaterial surface enriched with neurotrophic factors for nerve regeneration application.

Tsai SC, Chen LH, Liao HH, et al.
Complicated skin and soft tissue infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum following excision of a sebaceous cyst in Taiwan.
J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016; 10(12):1357-1361 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycobacterium fortuitum group (M. fortuitum), also known as rapidly growing Mycobacteria, can cause pyogenic infections in human beings, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we present a 40-year-old immunocompetent male patient who underwent planned excision of a sebaceous cyst in the abdominal wall. He suffered from tender erythematous lesions with purulent discharge around the healing wound that developed 2 weeks after surgery. Gram stain, bacterial and fungal culture results of the wound were negative. A diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacteria was made from a wound culture from the area of operative debridement, which was subsequently confirmed to be M. fortuitum group using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the hsp65 gene. The patient received 4 weeks of parenteral imipenem/cilastatin 500 mg every 6 hours and amikacin 500 mg every 12 hours, plus oral clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, and the wound recovered completely. He was discharged and followed up regularly at our outpatient clinic, and continued taking oral ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 6 months. This case highlights the importance of strict aseptic precautions even during minor procedures, and also the characteristics of M. fortuitum infections in immunocompetent patients, which usually develop as localized postsurgical wound infections. We also share our experience in successfully treating a M. fortuitum complicated skin and soft tissue infection.

Hung CM, Hsu YC, Chen TY, et al.
Cyclophosphamide promotes breast cancer cell migration through CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinases.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):345-352 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of cancerous diseases such as breast cancer and cervical cancer. Recent studies have shown that cyclophosphamide may induce cancer metastasis, but the cause of this unexpected adverse effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effect of cyclophosphamide on cancer cell migration and its correlation to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), a biomarker for cancer metastasis. Two human cancer cell lines with significant difference in endogenous CXCR4 expression, the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and the melanoma cell line, MDA-MB-435S, were treated with various concentrations of cyclophosphamide, followed by the assessment of CXCR4 expression and cell migration. We found that the migration ability of MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced with increasing concentrations of cyclophosphamide, which induced the cell-surface expression of CXCR4, but had no effect on the overall amount of CXCR4. In MDA-MB-435S cells, in which CXCR4 was barely detectable, cyclophosphamide was unable to activate cell-surface CXCR4, and did not promote cell migration. Studies on the mRNA expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in MDA-MB-231 cells further indicate that MMP9 and MMP13 may be involved in the action of cyclophosphamide. The protein expression of both MMP9 and MMP13 was increased in the presence of cyclophosphamide. Results from this study provide the molecular basis for the possible pathway of cyclophosphamide to induce cancer metastasis.

Lin EK, Hsieh MC, Chen CH, et al.
Outcomes of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastasis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In Taiwan, colorectal cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis is considered a terminal condition. We examined the clinical outcomes of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment for colorectal cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis in Taiwan.We enrolled patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastasis from Taipei Medical University, Wanfang Hospital between January 1999 and December 2014. Of the enrolled patients, 3 had mucinous-type tumors. In total, we enrolled 31 patients who underwent a total of 33 procedures. Of the 31 patients, 2 received the HIPEC procedure twice. Cytoreductive surgery was performed followed by HIPEC. The hazard ratios of death following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model.The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates of these patients following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were 57% and 38%, respectively. The completeness of cytoreduction (CC) scores were CC-0, CC-1, CC-2, and CC-3 in 18 (54.5%), 3 (9%), 7 (21.2%), and 5 (15.2%) patients, respectively. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 16.20, and the mean postoperative PCI (PPCI) was 4.6. The major risk factors for death in these patients were a total PCI score > 20, total PPCI score > 0, and CC score ≥ 2 (P = 0.022, 0.031, and 0.0001, respectively; log-rank test). Multivariate analysis revealed that the total PPCI score was the strongest predictor of death following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC in these patients.In Taiwan, performing cytoreductive surgery and administering HIPEC for treating colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastasis are feasible and resulted in long-term survival. In addition, the total PPCI score was related to poor prognosis following cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC in patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastasis.

Chiang IT, Chen WT, Tseng CW, et al.
Hyperforin Inhibits Cell Growth by Inducing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):161-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effect and mechanism of action of hyperforin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep1 cells in vitro. Cells were treated with different concentrations of hyperforin for different periods of time. Effects of hyperforin on cell viability, apoptosis signaling, and expression of anti-apoptotic and proliferative proteins [cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL1), and cyclin-D1] were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Hyperforin significantly inhibited cell viability and expression of anti-apoptotic and proliferative proteins. We also found that hyperforin significantly induced accumulation of cells in sub-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased levels of active caspase-3, and caspase-8. Taken together, our findings indicate that hyperforin triggers inhibition of tumor cell growth by inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC SK-Hep1 cells.

Hsu YL, Lin IC, Tung CL
18F-FDG PET/CT of Seminal Vesicle Metastasis From Ascending Colon Adenocarcinoma.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(2):138-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
The most common metastatic sites of colorectal cancer are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Seminal vesicle metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma is not reported yet; the diagnosis could be challenging. We report a case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary ascending colon adenocarcinoma in a 49-year-old man, with elevating carcinoembryonic antigen as the only clinical sign. This also highlights the role of F-FDG PET/CT to detect metastatic adenocarcinoma from colon in the genitourinary system.

