Gene Summary

Gene:CD36; CD36 molecule
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth major glycoprotein of the platelet surface and serves as a receptor for thrombospondin in platelets and various cell lines. Since thrombospondins are widely distributed proteins involved in a variety of adhesive processes, this protein may have important functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It binds to collagen, thrombospondin, anionic phospholipids and oxidized LDL. It directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and it binds long chain fatty acids and may function in the transport and/or as a regulator of fatty acid transport. Mutations in this gene cause platelet glycoprotein deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:platelet glycoprotein 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD36 (cancer-related)

Piton N, Angot É, Marguet F, Sabourin JC
HMGA2 immunostaining is a straightforward technique which helps to distinguish pulmonary fat-forming lesions from normal adipose tissue in small biopsies: a retrospective observational study about a series of 13 lung biopsies.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A tracheobronchial lesion observed during an endoscopic examination is usually sampled by the pulmonologist and sent to the pathologist for microscopic examination. Adipocytes may be observed in the lamina propria of tracheobronchial biopsies, which may complicate diagnosis of sampled lesions because these adipose cells may be part of the lesion (lipoma or pulmonary hamartoma), but may also be a normal component of the bronchial mucosa. Because endoscopic samples frequently miss their target, adipocytes observed in such biopsies usually lead to uncertainty regarding diagnosis. Both pulmonary hamartomas and lipomas have a high frequency of translocations involving HMGA2, resulting in over expression of the fusion protein. The literature suggests that only 31% of tracheobronchial lipomas are correctly diagnosed on biopsy, sometimes leading to unnecessary aggressive surgical resection.
METHODS: We performed retrospective study of tracheo-bronchial biopsies containing adipocytes using HMGA2 immunostaining in order to define their nature and to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker.
RESULTS: In total, 13 lesions biopsied in 12 patients and containing adipocytes were immunostained for HMGA2. Nuclear immunostaining was detected in 7 out of the 13 lesions (54%), allowing us to diagnose a lipoma or hamartoma.
CONCLUSION: HMGA2 immunostaining is an affordable and straightforward technique for accurate description of biopsies containing adipose cells. When positive, a diagnosis of benign adipose lesion can be made with confidence since well-differentiated liposarcomas have never been described in the tracheobronchial tree. Our work enabled us to diagnose a benign adipose lesion in 54% of cases, above the rate of 31% reported in the literature, based solely on morphological analysis. Overall, HMGA2 immunostaining could help pathologists to provide accurate diagnosis of tracheobronchial adipose lesions, leading to conservative treatment, for the overall benefit of patients.

Shang D, Zheng T, Zhang J, et al.
Profiling of mRNA and long non-coding RNA of urothelial cancer in recipients after renal transplantation.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12673-12684 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism and signal transduction pathways involved in urothelial cancer (UC) after renal transplantation (RTx) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the profiling of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in RTx recipients with UC. The mRNA and lncRNA of six pairs of UC and corresponding normal urothelial tissues in RTx recipients were profiled using Arraystar Human lncRNA Microarray V3.0, which is designed for the global profiling of 26,109 coding transcripts and 30,586 lncRNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs. Molecular function classification and biological process classification for the differentially expressed mRNAs were analyzed with Gene Ontology. The key pathways that were associated with UC after RTx were analyzed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Compared to normal urothelial tissues, 1597 mRNAs were upregulated and 1032 mRNAs were downregulated in UC; 2107 lncRNAs were upregulated and 1794 lncRNAs were downregulated (greater than twofold). Further qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA and lncRNA expression showed well consistency with the data of microarray analysis. The expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, MMP-10, MMP-12, and MMP-13 was significantly increased, while the expression of CD36 was decreased in UC after RTx. Co-expression analysis of lncRNAs and their nearby coding genes showed that lncRNAs may play critical roles in regulating nearby genes in the carcinogenesis of UC. Our results also suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling may be involved in UC after RTx. Moreover, several cytokines and their receptors were also significantly upregulated in UC after RTx, suggesting that cytokines might be modulated and participated in the carcinogenesis of UC after RTx. We analyzed the potential molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the UC of RTx recipients. Our results revealed that several key regulatory pathways and lncRNAs play critical roles in the carcinogenesis of UC, and suggest that UC in RTx recipients may be more likely to invade and metastasis. However, the detailed functional analysis of these mechanisms should be further performed in the future.

Takamoto Y, Arima Y, Saya H
Development of mouse models of malignant phyllodes tumors by transplantation of syngeneic mammary gland cells expressing mutant H-Ras.
Genes Cells. 2016; 21(11):1244-1252 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast with epithelial and stromal components, and surgical resection is the standard and only available treatment for malignant PTs. To provide a better understanding of these tumors, we developed mouse models that recapitulate the pathological and clinical properties of human malignant PTs. Mouse undifferentiated mammary gland cells were infected with a retrovirus encoding the human oncoprotein H-Ras(G12V) , and the infected cells were transplanted orthotopically into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic mice. The transplanted cells showed a high tumorigenic activity, with the resulting tumors manifesting pathological characteristics including stromal overgrowth similar to those of human malignant PTs. The tumors also showed high rates of both local recurrence and lung metastasis. Our models may prove useful for studies of the pathophysiology of malignant PTs as well as facilitate the development of new treatments.

Yang J, Wang R, Li H, et al.
Lentivirus mediated RNA interference of EMMPRIN (CD147) gene inhibits the proliferation, matrigel invasion and tumor formation of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(2):237-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), a glycoprotein enriched on the plasma membrane of tumor cells, promotes proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and survival of malignant tumor cells. In this study, we sought to examine the expression of EMMPRIN in breast tumors, and to identify the potential roles of EMMPRIN on breast cancer cells.
METHODS: EMMPRIN expression in breast cancer tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We used a lentivirus vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) approach expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knockdown EMMPRIN gene in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In vitro, Cell proliferative, invasive potential were determined by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8), cell cycle analysis and matrigel invasion assay, respectively. In vivo, tumorigenicity was monitored by inoculating tumor cells into breast fat pad of female nude mice.
RESULTS: EMMPRIN was over-expressed in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of EMMPRIN by lentivirus vector-based RNAi led to decreased cell proliferative, decreased matrigel invasion in vitro, and attenuated tumor formation in vivo.
CONCLUSION: High expression of EMMPRIN plays a crucial role in breast cancer cell proliferation, matrigel invasion and tumor formation.

Meier EM, