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Surgery is the main treatment for many types of solid tumour, especially when the cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. This involves surgical removal of all or part of the cancer. Sometimes surgery may be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The type of operation will depend on the location of the main tumour, its size and other factors.

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Overviews - Cancer Surgery
Latest Research Publications
Surgical Oncology (specialty)
Specialist Journals

Overviews - Cancer Surgery (5 links)

These resources provide general overviews of surgery for cancer.

Latest Research Publications

Inomata M, Akagi T, Katayama H, et al.
A randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic surgery with open surgery in palliative resection of primary tumor in incurable Stage IV colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 1107 (ENCORE trial).
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(11):1123-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A randomized controlled trial was started in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority of overall survival of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery for palliative resection of primary tumor in incurable Stage IV colorectal cancer. Symptomatic, Stage IV colorectal cancer patients with non-curable metastasis are pre-operatively randomized to either open or laparoscopic colorectal resection. Surgeons in 56 specialized institutions will recruit 450 patients. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, the proportion of conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery, the proportion of patients who fulfill the criteria of starting chemotherapy by 6 weeks after operation, intraoperative and post-operative complications, adverse events during chemotherapy and serious adverse events.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Fernando HC, Landreneau RJ, Mandrekar SJ, et al.
Impact of brachytherapy on local recurrence rates after sublobar resection: results from ACOSOG Z4032 (Alliance), a phase III randomized trial for high-risk operable non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(23):2456-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: A major concern with sublobar resection (SR) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is high local recurrence (LR). Adjuvant brachytherapy may reduce LR This multicenter randomized trial compares SR to SR with brachytherapy (SRB).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: High-risk operable patients with NSCLC ≤ 3 cm were randomly assigned to SR or SRB. The primary end point was time to LR, where LR included recurrence at the staple line (local progression), in the primary tumor lobe away from the staple line, and in ipsilateral hilar nodes. The trial was designed to have a 90% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.315 in favor of SRB, using a one-sided type I error rate of 0.05 with a sample size of 100 eligible patients in each arm.
RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-four patients were randomly assigned; 222 patients were evaluable for intent-to-treat analysis. Median age was 71 years (range, 49 to 87 years). No differences were found in baseline characteristics. Median follow-up time was 4.38 years (range, 0.04 to 5.59 years). There was no difference in time to LR (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.98; log-rank P = .98) or in the types of LR. Local progression occurred in only 17 (7.7%) of 222 patients. In patients with potentially compromised margins (margin < 1 cm, margin-to-tumor ratio < 1, positive staple line cytology, wedge resection, nodule size > 2.0 cm), SRB did not reduce LR, although trends favored the SRB arm. This was most marked in 14 patients with positive staple line cytology (HR, 0.22; P = .24). Three-year overall survival rates were similar for patients in the SR (71%) and SRB (71%) arms (P = .97).
CONCLUSION: Brachytherapy did not reduce LR after SR. This finding may have been related to closer attention to parenchymal margins by surgeons participating in this study.

Related: Brachytherapy Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Kennedy RH, Francis EA, Wharton R, et al.
Multicenter randomized controlled trial of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer within an enhanced recovery programme: EnROL.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(17):1804-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic resection and a multimodal approach known as an enhanced recovery program (ERP) have been major changes in colorectal perioperative care that have improved clinical outcomes for colorectal cancer resection. EnROL (Enhanced Recovery Open Versus Laparoscopic) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial examining whether the benefits of laparoscopy still exist when open surgery is optimized within an ERP.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with colorectal cancer suitable for elective resection were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to laparoscopic or open surgery within an ERP, stratified by center, cancer site (colon v rectum), and age group (<66 v 66-75 v >75 years) using minimization. The primary outcome was physical fatigue at 1 month postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included hospital stay, complications, other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and physical function. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded until 7 days postsurgery or discharge if earlier. Central independent and blinded pathologic assessment of surgical quality was undertaken.
RESULTS: A total of 204 patients (laparoscopy, n=103; open surgery, n=101) were recruited from 12 UK centers from July 2008 to April 2012. One-month physical fatigue scores were similar in both groups (mean: laparoscopy, 12.28; 95% CI, 11.37 to 13.19 v open surgery, 12.05; 95% CI, 11.14 to 12.96; adjusted mean difference, -0.23; 95% CI, -1.52 to 1.07). Median total hospital stay was significantly shorter after laparoscopic surgery (median: laparoscopy, 5; interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 9 v open surgery, 7; IQR, 5 to 11 days; P=.033). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes or in specimen quality after central pathologic review.
CONCLUSION: In patients treated by experienced surgeons within an ERP, physical fatigue and other PROs were similar in both groups, but laparoscopic surgery significantly reduced length of hospital stay.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Du CY, Zhou Y, Song C, et al.
Is there a role of surgery in patients with recurrent or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours responding to imatinib: a prospective randomised trial in China.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(10):1772-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: For advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) patients who are responding to imatinib mesylate, the role of surgery has not been formally demonstrated. This multicenter randomised controlled trial was designed to assess whether surgery to treat residual disease for patients with recurrent/metastatic GISTs responding to imatinib mesylate (IM) improved progression free survival (PFS) compared with IM treatment alone.
METHODS: Between 3 and 12months after starting IM for recurrent/metastatic GISTs, eligible patients were randomised to two arms: Arm A (surgery for residual disease) and Arm B (IM treatment alone). In Arm A (19pts), surgery was performed to remove residual macroscopic lesions as completely as possible, and IM treatment continued after surgery. In Arm B (22pts), IM was given alone at a dose of 400mg per day until disease progression. The primary end-point was PFS measured from the date IM started. This study was registered in the ChiCTR registry with the ID number ChiCTR-TRC-00000244.
RESULTS: This randomised trial was closed early due to poor accrual. Only 41 patients were enrolled as opposed to 210 patients planned. 2-year PFS was 88.4% in the surgery arm and 57.7% in the IM-alone arm (P=0.089). Median overall survival (mOS) was not reached in the surgery arm and 49months in patients with IM-alone arm (P=0.024).
CONCLUSIONS: While no significant differences were observed in the two arms, this study suggests that surgical removal of the metastatic lesion may improve the outcome of advanced GIST patients and should stimulate additional research on this topic.

