Gene Summary

Gene:CD36; CD36 molecule
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth major glycoprotein of the platelet surface and serves as a receptor for thrombospondin in platelets and various cell lines. Since thrombospondins are widely distributed proteins involved in a variety of adhesive processes, this protein may have important functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It binds to collagen, thrombospondin, anionic phospholipids and oxidized LDL. It directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and it binds long chain fatty acids and may function in the transport and/or as a regulator of fatty acid transport. Mutations in this gene cause platelet glycoprotein deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:platelet glycoprotein 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (67)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD36 (cancer-related)

Iwanishi M, Kusakabe T, Azuma C, et al.
Clinical characteristics in two patients with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019; 152:79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The present report aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics in a girl at the age of 12 and her mother with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome.
METHODS: We examined fat distribution in the patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. We performed genetic analysis to examine the causal gene for lipodystrophy and insulin resistance.
RESULTS: Both patients had partial lipodystrophy and a novel heterozygous missense mutation (Asn
CONCLUSIONS: This case might help to understand the mechanisms insulin receptor dysfunction that cause lipodystrophy.

Atiya HI, Dvorkin-Gheva A, Hassell J, et al.
Intraductal Adaptation of the 4T1 Mouse Model of Breast Cancer Reveals Effects of the Epithelial Microenvironment on Tumor Progression and Metastasis.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2277-2287 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low success rates in oncology drug development are prompting re-evaluation of preclinical models, including orthotopic tumor engraftment. In breast cancer models, tumor cells are typically injected into mouse mammary fat pads (MFP). However, this approach bypasses the epithelial microenvironment, potentially altering tumor properties in ways that affect translational application.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were generated by mammary intraductal (MIND) engraftment of 4T1 carcinoma cells. Growth, histopathology, and molecular features were quantified.
RESULTS: Despite growth similar to that of 4T1 MFP tumors, 4T1 MIND tumors exhibit distinct histopathology and increased metastasis. Furthermore, >6,000 transcripts were found to be uniquely up-regulated in 4T1 MIND tumor cells, including genes that drive several cancer hallmarks, in addition to two known therapeutic targets that were not up-regulated in 4T1 MFP tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Engraftment into the epithelial microenvironment generates tumors that more closely recapitulate the complexity of malignancy, suggesting that intraductal adaptation of orthotopic mammary models may be an important step towards improving outcomes in preclinical drug screening and development.

Hao Y, Li D, Xu Y, et al.
Investigation of lipid metabolism dysregulation and the effects on immune microenvironments in pan-cancer using multiple omics data.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 7):195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism reprogramming is a hallmark for tumor which contributes to tumorigenesis and progression, but the commonality and difference of lipid metabolism among pan-cancer is not fully investigated. Increasing evidences suggest that the alterations in tumor metabolism, including metabolite abundance and accumulation of metabolic products, lead to local immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. An integrated analysis of lipid metabolism in cancers from different tissues using multiple omics data may provide novel insight into the understanding of tumorigenesis and progression.
RESULTS: Through systematic analysis of the multiple omics data from TCGA, we found that the most-widely altered lipid metabolism pathways in pan-cancer are fatty acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and PPAR signaling. Gene expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism show commonalities across pan-cancer, while the alteration in cholesterol metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism differ with tissue origin, suggesting tissue specific lipid metabolism features in different tumor types. An integrated analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and mutations revealed factors that regulate gene expression, including the differentially methylated sites and mutations of the lipid genes, as well as mutation and differential expression of the up-stream transcription factors for the lipid metabolism pathways. Correlation analysis of the proportion of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and the expression of lipid metabolism genes revealed immune-related differentially expressed lipid metabolic genes, indicating the potential crosstalk between lipid metabolism and immune response. Genes related to lipid metabolism and immune response that are associated with poor prognosis were discovered including HMGCS2, GPX2 and CD36, which may provide clues for tumor biomarkers or therapeutic targets.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an integrated analysis of lipid metabolism in pan-cancer, highlights the perturbation of key metabolism processes in tumorigenesis and clarificates the regulation mechanism of abnormal lipid metabolism and effects of lipid metabolism on tumor immune microenvironment. This study also provides new clues for biomarkers or therapeutic targets of lipid metabolism in tumors.

Münch NS, Fang HY, Ingermann J, et al.
High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's Esophagus via Interleukin 8 and Alterations to the Gut Microbiome.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 157(2):492-506.e2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression from BE to cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to increased abdominal pressure and gastroesophageal reflux disease, although this pathogenic mechanism has not been proven. We investigated whether environmental or dietary factors associated with obesity contribute to the progression of BE to EAC in mice.
METHODS: Tg(ED-L2-IL1RN/IL1B)#Tcw mice (a model of BE, called L2-IL1B mice) were fed a chow (control) or high-fat diet (HFD) or were crossbred with mice that express human interleukin (IL) 8 (L2-IL1B/IL8 mice). Esophageal tissues were collected and analyzed for gene expression profiles and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Organoids were established from BE tissue of mice and cultured with serum from lean or obese individuals or with neutrophils from L2-IL1B mice. Feces from mice were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared to 16s sequencing data from patients with dysplasia or BE. L2-IL1B were mice raised in germ-free conditions.
RESULTS: L2-IL1B mice fed an HFD developed esophageal dysplasia and tumors more rapidly than mice fed the control diet; the speed of tumor development was independent of body weight. The acceleration of dysplasia by the HFD in the L2-IL1B mice was associated with a shift in the gut microbiota and an increased ratio of neutrophils to natural killer cells in esophageal tissues compared with mice fed a control diet. We observed similar differences in the microbiomes from patients with BE that progressed to EAC vs patients with BE that did not develop into cancer. Tissues from dysplasias of L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD contained increased levels of cytokines that are produced in response to CXCL1 (the functional mouse homolog of IL8, also called KC). Serum from obese patients caused organoids from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice to produce IL8. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD and from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice contained increased numbers of myeloid cells and cells expressing Cxcr2 and Lgr5 messenger RNAs (epithelial progenitors) compared with mice fed control diets. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice raised in germ-free housing had fewer progenitor cells and developed less dysplasia than in L2-IL1 mice raised under standard conditions; exposure of fecal microbiota from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD to L2-IL1B mice fed the control diet accelerated tumor development.
CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of BE, we found that an HFD promoted dysplasia by altering the esophageal microenvironment and gut microbiome, thereby inducing inflammation and stem cell expansion, independent of obesity.

Wirbel J, Pyl PT, Kartal E, et al.
Meta-analysis of fecal metagenomes reveals global microbial signatures that are specific for colorectal cancer.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(4):679-689 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association studies have linked microbiome alterations with many human diseases. However, they have not always reported consistent results, thereby necessitating cross-study comparisons. Here, a meta-analysis of eight geographically and technically diverse fecal shotgun metagenomic studies of colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 768), which was controlled for several confounders, identified a core set of 29 species significantly enriched in CRC metagenomes (false discovery rate (FDR) < 1 × 10

Zhang X, Yang P, Luo X, et al.
High olive oil diets enhance cervical tumour growth in mice: transcriptome analysis for potential candidate genes and pathways.
Lipids Health Dis. 2019; 18(1):76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiologic studies have found a close association between obesity and cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and is a risk factor for cancer. Thus far, the impact of dietary olive oil on cancer development remains inconclusive, and little is known about its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Nude mouse xenograft models were used to examine the effects of high olive oil diet feeding on cervical cancer (CC) development and progression. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were observed by the methods of EdU incorporation, Wound healing and Transwell assay, separately. RNA-sequencing technology and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were used to elucidate the molecular processes regulated by dietary fat. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and were functionally analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted using the STRING database and Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: A high olive oil diet aggravated tumourigenesis in an experimental xenograft model of CC. Oleic acid, the main ingredient of olive oil, promoted cell growth and migration in vitro. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of xenograft tumour tissues was then performed to elucidate the regulation of molecular events regulated by dietary fat. Dietary olive oil induced 648 DEGs, comprising 155 up-regulated DEGs and 493 down-regulated DEGs. GO and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that some of the DEGs including EGR1 and FOXN2 were involved in the transcription regulation and others, including TGFB2 and COL4A3 in cell proliferation. The 15 most strongly associated DEGs were selected from the PPI network and hub genes including JUN, TIMP3, OAS1, OASL and EGR1 were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a high olive oil diet aggravates CC progression in vivo and in vitro. We provide clues to build a potential link between dietary fat and cancerogenesis and identify areas requiring further investigation.

Lima GEDCP, Fernandes VO, Montenegro APDR, et al.
Aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma in a child with type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy.
Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019; 63(1):79-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is rare in children, particularly in those aged < 10 years. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between neoplasms and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which are often associated with a higher risk for and/or aggressiveness of the neoplasm. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) with autosomal recessive inheritance is a rare disease and is characterized by the lack of adipose tissue, severe insulin resistance, and early metabolic disturbances. Here, we reported a rare case of a type 2 CGL in a girl who presented with a papillary TC (PTC) at the age of 7 years. She had no family history of TC or previous exposure to ionizing radiation. She had a generalized lack of subcutaneous fat, including the palmar and plantar regions, muscle hypertrophy, intense acanthosis nigricans, hepatomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, severe insulin resistance, and hypoleptinemia. A genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the BSCL2 gene (p.Thr109Asnfs* 5). Ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic solid nodule measuring 1.8 × 1.0 × 1.0 cm, and fine needle aspiration biopsy suggested malignancy. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and a histopathological examination confirmed PTC with vascular invasion and parathyroid lymph node metastasis (pT3N1Mx stage). This is the first report to describe a case of differentiated TC in a child with CGL. Severe insulin resistance that is generally observed in patients with CGL early in life, especially in those with type 2 CGL, may be associated with this uncommon presentation of aggressive PTC during childhood.

Frank AC, Ebersberger S, Fink AF, et al.
Apoptotic tumor cell-derived microRNA-375 uses CD36 to alter the tumor-associated macrophage phenotype.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1135 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Tumor-immune cell interactions shape the immune cell phenotype, with microRNAs (miRs) being crucial components of this crosstalk. How they are transferred and how they affect their target landscape, especially in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), is largely unknown. Here we report that breast cancer cells have a high constitutive expression of miR-375, which is released as a non-exosome entity during apoptosis. Deep sequencing of the miRome pointed to enhanced accumulation of miR-375 in TAMs, facilitated by the uptake of tumor-derived miR-375 via CD36. In macrophages, miR-375 directly targets TNS3 and PXN to enhance macrophage migration and infiltration into tumor spheroids and in tumors of a xenograft mouse model. In tumor cells, miR-375 regulates CCL2 expression to increase recruitment of macrophages. Our study provides evidence for miR transfer from tumor cells to TAMs and identifies miR-375 as a crucial regulator of phagocyte infiltration and the subsequent development of a tumor-promoting microenvironment.

El-Serafi AT, Sandeep D, Abdallah S, et al.
Paradoxical effects of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-deoxycytidine and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on adipogenesis.
Differentiation. 2019 Mar - Apr; 106:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipogenesis is an important biological process that is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, fat regeneration is crucial as a restorative approach following mastectomy or severe burn injury. Furthermore, optimizing an in-vitro model of adipogenesis, which would help in understanding the possible effects and/or side effects of fat-soluble drugs and anti-obesity remedies, in addition to the developmental studies. Epigenetic is an important factor that is involved in cellular differentiation and commitment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of DNA methylation and histone deactylases inhibitors, 5-Aza-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), on the adipogenic differentiation process. The two modifiers were applied according to our previously published protocol, followed by three cycles of a classical, two-step adipogenesis protocol. The cells pretreated with SAHA showed enhanced expression of the many adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as well as the accumulation of intracytoplasmic fat as shown by oil red and Nile red staining and the secretion of adipokines, such as MCP-1 and IP-10. On contrary, 5-Aza-dC inhibited all these markers. In conclusion, adding the reported step with SAHA to the differentiation protocols could have an impact on the progress of the in-vitro fat regenerative approach. The possible role of 5-Aza-dC in the inhibition of adipogenesis can be of clinical interest and will need further characterization in the future.

Wang F, Li H, Lou Y, et al.
Insulin‑like growth factor I promotes adipogenesis in hemangioma stem cells from infantile hemangiomas.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2825-2830 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common infantile neoplasms and are characterized by initial proliferation during infancy and subsequent spontaneous regression within the next 5‑10 years, frequently leaving fibrous fat residues. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the differentiation of hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) into adipocytes are not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of insulin‑like growth factor I (IGF‑1) on HemSCs from patients with IH and to determine the signaling mechanisms involved. Treatment of HemSCs with IGF‑1 led to upregulation of the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPARγ). By contrast, inhibition of the IGF‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R) or phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) activity decreased the expression of PPARγ, in addition to that of CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ, and adiponectin. IGF‑1 upregulated the expression of phosphorylated RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase in IH cells, whereas a specific PI3K inhibitor or IGF‑1R antibody blocked this effect. These results indicated that IGF‑1 is a pro‑proliferative and pro‑lipogenic factor in IH HemSCs. Taken together, these findings indicated that IGF‑1 is able to upregulate PPARγ by activating the IGF‑1R and PI3K pathways, thereby accelerating lipogenesis and enhancing IH HemSC adipogenesis.

Aggarwal V, Kashyap D, Sak K, et al.
Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Tocotrienols in Cancer: Recent Trends and Advancements.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Tocotrienols, found in several natural sources such as rice bran, annatto seeds, and palm oil have been reported to exert various beneficial health promoting properties especially against chronic diseases, including cancer. The incidence of cancer is rapidly increasing around the world not only because of continual aging and growth in global population, but also due to the adaptation of Western lifestyle behaviours, including intake of high fat diets and low physical activity. Tocotrienols can suppress the growth of different malignancies, including those of breast, lung, ovary, prostate, liver, brain, colon, myeloma, and pancreas. These findings, together with the reported safety profile of tocotrienols in healthy human volunteers, encourage further studies on the potential application of these compounds in cancer prevention and treatment. In the current article, detailed information about the potential molecular mechanisms of actions of tocotrienols in different cancer models has been presented and the possible effects of these vitamin E analogues on various important cancer hallmarks, i.e., cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation have been briefly analyzed.

