Gene Summary

Gene:ATF3; activating transcription factor 3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. This gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells, and is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. It is possible that alternative splicing of this gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ATF3 (cancer-related)

Li X, Zang S, Cheng H, et al.
Overexpression of activating transcription factor 3 exerts suppressive effects in HepG2 cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):869-876 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study observed and compared the biological behaviour of HepG2 cells prior and subsequent to the overexpression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Experiments investigating the cytological function by which ATF3 affects liver cancer cells were also performed. MTT, Transwell and flow cytometry assays were used to observe and detect the biological behaviour of HepG2 cells with and without lentivirus (LV)‑ATF3‑enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection. The effects of ATF3 overexpression on cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis and cell cycle progression were evaluated. The LV‑ATF3‑EGFP overexpression vector was successfully constructed, and the HepG2 cells were successfully infected with the vector. Following ATF3 overexpression, cell proliferation was decreased, the rate of cell apoptosis was accelerated and cell cycle progression was slowed (P<0.05). There were no marked changes in cell migration (P>0.05), although there was a trend towards a gradual decrease. In conclusion, ATF3 exerted suppressive effects in HepG2 cells, potentially by inhibiting cancer cell growth, accelerating cell apoptosis, and blocking cell cycle progression. Intervention targeting ATF3 expression may represent a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of human liver cancer.

Du A, Jiang Y, Fan C
NDRG1 Downregulates ATF3 and Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Lung Cancer A549 Cells.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(13):1502-1507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) plays a variety of roles in human cancers. Our previous studies showed that NDRG1 expression is elevated in non-small cell lung cancer and contributes to cancer growth. However, its function in apoptosis and chemoresistance in malignant tumors, including lung cancer, is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of NDRG1 in chemoresistance to cisplatin in lung cancer cells. We found that overexpression of NDRG1 significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer A549 cells, while overexpression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible gene found to be associated with apoptosis in some human cancers, significantly promoted cytotoxicity (

Subbaramaiah K, Iyengar NM, Morrow M, et al.
Prostaglandin E
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(1):361-371 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Obesity increases the risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, are increased in the breast tissue of obese women. Both prostaglandin E

Chen C, Ge C, Liu Z, et al.
ATF3 inhibits the tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via upregulation of CYR61 expression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):263 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers with a high incidence and high mortality in East Asia. Identifying biomarkers and clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of HCC are of great importance. Herein, we report the role and mechanism of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein family of transcription factors in HCC.
METHODS: ATF3 overexpression vector and shRNAs were transfected into HCC cancer cells to upregulate or downregulate ATF3 expression. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the functional role of ATF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. RNA-Seq was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes downstream of ATF3. The dual-luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch-IP) analysis and functional rescue experiments were used to confirm the target gene regulated by ATF3. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) comprising 236 human primary HCC tissues were obtained and immunohistochemical staining were carried out to analyze the clinical significance of ATF3.
RESULTS: The results indicate that ATF3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and mobility of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is a key target for transcriptional regulation by ATF3. Both ATF3 and CYR61 were consistently downregulated in human HCC tissues, and their expression levels were significantly and positively correlated with each other.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that ATF3 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC through targeting and regulating CYR61.

Kha ML, Hesse L, Deisinger F, et al.
The antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 modulates the stress response and phenotype of malignant as well as premalignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by inducing expression of the ATF3 splicing variant ΔZip2.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1461-1476 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. While death rates show declining trends in the majority of cancers, PDAC registers rising rates. Based on the recently described crosstalk between TGF-β1 and Nrf2 in the PDAC development, the involvement of ATF3 and its splice variant ΔZip2 in TGF-β1- and Nrf2-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis was investigated. As demonstrated here, PDAC (Panc1, T3M4) cells or premalignant H6c7 pancreatic ductal epithelial cells differentially express ΔZip2- and ATF3, relating to stronger Nrf2 activity seen in Panc1 cells and TGF-ß1 activity in T3M4 or H6c7 cells, respectively. Treatment with the electrophile/oxidative stress inducer tBHQ or the cytostatic drug gemcitabine strongly elevated ΔZip2 expression in a Nrf2-dependent fashion. The differential expression of ATF3 and ΔZip2 in response to Nrf2 and TGF-ß1 relates to differential ATF3-gene promoter usage, giving rise of distinct splice variants. Nrf2-dependent ΔZip2 expression confers resistance against gemcitabine-induced apoptosis, only partially relating to interference with ATF3 and its proapoptotic activity, e.g., through CHOP-expression. In fact, ΔZip2 autonomously activates expression of cIAP anti-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, ΔZip2 favors and ATF3 suppresses growth and clonal expansion of PDAC cells, again partially independent of each other. Using a Panc1 tumor xenograft model in SCID-beige mice, the opposite activities of ATF3 and ΔZip2 on tumor-growth and chemoresistance were verified in vivo. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed ΔZip2 and Nrf2 coexpression in cancerous and PanIN structures of human PDAC and chronic pancreatitis tissues, respectively, which to some extent was reciprocal to ATF3 expression. It is concluded that depending on selective ATF3-gene promoter usage by Nrf2, the ΔZip2 expression is induced in response to electrophile/oxidative (here through tBHQ) and xenobiotic (here through gemcitabine) stress, providing apoptosis protection and growth advantages to pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This condition may substantially add to pancreatic carcinogenesis driven by chronic inflammation.

Wang Y, Xu H, Zhu B, et al.
Systematic identification of the key candidate genes in breast cancer stroma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: Tumor microenvironment, in particular the stroma, plays an important role in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Investigation of the molecular characteristics of breast cancer stroma may reveal targets for future study.
Methods: The transcriptome profiles of breast cancer stroma and normal breast stroma were compared to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The method was analysis of GSE26910 and GSE10797 datasets. Common DEGs were identified and then analyses of enriched pathways and hub genes were performed.
Results: A total of 146 DEGs were common to GSE26910 and GSE10797. The enriched pathways were associated with "extracellular matrix (ECM) organization", "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion". Network analysis identified six key genes, including
Conclusions: We found that several conserved tumor stromal genes might regulate breast cancer invasion through ECM remodeling. The clinical outcome analyses of

Schaper-Gerhardt K, Walter A, Schmitz-Rode C, et al.
The mTOR-inhibitor Sirolimus decreases the cyclosporine-induced expression of the oncogene ATF3 in human keratinocytes.
J Dermatol Sci. 2018; 92(2):172-180 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Due to their immunosuppressive therapy, organtransplant recipients (OTRs) exhibit a high incidence for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Randomized studies of kidney-transplanted patients indicate a significant lower susceptibility for cSCC among patients receiving the mTOR-inhibitor Sirolimus, compared to patients without mTOR-regimen. The exact mechanism, how mTOR inhibition affects keratinocyte carcinogenesis remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the impact of Sirolimus on the expression level of the oncogene ATF3, which is involved in the development and progression of cSCC.
METHODS: We incubated human keratinocytes, cSSC cell lines and 3D skin equivalents with Sirolimus, exposed the cells to calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and UVA-radiation and measured the expression level of ATF3 by real-time PCR and western blot.
RESULTS: We show that Sirolimus downregulates the expression of ATF3 induced by cyclosporine or cyclosporine plus UV-radiation in keratinocytes. In line with this we demonstrate a decrease in ATF3 expression, by incubating 3D skin equivalents with Sirolimus prior to cyclosporine and UV-light. However, Sirolimus has no significant impact on the ATF3 expression levels of cyclosporine stimulated cSCC cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrates that Sirolimus downregulates the CNI or UV-induced ATF3 expression in human keratinocytes, which could be a potential molecular mechanism how Sirolimus reduces cSCC in OTRs. The lack of ATF3 suppression by Sirolimus in cSCC cell lines fits to observations from clinical studies which demonstrated a clinical benefit from the switch to a mTOR-regimen in patients with low tumor burden in early stage of disease.

Rohini M, Haritha Menon A, Selvamurugan N
Role of activating transcription factor 3 and its interacting proteins under physiological and pathological conditions.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 120(Pt A):310-317 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-responsive factor that belongs to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors. ATF3 expression is stimulated by various factors such as hypoxia, cytokines, and chemotherapeutic and DNA damaging agents. Upon stimulation, ATF3 can form homodimers or heterodimers with other members of the AP-1 family to repress or activate transcription. Under physiological conditions, ATF3 expression is transient and plays a pivotal role in controlling the expression of cell-cycle regulators and tumor suppressor, DNA repair, and apoptosis genes. However, under pathological conditions such as those during breast cancer, a sustained and prolonged expression of ATF3 has been observed. In this review, the structure and function of ATF3, its posttranslational modifications (PTM), and its interacting proteins are discussed with a special emphasis on breast cancer metastasis.

Rohini M, Gokulnath M, Miranda PJ, Selvamurugan N
miR-590-3p inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis by targeting activating transcription factor 3 in human breast cancer cells.
Biochimie. 2018; 154:10-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that ATF3 and Runx2 are involved in breast cancer progression and bone metastasis. The expression of these genes can be controlled by post-transcriptional regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we identified and validated the functional role of miR-590-3p in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). There was an inverse correlation between the expression of miR-590-3p and its putative target genes, ATF3 and Runx2 in these cells. Overexpression of miR-590-3p decreased the expression of ATF3 and Runx2 at the mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB231 cells. Luciferase reporter assay identified a direct interaction of 3' UTRs of ATF3 and Runx2 with miR-590-3p in these cells. Overexpression of miR-590-3p also decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Based on our results, we suggest that miR-590-3p might have potential clinical applications towards controlling breast cancer progression and bone metastasis.

Inoue M, Uchida Y, Edagawa M, et al.
The stress response gene ATF3 is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhibits the invasion and migration of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0194160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis and the progression of human colorectal cancers, and mutations in the components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are observed in the majority of patients. Therefore, extensive studies on the Wnt signaling pathway and its target genes are crucial to understand the molecular events of tumorigenesis and develop an efficacious therapy. In this study, we showed that the stress response gene ATF3 is transcriptionally activated by the binding of β-catenin and TCF4 to the redundant TCF4 site at the proximal promoter region of the ATF3 gene, indicating that ATF3 is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The loss of function or overexpression studies showed that ATF3 inhibited the migration or invasion of HCT116 cells. The expression of some MMP and TIMP genes and the ratio of MMP2/9 to TIMP3/4 mRNAs was differentially regulated by ATF3. Therefore, though ATF3 is activated downstream of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, it acts as a negative regulator of the migration and invasion of HCT116 human colon cancer cells exhibiting aberrant Wnt/β-catenin activity. ATF3 is a candidate biomarker and target for human colorectal cancer treatment and prevention.

Shi B, Yan W, Liu G, Guo Y
MicroRNA-488 inhibits tongue squamous carcinoma cell invasion and EMT by directly targeting ATF3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: It has been reported that the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is closely associated with both microRNA (miRNA) processing and the progress of many cancers. Our study aimed to explore the interaction between ATF3 and miR-488 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the levels of ATF3 and miR-488 in TSCC tissues and cell lines. Cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed to determine the biological functions of miR-488 and ATF3 in TSCC cells. The mRNA and protein levels of ATF3 were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Luciferase assays were performed to validate ATF3 as an miR-488 target in TSCC cells.
Results: We found that the level of miR-488 significantly decreased and the expression of ATF3 significantly increased in TSCC tissues and cell lines. A low level of miR-488 was closely associated with increased expression of ATF3 in TSCC tissues. Introducing miR-488 significantly inhibited the invasion and EMT of TSCC cells, and knockdown of miR-488 promoted both processes. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that ATF3 is a potential target gene of miR-488. The luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-488 could directly target ATF3. ATF3 silencing had similar effects to miR-488 overexpression on TSCC cells. Overexpression of ATF3 in TSCC cells partially reversed the inhibitory effects of the miR-488 mimic.
Conclusion: miR-488 inhibited cell invasion and EMT of TSCC cells by directly downregulating ATF3 expression.

Qiu GZ, Mao XY, Ma Y, et al.
Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 acts as an oncoprotein to maintain glioma malignancy through deubiquitinating B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 for stabilization.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(7):2199-2210 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is a member of the "death-from-cancer" signature, which plays a key role in cancer progression. Previous evidence has shown that USP22 is overexpressed and correlates with poor prognosis in glioma. The effect and mechanism of USP22 in glioma malignancy, especially cancer stemness, remain elusive. Herein, we find USP22 is more enriched in stem-like tumorspheres than differentiated glioma cells. USP22 knockdown inhibits cancer stemness in glioma cell lines. With a cell-penetrating TAT-tag protein, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a robust glioma stem-cell marker, is found to mediate the effect of USP22 on glioma stemness. By immunofluorescence, USP22 and BMI1 are found to share similar intranuclear expression in glioma cells. By analysis with immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics, USP22 is found to positively correlate with BMI1 at the post-translational level only rather than at the transcriptional level. By immunoprecipitation and in vivo deubiquitination assay, USP22 is found to interact with and deubiquitinate BMI1 for protein stabilization. Microarray analysis shows that USP22 and BMI1 mutually regulate a series of genes involved in glioma stemness such as POSTN, HEY2, PDGFRA and ATF3. In vivo study with nude mice confirms the role of USP22 in promoting glioma tumorigenesis by regulating BMI1. All these findings indicate USP22 as a novel deubiquitinase of BMI1 in glioma. We propose a working model of the USP22-BMI1 axis, which promotes glioma stemness and tumorigenesis through oncogenic activation. Thus, targeting USP22 might be an effective strategy to treat glioma especially in those with elevated BMI1 expression.

Katoh M
Multi‑layered prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer associated with canonical WNT/β‑catenin signaling activation (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):713-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.

Yang Y, Guo W, Ma J, et al.
Downregulated TRPV1 Expression Contributes to Melanoma Growth via the Calcineurin-ATF3-p53 Pathway.
J Invest Dermatol. 2018; 138(10):2205-2215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer with increasing incidence over the years. Because of its rapid proliferative and drastic metastatic capacity, the prognosis of melanoma remains dismal, although the targeted therapy and immunotherapy have gained revolutionary progress recently. Therefore, it is of necessity to further clarify the mechanism of melanoma pathogenesis for developing an alternative treatment strategy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective Ca

Song Q, Chen Q, Wang Q, et al.
ATF-3/miR-590/GOLPH3 signaling pathway regulates proliferation of breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):255 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Fast growth is the important character of breast cancer, which makes sure the subsequent metastasize and invasion breast cancer. Golgi related genes GOLPH3 has been reported to regulate many kinds of cancers proliferation. However, its upregulator remains largely unknown. miRNA modulate gene expression by post-transcriptional repression to participate in many signaling pathway of breast cancer cell proliferation. miR-590 has been reported to regulate tumorgenesis and could be regulated by its own target ATF-3. But whether miR-590 can be the modulator of Golgi related genes to regulate the breast cancer proliferation is unclear.
METHODS: We performed the bioinformatics analysis of survival rate and expression differences of patients using the data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).Both of MTS and BrdU assays were used for cell proliferation analysis. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry .qRT-PCR was used for detecting the cell cycle related gene expression. Student's t-test or One way anova was used for statistics.
RESULTS: We found the upregulation of GOLPH3 in breast cancer samples compared with normal breast tissues, which also was related to the poor prognosis. Overexpression of GOLPH3 significantly promoted proliferation both of MDA-MB-231 cells (ER negative) and MCF-7 cells (ER positive). We further found that miRNA-590-3p could directly target the 3'-UTR of GOLPH3 mRNA to repress its expression. Overexpression of miR-590-3p inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The rescue experiments indicated that overexpression of GOLPH3 significantly resorted the proliferation inhibited by miR-590-3p. We also found that ATF-3 repressed miR-590-3p expression to modulate miR-590/GOLPH3 pathway to regulate breast cancer cells proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study not only suggests that the ATF-3/miR-590/GOLPH3 signaling pathway is critically involved in the proliferation of breast cancer cells, but provides a novel therapeutic target and new insight base on epigenetic regulation for future breast cancer diagnosis and clinical treatment.

Janus P, Szołtysek K, Zając G, et al.
Pro-inflammatory cytokine and high doses of ionizing radiation have similar effects on the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes.
Cell Signal. 2018; 46:23-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NF-κB transcription factors are activated via diverse molecular mechanisms in response to various types of stimuli. A plethora of functions associated with specific sets of target genes could be regulated differentially by this factor, affecting cellular response to stress including an anticancer treatment. Here we aimed to compare subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes induced in cells stimulated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine and in cells damaged by a high dose of ionizing radiation (4 and 10 Gy). The RelA-containing NF-κB species were activated by the canonical TNFα-induced and the atypical radiation-induced pathways in human osteosarcoma cells. NF-κB-dependent genes were identified using the gene expression profiling (by RNA-Seq) in cells with downregulated RELA combined with the global profiling of RelA binding sites (by ChIP-Seq), with subsequent validation of selected candidates by quantitative PCR. There were 37 NF-κB-dependent protein-coding genes identified: in all cases RelA bound in their regulatory regions upon activation while downregulation of RELA suppressed their stimulus-induced upregulation, which apparently indicated the positive regulation mode. This set of genes included a few "novel" NF-κB-dependent species. Moreover, the evidence for possible negative regulation of ATF3 gene by NF-κB was collected. The kinetics of the NF-κB activation was slower in cells exposed to radiation than in cytokine-stimulated ones. However, subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes upregulated by both types of stimuli were essentially the same. Hence, one should expect that similar cellular processes resulting from activation of the NF-κB pathway could be induced in cells responding to pro-inflammatory cytokines and in cells where so-called "sterile inflammation" response was initiated by radiation-induced damage.

