Gene Summary

Gene:CCR3; chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3
Aliases: CKR3, CD193, CMKBR3, CC-CKR-3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for C-C type chemokines. It belongs to family 1 of the G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, including eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-3 (CCL26), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 (CCL13), and RANTES (CCL5). It is highly expressed in eosinophils and basophils, and is also detected in TH1 and TH2 cells, as well as in airway epithelial cells. This receptor may contribute to the accumulation and activation of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in the allergic airway. It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine receptor gene cluster on the chromosomal region 3p21. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C chemokine receptor type 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Markers
  • Liver Cancer
  • bcl-X Protein
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Chemokine CCL11
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • RT-PCR
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Risk Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Chemokines
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Skin Cancer
  • Wound Healing
  • Hybrid Cells
  • Chromosome 3
  • Up-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Receptors, CCR3
  • Young Adult
  • Receptors, CCR1
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Receptors, CCR2
  • Signal Transduction
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCR3 (cancer-related)

Chen Q, Zheng T, Lan Q, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(7):1332-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemokines play a pivotal role in immune regulation and response, and previous studies suggest an association between immune deficiency and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
METHODS: We evaluated the association between NHL and polymorphisms in 18 genes (CCL1, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL18, CCL20, CCL24, CCL26, CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, and CCR9) encoding for the CC chemokines using data from a population-based case-control study of NHL conducted in Connecticut women.
RESULTS: CCR8 was associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; P = 0.012), and CCL13 was associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL; P = 0.003) at gene level. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, none of the genes or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with risk of overall NHL or NHL subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the genes encoding for CC chemokines are not significantly associated with the risk of NHL, and further studies are needed to verify these findings.
IMPACT: Our data indicate that CC chemokine genes were not associated with NHL risk.

Du L, Xu WT, Fan QM, et al.
Tumorigenesis and spontaneous metastasis by luciferase-labeled human xenograft osteosarcoma cells in nude mice.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(22):4022-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone. Mouse models of human OS can invariably provide greater insight into the complex mechanisms that underlie the development and pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor. Bioluminescence technology favored tracing cancer cells in vivo. In this study, an OS model was described and evaluated using human OS cell line, Saos2, labeled with luciferase (Saos2-luc).
METHODS: Saos2 cells were infected by lentivirus loading a firefly luciferase gene. Luciferase expression of Saos2-luc cells was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Specific biologic and oncologic features of Saos2-luc cells were analyzed. The OS was established as orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Both orthotopic tumors and spontaneous lung metastasis were analyzed.
RESULTS: Tumorigenesis and spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice could be monitored in vivo through in vivo imaging system. The enhancement in proliferation, migration and invasion abilities and the attenuation in adhesion ability were observed in Saos2-luc cells compared with Saos2 cells. Furthermore, there were the up-regulation of Osteocalcin, CCR10, CXCR1 and ID1 and the down-regulation of ALP, collagen I, CCR1, CCR3, CXCR3, NID and N-cadherin in Saos2-luc cells compare to Saos2 cells. The rate of spontaneous lung metastasis in Saos2-luc cells was higher than that in Saos2 cells, although without significant difference.
CONCLUSIONS: Lentivirus transfection may cause alteration of gene expression profiles and further biological functions. This model can be used in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the screening of new therapeutic agents.

Santos FP, O'Brien S
Small lymphocytic lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: are they the same disease?
Cancer J. 2012 Sep-Oct; 18(5):396-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world, characterized by peripheral blood B-cell lymphocytosis as well as lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, cytopenias, and systemic symptoms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells have a distinctive immunophenotype, and the disease has a characteristic pattern of histological infiltration in the lymph node and bone marrow. The clinical course of CLL is heterogeneous, with some patients presenting with very indolent disease and other patients having a more aggressive malignancy. It is known that genetic abnormalities underlie this difference in clinical presentation. Some patients may present solely with lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and presence of infiltrating monoclonal B cells with the same immunophenotype as CLL cells, but lacking peripheral blood lymphocytosis. This disease is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and has been considered for almost 2 decades to be the tissue equivalent of CLL. Both CLL and SLL are currently considered different manifestations of the same entity by the fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. It is suspected that differential expression of chemokine receptors (e.g., reduced expression of R1 and CCR3 in SLL cells), integrins (e.g., CLL cells have lower expression of integrin αLβ2), and genetic abnormalities (a higher incidence of trisomy 12 and lower incidence of del(13q) is found in SLL) may explain some of the clinical differences between these 2 disorders. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the precise biological basis underlying the different clinical presentations of CLL and SLL. It is expected that future studies will shed light on the pathophysiology of both disorders.