Chen MY, Wang YC, Wu TH, et al.
Efficacy of External Beam Radiation-Based Treatment plus Locoregional Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6017406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background. Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is a common event in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The optimal treatment for these patients remains controversial. Methods. A retrospective review of 149 patients who had unresectable HCC associated with PVTT between January 2005 and December 2012 was performed. Outcomes related to external beam radiation-based treatment were measured, and clinicopathological features and parameters affecting prognosis were analyzed as well. Results. The radiotherapeutic response of PVTT was an important element that affected the overall treatment response of HCC. Serum α-fetoprotein < 400 ng/mL, the presence of a radiotherapeutic response on PVTT, and receiving additional locoregional therapy were significant prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients. Patients who had received additional locoregional therapy obtained a better outcome, and six of them were eventually able to undergo surgical management with curative intent. Conclusion. The outcome of HCC associated with PVTT remains pessimistic. In addition to the current recommended treatment using sorafenib, a combination of external beam radiotherapy targeting PVTT and locoregional therapy for intrahepatic HCC might be a promising strategy for patients who had unresectable HCC with PVTT. This approach could perhaps offer patients a favorable outcome as well as a possible cure with following surgical management.

Chang LC, Fan CW, Tseng WK, et al.
The Ratio of Hmox1/Nrf2 mRNA Level in the Tumor Tissue Is a Predictor of Distant Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:8143465 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) plays an important role in the growth and spread of tumor, and its expression is regulated positively by Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NFE2L2] and negatively by kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and by BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1). Both Hmox1 and Nrf2 contribute to distant metastasis of cancer. The mRNA levels of Hmox1, Nrf2, Keap1, and Bach1 in the tumor and normal tissues of 84 subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The tumor had lower Hmox1 but higher Bach1 mRNA levels than the normal tissue. The correlations of Hmox1 with components of the Nrf2 pathway were not significant in the tumor tissue of CRC subjects with distant metastasis. The ratio of Hmox1/Nrf2 mRNA level (by percentage) in the tumor tissue was lower in the subjects with distant metastasis (97.4% (84.4-111.1%)) than in those without (101.0% (92.7-136.5%)) and was a predictor for distant metastasis in CRC (odds ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.97) along with serum carcinoembryonic antigen (1.0027, 1.006-1.064). The mRNA level of Hmox1 in the tumor tissue of CRC is not correlated with that of the Nrf2 pathway molecules, and its ratio to the Nrf2 level may be useful for suggesting distant metastasis in CRC.

Huang CF, Huang CY, Yeh ML, et al.
Genetics Variants and Serum Levels of MHC Class I Chain-related A in Predicting Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Post Antiviral Treatment.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 15:81-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The genome-wide association study has shown that MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) genetic variants were associated with hepatitis C virus (HCC) related hepatocellular carcinoma. The impact of the genetic variants and its serum levels on post-treatment cohort is elusive.
METHODS: MICA rs2596542 genotype and serum MICA (sMICA) levels were evaluated in 705 patients receiving antiviral therapy.
RESULTS: Fifty-eight (8·2%) patients developed HCC, with a median follow-up period of 48·2months (range: 6-129months). The MICA A allele was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC development in cirrhotic non-SVR patients but not in patients of non-cirrhotic and/or with SVR. For cirrhotic non-SVR patients, high sMICA levels (HR/CI: 5·93/1·86-26.38·61, P=0·002) and the MICA rs2596542 A allele (HR/CI: 4·37/1·52-12·07, P=0·002) were independently associated with HCC development. The risk A allele or GG genotype with sMICA>175ng/mL provided the best accuracy (79%) and a negative predictive value of 100% in predicting HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhotic patients who carry MICA risk alleles and those without risk alleles but with high sMICA levels possessed the highest risk of HCC development once they failed antiviral therapy.

Qiao S, Zhao Y, Geng S, et al.
A novel double-targeted nondrug delivery system for targeting cancer stem cells.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:6667-6678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Instead of killing cancer stem cells (CSCs), the conventional chemotherapy used for cancer treatment promotes the enrichment of CSCs, which are responsible for tumor growth, metastasis, and recurrence. However, most therapeutic agents are only able to kill a small proportion of CSCs by targeting one or two cell surface markers or dysregulated CSC pathways, which are usually shared with normal stem cells (NSCs). In this study, we developed a novel nondrug delivery system for the dual targeting of CSCs by conjugating hyaluronic acid (HA) and grafting the doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) monoclonal antibody to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can specifically target CD44 receptors and the DCLK1 surface marker - the latter was shown to possess the capacity to distinguish between CSCSs and NSCs. The size and morphology of these NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This was followed by studies of NP encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release properties. Then, the cytotoxicity of the NPs was tested via Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Finally, the 4T1 CSCs were obtained from the alginate-based platform, which we developed as an in vitro tumor model. Tumor-bearing nude mice were used as in vivo models to systematically detect the ability of NPs to target CSCs. Our results showed that the DCLK1-HA-PEG-PLGA NPs exhibited a targeting effect toward CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. These findings have important implications for the rational design of drug delivery systems that target CSCs with high efficacy.