Related: Gastrointestinal System Cancers Imatinib (Glivec)

Gunderson CC, Java J, Moore KN, Walker JL
The impact of obesity on surgical staging, complications, and survival with uterine cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 ancillary data study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 133(1):23-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) on complications, recurrence, and survival in GOG LAP2, a randomized comparison of laparoscopic versus open staging in clinically early stage uterine cancer (EC).
METHODS: An ancillary data analysis of GOG LAP2 was performed. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson chi-square test and continuous variables using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests by BMI group. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors on survival. Statistical tests were two-tailed with α=0.05, except where noted. Statistical analyses utilized R programming language.
RESULTS: 2596 women were included. BMI (kg/m(2)) groups were <25 (29.5%), 25-30 (28.2%), 30-35 (21%), 35-40 (10.9%), and ≥40 (10.4%). Stage (p=0.021), grade (p<0.001), and histology (p=0.005) differed by BMI. Obese women were less likely to have high risk (HR) disease (+lymph nodes/ovaries/cytology) or tumor features that met GOG99 high intermediate risk (HIR) criteria (p<0.001). Adjuvant therapy (p=0.151) and recurrence (p=0.46) did not vary by BMI. Hospitalization >2days, antibiotic use, wound infection, and venous thrombophlebitis were higher with BMI ≥40. BMI (p=0.016), age (p<0.0001), race (p=0.033), and risk group (p<0.0001) predicted all-cause mortality. BMI was not predictive of disease-specific survival (p=0.79), but age (p=0.032) and risk group (p<0.0001) were significant factors.
CONCLUSION: Obese women have greater surgical risk and lower risk of metastatic disease. BMI is associated with all-cause but not disease-specific mortality, emphasizing the detrimental effect of obesity (independent of EC), which deserves particular attention.

Related: Soft Tissue Sarcomas Uterine Sarcoma

Aoyama T, Yoshikawa T, Morita S, et al.
Methylene blue-assisted technique for harvesting lymph nodes after radical surgery for gastric cancer: a prospective randomized phase III study.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:155 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This randomized Phase III trial will evaluate whether the methylene blue-assisted technique is efficient for harvesting lymph nodes after radical surgery for gastric cancer.
METHODS/DESIGN: Patients that undergo distal or total gastrectomy with radical nodal dissection will be randomly assigned to Group A: the standard group, the lymph nodes (LNs) will be harvested from the fresh specimen immediately after surgery, or Group B: the methylene blue-assisted group, where the LNs will be harvested from specimens fixed with 10% buffered formalin with methylene blue for 48 hours after surgery. The primary endpoint is the ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time (minute). The secondary endpoint is the number of harvested LNs. A 25% reduction in the ratio of harvested lymph-node/time (minute) was determined to be necessary for this test treatment, considering the balance between the cost and benefit. Retrospective data was used to estimate the ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time (minute) to be 40/30 minutes in Group A. A 25% risk reduction and a rate of 40/22.5 minutes is expected in Group B. Therefore, the sample size required ensuring a two-sided alpha error of 5% and statistical power of 80% is 52 patients, with 26 patients per arm. The number of patients to be accrued was set at 60 in total, due to the likelihood of enrolling ineligible patients.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

van de Laar R, Zusterzeel PL, Van Gorp T, et al.
Cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (SOCceR trial): a multicenter randomised controlled study.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Improvement in treatment for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer is needed. Standard therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median overall survival is reported between 18 and 35 months. Currently, the role of surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer is not clear. In selective patients a survival benefit up to 62 months is reported for patients undergoing complete secondary cytoreductive surgery. Whether cytoreductive surgery in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer is beneficial remains questionable due to the lack of level I-II evidence.
METHODS/DESIGN: Multicentre randomized controlled trial, including all nine gynecologic oncologic centres in the Netherlands and their affiliated hospitals. Eligible patients are women, with first recurrence of FIGO stage Ic-IV platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer or fallopian tube cancer, who meet the inclusion criteria. Participants are randomized between the standard treatment consisting of at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy and the experimental treatment which consists of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy. Primary outcome measure is progression free survival. In total 230 patients will be randomized. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat.
DISCUSSION: Where the role of cytoreductive surgery is widely accepted in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer, its value in recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer has not been established so far. A better understanding of the benefits and patients selection criteria for secondary cytoreductive surgery has to be obtained. Therefore the 4th ovarian cancer consensus conference in 2010 stated that randomized controlled phase 3 trials evaluating the role of surgery in platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer are urgently needed. We present a recently started multicentre randomized controlled trial that will investigate the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy will improve progression free survival in selected patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Valle JW, Palmer D, Jackson R, et al.
Optimal duration and timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after definitive surgery for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: ongoing lessons from the ESPAC-3 study.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(6):504-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves patient survival rates after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but the optimal duration and time to initiate chemotherapy is unknown.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated within the international, phase III, European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer-3 (version 2) study were included if they had been randomly assigned to chemotherapy. Overall survival analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis, retaining patients in their randomized groups, and adjusting the overall treatment effect by known prognostic variables as well as the start time of chemotherapy.
RESULTS: There were 985 patients, of whom 486 (49%) received gemcitabine and 499 (51%) received fluorouracil; 675 patients (68%) completed all six cycles of chemotherapy (full course) and 293 patients (30%) completed one to five cycles. Lymph node involvement, resection margins status, tumor differentiation, and completion of therapy were all shown by multivariable Cox regression to be independent survival factors. Overall survival favored patients who completed the full six courses of treatment versus those who did not (hazard ratio [HR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.443 to 0.601; P < .001). Time to starting chemotherapy did not influence overall survival rates for the full study population (HR, 0.985; 95% CI, 0.956 to 1.015). Chemotherapy start time was an important survival factor only for the subgroup of patients who did not complete therapy, in favor of later treatment (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Completion of all six cycles of planned adjuvant chemotherapy rather than early initiation was an independent prognostic factor after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There seems to be no difference in outcome if chemotherapy is delayed up to 12 weeks, thus allowing adequate time for postoperative recovery.