Hayner JN, Shan J, Kilberg MS
Regulation of the ATF3 gene by a single promoter in response to amino acid availability and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018; 1861(2):72-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a highly regulated protein that is implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions including inflammation and transformation. Transcription from the ATF3 gene is induced by several stress-induced signaling pathways, including amino acid limitation (amino acid response, AAR) and ER stress (unfolded protein response, UPR). Induction of ATF3 transcription by these pathways is mediated by ATF4 and cJUN recruitment to enhancer elements within the ATF3 gene. Although a canonical promoter (promoter A) has been studied by numerous laboratories, a second promoter activity (promoter A1), 43 kb upstream of the first, has been reported to respond to stress-induced signaling and to be critical for ATF3 expression in certain transformed cells. The results of the present study show that in normal human hepatocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells both basal as well as AAR- and UPR-induced transcription occurs almost exclusively from promoter A. This selectivity between the two promoters correlated with increased binding of ATF4, recruitment of RNA polymerase II, and the expected histone modifications in the promoter A region of the gene. Time course studies of ATF3 transcription activity revealed that the temporal kinetics for ATF3 induction differ between the AAR and UPR, with the former being more transient than the latter. Collectively, the results document that ATF3 expression in normal and transformed human liver originates from the canonical promoter A that responds to multiple stress signals.

Weng W, Liu N, Toiyama Y, et al.
Novel evidence for a PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) as an oncogenic mediator of disease progression, and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) may be important epigenetic regulators of gene expression in human cancers; however, their functional and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown.
METHODS: We performed piRNA expression profiling in paired cancer and normal tissues through small RNA-sequencing. The clinical significance of candidate piRNAs was investigated, and independently validated in 771 CRC patients from three independent cohorts. The biological function of piRNAs was characterized in cell lines, followed by identification and validation of downstream target genes in CRC tissues.
RESULTS: We identified piR-1245 as a novel and frequently overexpressed noncoding RNA in CRC, and its expression significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease. Patients with high piR-1245 expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival, and multivariate analysis identified its expression to serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, piR-1245 acts as an oncogene and promotes tumor progression, and gene expression profiling results identified a panel of downstream target-genes involved in regulating cell survival pathway. Based upon piRNA:mRNA sequence complementarity, we identified a panel of tumor suppressor genes (ATF3, BTG1, DUSP1, FAS,NFKBIA, UPP1, SESN2, TP53INP1 and MDX1) as direct targets of piR-1245, and successfully validated an inverse correlation between their expression and piR-1245 in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: We for the first time have identified the role for a PIWI-interacting noncoding RNA, piR-1245, as a novel oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.

Sharma K, Vu TT, Cook W, et al.
p53-independent Noxa induction by cisplatin is regulated by ATF3/ATF4 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(6):788-798 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
The platinum-based DNA damaging agent cisplatin is used as a standard therapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the mechanisms underpinning the cytotoxic effects of this compound are not entirely elucidated. Cisplatin produces anticancer effects primarily via activation of the DNA damage response, followed by inducing BCL-2 family dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that cisplatin induces the expression of proapoptotic BCL-2 family protein, Noxa, that can bind to the prosurvival BCL-2 family protein, MCL-1, to inactivate its function and induce cell death. Here, we show that the upregulation of Noxa is critical for cisplatin-induced apoptosis in p53-null HNSCC cells. This induction is regulated at the transcriptional level. With a series of Noxa promoter-luciferase reporter assays, we find that the CRE (cAMP response element) in the promoter is critical for the Noxa induction by cisplatin treatment. Among the CREB/ATF transcription factors, ATF3 and ATF4 are induced by cisplatin, and downregulation of ATF3 or ATF4 reduced cisplatin-induced Noxa. ATF3 and ATF4 bind to and cooperatively activate the Noxa promoter. Furthermore, ERK1 is involved in cisplatin-induced ATF4 and Noxa induction. In conclusion, ATF3 and ATF4 are important regulators that induce Noxa by cisplatin treatment in a p53-independent manner.

