Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ANXA1 (cancer-related)
Shin J, Song IS, Pak JH, Jang SWUpregulation of annexin A1 expression by butyrate in human melanoma cells induces invasion by inhibiting E-cadherin expression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14577-14584 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the metastasis of epithelial cancer cells. Butyrate, which is produced from dietary fiber by colonic bacterial fermentation, has been reported to influence EMT. However, some studies have reported that butyrate promotes EMT, while others have reported an inhibitory effect. To clarify these controversial results, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism by which butyrate can influence EMT. In this study, we examined the potential role of annexin A1 (ANXA1), which was previously reported to promote EMT in breast cancer cells, as a mediator of EMT regulation by butyrate. We found that ANXA1 mRNA and protein were expressed in highly invasive melanoma cell lines (A2058 and A375), but not in SK-MEL-5 cells, which are less invasive. We also showed that butyrate induced ANXA1 mRNA and protein expression and promoted EMT-related cell invasion in SK-MEL-5 cells. Downregulation of ANXA1 expression using specific small interfering RNAs in butyrate-treated SK-MEL-5 cells resulted in increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreased cell invasion. Moreover, overexpressing ANXA1 decreased the expression of the E-cadherin. Collectively, these results indicate that butyrate induces the expression of ANXA1 in human melanoma cells, which then promotes invasion through activating the EMT signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: Some plants had been used in the treatment of cancer and one of these has attracted scientific interest, the Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli), used in the treatment of asthma, ulcers, warts has active components with activities scientifically proven as antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer.
METHODS: We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), on the morphology, cell proliferation and gene expression. The Hep-2 cells were cultivated in complete medium (MEM 10 %) and treated with E. tirucalli latex for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After statistically analyzing the proliferation of the tested cells, the cells were cultivated again for RNA extraction and the Rapid Subtractive Hybridization (RaSH) technique was used to identify genes with altered expression. The genes found using the RaSH technique were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) using Ingenuity Systems.
RESULTS: The five genes found to have differential expression were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Though treatment with E. tirucalli latex did not change the cell morphology in comparison to control samples, but the cell growth was significantly decreased. The RaSH showed change in the expression of some genes, including ANXA1, TCEA1, NGFRAP1, ITPR1 and CD55, which are associated with inflammatory response, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, calcium ion transport regulation and complement system, respectively. The E. tirucalli latex treatment down-regulated ITPR1 and up-regulated ANXA1 and CD55 genes, and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR.
CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the involvement of E. tirucalli latex in the altered expression of genes involved in tumorigenic processes, which could potentially be applied as a therapeutic indicator of larynx cancer.
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin superfamily. Previous studies have reported that ANXA1 is highly expressed in various types of malignant tumor; however, its role in the progression of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the oncogenic role of ANXA1 in NSCLC cells in vitro. RNA interference was used to downregulate ANXA1 expression in A549 and H1299 cells using a small interfering RNA lentiviral vector. Subsequently, cell proliferation and migration were detected using Cell Counting kit‑8, clone formation, wound healing and Transwell chamber assays. Successful transfection was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy, which demonstrated that ANXA1 had been efficiently inhibited. ANXA1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence suggesting that ANXA1 may contribute to the growth and invasion of NSCLC cell lines, and ANXA1 may be exploited as an in vitro therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.
Zhong BL, Bian LJ, Wang GM, et al.Identification of key genes involved in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(4):664-72 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: As an invasive cancer, breast cancer is the most common tumour in women and is with high mortality. To study the mechanisms of HER2-positive breast cancer, we analyzed microarray of GSE52194.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSE52194 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus including 5 HER2-positive breast cancer samples and 3 normal breast samples. Using cuffdiff software, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were screened. Functions of the DEGs were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed using Cytoscape and modules of the PPI network were screened by CFinder. Moreover, lncRNA-DEG pairs were screened.
