Gene Summary

Gene:ADRB2; adrenoceptor beta 2
Summary:This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (57)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Risk Factors
  • Stress, Physiological
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Breast Cancer
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3
  • Chromosome 5
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists
  • Survival Rate
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Promoter Regions
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Haplotypes
  • Propranolol
  • Prostate Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Polymorphism
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genotype
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Melanoma
  • Gene Expression
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Smoking
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
  • Telomere
  • Messenger RNA
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
  • Isoproterenol
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1
  • Obesity
  • RB1
  • Case-Control Studies
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADRB2 (cancer-related)

Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, et al.
Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(19):1823-1833 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Methods In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Results Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7 to not reached) in the pembrolizumab group versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 6.2) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68; P<0.001). The estimated rate of overall survival at 6 months was 80.2% in the pembrolizumab group versus 72.4% in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.89; P=0.005). The response rate was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (44.8% vs. 27.8%), the median duration of response was longer (not reached [range, 1.9+ to 14.5+ months] vs. 6.3 months [range, 2.1+ to 12.6+]), and treatment-related adverse events of any grade were less frequent (occurring in 73.4% vs. 90.0% of patients), as were grade 3, 4, or 5 treatment-related adverse events (26.6% vs. 53.3%). Conclusions In patients with advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells, pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free and overall survival and with fewer adverse events than was platinum-based chemotherapy. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-024 number, NCT02142738 .).

Pasquier E, André N, Street J, et al.
Effective Management of Advanced Angiosarcoma by the Synergistic Combination of Propranolol and Vinblastine-based Metronomic Chemotherapy: A Bench to Bedside Study.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 6:87-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of vascular origin that represent a genuine therapeutic challenge. Recently, the combination of metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning has been proposed as an attractive alternative for cancer patients living in developing countries.
METHODS: In vitro experiments with transformed endothelial cells were used to identify synergistic interactions between anti-hypertensive drug propranolol and chemotherapeutics. This led to the design of a pilot treatment protocol combining oral propranolol and metronomic chemotherapy. Seven consecutive patients with advanced/metastatic/recurrent angiosarcoma were treated with this combination for up to 12months, followed by propranolol-containing maintenance therapy.
FINDINGS: Gene expression analysis showed expression of ADRB1 and ADRB2 adrenergic receptor genes in transformed endothelial cells and in angiosarcoma tumors. Propranolol strongly synergized with the microtubule-targeting agent vinblastine in vitro, but only displayed additivity or slight antagonism with paclitaxel and doxorubicin. A combination treatment using bi-daily propranolol (40mg) and weekly metronomic vinblastine (6mg/m(2)) and methotrexate (35mg/m(2)) was designed and used in 7 patients with advanced angiosarcoma. Treatment was well tolerated and resulted in 100% response rate, including 1 complete response and 3 very good partial responses, based on RECIST criteria. Median progression-free and overall survival was 11months (range 5-24) and 16months (range 10-30), respectively.
INTERPRETATION: Our results provide a strong rationale for the combination of β-blockers and vinblastine-based metronomic chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced angiosarcoma. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential of drug repositioning in combination with metronomic chemotherapy in low- and middle-income country setting.
FUNDING: This study was funded by institutional and philanthropic grants.

Menghi F, Inaki K, Woo X, et al.
The tandem duplicator phenotype as a distinct genomic configuration in cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(17):E2373-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing studies have revealed genome-wide structural variation patterns in cancer, such as chromothripsis and chromoplexy, that do not engage a single discernable driver mutation, and whose clinical relevance is unclear. We devised a robust genomic metric able to identify cancers with a chromotype called tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) characterized by frequent and distributed tandem duplications (TDs). Enriched only in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and in ovarian, endometrial, and liver cancers, TDP tumors conjointly exhibit tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations, disruption of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), and increased expression of DNA replication genes pointing at rereplication in a defective checkpoint environment as a plausible causal mechanism. The resultant TDs in TDP augment global oncogene expression and disrupt tumor suppressor genes. Importantly, the TDP strongly correlates with cisplatin sensitivity in both TNBC cell lines and primary patient-derived xenografts. We conclude that the TDP is a common cancer chromotype that coordinately alters oncogene/tumor suppressor expression with potential as a marker for chemotherapeutic response.

Pode-Shakked N, Pleniceanu O, Gershon R, et al.
Dissecting Stages of Human Kidney Development and Tumorigenesis with Surface Markers Affords Simple Prospective Purification of Nephron Stem Cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23562 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
When assembling a nephron during development a multipotent stem cell pool becomes restricted as differentiation ensues. A faulty differentiation arrest in this process leads to transformation and initiation of a Wilms' tumor. Mapping these transitions with respective surface markers affords accessibility to specific cell subpopulations. NCAM1 and CD133 have been previously suggested to mark human renal progenitor populations. Herein, using cell sorting, RNA sequencing, in vitro studies with serum-free media and in vivo xenotransplantation we demonstrate a sequential map that links human kidney development and tumorigenesis; In nephrogenesis, NCAM1(+)CD133(-) marks SIX2(+) multipotent renal stem cells transiting to NCAM1(+)CD133(+) differentiating segment-specific SIX2(-) epithelial progenitors and NCAM1(-)CD133(+) differentiated nephron cells. In tumorigenesis, NCAM1(+)CD133(-) marks SIX2(+) blastema that includes the ALDH1(+) WT cancer stem/initiating cells, while NCAM1(+)CD133(+) and NCAM1(-)CD133(+) specifying early and late epithelial differentiation, are severely restricted in tumor initiation capacity and tumor self-renewal. Thus, negative selection for CD133 is required for defining NCAM1(+) nephron stem cells in normal and malignant nephrogenesis.

Sapoznik S, Bahar-Shany K, Brand H, et al.
Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Links Ovulation-Induced Inflammation and Serous Carcinogenesis.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(2):90-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In recent years, the notion that ovarian carcinoma results from ovulation-induced inflammation of the fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) has gained evidence. However, the mechanistic pathway for this process has not been revealed yet. In the current study, we propose the mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a link between ovulation-induced inflammation in FTECs and genotoxic damage leading to ovarian carcinogenesis. We show that AID, previously shown to be functional only in B lymphocytes, is expressed in FTECs under physiological conditions, and is induced in vitro upon ovulatory-like stimulation and in vivo in carcinoma-associated FTECs. We also report that AID activity results in epigenetic, genetic and genomic damage in FTECs. Overall, our data provides new insights into the etiology of ovarian carcinogenesis and may set the ground for innovative approaches aimed at prevention and early detection.

Goel HL, Pursell B, Shultz LD, et al.
P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance to VEGF/VEGFR-Targeted Therapy in Prostate Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(9):2193-208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTEN(pc-/-) transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases the sensitivity of prostate tumors to bevacizumab. These data reveal that prostate tumors harbor cells with stem cell properties that are resistant to inhibitors of VEGF/VEGFR signaling. Combining the use of available VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapies with P-Rex1 or Rac1 inhibition should improve the efficacy of these therapies significantly.

Jo HJ, Kim J, Kim N, et al.
Analysis of Gastric Microbiota by Pyrosequencing: Minor Role of Bacteria Other Than Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Carcinogenesis.
Helicobacter. 2016; 21(5):364-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori (HP) in human health and disease. We compared the differences of human gastric microbiota according to gastric cancer or control and HP infection status and assessed the role of bacteria other than HP.
METHODS: Gastric microbiota of 63 antral mucosal and 18 corpus mucosal samples were analyzed by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Antral samples were divided into four subgroups based on HP positivity in pyrosequencing and the presence of cancer. The analysis was focused on bacteria other than HP, especially nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria (NB). The changes of NB in antral mucosa of 16 subjects were followed up.
RESULTS: The number of NB other than HP (non-HP-NB) was two times higher in the cancer groups than in the control groups, but it did not reach statistical significance. The number of non-HP-NB tends to increase over time, but this phenomenon was prevented by HP eradication in the HP-positive control group, but not in the HP-positive cancer group.
CONCLUSION: We could not find the significant role of bacteria other than HP in the gastric carcinogenesis.

Dalerba P, Sahoo D, Paik S, et al.
CDX2 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(3):211-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background The identification of high-risk stage II colon cancers is key to the selection of patients who require adjuvant treatment after surgery. Microarray-based multigene-expression signatures derived from stem cells and progenitor cells hold promise, but they are difficult to use in clinical practice. Methods We used a new bioinformatics approach to search for biomarkers of colon epithelial differentiation across gene-expression arrays and then ranked candidate genes according to the availability of clinical-grade diagnostic assays. With the use of subgroup analysis involving independent and retrospective cohorts of patients with stage II or stage III colon cancer, the top candidate gene was tested for its association with disease-free survival and a benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The transcription factor CDX2 ranked first in our screening test. A group of 87 of 2115 tumor samples (4.1%) lacked CDX2 expression. In the discovery data set, which included 466 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 32 patients (6.9%) with CDX2-negative colon cancers than among the 434 (93.1%) with CDX2-positive colon cancers (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 7.38; P=0.002). In the validation data set, which included 314 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 38 patients (12.1%) with CDX2 protein-negative colon cancers than among the 276 (87.9%) with CDX2 protein-positive colon cancers (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.29; P=0.003). In both these groups, these findings were independent of the patient's age, sex, and tumor stage and grade. Among patients with stage II cancer, the difference in 5-year disease-free survival was significant both in the discovery data set (49% among 15 patients with CDX2-negative tumors vs. 87% among 191 patients with CDX2-positive tumors, P=0.003) and in the validation data set (51% among 15 patients with CDX2-negative tumors vs. 80% among 106 patients with CDX2-positive tumors, P=0.004). In a pooled database of all patient cohorts, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was higher among 23 patients with stage II CDX2-negative tumors who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy than among 25 who were not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (91% vs. 56%, P=0.006). Conclusions Lack of CDX2 expression identified a subgroup of patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who appeared to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. (Funded by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the National Institutes of Health, and others.).

Jayavelu ND, Bar N
Reconstruction of temporal activity of microRNAs from gene expression data in breast cancer cell line.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:1077 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate genes at the post-transcriptional level in spatiotemporal manner. Several miRNAs are identified as prognostic and diagnostic markers in many human cancers. Estimation of the temporal activities of the miRNAs is an important step in the way to understand the complex interactions of these important regulatory elements with transcription factors (TFs) and target genes (TGs). However, current research on miRNA activities excludes network dynamics from the studies, disregarding the important element of time in the regulatory network analysis.
RESULTS: In the current study, we combined experimentally verified miRNA-TG interactions with breast cancer microarray TG expression data to identify key miRNAs and compute their temporal activity using network component analysis (NCA). The computed activities showed that miRNAs were regulated in a time dependent manner. Our results allowed constructing a synergistic network of miRNAs using the computed miRNA activities and their shared regulation of TGs. We further extended this network by incorporating miRNA-TG, miRNA-TF, TF-miRNA and TF-TG regulations in the context of breast cancer. Our integrated network identified several miRNAs known to be involved in breast cancer regulation and revealed several novel miRNAs. Our further analysis detected substantial involvement of the miRNAs miR-324, miR-93, miR-615 and miR-1 in breast cancer, which was not known previously. Next, combining our integrated networks with functional annotation of differentially expressed genes resulted in new sub-networks. These sub-networks allowed us to identify the key miRNAs and their interactions with TFs and TGs of several biological processes involved in breast cancer. The identified markers are validated for their potential as prognostic markers for breast cancer through survival analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our dynamical analysis of the miRNA interactions greatly helps to discover new network based markers, and is highly applicable (but not limited) to cancer research.

Elhanati S, Ben-Hamo R, Kanfi Y, et al.
Reciprocal Regulation between SIRT6 and miR-122 Controls Liver Metabolism and Predicts Hepatocarcinoma Prognosis.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(2):234-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mice overexpressing the longevity protein SIRT6 or deficient for the liver's most prevalent microRNA miR-122 display a similar set of phenotypes, including improved lipid profile and protection against damage linked to obesity. Here, we show that miR-122 and SIRT6 negatively regulate each other's expression. SIRT6 downregulates miR-122 by deacetylating H3K56 in the promoter region. MiR-122 binds to three sites on the SIRT6 3' UTR and reduces its levels. The interplay between SIRT6 and miR-122 is manifested in two physiologically relevant ways in the liver. First, they oppositely regulate a similar set of metabolic genes and fatty acid β-oxidation. Second, in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, loss of a negative correlation between SIRT6 and miR-122 expression is significantly associated with better prognosis. These findings show that SIRT6 and miR-122 negatively regulate each other to control various aspects of liver physiology and SIRT6-miR-122 correlation may serve as a biomarker for hepatocarcinoma prognosis.

Collins M, Thrasher A
Gene therapy: progress and predictions.
Proc Biol Sci. 2015; 282(1821):20143003 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of viral vectors. There are also a number of promising gene therapy approaches for cancer and infectious disease. We predict that the next 25 years will see improvements in safety, efficacy and manufacture of gene delivery vectors and introduction of gene-editing technologies to the clinic. Gene delivery may also prove a cost-effective method for the delivery of biological medicines.

Carmel-Gross I, Bollag N, Armon L, Urbach A
LIN28: A Stem Cell Factor with a Key Role in Pediatric Tumor Formation.
Stem Cells Dev. 2016; 25(5):367-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differentiation and development are normally unidirectional processes in which progenitor/stem cells differentiate into more mature cells. Transformation of adult cells into cancer cells is accompanied in many cases by dedifferentiation of the adult cell, while differentiation failure of progenitor cells can result in the formation of unique type of cancers called pediatric cancer. LIN28A and its paralog LIN28B are pluripotent genes that are expressed mainly in stem/progenitor cells. Since the first identification of LIN28 in mammals, numerous studies demonstrated the general oncogenic features of these genes. In this review, we emphasize the unique role of LIN28 in pediatric tumor formation. We show, based on comprehensive literature screen and analysis of published microarray data, that LIN28 expression in pediatric tumors is even more common than in adult tumors, and discuss the possibility that in the case of pediatric cancers, LIN28 acts by preventing normal development/differentiation rather than by transformation of mature cells into cancer cells. Overall, this review highlights the role of LIN28 as a bridge point between embryonic development, stem cell biology, and cancer.

Li Y, Xuan J, Song Y, et al.
Nanoporous Glass Integrated in Volumetric Bar-Chart Chip for Point-of-Care Diagnostics of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
ACS Nano. 2016; 10(1):1640-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Point-of-care (POC) testing has the potential to enable rapid, low-cost, and large-scale screening. POC detection of a multiplexed biomarker panel can facilitate the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and, thus, may allow for more timely surgical intervention for life-saving treatment. Herein, we report the nanoporous glass (NPG) integrated volumetric bar-chart chip (V-Chip) for POC detection of the three NSCLC biomarkers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and SCCA, by the naked eye. The 3D nanostructures in the NPG membrane efficiently increase the number of binding sites for antibodies and decrease the diffusion distance between antibody and antigen, enabling the low detection limit and rapid analysis time of the NPG-V-Chip. We utilized the NPG-V-Chip to test the NSCLC biomarker panel and found that the limit of detection can reach 50 pg/mL (10-fold improvement over the original V-Chip), and the total assay time can be decreased from 4 to 0.5 h. We then detected CEA in 21 serum samples from patients with common cancers, and the on-chip results showed good correlation with the clinical results. We further assayed 10 lung cancer samples using the device and confirmed the results obtained using conventional ELISA methods. In summary, the NPG-V-Chip platform has the ability of multiplex, low detection limit, low cost, lack of need for accessory equipment, and rapid analysis time, which may render the V-Chip a useful platform for quantitative POC detection in resource-limited settings and personalized diagnostics.

Niller HH, Banati F, Salamon D, Minarovits J
Epigenetic Alterations in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Diseases.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 879:39-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Latent Epstein-Bar virus genomes undergo epigenetic modifications which are dependent on the respective tissue type and cellular phenotype. These define distinct viral epigenotypes corresponding with latent viral gene expression profiles. Viral Latent Membrane Proteins 1 and 2A can induce cellular DNA methyltransferases, thereby influencing the methylation status of the viral and cellular genomes. Therefore, not only the viral genomes carry epigenetic modifications, but also the cellular genomes adopt major epigenetic alterations upon EBV infection. The distinct cellular epigenotypes of EBV-infected cells differ from the epigenotypes of their normal counterparts. In Burkitt lymphoma (BL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) significant changes in the host cell methylome with a strong tendency towards CpG island hypermethylation are observed. Hypermethylated genes unique for EBVaGC suggest the existence of an EBV-specific "epigenetic signature". Contrary to the primary malignancies carrying latent EBV genomes, lymphoblastoid cells (LCs) established by EBV infection of peripheral B cells in vitro are characterized by a massive genome-wide demethylation and a significant decrease and redistribution of heterochromatic histone marks. Establishing complete epigenomes of the diverse EBV-associated malignancies shall clarify their similarities and differences and further clarify the contribution of EBV to the pathogenesis, especially for the epithelial malignancies, NPC and EBVaGC.

Sun G, Cheng YW, Lai L, et al.
Signature miRNAs in colorectal cancers were revealed using a bias reduction small RNA deep sequencing protocol.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):3857-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore the role of miRNAs in colorectal cancers (CRC), we have deep sequenced 48 pairs of frozen CRC samples, of which 44 pairs produced high quality sequencing data. By using a combined approach of our bias reduction small RNA (smRNA) deep sequencing protocol and Illumina small RNA TruSeq method for sample bar coding, we have obtained data from samples of relatively large size with bias reduced digital profile results. This novel approach allowed us to validate many previously published results using various techniques to profile miRNAs in CRC tissues or cell lines and to characterize 'true' miRNA signatures highly expressed in colon/rectum (CR) or CRC tissues. According to our results, miR-21, a miRNA that is up-regulated in CRC, and miR-143, a miRNA that is down-regulated in CRC, are the two miRNAs that dominated the miRNA population in CR tissues, and probably are also the most important miRNAs in CRCs. These two miRNAs, together with the other eight miRNAs, miR-148a, -194, -192, 200b, -200c, -10b, -26a, and -145, with descending expressing levels, constituted the top 10 highly expressed miRNAs in CR/CRC. Using TaqMan miRNA qPCR, we detected the relative expression of some of the CRC miRNAs in 10 CRC cell lines, validated their dysregulation under cancer condition, and provided possible explanation for their dysregulation, which could be caused by APC, KRAS, or TP53 mutations. We believe these results will provide a new direction in future miRNA-related CRC development studies, and application of miRNAs in CRC diagnosis/prognosis, and therapy.

Shimizu A, Kaira K, Mori K, et al.
Prognostic significance of β2-adrenergic receptor expression in malignant melanoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5971-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies cite β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) antagonists as novel therapeutic agents for melanoma, as they may reduce the disease progression. The β2AR has shown to be expressed in malignant melanoma. However, it remains unclear whether the β2AR expression has a clinical and pathological significance in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. We herein conducted a clinicopathological study to investigate the protein expression of β2AR in malignant melanoma of the skin and its prognostic significance. One hundred thirty-three patients with surgically resected cutaneous malignant melanoma were evaluated. Tumor sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for β2AR, Ki-67, the microvessel density (MVD) determined by CD34, and p53. β2AR was highly expressed in 44.4 % (59 out of 133) of the patients. The expression of β2AR was significantly associated with the tumor thickness, ulceration, T factor, N factor, disease stage, tumor size, cell proliferation (Ki-67), and MVD (CD34). Using Spearman's rank test, the β2AR expression was correlated with Ki-67 (r = 0.278; 95 % CI, 0.108 to 0.432; P = 0.001), CD34 (r = 0.445; 95 %CI, 0.293 to 0.575; P < 0.001), and the tumor size (r = 0.226; 95 % CI, 0.053 to 0.386; P = 0.008). Using a univariate analysis, the tumor thickness, ulceration, disease stage, β2AR, Ki-67, and CD34 had a significant relationship with the overall and progression-free survivals. A multivariable analysis confirmed that β2AR was an independent prognostic factor for predicting a poor overall survival (HR 1.730; 95 % CI 1.221-2.515) and progression-free survival (HR 1.576; 95 % CI 1.176-2.143) of malignant melanoma of the skin. β2AR can serve as a promising prognostic factor for predicting a worse outcome after surgical treatment and may play an important role in the development and aggressiveness of malignant melanoma.

Kang Y, Nagaraja AS, Armaiz-Pena GN, et al.
Adrenergic Stimulation of DUSP1 Impairs Chemotherapy Response in Ovarian Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(7):1713-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chronic adrenergic activation has been shown to associate with adverse clinical outcomes in cancer patients, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The focus of the current study was to determine the functional and biologic effects of adrenergic pathways on response to chemotherapy in the context of ovarian cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Increased DUSP1 production by sympathetic nervous system mediators (e.g., norepinephrine) was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by Western blotting. In vitro chemotherapy-induced cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. For in vivo therapy, a well-characterized model of chronic stress was used.
RESULTS: Catecholamines significantly inhibited paclitaxel- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Genomic analyses of cells treated with norepinephrine identified DUSP1 as a potential mediator. DUSP1 overexpression resulted in reduced paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells compared with control; conversely, DUSP1 gene silencing resulted in increased apoptosis compared with control cells. DUSP1 gene silencing in vivo significantly enhanced response to paclitaxel and increased apoptosis. In vitro analyses indicated that norepinephrine-induced DUSP1 gene expression was mediated through ADRB2 activation of cAMP-PLC-PKC-CREB signaling, which inhibits JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun and protects ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis. Moreover, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data showed that increased DUSP1 expression was associated with decreased overall (P= 0.049) and progression-free (P= 0.0005) survival.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a new understanding of the mechanisms by which adrenergic pathways can impair response to chemotherapy and have implications for cancer management.

Spina R, Voss DM, Asnaghi L, et al.
Atracurium Besylate and other neuromuscular blocking agents promote astroglial differentiation and deplete glioblastoma stem cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):459-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of about one year. This poor prognosis is attributed primarily to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence after surgical removal, with the root cause suggested to be found in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a reporter of astrocytic differentiation, we isolated multiple clones from three independent GSC lines which express GFAP in a remarkably stable fashion. We next show that elevated expression of GFAP is associated with reduced clonogenicity in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Utilizing this in vitro cell-based differentiation reporter system we screened chemical libraries and identified the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker (NNMB), Atracurium Besylate, as a small molecule which effectively induces astroglial but not neuronal differentiation of GSCs. Functionally, Atracurium Besylate treatment significantly inhibited the clonogenic capacity of several independent patient-derived GSC neurosphere lines, a phenomenon which was largely irreversible. A second NNMB, Vecuronium, also induced GSC astrocytic differentiation while Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, significantly blocked Atracurium Besylate pro-differentiation activity. To investigate the clinical importance of nAChRs in gliomas, we examined clinical outcomes and found that glioma patients with tumors overexpressing CHRNA1 or CHRNA9 (encoding for the AChR-α1 or AChR-α9) exhibit significant shorter overall survival. Finally, we found that ex-vivo pre-treatment of GSCs, expressing CHRNA1 and CHRNA9, with Atracurium Besylate significantly increased the survival of mice xenotransplanted with these cells, therefore suggesting that tumor initiating subpopulations have been reduced.

Liu D, Deng Q, Sun L, et al.
A Her2-let-7-β2-AR circuit affects prognosis in patients with Her2-positive breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:832 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies show that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is highly expressed in most Her2-overexpressing breast cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying upregulation of the β2-AR expression in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells are not fully understood. The clinical significance of the β2-AR overexpression in breast cancer is unclear.
METHODS: Human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MCF-7/Her2 were transfected with the let-7 mimics or inhibitors. The expression of β2-AR was analyzed by Western blot. The β2-AR status in primary and metastatic sites of breast cancer and the human breast cancer tissue microarrays containing 49 primary tumors and 50 metastatic lymph node tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of lymph node metastasis with the β2-AR level was determined in 59 primary tumor tissues from the patients with Her2-positive breast cancer. The clinical prognostic significance of the β2-AR overexpression in the patients with Her2-positive breast cancers was evaluated by a retrospective study.
RESULTS: The let-7f level in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells SKBR3 and BT474 was significantly lower than that in MCF-7 cells, which express low level of Her2. Ectopic expression of Her2 in MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/Her2) represses the expression of microRNA let-7f, which is previously identified to regulate baseline β2-AR expression. The treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 or PD184352 effectively restored the let-7f level, suggesting that Her2-overexpression-mediated ERK constitutive activation inhibited let-7f, leading to the upregulation of the β2-AR expression. The transfection with the let-7f mimics markedly downregulated the β2-AR level, whereas the let-7 inhibitor significantly upregulated the β2-AR expression in both parental MCF-7 and MCF-7/Her2 cells. In addition, treatment of MCF-7/Her2 cells with isoproterenol resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of the let-7f expression, demonstrating that the inhibitory effect of Her2 overexpression on let-7f can be reinforced by agonist-triggered β2-AR activation. We further demonstrate that high level of β2-AR associates with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in the patients with Her2-positive breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The mutual and reciprocal interaction between Her2, β2-AR, and let-7f may maintain a high level of β2-AR in breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that β2-AR may be a new useful biomarker for predicting prognosis in Her2-positive breast cancer and may also be a promising selective therapeutic target for the aggressive subtype of breast cancer.

Li R, Campos J, Iida J
A Gene Regulatory Program in Human Breast Cancer.
Genetics. 2015; 201(4):1341-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Molecular heterogeneity in human breast cancer has challenged diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical treatment. It is well known that molecular subtypes of breast tumors are associated with significant differences in prognosis and survival. Assuming that the differences are attributed to subtype-specific pathways, we then suspect that there might be gene regulatory mechanisms that modulate the behavior of the pathways and their interactions. In this study, we proposed an integrated methodology, including machine learning and information theory, to explore the mechanisms. Using existing data from three large cohorts of human breast cancer populations, we have identified an ensemble of 16 master regulator genes (or MR16) that can discriminate breast tumor samples into four major subtypes. Evidence from gene expression across the three cohorts has consistently indicated that the MR16 can be divided into two groups that demonstrate subtype-specific gene expression patterns. For example, group 1 MRs, including ESR1, FOXA1, and GATA3, are overexpressed in luminal A and luminal B subtypes, but lowly expressed in HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. In contrast, group 2 MRs, including FOXM1, EZH2, MYBL2, and ZNF695, display an opposite pattern. Furthermore, evidence from mutual information modeling has congruently indicated that the two groups of MRs either up- or down-regulate cancer driver-related genes in opposite directions. Furthermore, integration of somatic mutations with pathway changes leads to identification of canonical genomic alternations in a subtype-specific fashion. Taken together, these studies have implicated a gene regulatory program for breast tumor progression.

Zhang D, Lei J, Ma J, et al.
β2-adrenogenic signaling regulates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer progression via upregulation of HIF-1α.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17760-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. It is suggested that 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, mediates the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoking by promoting cancer growth. In the present study, we show that smoking, HIF-1α expression and β2-adrenogenic receptor (β2-AR) expression are negatively correlated with the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Moreover, HIF-1α expression and β2-AR expression are positively correlated with smoking status, different histological differentiation and among the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages in pancreatic cancer patients. NNK increases HIF-1α expression in pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of HIF-1α and ICI118, 551 (a β2-AR selective antagonist) abrogates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer proliferation and invasion in vitro and inhibits NNK-induced pancreatic cancer growth in vivo. However, using CoCl2 (a HIF-1α stabilizing agent which decreases HIF-1α degradation under normoxia conditions) reverses ICI118, 551 induced effects under NNK exposure. Thus, our data indicate that β2-AR signaling regulates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer progression via upregulation of HIF-1α. Taken together, β2-AR signaling and HIF-1α may represent promising therapeutic targets for preventing smoking induced pancreatic cancer progression.

Cockbill LM, Murk K, Love S, Hanley JG
Protein interacting with C kinase 1 suppresses invasion and anchorage-independent growth of astrocytic tumor cells.
Mol Biol Cell. 2015; 26(25):4552-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Astrocytic tumors are the most common form of primary brain tumor. Astrocytic tumor cells infiltrate the surrounding CNS tissue, allowing them to evade removal upon surgical resection of the primary tumor. Dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton are crucial to cancer cell invasion, but the specific mechanisms that underlie the particularly invasive phenotype of astrocytic tumor cells are unclear. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a PDZ and BAR domain-containing protein that inhibits actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization and is involved in regulating the trafficking of a number of cell-surface receptors. Here we report that, in contrast to other cancers, PICK1 expression is down-regulated in grade IV astrocytic tumor cell lines and also in clinical cases of the disease in which grade IV tumors have progressed from lower-grade tumors. Exogenous expression of PICK1 in the grade IV astrocytic cell line U251 reduces their capacity for anchorage-independent growth, two-dimensional migration, and invasion through a three-dimensional matrix, strongly suggesting that low PICK1 expression plays an important role in astrocytic tumorigenesis. We propose that PICK1 negatively regulates neoplastic infiltration of astrocytic tumors and that manipulation of PICK1 is an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention.