Long H, Xie R, Xiang T, et al.
Autocrine CCL5 signaling promotes invasion and migration of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells via NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 upregulation.
Stem Cells. 2012; 30(10):2309-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) proposes that solely CSCs are capable of generating tumor metastases. However, how CSCs maintain their invasion and migration abilities, the most important properties of metastatic cells, still remains elusive. Here we used CD133 to mark a specific population from human ovarian cancer cell line and ovarian cancer tissue and determined its hyperactivity in migration and invasion. Therefore, we labeled this population as cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). In comparison to CD133- non-CSLCs, chemokine CCL5 and its receptors, CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5, were consistently upregulated in CSLCs, and most importantly, blocking of CCL5, CCR1, or CCR3 effectively inhibits the invasive capacity of CSLCs. Mechanistically, we identified that this enhanced invasiveness is mediated through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and the consequently elevated MMP9 secretion. Our results suggested that the autocrine activation of CCR1 and CCR3 by CCL5 represents one of major mechanisms underlying the metastatic property of ovarian CSLCs.

Velasco-Velázquez M, Jiao X, De La Fuente M, et al.
CCR5 antagonist blocks metastasis of basal breast cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(15):3839-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The roles of the chemokine CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 in breast cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we conducted microarray analysis on 2,254 human breast cancer specimens and found increased expression of CCL5 and its receptor CCR5, but not CCR3, in the basal and HER-2 genetic subtypes. The subpopulation of human breast cancer cell lines found to express CCR5 displayed a functional response to CCL5. In addition, oncogene transformation induced CCR5 expression, and the subpopulation of cells that expressed functional CCR5 also displayed increased invasiveness. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc or vicriviroc, developed to block CCR5 HIV coreceptor function, reduced in vitro invasion of basal breast cancer cells without affecting cell proliferation or viability, and maraviroc decreased pulmonary metastasis in a preclinical mouse model of breast cancer. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the key role of CCL5/CCR5 in the invasiveness of basal breast cancer cells and suggest that CCR5 antagonists may be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce the risk of metastasis in patients with the basal breast cancer subtype.

Cho YB, Lee WY, Choi SJ, et al.
CC chemokine ligand 7 expression in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(2):689-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main cause of death for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is the development of metastatic lesions at sites distant from the primary tumor. Therefore, it is important to find biomarkers that are related to the metastasis and to study the possible mechanisms. Recent data have shown that soluble attractant molecules called chemokines support the metastasis of certain cancers to certain organs. To identify molecular regulators that are differentially expressed in liver metastasis of CRC, PCR array analysis was performed and CC chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) showed remarkable overexpression in liver metastatic tumor tissues. To validate the results of the PCR array, 30 patients with primary CRC and liver metastases were selected. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis showed that CCL7 was expressed in normal colonic epithelium and the expression was higher in liver metastases compared to primary CRC (p<0.001). Real-time PCR showed that the expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3 was also higher in liver metastases compared to primary CRC (p=0.001, p=0.033 and p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, correlation of CCL7 overexpression and its receptor expression with colon cancer liver metastasis suggests that CCL7 as a novel target in liver metastasis of CRC may be of potential clinical value for the prevention of hepatic recurrences.

de Souza A, el-Azhary RA, Camilleri MJ, et al.
In search of prognostic indicators for lymphomatoid papulosis: a retrospective study of 123 patients.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012; 66(6):928-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a benign recurrent papulonodular skin eruption with histologically malignant features that sometimes (10%-20%) progresses to lymphoma.
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of patients with LyP and identify prognostic factors possibly indicating a malignant course.
METHODS: Clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic features and molecular genetics were examined and correlated with clinical course and outcomes. Immunophenotyping and chemokine profiling were performed in select skin biopsy samples. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to patients. Clinical course and association with neoplastic disorders were correlated with LyP subtypes, molecular genetics, and immunophenotyping studies.
RESULTS: Of 123 patients with LyP (1991-2008) followed up a mean of 4 years (range, 2 months to 14 years), 17 (14%) had an associated hematologic malignancy, 8 of which were mycosis fungoides. Histopathologic analyses demonstrated classic LyP type A (n = 69), B (n = 13), or C (n = 6), and a slight predominance of T-cell CD8 marker expression for type A. More than one type of lesion was present in 9 patients with a higher incidence of hematologic malignancies. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement positivity was about two times higher, with LyP associated with hematologic malignancy (82% vs 44%; odds ratio 5.7; P = .02). Chemokine studies in a subset of 25 patients showed chemokine receptor (CCR) CCR4(+) and thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC(+)) in all LyP types and CCR3(+) and chemokine-related receptor (CXCR) CXCR3(+) in types B and C.
LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study design is a limitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive T-cell receptor gene rearrangement or diagnosis of mixed-type LyP may be a prognostic indicator of disease more prone to progress to lymphoma.