RESULTS: Total 209 lncRNA transcriptions were predicted, and 996 differentially expressed transcriptions were screened. Besides, FOS had interaction relationships with EGR1 and SOD2 separately in module E and F of the PPI network for the DEGs. Moreover, there were many lncRNA-DEG pairs (e.g. TCONS_00003876-EGR1, TCONS_00003876-FOS, lnc-HOXC4-3:1-FOS, lnc-HOXC4-3:1-BCL6B, lnc-TEAD4-1:1-FOS and lnc-TEAD4-1:1-BCL6B), meanwhile, co-expressed DEGs of TCONS_00003876, lnc-HOXC4-3:1 and lnc-TEAD4-1:1 were enriched in p53 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and cancer-related pathways, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1, EGR1, BCL6, SOD2, FOS, TCONS_00003876, lnc-HOXC4-3:1 and lnc-TEAD4-1:1 might play a role in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Despite the approval of numerous molecular targeted drugs, long-term antiproliferative efficacy is rarely achieved and therapy resistance remains a central obstacle of cancer care. Combined inhibition of multiple cancer-driving pathways promises to improve antiproliferative efficacy. HIF-1 is a driver of gastric cancer and considered to be an attractive target for therapy. We noted that gastric cancer cells are able to functionally compensate the stable loss of HIF-1α. Via transcriptomics we identified a group of upregulated genes in HIF-1α-deficient cells and hypothesized that these genes confer survival upon HIF-1α loss. Strikingly, simultaneous knock-down of HIF-1α and Annexin A1 (ANXA1), one of the identified genes, resulted in complete cessation of proliferation. Using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics, oxidative and reductive glutamine metabolism was found to be significantly impaired in HIF-1α/ANXA1-deficient cells, potentially explaining the proliferation defect. In summary, we present a conceptually novel application of stable gene inactivation enabling in-depth deconstruction of resistance mechanisms. In theory, this experimental approach is applicable to any cancer-driving gene or pathway and promises to identify various new targets for combination therapies.
Wei D, Zeng Y, Xing X, et al.Proteome Differences between Hepatitis B Virus Genotype-B- and Genotype-C-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics.
J Proteome Res. 2016; 15(2):487-98 [PubMed
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in southeast Asia where HBV genotype B and genotype C are the most prevalent. Viral genotypes have been reported to significantly affect the clinical outcomes of HCC. However, the underlying molecular differences among different genotypes of HBV virus infected HCC have not been revealed. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology integrated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify the proteome differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. In brief, a total of 83 proteins in the surrounding noncancerous tissues and 136 proteins in the cancerous tissues between HBV genotype-B- and genotype-C-induced HCC were identified, respectively. This information revealed that there might be different molecular mechanisms of the tumorigenesis and development of HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Furthermore, our results indicate that the two proteins ARFIP2 and ANXA1 might be potential biomarkers for distinguishing the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Thus, the quantitative proteomic analysis revealed molecular differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC, and might provide fundamental information for further deep study.
Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.
Padden J, Ahrens M, Kälsch J, et al.Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Discovered by Proteomic Analysis of Microdissected Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(3):1072-82 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two highly aggressive cancer types that arise from epithelial cells of the pancreatobiliary system. Owing to their histological and morphological similarity, differential diagnosis between CCC and metastasis of PDAC located in the liver frequently proves an unsolvable issue for pathologists. The detection of biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity for the differentiation of these tumor types would therefore be a valuable tool. Here, we address this problem by comparing microdissected CCC and PDAC tumor cells from nine and eleven cancer patients, respectively, in a label-free proteomics approach. The novel biomarker candidates were subsequently verified by immunohistochemical staining of 73 CCC, 78 primary, and 18 metastatic PDAC tissue sections. In the proteome analysis, we found 180 proteins with a significantly differential expression between CCC and PDAC cells (p value < 0.05, absolute fold change > 2). Nine candidate proteins were chosen for an immunohistochemical verification out of which three showed very promising results. These were the annexins ANXA1, ANXA10, and ANXA13. For the correct classification of PDAC, ANXA1 showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85% and ANXA10 a sensitivity of 90% at a specificity of 66%. ANXA13 was higher abundant in CCC. It presented a sensitivity of 84% at a specificity of 55%. In metastatic PDAC tissue ANXA1 and ANXA10 showed similar staining behavior as in the primary PDAC tumors (13/18 and 17/18 positive, respectively). ANXA13, however, presented positive staining in eight out of eighteen secondary PDAC tumors and was therefore not suitable for the differentiation of these from CCC. We conclude that ANXA1 and ANXA10 are promising biomarker candidates with high diagnostic values for the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic CCC and metastatic liver tumors deriving from PDAC.
To search for reliable biomarkers and drug targets for management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we performed a global proteomic analysis of a pair of HCC cell lines with distinct differentiation statuses using 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. In total, 106 and 55 proteins were successfully identified from the total cell lysate and the cytosolic, nuclear and membrane fractions in well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) HCC clonal variants, respectively. Among these proteins, nine spots corresponding to proteins differentially expressed between HCC cell types were selected and confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Notably, Annexin 1 (ANX1), ANX-2, vimentin and stress-associated proteins, such as GRP78, HSP75, HSC-70, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and heat shock protein-27 (HSP27), were exclusively up-regulated in SK-Hep-1 cells. Elevated levels of ANX-4 and antioxidant/metabolic enzymes, such as MnSOD, peroxiredoxin, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-enolase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, were observed in HepG2 cells. We functionally demonstrated that ANX1 and HSP27 were abundantly overexpressed only in highly invasive types of HCC cells, such as Mahlavu and SK-Hep-1. Knockdown of ANX1 or HSP27 in HCC cells resulted in a severe reduction in cell migration. The in-vitro observations of ANX1 and HSP27 expressions in HCC sample was demonstrated by immunohistochemical stains performed on HCC tissue microarrays. Poorly differentiated HCC tended to have stronger ANX1 and HSP27 expressions than well-differentiated or moderately differentiated HCC. Collectively, our findings suggest that ANX1 and HSP27 are two novel biomarkers for predicting invasive HCC phenotypes and could serve as potential treatment targets.