Paz-Yaacov N, Bazak L, Buchumenski I, et al.
Elevated RNA Editing Activity Is a Major Contributor to Transcriptomic Diversity in Tumors.
Cell Rep. 2015; 13(2):267-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic mutations in key genes are known to drive tumorigenesis and have been the focus of much attention in recent years. However, genetic content also may change farther downstream. RNA editing alters the mRNA sequence from its genomic blueprint in a dynamic and flexible way. A few isolated cases of editing alterations in cancer have been reported previously. Here, we provide a transcriptome-wide characterization of RNA editing across hundreds of cancer samples from multiple cancer tissues, and we show that A-to-I editing and the enzymes mediating this modification are significantly altered, usually elevated, in most cancer types. Increased editing activity is found to be associated with patient survival. As is the case with somatic mutations in DNA, most of these newly introduced RNA mutations are likely passengers, but a few may serve as drivers that may be novel candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

Li S, Ling C, Zhong L, et al.
Efficient and Targeted Transduction of Nonhuman Primate Liver With Systemically Delivered Optimized AAV3B Vectors.
Mol Ther. 2015; 23(12):1867-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (rAAV3B) can transduce cultured human liver cancer cells and primary human hepatocytes efficiently. Serine (S)- and threonine (T)-directed capsid modifications further augment its transduction efficiency. Systemically delivered capsid-optimized rAAV3B vectors can specifically target cancer cells in a human liver cancer xenograft model, suggesting their potential use for human liver-directed gene therapy. Here, we compared transduction efficiencies of AAV3B and AAV8 vectors in cultured primary human hepatocytes and cancer cells as well as in human and mouse hepatocytes in a human liver xenograft NSG-PiZ mouse model. We also examined the safety and transduction efficacy of wild-type (WT) and capsid-optimized rAAV3B in the livers of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Intravenously delivered S663V+T492V (ST)-modified self-complementary (sc) AAV3B-EGFP vectors led to liver-targeted robust enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression in NHPs without apparent hepatotoxicity. Intravenous injections of both WT and ST-modified rAAV3B.ST-rhCG vectors also generated stable super-physiological levels of rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) in NHPs. The vector genome predominantly targeted the liver. Clinical chemistry and histopathology examinations showed no apparent vector-related toxicity. Our studies should be important and informative for clinical development of optimized AAV3B vectors for human liver-directed gene therapy.

Jain S, Chen J, Nicolae A, et al.
IL-21-driven neoplasms in SJL mice mimic some key features of human angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.
Am J Pathol. 2015; 185(11):3102-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SJL/J mice exhibit a high incidence of mature B-cell lymphomas that require CD4(+) T cells for their development. We found that their spleens and lymph nodes contained increased numbers of germinal centers and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Microarray analyses revealed high levels of transcripts encoding IL-21 associated with high levels of serum IL-21. We developed IL-21 receptor (IL21R)-deficient Swiss Jim Lambart (SJL) mice to determine the role of IL-21 in disease. These mice had reduced numbers of TFH cells, lower serum levels of IL-21, and few germinal center B cells, and they did not develop B-cell tumors, suggesting IL-21-dependent B-cell lymphomagenesis. We also noted a series of features common to SJL disease and human angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a malignancy of TFH cells. Gene expression analyses of AITL showed that essentially all cases expressed elevated levels of transcripts for IL21, IL21R, and a series of genes associated with TFH cell development and function. These results identify a mouse model with features of AITL and suggest that patients with the disease might benefit from therapeutic interventions that interrupt IL-21 signaling.

Bida O, Gidoni M, Ideses D, et al.
A novel mitosis-associated lncRNA, MA-linc1, is required for cell cycle progression and sensitizes cancer cells to Paclitaxel.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):27880-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are major regulators of many cellular processes including cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. In this study, we identify a novel lncRNA, MA-linc1, and reveal its effects on cell cycle progression and cancer growth. Inhibition of MA-linc1 expression alters cell cycle distribution, leading to a decrease in the number of G1 cells and a concomitant increase in all other stages of the cell cycle, and in particular G2/M, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of M phase. Accordingly, knock down of MA-linc1 inhibits M phase exit upon release from a mitotic block. We further demonstrate that MA-linc1 predominantly functions in cis to repress expression of its neighboring gene, Purα, which is often deleted in human cancers and whose ectopic expression inhibits cell cycle progression. Knock down of Purα partially rescues the MA-linc1 dependent inhibition of M phase exit. In agreement with its suggested role in M phase, inhibition of MA-linc1 enhances apoptotic cell death induced by the antimitotic drug, Paclitaxel and this enhancement of apoptosis is rescued by Purα knockdown. Furthermore, high levels of MA-linc1 are associated with reduced survival in human breast and lung cancer patients.Taken together, our data identify MA-linc1 as a novel lncRNA regulator of cell cycle and demonstrate its potential role in cancer progression and treatment.