Related: Fluorouracil Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Gemcitabine

Takii Y, Shimada Y, Moriya Y, et al.
A randomized controlled trial of the conventional technique versus the no-touch isolation technique for primary tumor resection in patients with colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1006.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(1):97-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
A randomized controlled trial is currently being conducted in Japan to demonstrate the superiority of the no-touch isolation technique over the conventional technique for patients with potentially curative colon and rectosigmoid cancer. The conventional technique procedure gives first priority to mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon, which is followed by central vascular ligation and ligation of other vasculature. Conversely, the no-touch isolation technique gives first priority to central vascular ligation, which is followed by mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon. A total of 850 patients will be enrolled in this trial. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, liver metastasis-free survival, mode of recurrence, surgical morbidity, adverse events due to postoperative chemotherapy, serious adverse events and short-term clinical outcomes.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Liver Cancer

Eggermont AM, Suciu S, Rutkowski P, et al.
Adjuvant ganglioside GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccination versus observation after resection of primary tumor > 1.5 mm in patients with stage II melanoma: results of the EORTC 18961 randomized phase III trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(30):3831-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The GM2 ganglioside is an antigen expressed in the majority of melanomas. The GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccine induces high immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody responses. The EORTC 18961 trial compared the efficacy of GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccination versus observation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,314 patients with a primary tumor > 1.50 mm in thickness (T3-4N0M0; American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II) were randomly assigned to GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccination (n = 657) or observation (n = 657). Treatment consisted of subcutaneous injections once per week from week 1 to 4, then every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months during the third year. Primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS). Secondary end points were distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS). Analyses were by intent to treat.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 1.8 years, the trial was stopped at the second interim analysis for futility regarding RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; P = .99) and detrimental outcome regarding OS (HR, 1.66; P = .02). After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, we had recorded 400 relapses, nine deaths without relapse, a total of 236 deaths. At 4 years, the vaccination arm showed a decreased RFS rate of 1.2% (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.25) and OS rate of 2.1% (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.51). Toxicity was acceptable, with 4.6% of patients ending study participation because of toxicity.
CONCLUSION: GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccination does not improve outcome for patients with stage II melanoma.

Related: Melanoma Skin Cancer

Greimel E, Kristensen GB, van der Burg ME, et al.
Quality of life of advanced ovarian cancer patients in the randomized phase III study comparing primary debulking surgery versus neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(2):437-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The EORTC 55971 trial compared primary debulking surgery (PDS) versus neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS). The impact of both treatment arms on quality of life (QOL) is reported.
METHODS: Patients with stages IIIc or IV ovarian cancer completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 before treatment, at the third and sixth cycle of chemotherapy, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up.
RESULTS: Data of 404 patients (N=201 PDS arm; N=203 IDS arm) were included in the QOL analysis. Between treatment arms no statistically significant differences were found in any of the QOL functioning scales. Patients showed a clinically relevant improvement (>10 points) on the global health/QOL, role functioning, emotional functioning and social functioning scales during and after treatment independent of the type of treatment. Clinically relevant differences from baseline to the follow-up assessments were noted for fatigue, pain, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea indicating symptom control in both treatment arms. Institutions with good QOL compliance were associated with better outcomes. There was a statistical significant difference in the overall debulking status with 39.9% optimal debulking surgery in institutions with good QOL compliance compared to 19.9% in institutions with poor QOL compliance (p=0.0011). Overall survival (median 32.30 versus 23.29 months; p=0.0006) and progression free survival (median 12.35 versus 9.92 months; p=0.0002) were also significantly better.
CONCLUSIONS: Survival and QOL after NACT followed by surgery was similar to survival and QOL after PDS followed by chemotherapy. However, institutions with good QOL compliance had better survival outcomes.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Frumovitz M, Querleu D, Gil-Moreno A, et al.
Lymphadenectomy in locally advanced cervical cancer study (LiLACS): Phase III clinical trial comparing surgical with radiologic staging in patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 21(1):3-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
Radiation treatment planning for women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IB2-IVA) is often based on positron emission tomography (PET). PET, however, has poor sensitivity in detecting metastases in aortocaval nodes. We have initiated a study with the objective of determining whether pre-therapeutic laparoscopic surgical staging followed by tailored chemoradiation improves survival as compared with PET/computed tomography (CT) radiologic staging alone followed by chemoradiation. This international, multicenter phase III trial will enroll 600 women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer and PET/CT findings showing fluorodeoxyglucose-avid pelvic nodes and fluorodeoxyglucose-negative para-aortic nodes. Eligible patients will be randomized to undergo either pelvic radiotherapy with chemotherapy (standard-of-care arm) or surgical staging via a minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach followed by tailored radiotherapy with chemotherapy (experimental arm). The primary end point is overall survival. Secondary end points are disease-free survival, short- and long-term morbidity with pre-therapeutic surgical staging, and determination of anatomic locations of metastatic para-aortic nodes in relationship to the inferior mesenteric artery. We believe this study will show that tailored chemoradiation after pre-therapeutic surgical staging improves survival as compared with chemoradiation based on PET/CT in women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.