Pathak BR, Breed AA, Apte S, et al.Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and affects expression of PSA and ANXA1.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 411(1-2):11-21 [PubMed
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Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) is upregulated in prostate cancer as compared to the normal prostate tissue. Higher expression of CRISP-3 has been linked to poor prognosis and hence it has been thought to act as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer. It is proposed to have a role in innate immunity but its role in prostate cancer is still unknown. In order to understand its function, its expression was stably knocked down in LNCaP cells. CRISP-3 knockdown did not affect cell viability but resulted in reduced invasiveness. Global gene expression changes upon CRISP-3 knockdown were identified by microarray analysis. Microarray data were quantitatively validated by evaluating the expression of seven candidate genes in three independent stable clones. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes identified cell adhesion, cell motility, and ion transport to be affected among other biological processes. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as Kallikrein 3) was the top most downregulated gene whose expression was also validated at protein level. Interestingly, expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known anti-inflammatory protein, was upregulated upon CRISP-3 knockdown. Re-introduction of CRISP-3 into the knockdown clone reversed the effect on invasiveness and also led to increased PSA expression. These results suggest that overexpression of CRISP-3 in prostate tumor may maintain higher PSA expression and lower ANXA1 expression. Our data also indicate that poor prognosis associated with higher CRISP-3 expression could be due to its role in cell invasion.
Sonnenblick A, Brohée S, Fumagalli D, et al.Integrative proteomic and gene expression analysis identify potential biomarkers for adjuvant trastuzumab resistance: analysis from the Fin-her phase III randomized trial.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):30306-16 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trastuzumab is a remarkably effective therapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)--positive breast cancer (BC). However, not all women with high levels of HER2 benefit from trastuzumab. By integrating mRNA and protein expression data from Reverse-Phase Protein Array Analysis (RPPA) in HER2-positive BC, we developed gene expression metagenes that reflect pathway activation levels. Next we assessed the ability of these metagenes to predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab using gene expression data from two independent datasets.10 metagenes passed external validation (false discovery rate [fdr] < 0.05) and showed biological relevance with their pathway of origin. These metagenes were further screened for their association with trastuzumab resistance. An association with trastuzumab resistance was observed and validated only for the AnnexinA1 metagene (ANXA1). In the randomised phase III Fin-her study, tumours with low levels of the ANXA1 metagene showed a benefit from trastuzumab (multivariate: hazard ratio [HR] for distant recurrence = 0.16[95%CI 0.05-0.5]; p = 0.002; fdr = 0.03), while high expression levels of the ANXA1 metagene were associated with a lack of benefit to trastuzmab (HR = 1.29[95%CI 0.55-3.02]; p = 0.56). The association of ANXA1 with trastuzumab resistance was successfully validated in an independent series of subjects who had received trastuzumab with chemotherapy (Log Rank; p = 0.01).In conclusion, in HER2-positive BC, some proteins are associated with distinct gene expression profiles. Our findings identify the ANXA1metagene as a novel biomarker for trastuzumab resistance.
Bizzarro V, Belvedere R, Milone MR, et al.Annexin A1 is involved in the acquisition and maintenance of a stem cell-like/aggressive phenotype in prostate cancer cells with acquired resistance to zoledronic acid.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25076-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we have characterized the role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in the acquisition and maintenance of stem-like/aggressive features in prostate cancer (PCa) cells comparing zoledronic acid (ZA)-resistant DU145R80 with their parental DU145 cells. ANXA1 is over-expressed in DU145R80 cells and its down-regulation abolishes their resistance to ZA. Moreover, ANXA1 induces DU145 and DU145R80 invasiveness acting through formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). Also, ANXA1 knockdown is able to inhibit epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to reduce focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and metalloproteases (MMP)-2/9 expression in PCa cells. DU145R80 show a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like signature with a high expression of CSC markers including CD44, CD133, NANOG, Snail, Oct4 and ALDH7A1 and CSC-related genes as STAT3. Interestingly, ANXA1 knockdown induces these cells to revert from a putative prostate CSC to a more differentiated phenotype resembling DU145 PCa cell signature. Similar results are obtained concerning some drug resistance-related genes such as ATP Binding Cassette G2 (ABCG2) and Lung Resistant Protein (LRP). Our study provides new insights on the role of ANXA1 protein in PCa onset and progression.