Hsu CW, Huang YB, Kuo CC, Chen CY
Evaluating the Primary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke of Oral Antithrombotic Therapy in Head and Neck Cancer Patients with Radiation Therapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6205158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although previous studies demonstrated the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), the impact of oral antithrombotic therapy (OAT) on this risk has not yet been assessed. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of OAT in patients with HNC treated with RT. This retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 37,638 patients diagnosed with HNC included in the study were classified as users and nonusers of OAT. Primary outcome was IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and secondary outcomes were death and major bleeding. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no significant difference in the risk of IS or TIA between patients on continuous OAT and nonusers (adjusted HR, 0.812; 95% CI, 0.199-3.309). The risk of major bleeding was not significantly different between the groups. From a national population database, we did not find an association between OAT and decreasing risk of ischemic stroke/TIA or increasing hazard of major bleeding.

Yang CA, Huang HY, Chang YS, et al.
DNA-Sensing and Nuclease Gene Expressions as Markers for Colorectal Cancer Progression.
Oncology. 2017; 92(2):115-124 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Oncogene-driven stress-related DNA damage has been observed in lesions of colon cancer. Furthermore, DNA sensors and nucleases are stimulated during active DNA damage and replication. However, their changes and influences with respect to cancer remain largely unknown.
METHODS: The gene expression levels of cGAS, IFI16, STING, TBK1, IFNB1, TREX1, SAMHD1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were examined in the paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal part tissues of 53 patients. Their associations with the clinical stages of cancer were then analyzed.
RESULTS: All cytosolic DNA-sensing and nuclease-related genes except cGAS, RNASEH2A, and RNASEH2B showed lower mRNA expressions in the colorectal tumor tissues. Moreover, cGAS upregulation was found to be associated with early-stage colorectal cancers, while higher expressions of RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, and SAMHD1 correlated with metastasis. RNASEH2C knockdown in a colon cancer cell line impaired cell migration, and analysis of the cancer RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed a negative correlation between RNASEH2C expression and E-cadherin levels.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to DNA-sensing events in viral infections or autoimmunity, cGAS-STING-IFNB signaling is disrupted in colorectal cancer. The expression levels of cGAS, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, and SAMHD1 could be prognostic markers of colorectal cancer.

Chiou SJ, Lin W, Hsieh CJ
Assessment of duration until initial treatment and its determining factors among newly diagnosed oral cancer patients: A population-based retrospective cohort study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(50):e5632 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Few studies have focused on the early treatment stages of cancer, and the impact of treatment delay on oncologic outcomes is poorly defined. We used oral cancer as an example to investigate the distribution of durations until initial treatment.This study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database, which is linked to Taiwan's Cancer Registry and Death Registry databases. We defined "cutoff points for first-time treatment" according to a weekly schedule and sorted the patients into 2 groups based on whether their duration until initial treatment was longer or shorter than each cutoff. We then calculated the Kaplan-Meier estimator to determine the difference in survival rates between the 2 groups and performed logistic regression to identify determining factors.The average time between diagnosis and initial treatment was approximately 22.45 days. The average survival duration was 1363 days (standard deviation: 473.06 days). Oral cancer patients had no statistically significant differences in survival until a cutoff point of 3 weeks was used (with survival duration 71 days longer if initial treatment was received within 3 weeks). Patients with higher incomes or higher Charlson comorbidity index scores and patients treated at a hospital in a region with medium urbanization had lower likelihoods of treatment delay, whereas older patients were at higher risk of treatment delay.The attitudes, beliefs, and social contexts of oral cancer patients influence the treatment-seeking behaviors of these patients. Therefore, the government should advocate the merits of the referral system for cancer treatment or improve quality assurance for cancer diagnoses across different types of hospitals. Health authorities should also educate patients or use a case manager to encourage prompt treatment within 3 weeks and should provide screening and prevention services, particularly for high-risk groups, to reduce mortality risk.

Wu CH, Er LK, Hu YH, et al.
Is Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Adrenalectomy a Feasible Alternative in Treating Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma?
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6894381 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective. To compare laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) and conventional multiport adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been clinically confirmed with unilateral APA and who underwent LESS or multiport adrenalectomy between 2009 and 2014. Perioperative data were obtained for all patients. Blood pressure and the levels of serum aldosterone, renin, and potassium were checked periodically. Results. We identified 45 APA patients in the LESS group and 71 in the multiport group. The baseline characteristics were matched between two groups. All adrenalectomies were completed successfully, except one with laparoscopic conversion in the single-port group and one open conversion in the multiport group. After a mean follow-up around one year, there were no significant group differences in the improvement of hypertension, number of types of medication taken, and cure of hypokalemia after operation. Conclusions. Our study confirm that LESS adrenalectomy achieved similar clinical and functional outcomes as conventional multiport adrenalectomy for management of unilateral APA.

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