Seki T, Liu J, Brutkiewicz RR, Tsuji M
A Potent CD1d-binding Glycolipid for iNKT-Cell-based Therapy Against Human Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):549-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT) stimulated by CD1d-binding glycolipids have been shown to exert antitumor effects by a number of studies in a mouse model. Breast cancer is a devastating disease, with different types of breast cancer recurring locally or distant as metastatic/advanced disease following initial treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the tumoricidal effect of a CD1d-binding glycolipid, called 7DW8-5, against a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parental MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells transduced with human CD1d were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), followed by loading with glycolipids. After co-culturing with human iNKT cells, the cells were permeabilized and stained with Alexa Flour 647-conjugated antibody to active caspase-3, and analyzed using a BD LSR II. For the in vivo tumoricidal effect, MDA-MB-231 cells transduced with human CD1d and luciferase genes were injected into the mammary fat pad of female NOD/SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice, followed by the injection of human iNKT cells with or without 7DW8-5, and the levels of luminescence were analyzed with whole-body imaging.
RESULTS: Human iNKT cells could kill CD1d-expressing human breast cancer cells in vitro in the presence of 7DW8-5, but not α-GalCer. As for in vivo, the adoptive transfer of human iNKT cells into tumor-challenged NSG mice significantly inhibited the growth of CD1d+ MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in the presence of 7DW8-5.
CONCLUSION: CD1d-binding, glycolipid-based iNKT-cell therapy is suggested as a potent and effective treatment against breast cancer in humans.

Fei LR, Huang WJ, Wang Y, et al.
PRDM16 functions as a suppressor of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is known to play a significant role in the determination and function of brown and beige fat. However, the role of PRDM16 in tumor biology has not been well addressed. Here we investigated the impact of PRDM16 on tumor growth and metastasis in lung cancer.
METHODS: UALCAN database, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to assess PRDM16 expression in lung cancer patients. Kaplan-Meier plotter database was used to analyze the overall survival of patients with lung cancer stratified by PRDM16 expression. PRDM16 overexpression and knockdown experiments were conducted to assess the effects of PRDM16 on growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and its molecular mechanism was investigated in lung adenocarcinoma cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq), real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), luciferase assay, xenograft models and rescue experiments.
RESULTS: PRDM16 was downregulated in lung adenocarcinomas, and its expression level correlated with key pathological characteristics and prognoses of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Overexpressing PRDM16 inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro by repressing the transcription of Mucin-4 (MUC4), one of the regulators of EMT in lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, deleting the PR domain from PRDM16 increased the transcriptional repression of MUC4 by exhibiting significant differences in histone modifications on its promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a critical interplay between transcriptional and epigenetic modifications during lung adenocarcinoma progression involving EMT of cancer cells and suggest that PRDM16 is a metastasis suppressor and potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinomas.

Selmin OI, Donovan MG, Skovan B, et al.
Arsenic‑induced BRCA1 CpG promoter methylation is associated with the downregulation of ERα and resistance to tamoxifen in MCF7 breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tumor xenografts.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):869-878 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
A significant percentage (~30%) of estrogen receptor‑α (ERα)‑positive tumors become refractory to endocrine therapies; however, the mechanisms responsible for this resistance remain largely unknown. Chronic exposure to arsenic through foods and contaminated water has been linked to an increased incidence of several tumors and long‑term health complications. Preclinical and population studies have indicated that arsenic exposure may interfere with endocrine regulation and increase the risk of breast tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of sodium arsenite (NaAsIII) exposure in ERα‑positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in mammary tumor xenografts. The results revealed that acute (within 4 days) and long‑term (10 days to 7 weeks) in vitro exposure to environmentally relevant doses reduced breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and ERα expression associated with the gain of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and folate receptor 1 (FOLR1), and the loss of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Furthermore, long‑term exposure to NaAsIII induced the proliferation and compromised the response of MCF7 cells to tamoxifen (TAM). The in vitro exposure to NaAsIII induced BRCA1 CpG methylation associated with the increased recruitment of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the loss of RNA polymerase II (PolII) at the BRCA1 gene. Xenografts of NaAsIII‑preconditioned MCF7 cells (MCF7NaAsIII) into the mammary fat pads of nude mice produced a larger tumor volume compared to tumors from control MCF7 cells and were more refractory to TAM in association with the reduced expression of BRCA1 and ERα, CpG hypermethylation of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and BRCA1, and the increased expression of FOLR1. These cumulative data support the hypothesis that exposure to AsIII may contribute to reducing the efficacy of endocrine therapy against ERα‑positive breast tumors by hampering the expression of ERα and BRCA1 via CpG methylation, respectively of ESR1 and BRCA1.

Romagnolo DF, Donovan MG, Doetschman TC, Selmin OI
Nutrients. 2019; 11(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
The farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) protects against inflammation and cancer of the colon through maintenance of intestinal bile acid (BA) homeostasis. Conversely, higher levels of BA and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are risk factors for inflammation and cancer of the colon. In the United States,

Li N, Zhao X, You S
Identification of key regulators of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using bioinformatics analysis of microarray data.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(2):e14074 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer, and its etiology remains largely unknown. This study aimed to screen a panel of key genes and to identify their potential impact on the molecular pathways associated with the development of PDAC. Four gene expression profiles, GSE28735, GSE15471, GSE102238, and GSE43795, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The intersection of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each dataset was obtained using Venn analysis. Gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) analysis were subsequently carried out. To screen for hub genes, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed.The intersection of the DEGs revealed 7 upregulated and 9 downregulated genes. Upon relaxation of the selection criteria, 58 upregulated and 32 downregulated DEGs were identified. The top 5 biological processes identified by GO analysis involved peptide cross-linking, extracellular matrix (ECM) disassembly, regulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, mesoderm morphogenesis, and lipid digestion. The results of KEGG analysis revealed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways involved in protein digestion and absorption, ECM-receptor interaction, pancreatic secretion, and fat digestion and absorption. The top ten hub genes were identified based on the PPI network.In conclusion, the identified hub genes may contribute to the elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PDAC and serve as promising candidates that can be utilized for the early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of PDAC. However, further experimental validation is required to confirm these results.

Branavan U, Muneeswaran K, Wijesundera S, et al.
Identification of selected genetic polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome in Sri Lankan women using low cost genotyping techniques.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209830 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the commonest endocrine disorder affecting young women, appears to be a multigenic trait with contributing genes being unclear. Hence, analysis of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes is required. Currently available genotyping methods are expensive, time-consuming with limited analytical sensitivity.
AIM: (i) Develop and validate high resolution melting (HRM) assay and allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (AS-qPCR) for genotyping selected SNPs associated with PCOS. (ii) Identify selected SNPs and their association with a Sri Lankan cohort of well-characterized PCOS.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from women with well-characterized PCOS from adolescence (n = 55) and ethnically matched controls (n = 110). FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated gene; rs9939609), FSHB (Follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit; rs6169), FSHR (Follicle stimulating hormone receptor; rs6165/rs6166), and INSR (Insulin receptor; rs1799817) genes were genotyped using HRM assay. GnRH1 (Gonadotropin releasing hormone; rs6185), LHB (Luteinizing hormone beta subunit; rs1800447/rs34349826) and LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor; rs2293275) genes were genotyped using AS-qPCR method. Genotyping results were validated using Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: A significant association was observed within FTO gene polymorphism (rs9939609) and PCOS. Genotype frequency of FTO gene (rs9939609)-cases versus controls were TT-36.4% vs.65.4% (p<0.05), AT-23.6% vs.20.9%, AA-40% vs.13.6% (p<0.05). Genotype frequencies of the SNPs GnRH1 (rs6185), FSHB (rs6169), FSHR (rs6165 & rs6166), LHB (rs1800447 & rs34349826), LHCGR (rs2293275) and INSR (rs1799817) were not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.05). Only the mutant alleles were observed for LHB rs1800447 and rs34349826 SNPs in both groups. The HRM and AS-qPCR assay results had 100% concordance with sequencing results.
CONCLUSIONS: FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism is significantly more prevalent among Sri Lankan PCOS subjects while the other selected SNPs of HPG axis genes and INSR gene showed no association. HRM and AS-qPCR assays provide a reliable, fast and user-friendly genotyping method facilitating wider implication in clinical practice.

Sacca PA, Mazza ON, Scorticati C, et al.
Human Periprostatic Adipose Tissue: Secretome from Patients With Prostate Cancer or Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Jan-Feb; 16(1):29-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Periprostatic adipose tissue (PPAT) directs tumour behaviour. Microenvironment secretome provides information related to its biology. This study was performed to identify secreted proteins by PPAT, from both prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis was performed in PPAT-conditioned media (CM) from patients with prostate cancer (CMs-T) (stage T3: CM-T3, stage T2: CM-T2) or benign disease (CM-BPH).
RESULTS: The highest number and diversity of proteins was identified in CM-T3. Locomotion was the biological process mainly associated to CMs-T and reproduction to CM-T3. Immune responses were enriched in CMs-T. Extracellular matrix and structural proteins were associated to CMs-T. CM-T3 was enriched in proteins with catalytic activity and CM-T2 in proteins with defense/immunity activity. Metabolism and energy pathways were enriched in CM-T3 and those with immune system functions in CMs-T. Transport proteins were enriched in CM-T2 and CM-BPH.
CONCLUSION: Proteins and pathways reported in this study could be useful to distinguish stages of disease and may become targets for novel therapies.

Pérez-Escalante E, Cariño-Cortés R, Fernández-Martínez E, et al.
Colorectal Cancer: Causes and Evidence of Chemopreventive Treatments.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018; 19(14):1135-1155 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third most frequent cancer in women and men, respectively; indeed, CRC is placed as the fourth world's most deadly cancer (after lung, liver, and stomach cancer). The incidence of CRC is strongly influenced by nutrition and the high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. CRC is one of the most intensively studied cancer types, partly because of its high prevalence, but also because of the existence of its precursor lesions, tubular or villous adenomas, and more recently serrated adenomas. The morphological steps in the adenomacarcinoma sequence have been elucidated at a molecular level, which allow the identification of the genes responsible for CRC. Review and Conclusions: The main aim of this review is to provide data regarding the pathophysiological characteristics, molecular mechanisms as well as carcinogenic and chemopreventive agents for CRC, with emphasis on evidence supporting their efficacy. These compounds may modulate multiple signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in transformed cells, they also enhance the host immune system and favor an effective treatment. Despite promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of these compounds have been tested in clinical trials. The mechanistic spectrum and specificity of the action of phytochemicals represent a complex and evolving field of research.

Schmid R, Wolf K, Robering JW, et al.
ADSCs and adipocytes are the main producers in the autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid axis of breast cancer and healthy mammary tissue in vitro.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1273 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women affecting one out of eight females throughout their lives. Autotaxin (ATX) is upregulated in breast cancer which results in increased lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) formation within the tumor. This study's aim was to identify the role of different mammary cell populations within the ATX-LPA axis.
METHODS: Epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-positive (EpCAM) and -negative cells from breast tumors, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant mammary fat were isolated and compared to healthy ADSCs, mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), and mesenchymal cells (MES) of healthy mammary tissue (n = 4 each) and further to well-established breast (cancer) cell lines.
RESULTS: mRNA expression analyses revealed that ADSCs and MES largely expressed LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) while epithelial cells mainly expressed LPAR6. LPA 18:1 activated all the cell populations and cell lines by rise in cytosolic free calcium concentrations. MES and ADSCs expressed ATX whereas epithelial cells did not. ADSCs revealed the highest expression in ATX with a significant decline after adipogenic differentiation in healthy ADSCs, whereas ATX expression increased in ADSCs from tumor patients. Breast (cancer) cell lines did not express ATX. Transmigration of MES was stimulated by LPA whereas an inhibitory effect was observed in epithelial cells with no differences between tumors and healthy cells. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines were also stimulated and the transmigration partly inhibited using the LPA receptor antagonist Ki16425.
CONCLUSIONS: We here show that each mammary cell population plays a different role in the ATX-LPA axis with ADSCs and adipocytes being the main source of ATX in tumor patients in our experimental setting. Inhibitors of this axis may therefore present a valuable target for pharmacological therapies.

He JY, Wei XH, Li SJ, et al.
Adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promote breast Cancer metastasis via upregulation of Lysyl Hydroxylase-2 expression.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adipocytes make up the major component of breast tissue, accounting for 90% of stromal tissue. Thus, the crosstalk between adipocytes and breast cancer cells may play a critical role in cancer progression. Adipocyte-breast cancer interactions have been considered important for the promotion of breast cancer metastasis. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these interactions are unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of adipocyte-mediated breast cancer metastasis.
METHODS: Breast cancer cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes for migration and 3D matrix invasion assays. Next, lentivirus-mediated loss-of-function experiments were used to explore the function of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD2) in breast cancer migration and adipocyte-dependent migration of breast cancer cells. The role of PLOD2 in breast cancer metastasis was further confirmed using orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts in vivo. Clinical samples were used to confirm that PLOD2 expression is increased in tumor tissue and is associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Cells were treated with cytokines and pharmacological inhibitors in order to verify which adipokines were responsible for activation of PLOD2 expression and which signaling pathways were activated in vitro.
RESULTS: Gene expression profiling and Western blotting analyses revealed that PLOD2 was upregulated in breast cancer cells following coculture with adipocytes; this process was accompanied by enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Loss-of-function studies indicated that PLOD2 knockdown suppressed cell migration and disrupted the formation of actin stress fibers in breast cancer cells and abrogated the migration induced by following coculture with adipocytes. Moreover, experiments performed in orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts showed that PLOD2 knockdown could reduce metastasis to the lung and liver. Further, high PLOD2 expression correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, adipocyte-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin may facilitate PLOD2 upregulation in breast cancer cells and promote breast cancer metastasis in tail vein metastasis assays. Further investigation revealed that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promoted PLOD2 expression through activation of the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promote PLOD2 expression by activating the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, thus promoting breast cancer metastasis.

Tangen IL, Fasmer KE, Konings GF, et al.
Blood steroids are associated with prognosis and fat distribution in endometrial cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(1):46-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite being a hormone dependent cancer, there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between level of steroids in blood and prognosis for endometrial cancer (EC) patients.
METHODS: In this study we investigated plasma levels of 19 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry in 38 postmenopausal EC patients, 19 with long, and 19 with short survival. We explored if estradiol levels were associated with specific abdominal fat distribution patterns and if transcriptional alterations related to estradiol levels could be observed in tumor samples.
RESULTS: The plasma steroid levels for DHEA, DHEAS, progesterone, 21 OH progesterone and E1S were significantly increased (all p < 0.05) in patients with long survival compared to short. Estradiol levels were significantly positively correlated with visceral fat percentage (p = 0.035), and an increased expression of genes involved in estrogen related signaling was observed in tumors from patients with high estradiol levels in plasma.
CONCLUSION: Several of the identified plasma steroids represent promising biomarkers in EC patients. The association between increased estradiol levels and a high percentage of visceral fat indicates that visceral fat is a larger contributor to estradiol production compared to subcutaneous fat in this population.