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: Clinical-pathological information and follow-up data were collected from nine breast cancer studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (n = 5,752) and from one study of familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 107). ANXA1 expression was scored based on the percentage of immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. Survival analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model.
RESULTS: The frequency of ANXA1 positive tumors was higher in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations than in BCAC patients, with 48.6 % versus 12.4 %, respectively; P <0.0001. ANXA1 was also highly expressed in BCAC tumors that were poorly differentiated, triple negative, EGFR-CK5/6 positive or had developed in patients at a young age. In the first 5 years of follow-up, patients with ANXA1 positive tumors had a worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than ANXA1 negative (HRadj = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.73), but the association weakened after 10 years (HRadj = 1.13; 95 % CI = 0.91-1.40). ANXA1 was a significant independent predictor of survival in HER2+ patients (10-years BCSS: HRadj = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.17-2.45).
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1 is overexpressed in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and correlated with poor prognosis features: triple negative and poorly differentiated tumors. ANXA1 might be a biomarker candidate for breast cancer survival prediction in high risk groups such as HER2+ cases.
Prates J, Franco-Salla GB, Dinarte Dos Santos AR, et al.ANXA1Ac₂₋₂₆ peptide reduces ID1 expression in cervical carcinoma cultures.
Gene. 2015; 570(2):248-54 [PubMed
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Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide and is associated with genetic alterations, infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. The idea that inflammation is involved in tumorigenesis is supported by the frequent appearance of cancer in areas of chronic inflammation. On the other hand, the inflammatory response is controlled by the action of anti-inflammatory mediators, among these mediators, annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa protein was detected as a modulator of inflammatory processes and is expressed by tumor cells. The study was carried out on the epithelial cancer cell line (SiHa) treated with the peptide of annexin A1 (ANXA1Ac2-26). We combined subtraction hybridization approach, Ingenuity Systems software and quantitative PCR, in order to evaluate gene expression influenced by ANXA1. We observed that ANXA1Ac2-26 inhibited proliferation in SiHa cells after 72h. In these cells, 55 genes exhibited changes in expression levels in response to peptide treatment. Six genes were selected and the expression results of 5 up-regulated genes (TPT1, LDHA, NCOA3, HIF1A, RAB13) and one down-regulated gene (ID1) were research by real time quantitative PCR. Four more genes (BMP4, BMPR1B, SMAD1 and SMAD4) of the ID1 pathway were investigated and only one (BMPR1B) shows the same down regulation. The data indicate the involvement of ANXA1Ac2-26 in the altered expression of genes involved in tumorigenic processes, which could potentially be applied as a therapeutic indicator of cervical cancer.
INTRODUCTION: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an anti-inflammatory protein reported to play a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to be deregulated in breast cancer. The exact role of annexin A1 in the biology of breast cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that the annexin A1 plays an oncogenic role in basal subtype of breast cancer by modulating key growth pathway(s).
METHODS: By mining the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Breast Cancer dataset and manipulating annexin A1 levels in breast cancer cell lines, we studied the role of annexin A1 in breast cancer and underlying signaling pathways.
RESULTS: Our in-silico analysis of TCGA-breast cancer dataset demonstrated that annexin A1 mRNA expression is higher in basal subtype compared to luminal and HER2 subtypes. Within the basal subtype, patients show significantly poorer overall survival associated with higher expression of annexin A1. In both TCGA patient samples and cell lines, annexin A1 levels were significantly higher in basal-like breast cancer than luminal and Her2/neu-positive breast cancer. Stable annexin A1 knockdown in TNBC cell lines suppressed the mTOR-S6 pathway likely through activation of AMPK but had no impact on the MAPK, c-Met, and EGFR pathways. In a cell migration assay, annexin A1-depleted TNBC cells showed delayed migration as compared to wild-type cells, which could be responsible for poor patient prognosis in basal like breast cancers that are known to express higher annexin A1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that annexin A1 is prognostic only in patients with basal like breast cancer. This appears to be in part due to the role of annexin A1 in activating mTOR-pS6 pathway.
Zhang X, Li X, Li X, et al.ANXA1 silencing increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to low-concentration arsenic trioxide treatment by inhibiting ERK MAPK activation.