Tang Q, Wang Q, Zhang Q, et al.
Gene expression, regulation of DEN and HBx induced HCC mice models and comparisons of tumor, para-tumor and normal tissues.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):862 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Chemical and virus induction are two major risk factors, however, the potential molecular mechanisms of their differences remain elusive. In this study, to identify the similarities and differences between chemical and virus induced HCC models, we compared the gene expression profiles between DEN and HBx mice models, as well as the differences among tumor, para-tumor and normal tissues.
METHODS: We sequenced both gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression for HCC tumor tissues, para-tumor and normal liver tissues from DEN model mice (30-week-old) and downloaded the corresponding microarray expression data of HBx model from GEO database. Then differentially expressed genes (DEGs), miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) were detected by R packages and performed functional enrichment analysis. To explore the gene regulatory network in HCC models, miRNA and TF regulatory networks were constructed by target prediction.
RESULTS: For model comparison, although DEGs between tumor and normal tissues in DEN and HBx models only had a small part of overlapping, they shared common pathways including lipid metabolism, oxidation-reduction process and immune process. For tissue comparisons in each model, genes in oxidation-reduction process were down-regulated in tumor tissues and genes in inflammatory response showed the highest expression level in para-tumor tissues. Genes highly expressed in both tumor and para-tumor tissues in two models mainly participated in immune and inflammatory response. Genes expressed in HBx model were also involved in cell proliferation and cell migration etc. Network analysis revealed that several miRNAs such as miR-381-3p, miR-142a-3p, miR-214-3p and TFs such as Egr1, Atf3 and Klf4 were the core regulators in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Through the comparative analyses, we found that para-tumor tissue is a highly inflammatory tissue while the tumor tissue is specific with both inflammatory and cancer signaling pathways. The DEN and HBx mice models have different gene expression pattern but shared pathways. This work will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying different HCC models.

Tesselaar MH, Crezee T, Schuurmans I, et al.
Digitalislike Compounds Restore hNIS Expression and Iodide Uptake Capacity in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
J Nucl Med. 2018; 59(5):780-786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy that accounts for 1%-2% of all thyroid cancers. ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with rapid growth, tumor invasion, and development of distant metastases. The median survival is only 5 mo, and the 1-y survival is less than 20%. Moreover, as a result of severe dedifferentiation, including the loss of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) expression, radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is ineffective. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of autophagy-activating digitalislike compounds (DLCs) on redifferentiation and concomitant restoration of iodide uptake in RAI-refractory papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines. In the current study, the effects of DLCs on differentiation and proliferation of ATC cell lines were investigated.

Gladwyn-Ng I, Cordón-Barris L, Alfano C, et al.
Stress-induced unfolded protein response contributes to Zika virus-associated microcephaly.
Nat Neurosci. 2018; 21(1):63-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells. After intracerebral and intraplacental inoculation of ZIKV in mouse embryos, we show that it triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress in embryonic brains in vivo. This perturbs a physiological unfolded protein response within cortical progenitors that controls neurogenesis. Thus, ZIKV-infected progenitors generate fewer projection neurons that eventually settle in the cerebral cortex, whereupon sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of pharmacological inhibitors of unfolded protein response counteracts these pathophysiological mechanisms and prevents microcephaly in ZIKV-infected mouse embryos. Such defects are specific to ZIKV, as they are not observed upon intraplacental injection of other related flaviviruses in mice.

Iotzova-Weiss G, Freiberger SN, Johansen P, et al.
TLR4 as a negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185668 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
TLR4 is an innate immune receptor with expression in human skin, keratinocytes as well as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In the present study we investigate the role of TLR4 as a negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation. We present here that the expression of TLR4 increased with the differentiation of cultured keratinocytes in a passage-dependent manner or under calcium-rich conditions. Moreover, the down-regulation of TLR4 by specific knockdown increased the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, subcutaneously injected HaCaT keratinocytes with shTLR4 formed growing tumors in nude mice. In contrast, we observed lower proliferation and increased migration in vitro of the SCC13 cell line stably overexpressing TLR4 in comparison to SCC13 TLR4 negative cells. In vivo, SCC13 TLR4-overexpressing tumors showed delayed growth in comparison to TLR4 negative tumors. The overexpression of TLR4 in SCC13 tumor cells was followed by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and increased expression of ATF3. In gene expression arrays, the overexpression of TLR4 in tumor cells correlated with gene expression of ATF-3, IL-6, CDH13, CXCL-1 and TFPI. In summary, TLR4 negatively regulates the proliferation of keratinocytes and its overexpression reduces tumor growth of SCC cells.