Related: Cervical Cancer

Scosyrev E, Messing EM, Sylvester R, et al.
Renal function after nephron-sparing surgery versus radical nephrectomy: results from EORTC randomized trial 30904.
Eur Urol. 2014; 65(2):372-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized trial 30904, nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) was associated with reduced overall survival compared with radical nephrectomy (RN) over a median follow-up of 9.3 yr (hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.16).
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of NSS relative to RN on kidney function in EORTC 30904.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This phase 3 international randomized trial was conducted in patients with a small (≤5 cm) renal mass and normal contralateral kidney who were enrolled from March 1992 to January 2003.
INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to RN (n=273) or NSS (n=268).
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR; milliliters per minute per 1.73 m(2)) were recorded for 259 subjects in the RN arm and 255 subjects in the NSS arm. Percentages of subjects developing at least moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR <60), advanced kidney disease (eGFR <30), or kidney failure (eGFR <15) were calculated for each treatment arm based on the lowest recorded follow-up eGFR (intent-to-treat analysis).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: With a median follow-up of 6.7 yr, eGFR <60 was reached by 85.7% with RN and 64.7% with NSS, with a difference of 21.0% (95% CI, 13.8-28.3); eGFR <30 was reached by 10.0% with RN and 6.3% with NSS, with a difference of 3.7% (95% CI, -1.0 to 8.5); and eGFR <15 was reached by 1.5% with RN and 1.6% with NSS, with a difference of -0.1% (95% CI, -2.2 to 2.1). Lack of longer follow-up for eGFR is a limitation of these analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with RN, NSS substantially reduced the incidence of at least moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR <60), although with available follow-up the incidence of advanced kidney disease (eGFR <30) was relatively similar in the two treatment arms, and the incidence of kidney failure (eGFR <15) was nearly identical. The beneficial impact of NSS on eGFR did not result in improved survival in this study population.
REGISTRATION: EORTC trial 30904; identifier NCT00002473.

Related: Kidney Cancer

Piessen G, Messager M, Le Malicot K, et al.
Phase II/III multicentre randomised controlled trial evaluating a strategy of primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy versus peri-operative chemotherapy for resectable gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinomas - PRODIGE 19 - FFCD1103 - ADCI002.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:281 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A dramatic increase in the incidence of the diffuse form of gastric adenocarcinomas and particularly signet ring cell carcinomas has been observed in Western countries. Evidence is accruing that signet ring cell carcinomas may have inherent chemo resistance leaving many clinicians unsure of the benefits of delaying surgery to pursue a neoadjuvant approach.
METHODS/DESIGN: PRODIGE-19-FFCD1103-ADCI002 is a prospective multicentre controlled randomised phase II/III trial comparing current standard of care of perioperative chemotherapy (2x3 cycles of Epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) with a strategy of primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (6 cycles of Epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) in patients with a stage IB-III gastric signet ring cell tumour. The principal objective of the phase II study (84 patients) is to determine if the experimental arm (primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy) has sufficient interest in terms of percentage of living patients at 24 months to be evaluated in a phase III trial. If 7 or less patients in the experimental arm are alive at 24 months, phase III will not be initiated. The primary objective of phase III (230 additional patients) is to demonstrate superiority of the experimental arm in terms of overall survival. Secondary endpoints include overall survival at 36 months, disease free survival at 24 and 36 months, R0 resection rates, treatment tolerance, postoperative mortality and morbidity evaluated by Clavien-Dindo severity index, the prognostic impact of positive peritoneal cytology and the assessment of quality of life. An ancillary study will assess the emotional and cognitive impact of surgery and perioperative chemotherapy for both the patient and their partner.
DISCUSSION: As inherent chemo resistance of signet ring cell tumours and delay in definitive surgery may favour tumour progression we hypothesise that a policy of primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy will improve overall survival compared to a standard perioperative chemotherapeutic strategy. This randomised phase II/III trial is the first dedicated to this histological subtype. Whilst the development of new biomarkers and targeted therapies are awaited, the results of this trial should further help in devising individualised protocols of patient care in a tumour group whose diversity increasingly demands assessment of alternative strategies.

Related: Cisplatin Epirubicin Fluorouracil Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Sticca RP, Alberts SR, Mahoney MR, et al.
Current use and surgical efficacy of laparoscopic colectomy in colon cancer.
J Am Coll Surg. 2013; 217(1):56-62; discussion 62-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Clinical Outcomes in Surgical Therapy trial demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy (LC) was equivalent to open colectomy (OC) for 30-day mortality, time to recurrence, and overall survival in colon cancer (CC) patients. Current use of LC for CC is not well known.
STUDY DESIGN: Surgical data were reviewed for all patients randomized into a national phase III clinical trial for adjuvant therapy in stage III CC (North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial N0147). Colon resections were grouped as open (traditional laparotomy) or laparoscopic, including laparoscopic; laparoscopic assisted; hand assisted; and laparoscopic converted to OC. Statistical methods included nonparametric methods, categorical analysis, and logistic regression modeling.
RESULTS: A total of 3,393 evaluable patients were accrued between 2004 and 2009; 53% were male, median age was 58 years, 86% were white, and 70% had a body mass index >25 kg/m(2). Two thousand one hundred thirteen (62%) underwent OC. One thousand two hundred eighty (38%) were initiated as laparoscopic procedures, 25% (n = 322) were laparoscopic, 32% (n = 410) were laparoscopic assisted, 26% (n = 339) were hand assisted, and 16% (n = 209) were LC converted to OC. Significant predictors of LC (vs OC) in multivariate models were T stage (T1 or T2 vs T3 or T4; p = 0.0286), and absence of perforation, bowel obstruction, or adherence to surrounding organs (p < 0.01 each). Increasing rates of LC were observed over time, with LC eclipsing OC in 2009 (p < 0.0001). Surgical efficacy, measured by lymph node retrieval, was similar, with the mean number of lymph nodes retrieved higher in the LC group (20.6 vs 19.5 nodes; p = 0.0006).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a steadily increasing use of LC for the surgical treatment of CC between 2004 and 2009, with LC preferred by study completion. Surgical efficacy was similar in stage III CC patients.