Tumori. 2015 Jul-Aug; 101(4):360-7 [PubMed
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AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (ATO), an antitumor agent, is widely used for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), in which it induces apoptosis. In most solid tumors, ATO disturbs the cell cycle instead of inducing apoptosis. We aimed to determine the exact mechanism underlying the different response of APL to ATO compared with the response of solid tumors.
METHODS: A proteomics-based screening was used to identify the ATO-associated proteins in the human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line, Eca109. The expression levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) in 4 different types of cancer cells were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109 and pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3 cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting ANXA1 and scrambled control siRNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay.
RESULTS: After verification of the mRNA and protein levels in 4 cancer cell lines, ANXA1 and lamin A/B were validated to have increased expression levels after low-concentration ATO treatment. Lower concentrations of ATO, which has no effect on proliferation of cancer cells, induced apoptosis after ANXA1 silencing. Furthermore, overexpression of ANXA1 induced by ATO resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), rendering cancer cells resistant to the agent. In addition, PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to a lower concentration of ATO treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data indicate that overexpression of ANXA1 induced by low-concentration ATO makes cancer cells more resistant to the agent via activated ERK MAPKs. Specific silencing of ANXA1 increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to ATO treatment.
Sangeetha M, Deepa PR, Rishi P, et al.Global gene deregulations in FASN silenced retinoblastoma cancer cells: molecular and clinico-pathological correlations.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(11):2676-94 [PubMed
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Activation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) enzyme in the de novo lipogenic pathway has been reported in various cancers including retinoblastoma (RB), a pediatric ocular cancer. The present study investigates lipogenesis-dependent survival of RB cancer cells and the associated molecular pathways in FASN silenced RB cells. The siRNA-mediated FASN gene knockdown in RB cancer cells (Y79, WERI RB1) repressed FASN mRNA and protein expressions, and decreased cancer cell viability. Global gene expression microarray analysis was performed in optimized FASN siRNA transfected and untransfected RB cells. Deregulation of various downstream cell signaling pathways such as EGFR (n = 55 genes), TGF-beta (n = 45 genes), cell cycle (n = 41 genes), MAPK (n = 39 genes), lipid metabolism (n = 23 genes), apoptosis (n = 21 genes), GPCR signaling (n = 21 genes), and oxidative phosporylation (n = 18 genes) were observed. The qRT-PCR validation in FASN knockdown RB cells revealed up-regulation of ANXA1, DAPK2, and down-regulation of SKP2, SREBP1c, RXRA, ACACB, FASN, HMGCR, USP2a genes that favored the anti-cancer effect of lipogenic inhibition in RB. The expression of these genes in primary RB tumor tissues were correlated with FASN expression, based on their clinico-pathological features. The differential phosphorylation status of the various PI3K/AKT pathway proteins (by western analysis) indicated that the FASN gene silencing indeed mediated apoptosis in RB cells through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Scratch assay clearly revealed that FASN silencing reduced the invading property of RB cancer cells. Dependence of RB cancer cells on lipid metabolism for survival and progression is implicated. Thus targeting FASN is a promising strategy in RB therapy.
Hiramoto H, Dansako H, Takeda M, et al.Annexin A1 negatively regulates viral RNA replication of hepatitis C virus.
Acta Med Okayama. 2015; 69(2):71-8 [PubMed
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Persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) often causes chronic hepatitis, and then shows a high rate of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To clarify the mechanism of the persistent HCV infection is considered to be important for the discovery of new target(s) for the development of anti-HCV strategies. In the present study, we found that the expression level of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in human hepatoma cell line Li23-derived D7 cells was remarkably lower than that in parental Li23 cells, whereas the susceptibility of D7 cells to HCV infection was much higher than that of Li23 cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that ANXA1 negatively regulates persistent HCV infection through the inhibition of viral RNA replication. The results revealed that HCV production was significantly inhibited without a concomitant reduction in the amount of lipid droplets in the D7 cells stably expressing exogenous ANXA1. Further, we demonstrated that ANXA1 negatively regulated the step of viral RNA replication rather than that of viral entry in human hepatocytes. These results suggest that ANXA1 would be a novel target for the development of anti-HCV strategies.
Mallawaaratchy DM, Buckland ME, McDonald KL, et al.Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(5):425-41 [PubMed
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E(-04)) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin α5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin α5β1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM.