Setty MK, Devadas K, Ragupathy V, et al.
XMRV: usage of receptors and potential co-receptors.
Virol J. 2011; 8:423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: XMRV is a gammaretrovirus first identified in prostate tissues of Prostate Cancer (PC) patients and later in the blood cells of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Although XMRV is thought to use XPR1 for cell entry, it infects A549 cells that do not express XPR1, suggesting usage of other receptors or co-receptors.
METHODS: To study the usage of different receptors and co- receptors that could play a role in XMRV infection of lymphoid cells and GHOST (GFP- Human osteosarcoma) cells expressing CD4 along with different chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR2, etc., were infected with XMRV. Culture supernatants and cells were tested for XMRV replication using real time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Infection and replication of XMRV was seen in a variety of GHOST cells, LNCaP, DU145, A549 and Caski cell lines. The levels of XMRV replication varied in different cell lines showing differential replication in different cell lines. However, replication in A549 which lacks XPR1 expression was relatively higher than DU145 but lower than, LNCaP. XMRV replication varied in GHOST cell lines expressing CD4 and each of the co- receptors CCR1-CCR8 and bob. There was significant replication of XMRV in CCR3 and Bonzo although it is much lower when compared to DU145, A549 and LNCaP.
CONCLUSION: XMRV replication was observed in GHOST cells that express CD4 and each of the chemokine receptors ranging from CCR1- CCR8 and BOB suggesting that infectivity in hematopoietic cells could be mediated by use of these receptors.

Wang Y, Wang W, Wang L, et al.
Regulatory mechanisms of interleukin-8 production induced by tumour necrosis factor-α in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Cell Mol Med. 2012; 16(3):496-506 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-8 plays the critical role in the initiation of micro-environmental inflammation responsible for tumour growth and patient prognosis. This study aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms of IL-8 production from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The levels of IL-8 and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 and Akt in MHCC-97H cells were measured by ELISA, Western blot and immunofluorescence. NF-κB p65 protein nuclear translocation was determined by non-radioactive NF-κB p50/p65 transcription factor activity kit and cell bio-behaviours were detected by the real-time cell-monitoring system. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) significantly induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, Akt and production of IL-8 from HCC cells, which were prevented by SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), LY294002 and Wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and SB328437 (CCR3 inhibitor). TNF-α could significantly increase the translocation of NF-κB p65 protein into the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner, while SB203580 partially inhibited. In inflammatory micro-environment, HCC auto-produced IL-8 through p38 MAPK, ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways, where the p38 MAPK is a central factor to activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate the expression of IL-8 production. There was a potential cross-talking between receptors.

Miyagaki T, Sugaya M, Murakami T, et al.
CCL11-CCR3 interactions promote survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells via ERK1/2 activation.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(6):2056-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
CCR3 is a specific marker of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. ALCL cells also express CCL11, a ligand for CCR3, leading to the hypothesis that CCL11 may play an autocrine role in ALCL progression. In this study, we investigated a role of CCL11 in cell survival and growth of human Ki-JK cells, established from an ALCL patient, and murine EL-4 lymphoma cells. Both Ki-JK and EL-4 cells expressed cell surface CCR3. CCL11 increased cell survival rates of Ki-JK cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it promoted EL-4 cell proliferation. Furthermore, CCL11 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in both Ki-JK cells and EL-4 cells. Cell survival and tumor proliferation promoted by CCL11 was completely blocked by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. CCL11 induced expression of antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-xL and survivin, in Ki-JK cells. CCL11 also enhanced tumor growth of EL-4 and Ki-JK cells in vivo. Consistent with these results, tumor cells of cutaneous ALCL expressed CCR3 and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Bcl-xL, and survivin in situ. Thus, our findings prompt a novel therapeutic approach to treat relapses of an aggressive form of lymphoma based on the discovery that a cell surface marker of disease functions as a critical autocrine growth receptor.

Wolff HA, Rolke D, Rave-Fränk M, et al.
Analysis of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011; 50(1):145-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this work was to analyze chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in untreated and in irradiated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) tumor cell lines, aiming at the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Five low passage and 10 established SCCHN lines, as well as two normal cell lines, were irradiated at 2 Gy or sham-irradiated, and harvested between 1 and 48 h after treatment. For chemokines with CC and CXC structural motifs and their receptors, transcript levels of target and reference genes were quantified relatively by real-time PCR. In addition, CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression was analyzed by ELISA. A substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN was detected. Practically, all cell lines expressed CCL5 and CCL20, while CCL2 was expressed in normal cells and in some of the tumor cell lines. CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were expressed in the vast majority of the cell lines, while the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL12 was restricted to fibroblasts and few tumor cell lines. None of the analyzed cell lines expressed the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, or CCL19. Of the receptors, transcript expression of CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR7, CCXR2, and CCXR3 was not detected, and CCR6, CXCR1, and CXCR4 expression was restricted to few tumor cells. Radiation caused up- and down-regulation with respect to chemokine expressions, while for chemokine receptor expressions down-regulations were prevailing. CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression corresponded well with the mRNA expression. We conclude that the substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN offer opportunities for the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy.

Clements D, Markwick LJ, Puri N, Johnson SR
Role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and angiomyolipoma.
J Immunol. 2010; 185(3):1812-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive disease caused by accumulation of metastatic (LAM) cells in the lungs, lymphatics, and the tumor angiomyolipoma (AML). LAM cells have biallelic loss of either tuberous sclerosis complex gene (but predominantly TSC-2) and resultant dysregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Chemokines are associated with neoplastic cell growth, survival, and homing to specific organs and may play similar roles in LAM. Our objective was to study comprehensively the expression and function of chemokine receptors and how their function interacts with dysregulation of the mTOR pathway in LAM and AML. We used RT-PCR and FACS to study receptor expression in primary AML cells and immunohistochemistry to investigate expression in tissues. Chemokine receptor function was analyzed in AML cells by Western blotting of signaling proteins and cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. Primary AML cells, LAM, and AML tissues expressed CCR3, CXCR4, CXCR6, and CXC3CR1. In AML cells, their ligands CXCL12 CX3CL1, CCL11, CCL24, and CCL28 caused robust phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK and Akt. CXCL12 was expressed in type II pneumocytes covering LAM nodules and caused AML cell growth and protection from apoptosis, which was blocked by AMD3100, a CXCR4 inhibitor. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, but not AMD3100, inhibited growth of AML tumor xenografts. We conclude that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes, but is not absolutely required for, AML/LAM cell growth and survival.

Miyagaki T, Sugaya M, Fujita H, et al.
Eotaxins and CCR3 interaction regulates the Th2 environment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2010; 130(9):2304-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), the sole receptor for eotaxins, is expressed on eosinophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. In Hodgkin's disease, eotaxin-1 secreted by fibroblasts collects Th2 cells and eosinophils within the tissue. Similarly, many Th2 cells infiltrate the lesional skin of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In this study, we investigated the role of eotaxins in the development of the Th2 environment of CTCL. We revealed that fibroblasts from lesional skin of CTCL expressed higher amounts of eotaxin-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) compared with those from normal skin. Lesional skin of CTCL at advanced stages contained significantly higher levels of eotaxin-3 and CCR3 mRNA, compared with early stages of CTCL. IL-4 mRNA was expressed in some cases at advanced stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and dermal fibroblasts in lesional skin of CTCL showed a stronger expression of eotaxin-3 than did normal skin. CCR3(+) lymphocytes and IL-4 expression were observed in some cases of advanced CTCL. Furthermore, both serum eotaxin-3 and eotaxin-1 levels of CTCL patients at advanced stages were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. The concentrations of these chemokines correlated with serum soluble IL-2 receptor levels. These results suggest that interaction of eotaxins and CCR3 regulates the Th2-dominant tumor environment, which is closely related to the development of CTCL.

Yang D, Tong L, Wang D, et al.
Roles of CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010; 170(3):253-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 2b and CCR1 antagonist RS504393 as well as the roles of CCRs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). In A549 cell line, treatment with RS504393 significantly inhibited the expression of CCR1, CCR2 and interleukin (IL)-8 after either LPS or tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. An ALI model with intranasal LPS administration was used on C57BL/6J, CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3 knockout mice. Treatment with RS504393 had a noteworthy preventative effect on LPS-induced over-expression of IL-1beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor and CCR2. In CCR1 and CCR2-deficient animals, LPS-induced less increase of lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocytes and IL-6 compared to the C57BL/6J and CCR3 knockout mice. This was most prominent in the CCR2 knockout mice where no LPS-induced lung edema and no increase of IL-6 in BAL fluid occurred. Our results indicate that CCR2, and to some extent CCR1, play pivotal roles in the development of ALI.

Goode EL, Maurer MJ, Sellers TA, et al.
Inherited determinants of ovarian cancer survival.
Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 16(3):995-1007 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Due to variation of outcome among cases, we sought to examine whether overall survival in ovarian cancer was associated with common inherited variants in 227 candidate genes from ovarian cancer-related pathways including angiogenesis, inflammation, detoxification, glycosylation, one-carbon transfer, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Blood samples were obtained from 325 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic from 1999 to 2006. During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (range, 0.1-8.6 years), 157 deaths were observed. Germline DNA was analyzed at 1,416 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). For all patients, and for 203 with serous subtype, we assessed the overall significance of each gene and pathway, and estimated risk of death via hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for known prognostic factors.
RESULTS: Variation within angiogenesis was most strongly associated with survival time overall (P = 0.03) and among patients with serous cancer (P = 0.05), particularly for EIF2B5 rs4912474 (all patients HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.89; P = 0.004), VEGFC rs17697305 (serous subtype HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.34-3.92; P = 0.003), and four SNPs in VHL. Variation within the inflammation pathway was borderline significant (all patients, P = 0.09), and SNPs in CCR3, IL1B, IL18, CCL2, and ALOX5 which correlated with survival time are worthy of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: An extensive multiple-pathway assessment found evidence that inherited differences may play a role in outcome of ovarian cancer patients, particularly in genes within the angiogenesis and inflammation pathways. Our work supports efforts to target such mediators for therapeutic gain.