Zhang H, Deng T, Ge S, et al.
Exosome circRNA secreted from adipocytes promotes the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting deubiquitination-related USP7.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(15):2844-2859 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major form of liver cancer, has shown increasing incidence and poor prognosis. Adipose tissue is known to function in energy storage and metabolism regulation by the secretion of adipokines. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of noncoding RNA, have recently been recognized as key factors in tumor development, but the role of exosome circRNAs derived from adipose tissues has not been defined yet. Here, adipose-secreted circRNAs were found to regulate deubiquitination in HCC, thus facilitating cell growth. It was observed that exosome circ-deubiquitination (circ-DB) is upregulated in HCC patients with higher body fat ratios. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that exo-circ-DB promotes HCC growth and reduces DNA damage via the suppression of miR-34a and the activation of deubiquitination-related USP7. Finally, the results showed that the effects of adipose exosomes on HCC cells can be reversed by knockdown of circ-DB. These results indicate that exosome circRNAs secreted from adipocytes promote tumor growth and reduce DNA damage by suppressing miR-34a and activating the USP7/Cyclin A2 signaling pathway.

Fisch SC, Nikou AF, Wright EA, et al.
Precocious subcutaneous abdominal stem cell development to adipocytes in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Fertil Steril. 2018; 110(7):1367-1376 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether abnormal subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipose stem cell (ASC) development to adipocytes in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) correlates with hyperandrogenism.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PATIENT(S): Eight normal-weight women with PCOS and eight normoandrogenic ovulatory (control) women matched for age and body mass index.
INTERVENTION(S): Circulating hormone and metabolic measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance testing, total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and SC abdominal fat biopsy.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): In vitro ASC commitment to preadipocytes (ZFP423 protein expression, day 0.5), preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes (PPARγ gene expression, day 3) and adipocyte lipid content (Oil-Red-O fluorescence, day 12) comparisons correlated with clinical outcomes.
RESULT(S): In women with PCOS, SC abdominal ASCs compared with those of control women showed exaggerated commitment to preadipocytes and had greater lipid content in newly formed adipocytes after in vitro maturation. In all women combined, ZFP423 protein expression negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose levels whereas the lipid content of newly formed adipocytes positively correlated with both PPARγ gene expression and serum free testosterone levels.
CONCLUSION(S): In normal-weight women with PCOS compared with the control group, exaggerated SC abdominal ASC commitment to preadipocytes and enhanced adipocyte lipid content during maturation in vitro negatively and positively correlate with circulating fasting glucose and androgen levels, respectively, as a possible mechanism to maintain glucose-insulin homeostasis when fat accretion is accelerated.

Bartoschek M, Oskolkov N, Bocci M, et al.
Spatially and functionally distinct subclasses of breast cancer-associated fibroblasts revealed by single cell RNA sequencing.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, although their origin and roles in shaping disease initiation, progression and treatment response remain unclear due to significant heterogeneity. Here, following a negative selection strategy combined with single-cell RNA sequencing of 768 transcriptomes of mesenchymal cells from a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer, we define three distinct subpopulations of CAFs. Validation at the transcriptional and protein level in several experimental models of cancer and human tumors reveal spatial separation of the CAF subclasses attributable to different origins, including the peri-vascular niche, the mammary fat pad and the transformed epithelium. Gene profiles for each CAF subtype correlate to distinctive functional programs and hold independent prognostic capability in clinical cohorts by association to metastatic disease. In conclusion, the improved resolution of the widely defined CAF population opens the possibility for biomarker-driven development of drugs for precision targeting of CAFs.

Ren W, Sun Q, Wu PY, et al.
Profiles of genomic alterations in primary esophageal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(48):e13413 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare tumor with FDC differentiation that typically arises within lymph nodes but can also occur extranodally. To date, the primary esophageal FDC sarcoma has not been reported in the English literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a 67-year-old female who foremostly presented with dysphagia, and the patient was readmitted due to a dry cough and pain of his right shoulder 2 years after initial treatment.
DIAGNOSES: Primary esophageal FDC sarcoma with the right superior mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
INTERVENTIONS: The esophageal tumor was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection at the first hospitalization. At the second hospitalization 2 years after the initial visit, the tracheal stent loaded with (125) iodine radioactive seeds was placed. The profiles of genetic variations and immunotherapeutic biomarkers were also explored by next-generation sequencing protocol from the patient's blood, esophageal primary, and mediastinal metastatic tumor samples.
OUTCOMES: The patient's symptom transitorily relieved, but she gave up further treatment and died 2 months after the tracheal stent was placed. As for the genomic alterations, we found 9 gene mutations in all the samples, including checkpoint kinase 2(CHEK2), FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1), tumor protein 53 (TP53), DPYD, ERBB2 interacting protein (ERBB2IP), FBXW7, KMT2D, PPP2R1A, TSC2, whereas amplification of MYC was only in the metastatic example. The analysis of clonal evolution and phylogenetic tree showed the propagation and replay of polyclonal esophageal FDC sarcoma. At the same time, the detection of biomarkers for immunotherapy revealed microsatellite stable and mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR), which predicted a relatively poor anti-programmed death (PD-1)/programmed death ligand (PD-L1) immunotherapy outcome. On the contrary, the tumor mutational burdens were 10 mutations per 1 million bases in both the primary and metastatic tumor sample, which ranked the top 23.3% in solid tumors mutational burdens database of Geneseeq and might be a good predictor of the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this case report announced the first case of extranodal primary esophageal FDC sarcoma in the world, and firstly revealed its unique genetic alterations profiles, which might contribute to further in-depth study of this rare disease.