Carlotti E, Wrench D, Rosignoli G, et al.
High Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene from Flow-Sorted B Cell Sub-Populations Define the Dynamics of Follicular Lymphoma Clonal Evolution.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0134833 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Understanding the dynamics of evolution of Follicular Lymphoma (FL) clones during disease progression is important for monitoring and targeting this tumor effectively. Genetic profiling of serial FL biopsies and examples of FL transmission following bone marrow transplant suggest that this disease may evolve by divergent evolution from a common ancestor cell. However where this ancestor cell resides and how it evolves is still unclear. The analysis of the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig) is traditionally used for tracking the physiological clonal evolution of B cells within the germinal center and allows to discriminate those cells that have just entered the germinal center and display features of ancestor cells from those B cells that keep re-circulating across different lymphoid organs. Here we investigated the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin gene (IgH-VH) in 4 flow-sorted B cells subpopulations belonging to different stages of differentiation, from sequential lymph node biopsies of cases displaying diverse patterns of evolution, using the GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. We observed an unexpectedly high level of clonality, with hundreds of distinct tumor subclones in the different subpopulations from the same sample, the majority detected at a frequency <10-2. By using a lineage trees analysis we observed in all our FL and t-FL cases that the oligoclonal FL population was trapped in a narrow intermediate stage of maturation that maintains the capacity to undergo SHM, but was unable to further differentiate. The presence of such a complex architecture highlights challenges currently encountered in finding a cure for this disease.

Ziv-Av A, Giladi ND, Lee HK, et al.
RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell migration and invasion via interaction with N-WASP and hnRNPK.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19826-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding normal brain tissue. RTVP-1 is highly expressed in GBM and regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells. To further study RTVP-1 effects we performed a pull-down assay using His-tagged RTVP-1 followed by mass spectrometry and found that RTVP-1 was associated with the actin polymerization regulator, N-WASP. This association was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. We found that RTVP-1 increased cell spreading, migration and invasion and these effects were at least partly mediated by N-WASP. Another protein which was found by the pull-down assay to interact with RTVP-1 is hnRNPK. This protein has been recently reported to associate with and to inhibit the effect of N-WASP on cell spreading. hnRNPK decreased cell migration, spreading and invasion in glioma cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we validated the interactions of hnRNPK with N-WASP and RTVP-1 in glioma cells. In addition, we found that overexpression of RTVP-1 decreased the association of N-WASP and hnRNPK. In summary, we report that RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell spreading, migration and invasion and that these effects are mediated via interaction with N-WASP and by interfering with the inhibitory effect of hnRNPK on the function of this protein.

Giladi ND, Ziv-Av A, Lee HK, et al.
RTVP-1 promotes mesenchymal transformation of glioma via a STAT-3/IL-6-dependent positive feedback loop.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(26):22680-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, exhibit increased invasiveness and resistance to anti-tumor treatments. We explored the role of RTVP-1, a glioma-associated protein that promotes glioma cell migration, in the mesenchymal transformation of GBM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrated that RTVP-1 expression was higher in mesenchymal GBM and predicted tumor recurrence and poor clinical outcome. ChiP analysis revealed that the RTVP-1 promoter binds STAT3 and C/EBPβ, two master transcription factors that regulate mesenchymal transformation of GBM. In addition, IL-6 induced RTVP-1 expression in a STAT3-dependent manner. RTVP-1 increased the migration and mesenchymal transformation of glioma cells. Similarly, overexpression of RTVP-1 in human neural stem cells induced mesenchymal differentiation, whereas silencing of RTVP-1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs) decreased the mesenchymal transformation and stemness of these cells. Silencing of RTVP-1 also increased the survival of mice bearing GSC-derived xenografts. Using gene array analysis of RTVP-1 silenced glioma cells we identified IL-6 as a mediator of RTVP-1 effects on the mesenchymal transformation and migration of GSCs, therefore acting in a positive feedback loop by upregulating RTVP-1 expression via the STAT3 pathway. Collectively, these results implicate RTVP-1 as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM.

Chin CC, Li JM, Lee KF, et al.
Selective β2-AR Blockage Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Growth Through Regulation of EGFR-Akt/ERK1/2 Signaling, G1-Phase Arrest, and Apoptosis.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(2):459-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The stress-upregulated catecholamines-activated β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors (β1/2-ARs) have been shown to accelerate the progression of cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the underlying mechanism of the inhibition of β1/2-ARs signaling for the treatment of CRC and elucidated the significance of β2-AR expression in CRC in vitro and in clinical samples. The impacts of β1/2-AR antagonists in CRC in vitro and CRC-xenograft in vivo were examined. We found that repression of β2-AR but not β1-AR signaling selectively suppressed cell viability, induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest, caused both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways-mediated apoptosis of specific CRC cells and inhibited CRC-xenograft growth in vivo. Moreover, the expression of β2-AR was not consistent with the progression of CRC in vitro or in clinical samples. Our data evidence that the expression profiles, signaling, and blockage of β2-AR have a unique pattern in CRC comparing to other cancers. β2-AR antagonism selectively suppresses the growth of CRC accompanying active β2-AR signaling, which potentially carries wild-type KRAS, in vitro and in vivo via the inhibition of β2-AR transactivated EFGR-Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, β2-AR blockage might be a potential therapeutic strategy for combating the progressions of β2-AR-dependent CRC.

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