Jung DW, Che ZM, Kim J, et al.
Tumor-stromal crosstalk in invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a pivotal role of CCL7.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(2):332-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that stromal fibroblasts have a more profound influence on the initiation and progression of carcinoma than was previously appreciated. This study aimed at investigating the reciprocal relationship between cancer cells and their associated fibroblasts at both the molecular and cellular level in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify key molecular regulators expressed by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) that promote cancer cell invasion, microarrays were performed by comparing cocultured OSCC cells and CAF with monoculture controls. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis identified marked upregulation of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) in cocultured CAF. ELISA showed an elevated level of CCL7 secretion from CAF stimulated by coculture with OSCC cells. CCL7 promoted the invasion and migration of OSCC cells, and the invasiveness was inhibited by treatment with CCL7 neutralizing antibody. OSCC cells were shown to express CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3, receptors for CCL7, by RT-PCR. In addition, treatment with anti-CCR1 or anti-CCR3 antibody inhibited CCL7-induced OSCC cell migration, implicating that CCL7 promotes cancer cell migration through CCR1 and CCR3 on OSCC cells. Cytokine antibody array analysis of the supernatant from OSCC cell culture revealed that interleukin-1alpha was an inducer of CCL7 secretion by CAF. This study confirms the reciprocal relationship of the molecular crosstalk regulating the invasion of OSCC and describes new potential targets for future therapy.

Chuang JY, Yang WH, Chen HT, et al.
CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes the motility of human oral cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2009; 220(2):418-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
CCL5 (previously called RANTES) is in the CC-chemokine family and plays a crucial role in the migration and metastasis of human cancer cells. On the other hand, the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptor. RT-PCR and flow cytometry studies demonstrated CCR5 but not CCR1 and CCR3 mRNA in oral cancer cell lines, especially higher in those with high invasiveness (SCC4) as compared with lower levels in HSC3 cells and SCC9 cells. Stimulation of oral cancer cells with CCL5 directly increased the migration and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production. MMP-9 small interfering RNA inhibited the CCL5-induced MMP-9 expression and thereby significantly inhibited the CCL5-induced cell migration. Activations of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), and NF-kappaB pathways after CCL5 treatment was demonstrated, and CCL5-induced expression of MMP-9 and migration activity was inhibited by the specific inhibitor of PLC, PKCdelta, and NF-kappaB cascades. In addition, migration-prone sublines demonstrate that cells with increasing migration ability had more expression of MMP-9, CCL5, and CCR5. Taken together, these results indicate that CCL5/CCR5 axis enhanced migration of oral cancer cells through the increase of MMP-9 production.

Kominsky SL, Abdelmagid SM, Doucet M, et al.
Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta: a novel osteoclast stimulating factor secreted by renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(5):1261-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 30% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) develop bone metastasis, which is characterized by extensive osteolysis leading to severe bone pain and pathologic fracture. Although the mechanism of RCC-induced osteolysis is unknown, studies of bone metastasis have shown that tumor-induced changes in bone remodeling are likely mediated by alterations in the bone microenvironment. Here, we report the discovery of a novel osteoclast stimulatory factor secreted by RCC bone metastasis (RBM). Through microarray analysis, we found expression of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta (MIP-1 delta), to be increased in RBM versus patient-matched primary RCC tissues and confirmed this finding by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MIP-1 delta expression in RBM tissues was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than in human bone marrow, suggesting a potential alteration of the bone microenvironment. The receptors for MIP-1 delta, CCR1 and CCR3, were expressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature, bone-resorbing osteoclasts as shown by qRT-PCR and Western analysis. In functional studies, MIP-1 delta stimulated chemotaxis of two osteoclast precursor cell types: murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) and RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, MIP-1 delta treatment of murine calvaria caused increased bone resorption as determined by measurement of released calcium. Correspondingly, MIP-1 delta significantly enhanced osteoclast formation and activity in response to RANKL in both BM-MNC and RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that MIP-1 delta expression is increased in RBM relative to RCC and bone marrow, and may promote RBM-induced osteolysis by stimulating the recruitment and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts.

Yoshida N, Aizu-Yokota E, Sonoda Y, et al.
Production and regulation of eotaxin-2/CCL24 in a differentiated human leukemic cell line, HT93.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2007; 30(10):1826-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
When a human leukemic cell line, HT93 was incubated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), IL-5, or both, this cell line was differentiated into eosinophic lineage, in that an eosinophilic specific granule proteins, major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) appeared. Both CD11b and CC chemokine receptor, CCR3 expression were upregulated, while CD71 expression was downregulated by ATRA or ATRA+IL-5. Concomitantly, marked production of eotaxin-2/CCL24 was observed, but no production of eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-3/CCL26 was detected. Since only 20 to 30% cells incubated with ATRA became positive for CCR3, CCR3(+) population was enriched by a magnetic activated cell sorter (MACS). Enriched CCR3(+) population produced higher eotaxin-2/CCL24 than the CCR3(-) population, indicating that differentiated eosinophils are capable of producing eotaxin-2/CCL24. During the ATRA-induced differentiation, expression of a transcriptional factor, GATA-1 was significantly increased. Introduction of siRNA against GATA-1 markedly reduced the ATRA-induced differentiation markers including CD11b and CCR3, as well as reduced eotaxin-2/CCL24 production. Finally, ATRA-induced differentiation and eotaxin-2/CCL24 production were greatly enhanced in the GATA-1-overexpressed clones. These results indicate that the ability to produce eotaxin-2/CCL24 is acquired during the differentiation into eosinophilic lineage which is dependent on GATA-1 expression.