Related: USA

Criscitiello C, Azim HA, Agbor-tarh D, et al.
Factors associated with surgical management following neoadjuvant therapy in patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer: results from the NeoALTTO phase III trial.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(8):1980-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The NeoALTTO trial showed that dual HER2 blockade nearly doubles the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer. However, this did not translate into a higher rate of breast-conserving surgery (BCS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In NeoALTTO, patients with HER2-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned to either trastuzumab, lapatinib or their combination with paclitaxel before surgery with pCR as the primary end point. We investigated the association between the surgery type and clinicopathological factors and response to treatment, adjusting for the treatment arm.
RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-nine patients were subjected to breast surgery. Two hundred and forty-two (56%) and 187 (44%) patients underwent mastectomy and BCS, respectively. In a logistic regression model, negative estrogen receptor (ER), multicentricity and the presence of a palpable mass before surgery were significantly associated with a low chance of BCS. Conversely, patients with small tumors and those eligible for BCS at diagnosis were managed more with BCS, independent of the treatment arm. Radiological response was not associated with the surgical decision.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumor characteristics before neoadjuvant therapy play a main role in deciding the type of surgery calling for a clear consensus on the role of BCS in patients responding to neoadjuvant therapy.

Related: Breast Cancer Paclitaxel Lapatinib (Tyverb) Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

van der Pas MH, Haglind E, Cuesta MA, et al.
Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer (COLOR II): short-term outcomes of a randomised, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(3):210-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to open surgery in patients with rectal cancer has not yet been shown to be oncologically safe. The aim in the COlorectal cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection (COLOR II) trial was to compare laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer.
METHODS: A non-inferiority phase 3 trial was undertaken at 30 centres and hospitals in eight countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years) with rectal cancer within 15 cm from the anal verge without evidence of distant metastases were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic or open surgery in a 2:1 ratio, stratified by centre, location of tumour, and preoperative radiotherapy. The study was not masked. Secondary (short-term) outcomes-including operative findings, complications, mortality, and results at pathological examination-are reported here. Analysis was by modified intention to treat, excluding those patients with post-randomisation exclusion criteria and for whom data were not available. This study is registered with, number NCT00297791.
FINDINGS: The study was undertaken between Jan 20, 2004, and May 4, 2010. 1103 patients were randomly assigned to the laparoscopic (n=739) and open surgery groups (n=364), and 1044 were eligible for analyses (699 and 345, respectively). Patients in the laparoscopic surgery group lost less blood than did those in the open surgery group (median 200 mL [IQR 100-400] vs 400 mL [200-700], p<0·0001); however, laparoscopic procedures took longer (240 min [184-300] vs 188 min [150-240]; p<0·0001). In the laparoscopic surgery group, bowel function returned sooner (2·0 days [1·0-3·0] vs 3·0 days [2·0-4·0]; p<0·0001) and hospital stay was shorter (8·0 days [6·0-13·0] vs 9·0 days [7·0-14·0]; p=0·036). Macroscopically, completeness of the resection was not different between groups (589 [88%] of 666 vs 303 [92%] of 331; p=0·250). Positive circumferential resection margin (<2 mm) was noted in 56 (10%) of 588 patients in the laparoscopic surgery group and 30 (10%) of 300 in the open surgery group (p=0·850). Median tumour distance to distal resection margin did not differ significantly between the groups (3·0 cm [IQR 2·0-4·8] vs 3·0 cm [1·8-5·0], respectively; p=0·676). In the laparoscopic and open surgery groups, morbidity (278 [40%] of 697 vs 128 [37%] of 345, respectively; p=0·424) and mortality (eight [1%] of 699 vs six [2%] of 345, respectively; p=0·409) within 28 days after surgery were similar.
INTERPRETATION: In selected patients with rectal cancer treated by skilled surgeons, laparoscopic surgery resulted in similar safety, resection margins, and completeness of resection to that of open surgery, and recovery was improved after laparoscopic surgery. Results for the primary endpoint-locoregional recurrence-are expected by the end of 2013.
FUNDING: Ethicon Endo-Surgery Europe, Swedish Cancer Foundation, West Gothia Region, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.

Moynihan C, Lewis R, Hall E, et al.
The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011).
Trials. 2012; 13:228 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient 'deficit' model - an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) (SPARE, CRUK/07/011) in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization.
METHODS: The qualitative study used a 'Framework Analysis' that included 'constant comparison' in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data.
RESULTS: Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment.The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding 'informed consent', as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel.Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations.
CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the 'deficit' model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients feel fully included in the trial enterprise and potentially consider alternatives to randomization where complex interventions are being tested.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Zhong LP, Zhang CP, Ren GX, et al.
Randomized phase III trial of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil followed by surgery versus up-front surgery in locally advanced resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(6):744-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (TPF) followed by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy versus up-front surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective open-label phase III trial was conducted. Eligibility criteria included untreated stage III or IVA locally advanced resectable OSCC. Patients received two cycles of TPF induction chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1, cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1, and fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5) followed by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (54 to 66 Gy) versus up-front radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included local control and safety.
RESULTS: Of the 256 patients enrolled onto this trial, 222 completed the full treatment protocol. There were no unexpected toxicities, and induction chemotherapy did not increase perioperative morbidity. The clinical response rate to induction chemotherapy was 80.6%. After a median follow-up of 30 months, there was no significant difference in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.977; 95% CI, 0.634 to 1.507; P = .918) or disease-free survival (HR, 0.974; 95% CI, 0.654 to 1.45; P = .897) between patients treated with and without TPF induction. Patients in the induction chemotherapy arm with a clinical response or favorable pathologic response (≤ 10% viable tumor cells) had superior OS and locoregional and distant control.
CONCLUSION: Our study failed to demonstrate that TPF induction chemotherapy improves survival compared with up-front surgery in patients with resectable stage III or IVA OSCC.