Okano M, Kumamoto K, Saito M, et al.Upregulated Annexin A1 promotes cellular invasion in triple-negative breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(3):1064-70 [PubMed
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Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-linked protein, involved in anti-inflammatory effects, regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. While many studies have investigated the ANXA1 expression in various tumor types, the role of ANXA1 is not fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the ANXA1 expression in 211 breast cancer patients and compared the levels with clinicopathological factors. ANXA1 was positively expressed in 31 (14.7%) of the 211 cases in our cohort, and these positive cases were associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (P=0.007) and venous invasion (P=0.028). The in vitro cell experiment found that the MDA-MB-231 cell line, which is a TNBC cell line, highly expressed ANXA1. Using this cell line, the functional role of ANXA1 in breast cancer was revealed and the knockdown of ANXA1 by specific siRNA demonstrated a significant reduction in cellular invasion. Further experiments indicated that ANXA1 was induced by hypoxia with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induction. These results suggested that ANXA1, which enhanced breast cancer invasion and metastasis under hypoxia, were significantly associated with the worst patient outcome. This is particularly noted in TNBC, the group of breast cancer with the worst outcome for which new therapeutic implications are required.
Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein implicated in cancer. ANXA1 was previously shown to be regulated by hsa-miR-196a. However, whether ANXA1 itself regulates microRNA (miR) expression is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of miR by ANXA1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells. MCF7-EV (Empty vector) and MCF7-V5 (ANXA1-V5 expressing cells) were subjected to a miR microarray. Microarray analysis revealed a number of miRNAs which were dysregulated in MCF7-V5 cells. 2 novel miRNAs (miR562 and miR26b*) were validated, cloned and functionally characterized. As ANXA1 constitutively activates NF-κB activity to modulate breast cancer metastasis, we found that miR26b* and miR562 directly targeted the canonical NF-κB pathway by targeting the 3' UTR and inhibiting expression of Rel A (p65) and NF-κB1 (p105) respectively. MiR562 inhibited wound healing, which was reversed when ANXA1 was overexpressed. Overexpression of either miR562 or miR26b* in MCF-7 cells enhanced endothelial tube formation when cocultured with human umbilical cord endothelial cells while conversely, treatment of MCF7 cells with either anti-miR562 or anti-miR26b* inhibited endothelial tube formation after co-culture. Further analysis of miR562 revealed that miR562-transfected cell conditioned media enhances endothelial cell tube formation, indicating that miR562 increased angiogenic secreted factors from MCF-7 breast tumor cells. TNFα was increased upon overexpression of miR562, which was reversed when ANXA1 was co-transfected In conclusion, this data suggests that ANXA1-regulated miR26b* and miR562 may play a role in wound healing and tumor-induced endothelial cell tube formation by targeting NF-κB expression and point towards a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Suh YE, Raulf N, Gäken J, et al.MicroRNA-196a promotes an oncogenic effect in head and neck cancer cells by suppressing annexin A1 and enhancing radioresistance.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(5):1021-34 [PubMed
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Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Up to 50% of patients with locally advanced disease relapse after radical treatment and there is therefore a need to develop predictive bomarkers for clinical use that allow the selection of patients who are likely to respond. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of a panel of HNSCC tumours with and without recurrent disease after surgery and radiotherapy detected miR-196a as one of the highest upregulated miRNAs in the poor prognostic group. To further study the role of miR-196a, its expression was determined in eight head and neck cancer cell lines. Overexpression of miR-196a in HNSCC cells, with low endogenous miR-196a expression, significantly increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Conversely, miR-196a knockdown in cells with high endogenous expression levels significantly reduced oncogenic behaviour. Importantly, overexpression of miR-196a increased radioresistance of cells as measured by gamma H2AX staining and MTT survival assay. Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known target of miR-196a, was found to be directly modulated by miR-196a as measured by luciferase assay and confirmed by Western blot analysis. ANXA1 knockdown in HNSCC exhibited similar phenotypic effects to miR-196a overexpression, suggesting the oncogenic effect of miR-196a may at least be partly regulated through suppression of ANXA1. In conclusion, this study identifies miR-196a as a potential important biomarker of prognosis and response of HNSCC to radiotherapy. Furthermore, our data suggest that miR-196a and/or its target gene ANXA1 could represent important therapeutic targets in HNSCC.
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa multifunctional protein, is over-expressed in tissues from patients of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) where the protein seems to be associated with malignant transformation and poor prognosis.
METHODS: The expression and localization of ANXA1 in MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, BxPC-3 and CAPAN-2 cells were detected by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence assay. Expression and activation of Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs) were shown through flow cytometry/PCR and FURA assay, respectively. To investigate the role of ANXA1 in PC cell migration and invasion, we performed in vitro wound-healing and matrigel invasion assays.