Cheadle EJ, Riyad K, Subar D, et al.
Eotaxin-2 and colorectal cancer: a potential target for immune therapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(19):5719-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the production of chemokines by colorectal hepatic metastases.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Biopsies of resected colorectal hepatic metastases and nonneoplastic adjacent liver tissue were screened for chemokines using protein arrays and results were confirmed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Two chemokines, eotaxin-2 and MCP-1, were found at elevated levels within the tumor biopsy compared with adjacent liver. The relative increase in expression from tumor was much higher for eotaxin-2 than MCP-1, with 10 of 25 donors having a >100-fold increase in expression compared with 0 of 24 donors for MCP-1. In a parallel analysis, eotaxin-2 was also found at elevated levels in the tumor region of primary colorectal cancer biopsies. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen-positive tumor cells stained strongly for eotaxin-2, implicating these cells as the predominant source of the chemokine. In vitro studies confirmed that several colorectal tumor lines produce eotaxin-2 and that secretion of this chemokine could be depressed by IFN-gamma and enhanced by the Th2-type cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13. Jurkat T cells were engineered to express the receptor for eotaxin-2 (CCR3). These cells effectively migrated in response to eotaxin-2 protein, suggesting that immune cells gene modified to express a chemokine receptor may have improved abilities to home to tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these observations confirm eotaxin-2 as a chemokine strongly associated with primary and metastatic tumors of colorectal origin. Furthermore, the importance of this result may be a useful tool in the development of targeted therapeutic approaches to colorectal tumors.

Harasawa H, Yamada Y, Hieshima K, et al.
Survey of chemokine receptor expression reveals frequent co-expression of skin-homing CCR4 and CCR10 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2006; 47(10):2163-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a malignancy of mature T-cell origin with multi-organ involvement. Because the chemokine receptors play crucial roles in tissue-specific homing of mature lymphocytes, particular chemokine receptors expressed on ATLL cells may be involved in their tissue infiltration. We thus performed a comprehensive survey on the chemokine receptor expression in ATLL. ATLL cells expressed transcripts of CCR1, CCR4, CCR7, CCR8, CCR10 and CXCR4 but hardly expressed those of CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR6, CCR9, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR5. These results were confirmed at the protein level by flow cytometric analysis. Notably, patients who have skin lesions showed significantly higher levels of CCR10 mRNA expression than patients without skin lesions. ATLL cells migrated efficiently to the CCR4 ligand, CCL22, and moderately to the CCR10 ligands, CCL27 and CCL28. Moreover, ATLL skin lesions consistently contained transcripts of CCR10 and its ligands CCL27 and CCL28 besides those of CCR4 and its ligands CCL17 and CCL22 that have been reported previously. Collectively, the frequent co-expression of CCR4 and CCR10, the known pair of skin-homing chemokine receptors, may play an important role in ATLL invasion into the skin.

Blanchard C, Wang N, Stringer KF, et al.
Eotaxin-3 and a uniquely conserved gene-expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis.
J Clin Invest. 2006; 116(2):536-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an emerging disorder with a poorly understood pathogenesis. In order to define disease mechanisms, we took an empirical approach analyzing esophageal tissue by a genome-wide microarray expression analysis. EE patients had a striking transcript signature involving 1% of the human genome that was remarkably conserved across sex, age, and allergic status and was distinct from that associated with non-EE chronic esophagitis. Notably, the gene encoding the eosinophil-specific chemoattractant eotaxin-3 (also known as CCL26) was the most highly induced gene in EE patients compared with its expression level in healthy individuals. Esophageal eotaxin-3 mRNA and protein levels strongly correlated with tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Furthermore, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human eotaxin-3 gene was associated with disease susceptibility. Finally, mice deficient in the eotaxin receptor (also known as CCR3) were protected from experimental EE. These results implicate eotaxin-3 as a critical effector molecule for EE and provide insight into disease pathogenesis.

Jöhrer K, Zelle-Rieser C, Perathoner A, et al.
Up-regulation of functional chemokine receptor CCR3 in human renal cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(7):2459-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that chemokines and chemokine receptors are causally involved in tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor proliferation and metastasis. Little is known about the possible function of chemokine receptors in the development and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We, therefore, analyzed the expression of chemokine receptors in tumor specimens and adjacent healthy kidney tissues [normal kidney cell (NKC)] from 10 RCC patients. We also characterized the permanent RCC cell line A-498. CCR6, CXCR2, and CXCR3 were consistently expressed by both malignant cells and NKCs. A-498 displayed additional expression of CXCR4. Importantly, the expression of CCR3 was almost absent on NKCs but clearly enhanced in a substantial proportion of RCC specimens. The primary CCR3 ligand, eotaxin-1/CCL11, induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, receptor internalization, and proliferation in A-498 cells confirming signaling competence of RCC-associated CCR3. In addition, we screened tumor tissue sections of 219 patients and found that 28% (62 of 219) expressed the CCR3 receptor. The presence of CCR3 in tumor samples seemed to correlate with the grade of malignancy. Previous work has established that eotaxin-1 expression is induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a cytokine known to be present in RCC tissue. Our data, therefore, supports a scenario in which eotaxin-1 as part of tumor-associated inflammation promotes progression and dissemination of CCR3-positive RCC.