Related: Cancer Treatments and Hair Loss Cisplatin Fluorouracil Oral Cancer Docetaxel

Deneve JL, Hoefer RA, Harris EE, Laronga C
Accelerated partial breast irradiation: a review and description of an early North American surgical experience with the intrabeam delivery system.
Cancer Control. 2012; 19(4):295-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) has been described for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The randomized phase III TARGiT trial demonstrated similar recurrence rates to WBI and a lower overall toxicity profile on short-term follow-up. We report on our early North American surgical experience using the Intrabeam radiotherapy delivery system and review the current literature.
METHODS: Prospectively gathered estrogen receptor-positive, clinically node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer < 3 cm receiving IORT using the Intrabeam system were reviewed. IORT-related effects and early postoperative outcome were assessed. A literature review was also performed.
RESULTS: Forty-two patients (median age 71 years) underwent lumpectomy, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, and concurrent IORT from January 2011 to July 2011. Ninety-one percent of patients had invasive ductal histology with a median tumor size of 1.0 cm. This review highlights the patient selection criteria, describes commercially available accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) treatment options, and discusses outcomes for the variety of APBI techniques currently utilized in clinical practice as well as an institutional review of our early surgical experience using the Intrabeam radiotherapy delivery system.
CONCLUSIONS: While a variety of APBI techniques are currently available for clinical use, our early North American operative experience with IORT shows it is well tolerated with low morbidity. Delivery of IORT adds moderate operative time and may require creating subcutaneous tissue fl aps. The addition of WBI may be necessary in situations for positive residual margins or microscopic nodal disease in patients who do not undergo additional surgery.

Related: Breast Cancer

Weller M, Martus P, Roth P, et al.
Surgery for primary CNS lymphoma? Challenging a paradigm.
Neuro Oncol. 2012; 14(12):1481-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
The standard of care for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is systemic chemotherapy with or without whole brain radiotherapy or intrathecal chemotherapy. In contrast to treatment for other brain tumors, efforts at resection are discouraged. This is a secondary analysis of the German PCNSL Study Group-1 trial, a large randomized phase III study comprising 526 patients with PCNSL. Progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.74; P = .005) and overall survival (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.04-1.70; P = .024) were significantly shorter in biopsied patients compared with patients with subtotal or gross total resections. This difference in outcome was not due to age or Karnofsky performance status (KPS). When controlled for the number of lesions, the HR of biopsy versus subtotal or gross total resection remained unchanged for progression-free survival (HR = 1.37; P = .009) but was smaller for overall survival (HR = 1.27; P = .085). This analysis of the largest PCNSL trial ever performed challenges the traditional view that the extent of resection has no prognostic impact on this disease. Therefore, we propose to reconsider the statement that efforts at resection should be discouraged, at least if resection seems safe, as is often the case in treatment of single PCNSL lesions.

Fernando HC, Timmerman R
American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z4099/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1021: a randomized study of sublobar resection compared with stereotactic body radiotherapy for high-risk stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 144(3):S35-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
During the past decade, tremendous interest has arisen in the use of nonoperative therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Of these therapies, stereotactic body radiotherapy has become established as an effective modality for treating peripheral cancer in medically inoperable patients. Toxicity is low, and the treatment is effective, with excellent local control rates. Several investigators have suggested that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be effective for high-risk operable patients (usually treated with sublobar resection) and even perhaps for standard-risk operable patients (usually treated with lobectomy); however, this is less accepted. A direct comparison of stereotactic body radiotherapy and sublobar resection is difficult for a number of reasons. These include different definitions of recurrence, different populations of patients in these studies (with those undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy tending to be the medically inoperable group), and different methods of classifying morbidity in the surgical and radiation oncology studies. Imaging follow-up has also not been standardized among the studies. Thus, a randomized study is necessary and timely. Investigators from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group and the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group have collaborated to develop a phase III randomized study comparing stereotactic body radiotherapy and sublobar resection (with or without brachytherapy) for high-risk operable patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This study (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z4099/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1021) has recently opened for accrual. It is hoped that this will help to better define the role of these therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Related: Lung Cancer