RESULTS: In all the analyzed PC cell lines, a huge expression and a variable localization of ANXA1 in sub-cellular compartments were observed. We confirmed the less aggressive phenotype of BxPC-3 and CAPAN-2 compared with PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, through the evaluation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) markers. Then, we tested MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell migration and invasiveness rate which was inhibited by specific ANXA1 siRNAs. Both the cell lines expressed FPR-1 and -2. Ac2-26, an ANXA1 mimetic peptide, induced intracellular calcium release, consistent with FPR activation, and significantly increased cell migration/invasion rate. Interestingly, in MIA PaCa-2 cells we found a cleaved form of ANXA1 (33 kDa) that localizes at cellular membranes and is secreted outside the cells, as confirmed by MS analysis. The importance of the secreted form of ANXA1 in cellular motility was confirmed by the administration of ANXA1 blocking antibody that inhibited migration and invasion rate in MIA PaCa-2 but not in PANC-1 cells that lack the 33 kDa ANXA1 form and show a lower degree of invasiveness. Finally, the treatment of PANC-1 cells with MIA PaCa-2 supernatants significantly increased the migration rate of these cells.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new insights on the role of ANXA1 protein in PC progression. Our findings suggest that ANXA1 protein could regulate metastasis by favouring cell migration/invasion intracellularly, as cytoskeleton remodelling factor, and extracellularly like FPR ligand.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin a1 (ANXA1) in adriamycin-resistant human bladder cancer cell line (pumc-91/ADM) compared with the parental cell line (pumc-91) and its relevance to the drug resistance of bladder cancer, as well as explore the relevance of ANXA1 in recurrent bladder cancer tissues as pertinent to relapse.
METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot were implemented to research the level of ANXA1 in two cell lines (pumc-91/ADM and pumc-91). Immunohistochemistry was applied to explore ANXA1 expression in bladder cancer tissues of different intervals of relapse. The association of ANXA1 with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 was downregulated in drug-resistant cell line pumc-91/ADM compared to pumc-91. The bladder cancer tissues recurring two years later exhibited higher ANXA1 levels. ANXA1 expression level was positively correlated with T stage, while it was not connected with histological grade strongly. The expression level and influencing factors of ANXA1 in recurrent tissues of bladder cancer were clarified for the first time.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 may become a promising marker to predict the recurrence and drug resistance of bladder cancer and provide guidance for surveillance.
Prevete N, Liotti F, Visciano C, et al.The formyl peptide receptor 1 exerts a tumor suppressor function in human gastric cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(29):3826-38 [PubMed
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N-formyl peptide receptors (FPR1, FPR2 and FPR3) are involved in innate immunity, inflammation and cancer. FPR expression, initially described in immune cells, was later observed in non-hematopoietic cell populations and tissues. Several studies suggested a role for FPRs in the progression of various tumor histotypes, including gastric cancer (GC), for which a positive association with a specific FPR1 polymorphism has recently been described. We previously showed that FPRs are expressed on gastric epithelium and are required for wound repair and restitution of barrier integrity. Here we assess the role of FPRs in GC. We characterized the functions of FPRs in GC epithelial cells (MKN28, AGS and MKN45) cultured in vitro by assessing migration, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Activation of each FPR induced the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and migration of GC cells in culture. Blocking compounds or RNA interference of each FPR reverted these effects. We also defined the in vivo tumorigenic potential of GC epithelial cells silenced for FPRs by xenograft experiments in immunocompromised mice. Interestingly, FPR1 silencing in GC cells (shFPR1) significantly enhanced xenograft growth with respect to shCTR, shFPR2 and shFPR3 xenografts, because of augmented vessel density and cell proliferation. Accordingly, HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA levels were higher in shFPR1 xenografts than in controls. Moreover, the in vitro production of proangiogenic factors in response to FPR2/3 agonists (WKYMVm, LL-37, uPA, uPAR84-95, AnxA1) or to other proinflammatory mediators (IL-1α) was higher in shFPR1 GC cells than in shCTR, shFPR2 and shFPR3 cells, suggesting that FPR1 functions as an inhibitor of CG angiogenesis. Thus, we propose that FPR1 stimulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach to counteract tumor angiogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Annexin-1 contributes to the pathological consequence and sequelae of most serious human diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although diverse roles in carcinogenesis have been postulated, its role in human gastrointestinal cancers still remains controversial.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression profiles of ANXA1 were studied in human esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, liver, and bile duct cancers using Real-Time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Gain/loss-of-function by pcDNA3.1-ANXA1 and ANXA1-shRNA was performed in gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: ANXA1 was widely expressed in adult gastrointestinal tissue. All methods showed that ANXA1 was down-regulated in esophageal, gastric, and bile duct cancers, but up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Forced ANXA1 expression in gastric cancer cells leads to cell growth inhibition and concomitantly modulates COX-2 expression. We confirm loss of ANXA1 and overexpression of COX-2 in clinical gastric cancer, suggesting that the anti-proliferative function of ANXA1 against COX-2 production might be lost.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1 expression is "tumor-specific" and might play a multifaceted role in cancer development and progression. ANXA1 was widely expressed in normal gastrointestinal epithelium, suggesting its role in the maintenance of cellular boundaries. Furthermore, ANXA1 regulates GC cell viability via the COX-2 pathway.