Hudnall SD, Ge Y, Wei L, et al.
Distribution and phenotype of Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells in human pharyngeal tonsils.
Mod Pathol. 2005; 18(4):519-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often found in human tonsils, it remains to be precisely determined in what cells and microenvironment the virus is present. Although generally regarded as a B lymphotropic virus, EBV is associated with non-B-cell tumors, for example, NK/T-cell lymphoma, carcinoma, and leiomyosarcoma. To provide a basis for understanding the origin and biology of EBV-infected non-B cells, the immunophenotype of all EBV-infected cells in reactive human tonsils was determined by subjecting tonsil sections to dual/triple EBER in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, CCR3), B cells (CD20), plasma cells (CD138), natural killer (NK) cells (PEN5), and epithelial cells (cytokeratin), as well as frozen section immunostaining with antibodies to EBV latent proteins EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, and EBV early protein BZLF1. Most tonsils contained nearly equal numbers of EBNA1- and LMP1-positive cells (latency program) while only a few contained EBNA2-positive cells (growth program). More than 1000 EBER-positive cells from six tonsils were detected in the interfollicular zone (59%), tonsillar crypts (26%), and follicles (15%). Most (82%) EBER-positive cells are CD20-positive B cells, 7% are CD3-positive T cells, and 11% are cells of indeterminate lineage, often with plasmacytoid morphology. However, no EBER-positive plasma cells were identified. Rare EBER-positive NK cells and EBER/BZLF1-positive epithelial cells were identified. The direct demonstration of EBV within rare T cells, NK cells, and epithelial cells in reactive human tonsils provide a basis for further understanding of the origin of EBV-associated tumors of non-B-cell type.

Kouno J, Nagai H, Nagahata T, et al.
Up-regulation of CC chemokine, CCL3L1, and receptors, CCR3, CCR5 in human glioblastoma that promotes cell growth.
J Neurooncol. 2004; 70(3):301-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human CC ligand 3-like protein 1 (CCL3L1), a member of the CC chemokine family, that induces MCP1 and RANTES, exhibits a variety of proinflammatory activities including chemotaxis, and functional and proliferative activation of leukocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages. Its signal is transmitted through transmembrane receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5. To examine gene expression of chemokine, CCL3L1, and its receptors, CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5, we analyzed tumor tissues from 21 patients with several types of primary gliomas. CCL3L1, CCR3 and CCR5 gene exhibited over-expression in 70% (7/10), 60% (6/10), and 60% (6/10) of glioblastoma, in comparison with lower frequencies seen in lower-grade gliomas. Transfection of CCL3L1-expression vector to glioblastoma cell line enhanced proliferation of the tumor cells. These data suggest that increased expression of the CCL3L1, CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine-receptors system is involved in brain tumorigenesis, especially in the progression of glioblastoma.

Ohshima K, Karube K, Kawano R, et al.
Classification of distinct subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified, identified by chemokine and chemokine receptor expression: Analysis of prognosis.
Int J Oncol. 2004; 25(3):605-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
WHO classification for malignant lymphoma was recently proposed. However, PTCL is heterogeneous. Chemokines and its receptors are closely associated with the T-cell subtypes. To clarify the T-cell subtype in PTCL, we conducted DNA chips of chemokine, its receptor (R) and cytokines. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AILD, n=4), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, n=4), adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL, n=7), NK-cell lymphoma (NKL, n=2) and PTCL, unspecified (PTCL-U, n=6) were analyzed using DNA chips. In addition, immunological stainings were performed in 280 cases. In DNA chip, AILD, ALCL, NKL and ATLL showed a tendency for respective clusters, otherwise, PTCL-U clustered with AILD, ALCL and ATLL. From the gene expression profiling, CCR4, CCR3, MIG, CXCR3 and BLC were selected for immunohistochemistry. ATLL (n=48) expressed CCR4. ALCL (n=26) expressed CCR3, NKL (n=20) expressed MIG, and AILD (n=29) expressed CXCR3 and/or BLC. From the expression patterns, PTCL-U (n=134) were classified into three groups; CCR4 type (CCR4(+), n=42), CCR3 type (CCR3(+), n=31) and CXCR3 type (CXCR3(+) BLC(+/-), n=54). The prognosis was poor for ATLL, intermediate for AILD and favorable for ALCL (P=0.0014). Among PTCL-U, CCR4 type, CXCR3 type and CCR3 type had prognoses equivalent to ATLL, AILD and ALCL, respectively (P<0.0001).