Hirao M, Tsujinaka T, Imamura H, et al.
Overweight is a risk factor for surgical site infection following distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2013; 16(2):239-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in gastric surgery using the results of the Osaka Gastrointestinal Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group (OGSG) 0501 phase 3 trial.
METHODS: The OGSG 0501 trial was conducted to compare standard prophylactic antibiotic administration versus extended prophylactic antibiotic administration in 355 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Various risk factors associated with the incidence of SSI following gastrectomy were analyzed from the results of this multi-institutional randomized controlled trial.
RESULTS: Among the 355 patients, there were 24 SSIs, for an overall SSI rate of 7 %. Multivariate analysis using eight baseline factors (administration of antibiotics, age, sex, body mass index [BMI], prognostic nutritional index, tumor stage, lymph node dissection, reconstructive method) identified that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of SSI (odds ratio 2.82; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.05-7.52; P = 0.049). BMI also showed significant relationships with the volume of blood loss and the operation time (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Compared with patients of normal weight, overweight patients had a significantly higher risk of SSI after distal gastrectomy for cancer.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Kennedy RH, Francis A, Dutton S, et al.
EnROL: a multicentre randomised trial of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer within an enhanced recovery programme.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:181 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades the use of laparoscopic resection and a multimodal approach known as an enhanced recovery programme, have been major changes in colorectal perioperative care. Clinical outcome improves using laparoscopic surgery to resect colorectal cancer but until recently no multicentre trial evidence had been reported regarding whether the benefits of laparoscopy still exist when open surgery is optimized within an enhanced recovery programme. The EnROL trial (Enhanced Recovery Open versus Laparoscopic) examines the hypothesis that laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery programme will provide superior postoperative outcomes when compared to conventional open resection of colorectal cancer within the same programme.
METHODS/DESIGN: EnROL is a phase III, multicentre, randomised trial of laparoscopic versus open resection of colon and rectal cancer with blinding of patients and outcome observers to the treatment allocation for the first 7 days post-operatively, or until discharge if earlier. 202 patients will be recruited at approximately 12 UK hospitals and randomised using minimization at a central computer system in a 1:1 ratio. Recruiting surgeons will previously have performed >100 laparoscopic colorectal resections and >50 open total mesorectal excisions to minimize conversion. Eligible patients are those suitable for elective resection using either technique. Excluded patients include: those with acute intestinal obstruction and patients in whom conversion from laparoscopic to open procedure is likely. The primary outcome is physical fatigue as measured by the physical fatigue domain of the multidimensional fatigue inventory 20 (MFI-20) with secondary outcomes including postoperative hospital stay; complications; reoperation and readmission; quality of life indicators; cosmetic assessments; standardized performance indicators; health economic analysis; the other four domains of the MFI-20. Pathological assessment of surgical quality will also be undertaken and compliance with the enhanced recovery programme will be recorded for all patients.
DISCUSSION: Should this trial demonstrate that laparoscopic surgery confers a significant clinical and/or health economic benefit this will further support the transition to this type of surgery, with implications for the training of surgeons and resource allocation.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Smalley SR, Benedetti JK, Haller DG, et al.
Updated analysis of SWOG-directed intergroup study 0116: a phase III trial of adjuvant radiochemotherapy versus observation after curative gastric cancer resection.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(19):2327-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Surgical resection of gastric cancer has produced suboptimal survival despite multiple randomized trials that used postoperative chemotherapy or more aggressive surgical procedures. We performed a randomized phase III trial of postoperative radiochemotherapy in those at moderate risk of locoregional failure (LRF) following surgery. We originally reported results with 4-year median follow-up. This update, with a more than 10-year median follow-up, presents data on failure patterns and second malignancies and explores selected subset analyses.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 559 patients with primaries ≥ T3 and/or node-positive gastric cancer were randomly assigned to observation versus radiochemotherapy after R0 resection. Fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered before, during, and after radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to all LRF sites to a dose of 45 Gy.
RESULTS: Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) data demonstrate continued strong benefit from postoperative radiochemotherapy. The hazard ratio (HR) for OS is 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.60; P = .0046). The HR for RFS is 1.51 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.83; P < .001). Adjuvant radiochemotherapy produced substantial reduction in both overall relapse and locoregional relapse. Second malignancies were observed in 21 patients with radiotherapy versus eight with observation (P = .21). Subset analyses show robust treatment benefit in most subsets, with the exception of patients with diffuse histology who exhibited minimal nonsignificant treatment effect.
CONCLUSION: Intergroup 0116 (INT-0116) demonstrates strong persistent benefit from adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Toxicities, including second malignancies, appear acceptable, given the magnitude of RFS and OS improvement. LRF reduction may account for the majority of overall relapse reduction. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy remains a rational standard therapy for curatively resected gastric cancer with primaries T3 or greater and/or positive nodes.

Related: Fluorouracil Leucovorin Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Strother DR, London WB, Schmidt ML, et al.
Outcome after surgery alone or with restricted use of chemotherapy for patients with low-risk neuroblastoma: results of Children's Oncology Group study P9641.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(15):1842-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The primary objective of Children's Oncology Group study P9641 was to demonstrate that surgery alone would achieve 3-year overall survival (OS) ≥ 95% for patients with asymptomatic International Neuroblastoma Staging System stages 2a and 2b neuroblastoma (NBL). Secondary objectives focused on other low-risk patients with NBL and on those who required chemotherapy according to protocol-defined criteria.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients underwent maximally safe resection of tumor. Chemotherapy was reserved for patients with, or at risk for, symptomatic disease, with less than 50% tumor resection at diagnosis, or with unresectable progressive disease after surgery alone.
RESULTS: For all 915 eligible patients, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and OS were 89% ± 1% and 97% ± 1%, respectively. For patients with asymptomatic stage 2a or 2b disease, 5-year EFS and OS were 87% ± 2% and 96% ± 1%, respectively. Among patients with stage 2b disease, EFS and OS were significantly lower for those with unfavorable histology or diploid tumors, and OS was significantly lower for those ≥ 18 months old. For patients with stage 1 and 4s NBL, 5-year OS rates were 99% ± 1% and 91% ± 1%, respectively. Patients who required chemotherapy at diagnosis achieved 5-year OS of 98% ± 1%. Of all patients observed after surgery, 11.1% experienced recurrence or progression of disease.
CONCLUSION: Excellent survival rates can be achieved in asymptomatic low-risk patients with stages 2a and 2b NBL after surgery alone. Immediate use of chemotherapy may be restricted to a minority of patients with low-risk NBL. Patients with stage 2b disease who are older or have diploid or unfavorable histology tumors fare less well. Future studies will seek to refine risk classification.