OBJECTIVE: Annexin-A1 (ANXA1/AnxA1) and galectin-1 (LGALS1/Gal-1) are mediators that play an important role in the inflammatory response and are also associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated mRNA and protein expression in precancerous gastric lesions that participate in the progression cascade to gastric cancer, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric ulcer (GU).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze the relative quantification levels (RQ) of ANXA1 and LGALS1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively.
RESULTS: Increased relative expression levels of ANXA1 were found in 100% of cases, both in IM (mean RQ = 6.22 ± 0.06) and in GU (mean RQ = 6.69 ± 0.10). However, the LGALS1 presented basal expression in both groups (IM: mean RQ = 0.35 ± 0.07; GU: mean RQ = 0.69 ± 0.09). Immunohistochemistry revealed significant positive staining for both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 proteins in the epithelial nucleus and cytoplasm as well as in the stroma of the IM and GU groups (P < 0.05) but absence or low immunorectivity in normal mucosa.
CONCLUSION: Our results bring an important contribution by evidencing that both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 anti-inflammatory proteins are deregulated in precancerous gastric lesions, suggesting their involvement in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis, possibly due to an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa.
BACKGROUND: Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has emerged as a promising anticancer drug for multiple cancers. Recent studies have indicated that sodium butyrate could inhibit the progression of prostate cancer; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of sodium butyrate action in prostate cancer DU145 cells.
METHODS: The inhibitory effects of NaB on cell growth were detected by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis of DU145 cells stained with annexin V and PI. Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence microscopes were used to observe the nuclear morphology of DU145 cells after treatment with NaB. ANXA1 knockdown cells were established through transfection with ANXA1 siRNA. ANXA1 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Bcl-2, Bax, ANXA1, ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were detected by western blot.
RESULTS: NaB significantly inhibited the growth and induction apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 in DU145 cells are decreased and expression of the pro-apoptosis gene Bax and Bak increased after NaB treatment. Further studies have demonstrated that NaB up-regulated the expression of ANXA1 and that the tumor inhibition action of NaB was reduced markedly through knockdown of the ANXA1 gene in DU145 cells. Moreover, the siANXA1 cells showed that cell proliferation increased and cell apoptosis was induced by the inactivation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK).
CONCLUSION: Our results support a significant correlation between NaB functions and ANXA1 expression in prostate cancer, and pave the way for further studying the molecular mechanism of NaB actions in cancers.
Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family and is overexpression in malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FoxM1lead to glioma carcinogenesis and progression are still not well known. In the present study, we show that Anxa1 was overexpression in gliomas and predicted the poor outcome. Furthermore, Anxa1 closely related to the FoxM1 expression and was a direct transcriptional target of FoxM1. Overexpression of FoxM1 up-regulated Anxa1 expression, whereas suppression of FoxM1 expression down-regulated Anxa1 expression in glioma cells. Finally, FoxM1 enhanced the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in Anxa1-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide both clinical and mechanistic evidences that FoxM1 contributes to glioma development by directly up-regulating Anxa1 expression.
AIM: To evaluate a new immunohistological marker, annexin A1 (ANXA1), in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Expression of ANXA1 protein was investigated in liver tissues from patients with CCA and HCC by immunohistochemistry. Its expression on differences stages of tumor development was investigated in hamster CCA tissues induced by Opisthorchis viverrini and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Moreover, mRNA expression of ANXA1 was assessed in CCA cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and silencing of ANXA1 gene expression using small interfering RNA.
RESULTS: In human CCA tissue arrays, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the positive expression of ANXA1 was 94.1% (64/68 cases) consisting of a high expression (66.2%, 45/68 cases) and a low expression (33.8%, 23/68 cases). However, expression of ANXA1 protein was negative in all histologic patterns for HCC (46/46 cases) and healthy individuals (6/6 cases). In hamster with opisthorchiasis-associated CCA, the expression of ANXA1 was observed in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells, bile duct epithelia and tumor cells. Grading scores of ANXA1 expression were significantly increased with tumor progression. In addition, mRNA expression of ANXA1 significantly increased in all of the various CCA cell lines tested compared to an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1). Suppressing the ANXA1 gene significantly reduced the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9, and transforming growth factor-β genes, but increased nuclear factor-κB gene expression.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 is highly expressed in CCA, but low in HCC, suggesting it may serve as a new immunohistochemical marker of CCA. ANXA1 may play a role in opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.