Arcidiacono P, Ragonese F, Stabile A, et al.
Antitumor activity and expression profiles of genes induced by sulforaphane in human melanoma cells.
Eur J Nutr. 2018; 57(7):2547-2569 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Human melanoma is a highly aggressive incurable cancer due to intrinsic cellular resistance to apoptosis, reprogramming, proliferation and survival during tumour progression. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, plays a role in carcinogenesis in many cancer types. However, the cytotoxic molecular mechanisms and gene expression profiles promoted by SFN in human melanoma remain unknown.
METHODS: Three different cell lines were used: two human melanoma A375 and 501MEL and human epidermal melanocytes (HEMa). Cell viability and proliferation, cell cycle analysis, cell migration and invasion and protein expression and phosphorylation status of Akt and p53 upon SFN treatment were determined. RNA-seq of A375 was performed at different time points after SFN treatment.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that SFN strongly decreased cell viability and proliferation, induced G
CONCLUSION: Overall, the data show that SFN cytotoxicity in melanoma derives from complex and concurrent mechanisms during carcinogenesis, which makes it a promising cancer prevention agent.

Schoen I, Koitzsch S
ATF3-Dependent Regulation of EGR1 in vitro and in vivo.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2017; 79(5):239-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially.
METHODS: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples.
RESULTS: ATF3 and EGR1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced after consecutive exposure of MOCs at pH <7.0 to artificial gastric juice (refluxate). In contrast, ATF3 mRNA was upregulated significantly within the first hour of incubation. EGR1 mRNA exhibited no significant changes. The analysed cell lines exhibited a cell line-specific alteration. In FADUDD cells, the upregulation of EGR1 was significant after refluxate exposure, but in HN-SCC 22B, no significant changes were detected. The analysis of the HNSCC samples confirmed the heterogeneous data of the literature.
CONCLUSION: The data maintain the hypothesis that ATF3 and EGR1 are involved in the beginning of inflammatory processes. Whether these two transcription factors act as tumour suppressors or promoters is context dependent and warrants analysis in further studies.

Chang YS, Jalgaonkar SP, Middleton JD, Hai T
Stress-inducible gene
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(34):E7159-E7168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Chemotherapy is a double-edged sword. It is anticancer because of its cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, by increasing chemoresistance and cancer metastasis, it is also procancer. However, the underlying mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced procancer activities are not well understood. Here we describe the ability of paclitaxel (PTX), a frontline chemotherapeutic agent, to exacerbate metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. We demonstrate that, despite the apparent benefit of reducing tumor size, PTX increased the circulating tumor cells in the blood and enhanced the metastatic burden at the lung. At the primary tumor, PTX increased the abundance of the tumor microenvironment of metastasis, a landmark microanatomical structure at the microvasculature where cancer cells enter the blood stream. At the metastatic lung, PTX improved the tissue microenvironment (the "soil") for cancer cells (the "seeds") to thrive; these changes include increased inflammatory monocytes and reduced cytotoxicity. Importantly, these changes in the primary tumor and the metastatic lung were all dependent on

De Marco C, Laudanna C, Rinaldo N, et al.
Specific gene expression signatures induced by the multiple oncogenic alterations that occur within the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0178865 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Hyperactivation of the phosphatydil-inositol-3' phosphate kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is observed in most NSCLCs, promoting proliferation, migration, invasion and resistance to therapy. AKT can be activated through several mechanisms that include loss of the negative regulator PTEN, activating mutations of the catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) and/or mutations of AKT1 itself. However, number and identity of downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT pathway are poorly defined. To identify the genes that are targets of constitutive PI3K/AKT signalling in lung cancer cells, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active mutant AKT1 (AKT1-E17K), active mutant PIK3CA (PIK3CA-E545K) or that are silenced for PTEN. We found that, altogether, aberrant PI3K/AKT signalling in lung epithelial cells regulated the expression of 1,960/20,436 genes (9%), though only 30 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (15 up-regulated, 12 down-regulated and 3 discordant) out of 20,436 that were common among BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells (0.1%). Conversely, DEGs specific for mutant AKT1 were 133 (85 up-regulated; 48 down-regulated), DEGs specific for mutant PIK3CA were 502 (280 up-regulated; 222 down-regulated) and DEGs specific for PTEN loss were 1549 (799 up-regulated, 750 down-regulated). The results obtained from array analysis were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR on selected up- and down-regulated genes (n = 10). Treatment of BEAS-C cells and the corresponding derivatives with pharmacological inhibitors of AKT (MK2206) or PI3K (LY294002) further validated the significance of our findings. Moreover, mRNA expression of selected DEGs (SGK1, IGFBP3, PEG10, GDF15, PTGES, S100P, respectively) correlated with the activation status of the PI3K/AKT pathway assessed by S473 phosphorylation in NSCLC cell lines (n = 6). Finally, we made use of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to investigate the relevant BioFunctions enriched by the costitutive activation of AKT1-, PI3K- or PTEN-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells. Expectedly, the analysis of the DEGs common to all three alterations highlighted a group of BioFunctions that included Cell Proliferation of tumor cell lines (14 DEGs), Invasion of cells (10 DEGs) and Migration of tumour cell lines (10 DEGs), with a common core of 5 genes (ATF3, CDKN1A, GDF15, HBEGF and LCN2) that likely represent downstream effectors of the pro-oncogenic activities of PI3K/AKT signalling. Conversely, IPA analysis of exclusive DEGs led to the identification of different downstream effectors that are modulated by mutant AKT1 (TGFBR2, CTSZ, EMP1), mutant PIK3CA (CCND2, CDK2, IGFBP2, TRIB1) and PTEN loss (ASNS, FHL2). These findings not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms that are activated by aberrant signalling through the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung epithelial cells, but also contribute to the identification of previously unrecognised molecules whose regulation takes part in the development of lung cancer.