Chen J, Du B
Novel positioning from obesity to cancer: FTO, an m
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(1):19-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on chromosome 16q12.2 shows an intimate association with obesity and body mass index. Recently, research into the FTO gene and its expression product has attracted widespread interest due to the identification of FTO as an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylase. FTO primarily regulates the m6A levels of downstream targets via their 3' untranslated regions. FTO not only plays a critical role in obesity-related diseases but also is involved in the occurrence, development and prognosis of many types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukaemia, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Currently, studies indicate that FTO is a crucial component of m6A modification, it regulates cancer stem cell function, and promotes the growth, self-renewal and metastasis of cancer cells. In this review, we summarized and analysed the data regarding the structural features and biological functions of FTO as well as its association with different cancers and possible molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: We systematically reviewed the related literatures regarding FTO and its demethylation activity in many pathologic and physiological processes, especially in cancer-related diseases based on PubMed databases in this article.
RESULTS: Mounting evidence indicated that FTO plays a critical role in occurrence, progression and treatment of various cancers, even acting as a cancer oncogene in acute myeloid leukaemia, research on which is no longer restricted to metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
CONCLUSION: Considering FTO's critical role in many diseases, FTO may become a new promising target for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in the near future, especially for specific types of cancers, such as acute myeloid leukaemia, glioblastoma and breast cancer.

Siddeek B, Mauduit C, Simeoni U, Benahmed M
Sperm epigenome as a marker of environmental exposure and lifestyle, at the origin of diseases inheritance.
Mutat Res. 2018 Oct - Dec; 778:38-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paternal exposure to environmental challenges plays a critical role in the offspring's future health and the transmission of acquired traits through generations. This review summarizes our current knowledge in the new field of epigenomic paternal transmission of health and disease. Epidemiological studies identified that paternal ageing or challenges (imbalanced diets, stress, toxicants, cigarette smoke, alcohol) increased the risk of offspring to develop diseases such as cancer, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. These data were confirmed and deepened in animal models of exposure to challenges including low-protein, low-folate, high-fat diets, exposure to chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides. Even though some toxicants have mutagenic effect on sperm DNA, changes in sperm epigenome seem to be a common thread between different types of challenges. Indeed, epigenetic changes (DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, small non-coding RNA) in sperm are described as new mechanisms of intergenerational transmission as demonstrated for dioxin, for example. Those epimutations induce dysregulation in genes expression involved in key cellular pathways such as reactive oxygen species and genome stability regulation, in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, calcium and glucocorticoid signaling, and in lipid and glucose metabolism, leading to diseases in offspring. Finally, since each type of environmental challenges has its own signature by inducing epimutations at specific genomic loci, the sperm epigenome might be used as a biomarker in toxicological and risk assessments.

Huang SC, Huang HY
Solitary fibrous tumor: An evolving and unifying entity with unsettled issues.
Histol Histopathol. 2019; 34(4):313-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinct fibroblastic neoplasm of intermediate biological potential, prototypically presenting as a pleura-associated tumor characterized by patternless proliferation of generally banal oval to spindle cells with hemangiopericytoma-like staghorn vessels in fibrocollagenous stroma. Over the past decades, the clinicopathological spectrum of SFT has been ever-expanding with the incorporation of cases exhibiting myxoid, giant cell-containing, and fat-forming histology, as well as those from extrathoracic sites, including the meninx. Atypical, frankly malignant and even dedifferentiated variants have also been recognized in a subset of SFTs. Notably, the recent groundbreaking discovery of the disease-defining NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, resulting from intrachromosomal inversion involving 12q13.3, has largely unified tumors with the aforementioned variations. The derived immunohistochemical detection of nuclear STAT6 expression has high diagnostic value in distinguishing SFTs from histologic mimics, although some relevant pitfalls have been proposed as a precaution. NAB2-STAT6 fusions yield numerous transcript subtypes associated with the clinicopathological variations. Despite mostly following a favorable course, SFT is notoriously difficult for prognostication because of the propensity for late relapse or even metastases in 10-40% of cases, which prompts several proposed schemes incorporating age, size, mitosis, and/or necrosis as factors for risk stratification. Mitotic figures >4/10 HPFs, TERT promoter and/or TP53 mutations have been considered as variables that are better correlated with aggressiveness. Although radiotherapy and chemotherapy provide unsatisfactory responses, a better understanding of SFT tumorigenesis may pave the way for new treatment modalities. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the recent advances of SFTs in diagnostic and molecular pathology.

Wen L, Yu Y, Lv H, et al.
FTO mRNA expression in the lower quartile is associated with bad prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma based on TCGA data mining.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2019; 38:1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a protein-coding gene, also known as the obesity gene. It has been reported previously to be associated with a variety of malignant cancers, such as breast, thyroid and acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the FTO mRNA expression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its clinical value. FTO mRNA expression and its prognostic value were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that FTO mRNA expression in the lower quartile is significantly associated with poor survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients (P < 0.0001). This study indicated that higher FTO mRNA expression may have a protective role and it may be a vital molecular marker in the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CD36, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999