Fujii A, Ohshima K, Hamasaki M, et al.
Differential expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines and cytokine receptors in diffuse large B cell malignant lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2004; 24(3):529-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Host immunity, particularly T cell immunity (Th1/Th2 balance), plays an important role in clinicopathological features of malignant disease. However, the T cell immunity has not been fully investigated in patients with lymphoid malignancies. Recent studies suggested the important role of dysregulation of the endogenous immune system in lymphomagenesis. The relationships between cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, are important in determining the selectivity of local immunity. To investigate differences in the endogenous immune system of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL), we performed gene expression profiling using cDNA microarrays of cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. We studied 5 cases each of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), extranodal and nodal lymphomas. PCNSL exhibited diffuse down-regulated profiles, compared to normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. While extranodal and nodal lymphomas also exhibited diffuse down-regulated profiles, some genes displayed up-regulated profiles. Hierarchical clustering analysis separated PCNSL and extranodal lymphomas into distinct groups based on their gene expression profiles, as well as extranodal and nodal, but not PCNSL and nodal. PCNSL exhibited significantly lower expression of BLC/BCA-1 and CCR-3 (Th2 type), and higher expression of IL-8 and MIP-1beta (Th1 type) than extranodal lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed frequent CCR-3 and BLC/BCA-1 expression in extranodal lymphomas, compared with PCNSL. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of each DLBL. A better understanding of the immune response in each DLBL could help in the design of novel therapeutic strategies based on cytokines/chemokines and their receptors.

Charafe-Jauffret E, Bertucci F, Ramuz O, et al.
Characterization of Hodgkin's lymphoma-like undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type as a particular UCNT subtype mimicking Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(1):97-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) that histologically mimics Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) ("Hodgkin's lymphoma-like UCNT"--HL-like UCNT) is known as a diagnostic pitfall. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and cDNA array technology, we wanted to document its phenotypical and molecular characteristics. We report herein 5 cases of UCNT that morphologically mimic HL and 3 classical UCNT cases. We compared the expression profiles of a thousand selected genes in HL-like UCNT and in classical UCNT cases. No difference in the profile of EBV infection was noted between the HL-like UCNT and control cases. Significant differences were detected in the expression of genes involved in the matrix modelling, angiogenesis, apoptosis and regulation of the Th-2 interleukins. The eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin was expressed in the stroma of HL-like UCNT, but not in the control cases. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed in both stromal and carcinoma cell populations of HL-like UCNT, this pattern being similar to the one observed in HL. These results show that UCNT morphologically resembling HL share also some specific phenotypical and molecular features with HL, and might deserve to be isolated as a particular UCNT subtype.

Khodarev NN, Yu J, Labay E, et al.
Tumour-endothelium interactions in co-culture: coordinated changes of gene expression profiles and phenotypic properties of endothelial cells.
J Cell Sci. 2003; 116(Pt 6):1013-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumour angiogenesis is a complex process based upon a sequence of interactions between tumour cells and endothelial cells. To model tumour/endothelial-cell interactions, we co-cultured U87 human glioma cells with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). U87 cells induced an 'activated' phenotype in HUVECs, including an increase in proliferation, migration and net-like formation. Activation was observed in co-cultures where cells were in direct contact and physically separated, suggesting an important role for soluble factor(s) in the phenotypic and genotypic changes observed. Expressional profiling of tumour-activated endothelial cells was evaluated using cDNA arrays and confirmed by quantitative PCR. Matching pairs of receptors/ligands were found to be coordinately expressed, including TGFbetaRII with TGFbeta3, FGFRII and cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CRF-1) with FGF7 and FGF12, CCR1, CCR3, CCR5 with RANTES and calcitronin receptor-like gene (CALCRL) with adrenomedullin. Consistent with cDNA array data, immunohistochemical staining of expressed proteins revealed the upregulation of Tie-2 receptor in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that tumour-induced activation of quiescent endothelial cells involves the expression of angiogenesis-related receptors and the induction of autocrine growth loops. We suggest that tumour cells release growth factors that induce endothelial cells to express specific ligands and their cognate receptors coordinately.

Mahajan SD, Schwartz SA, Shanahan TC, et al.
Morphine regulates gene expression of alpha- and beta-chemokines and their receptors on astroglial cells via the opioid mu receptor.
J Immunol. 2002; 169(7):3589-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The brain is a target organ for recreational drugs and HIV-1. Epidemiological data demonstrate that opioid abuse is a risk factor for HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS. Chemokines and their receptors have been implicated in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infections. However, little is known about the effects of opioids on the expression of chemokines and their receptors (the latter also are HIV-1 coreceptors) by cells of the CNS. Herein we describe the effects of morphine on gene expression of the alpha- and beta-chemokines and their receptors by the astrocytoma cell line U87 and by primary normal human astrocyte (NHA) cultures. U87 cells treated with morphine showed significant down-regulation of IL-8 gene expression, whereas expression of the IL-8 receptor CXCR2 was reciprocally up-regulated as detected by RT-PCR. Treatment of NHAs with morphine suppressed IL-8 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1beta gene expression, whereas expression of their receptor genes, CCR3 and CCR5, was simultaneously enhanced. These morphine-induced effects on U87 and NHA cells were reversed by the opioid mu receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. Morphine also enhanced the constitutive expression of the opioid mu receptor on astroglial cells. Our results support the hypothesis that opioids play a significant role in the susceptibility of the CNS to HIV-1 infection and subsequent encephalopathy by inhibiting local production of HIV-1-protective chemokines (IL-8 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1beta) and enhancing expression of HIV-1 entry coreceptor genes (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR2) within the CNS. These effects of opioids appear to be mediated through the opioid mu receptor that we demonstrated on astroglial cells.

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