Müller S, Smatlik N, Burian M, et al.
Differential induction of ATF3 and HO-1 in myeloid cells and keratinocytes via Dimethylfumarate or Cyclosporine A.
J Dermatol Sci. 2017; 87(3):246-251 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory skin diseases are characterized by controlled proliferation of keratinocytes. Here, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) might play a fundamental role. In these inflammatory diseases, proliferation is controlled and only rarely leads to cancer development which can be supported by an inflammatory microenvironment. ATF3 is a dual function protein as it suppresses pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8, but also acts as a pro-oncogenic factor by the suppression of p53. We therefore analyzed ATF3 expression comparing myeloid cells with keratinocytes.
OBJECTIVE: To dissect the bi-modal role of ATF3 we pharmacologically induced ATF3 and analyzed its influence on cytokine expression and secretion in a cell type specific manner.
METHODS: Since inflammatory skin diseases can be treated systemically with Cyclosporin A or Dimethylfumarate we stimulated myeloid cells and primary human keratinocytes with these drugs and analyzed gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Cytokine secretion was measured by ELISA.
RESULTS: In the present study, we could show that ATF3 is induced in PBMCs by DMF and weakly by Ebselen, while CsA is the most prominent inducer of ATF3 in keratinocytes without enhancing HO-1 transcription. Further we could show that induction of stress by LPS treatment elevates IL-1β and IL-6 and weakly ATF3 transcription in PBMCs. While transcription of both cytokines is elevated, LPS treatment mediates IL-6 secretion with only little IL-1β secretion. Treatment with DMF dampens LPS-induced transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results shed light into the different carcinogenic potential of CsA and DMF, which both target ATF3. Collectively our data demonstrate that CsA strongly induces pro-carcinogenic ATF3 in keratinocytes, whereas ATF3 induction by DMF in myeloid cells acts anti-inflammatory.

Chüeh AC, Tse JWT, Dickinson M, et al.
ATF3 Repression of BCL-X
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(18):5573-5584 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications

McCallie BR, Parks JC, Griffin DK, et al.
Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2017; 23(8):549-556 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY QUESTION: Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)?
SUMMARY ANSWER: The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control).
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were <38 years old with male patients <40 years old. Blastocysts were grouped according to infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P < 0.05; >2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states, which included mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adipocytokine signaling. RT-qPCR validation confirmed differential gene expression for the following genes: BCL2 like 10 (BCL2L10), heat shock protein family A member 1A (HSPA1A), heat shock protein family A member 1B (HSPA1B), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), left-right determination factor 2 (LEFTY2), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), inhibin beta A subunit (INHBA), adherins junctions associated protein 1 (AJAP1), cadherin 9 (CDH9) and laminin subunit alpha 4 (LAMA4) (P < 0.05; >2-fold).
LARGE SCALE DATA: Not available due to participant privacy.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Blastocyst samples for microarray analysis required pooling. While this allows for an overall average in each infertility etiology group and can reduce noise from sample-to-sample variation, it cannot give a detailed analysis of each blastocyst within the group.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Underlying patient infertility diagnosis has an impact on the blastocyst transcriptome, modifying gene expression associated with developmental competence and implantation potential.
STUDY FUNDING AND COMPETING INTEREST(S): No conflict of interest or outside funding provided.

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