Related: Neuroblastoma USA

Imamura H, Kurokawa Y, Tsujinaka T, et al.
Intraoperative versus extended antimicrobial prophylaxis after gastric cancer surgery: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial.
Lancet Infect Dis. 2012; 12(5):381-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although evidence for the efficacy of postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is scarce, many patients routinely receive such treatment after major surgeries. We aimed to compare the incidence of surgical-site infections with intraoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis alone versus intraoperative plus postoperative administration.
METHODS: We did a prospective, open-label, phase 3, randomised study at seven hospitals in Japan. Patients with gastric cancer that was potentially curable with a distal gastrectomy were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intraoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis alone (cefazolin 1 g before the surgical incision and every 3 h as intraoperative supplements) or extended antimicrobial prophylaxis (intraoperative administration plus cefazolin 1 g once after closure and twice daily for 2 postoperative days). Randomisation was stratified using Pocock and Simon's minimisation method for institution and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, and Mersenne twister was used for random number generation. The primary endpoint was the incidence of surgical-site infections. We assessed non-inferiority of intraoperative therapy with a margin of 5%. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. During hospital stay, infection-control personnel assessed patients for infection, and the principal surgeons were required to check for surgical-site infections at outpatient clinics until 30 days after surgery. This study is registered with UMIN-CTR, UMIN000000631.
FINDINGS: Between June 2, 2005, and Dec 6, 2007, 355 patients were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis alone (n=176) or extended antimicrobial prophylaxis (n=179). Eight patients (5%, 95% CI 2-9%) had surgical-site infections in the intraoperative group compared with 16 (9%, 5-14) in the extended group. The relative risk of surgical-site infections with intraoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was 0·51 (0·22-1·16), which revealed statistically significant non-inferiority (p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION: Elimination of postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis did not increase the incidence of surgical-site infections after a gastrectomy. Therefore, this treatment is not recommended after gastric cancer surgery.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Cortés J, Caralt M, Delaloge S, et al.
Safety of bevacizumab in metastatic breast cancer patients undergoing surgery.
Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(4):475-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evaluate the safety of surgery in relation to bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in two international trials.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The incidence, type and timing of post-surgical bleeding events and wound-healing complications were assessed in surgical patients in the AVastin And DOcetaxel (AVADO) (NCT00333775) and Avastin THErapy for advaNced breAst cancer (ATHENA) (NCT00448591) trials. Both study protocols followed recommendations to withhold bevacizumab for at least 6 weeks before elective surgery and to wait 28 days (or until the wound was fully healed) after major surgery before recommencing bevacizumab therapy.
RESULTS: In AVADO, 221 surgical procedures (55 major, 166 minor) were performed in 155 patients. In ATHENA, 1190 surgical procedures (435 major, 755 minor) were performed in 672 patients. One bevacizumab-treated AVADO patient (0.9%) who underwent surgery experienced a grade 3 bleeding event. In ATHENA, six patients (0.9%) who underwent surgery experienced grade 3 bleeding events and one patient (0.1%) experienced a grade 4 bleeding event. No grade 5 bleeding events in patients undergoing surgery were reported in either study. One grade 3 wound-healing complication was reported in each of the AVADO arms: placebo (n=46, 2.2%), bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg (n=57, 1.8%) and bevacizumab 15mg/kg (n=52, 1.9%). Incidence of grade 3-4 wound-healing complications in ATHENA was 2.2% and 1.3% in patients undergoing minor or major surgery, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgery can be performed on patients with mBC undergoing bevacizumab therapy with a low risk of severe bleeding or wound-healing complications post surgery, if current labelling recommendations are adhered to.

Related: Breast Cancer Docetaxel Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Scagliotti GV, Pastorino U, Vansteenkiste JF, et al.
Randomized phase III study of surgery alone or surgery plus preoperative cisplatin and gemcitabine in stages IB to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(2):172-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether three preoperative cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin followed by radical surgery provides a reduction in the risk of progression compared with surgery alone in patients with stages IB to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with chemotherapy-naive NSCLC (stages IB, II, or IIIA) were randomly assigned to receive either three cycles of gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) day 1 every 3 weeks followed by surgery, or surgery alone. Randomization was stratified by center and disease stage (IB/IIA v IIB/IIIA). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results The study was prematurely closed after the random assignment of 270 patients: 129 to chemotherapy plus surgery and 141 to surgery alone. Median age was 61.8 years and 83.3% were male. Slightly more patients in the surgery alone arm had disease stage IB/IIA (55.3% v 48.8%). The chemotherapy response rate was 35.4%. The hazard ratios for PFS and overall survival were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.97; P = .003) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.92; P = .02), respectively, both in favor of chemotherapy plus surgery. A statistically significant impact of preoperative chemotherapy on outcomes was observed in the stage IIB/IIIA subgroup (3-year PFS rate: 36.1% v 55.4%; P = .002). The most common grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy-related adverse events were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. No treatment-by-histology interaction effect was apparent.
CONCLUSION: Although the study was terminated early, preoperative gemcitabine plus cisplatin followed by radical surgery improved survival in patients with clinical stage IIB/IIIA NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cisplatin Lung Cancer Gemcitabine

Chen LT, Chen MF, Li LA, et al.
Long-term results of a randomized, observation-controlled, phase III trial of adjuvant interferon Alfa-2b in hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.
Ann Surg. 2012; 255(1):8-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFNα-2b) therapy on recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with postoperative viral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
BACKGROUND: Despite most individual trials have failed to meet their primary endpoint, recent pooled-data meta-analyses suggest that adjuvant IFN therapy may significantly reduce the incidence of recurrence in curatively ablated HCC.
METHODS: Patients with curative resection of viral hepatitis-related HCC were eligible, and were stratified by underlying viral etiology and randomly allocated to receive either 53 weeks of adjuvant IFNα-2b treatment or observation alone. The primary endpoint of this study was RFS.
RESULTS: A total of 268 patients were enrolled with 133 in the IFNα-2b arm and 135 in the control arm. Eighty percent of them were hepatitis B surface antigen seropositive. At a median follow-up of 63.8 months, 154 (57.5%) patients had tumor recurrence and 84 (31.3%) were deceased. The cumulative 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates of intent-to-treat cohort were 44.2% and 73.9%, respectively. The median RFS in the IFNα-2b and control arms were 42.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1-87.1) and 48.6 (95% CI, 25.5 to infinity) months, respectively (P = 0.828, log-rank test). Adjuvant IFNα-2b treatment was associated with a significantly higher incidence of leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Thirty-four (24.8%) of treated patients required dose reduction, and 5 (3.8%) of these patients subsequently withdrew from therapy because of excessive toxicity. Adjuvant IFNα-2b only temporarily suppressed viral replication during treatment period.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, adjuvant IFNα-2b did not reduce the postoperative recurrence of viral hepatitis-related HCC. More potent antiviral therapy deserves to be explored for this patient population. This study is registered at and carries the identifier NCT00149565.

Related: Liver Cancer

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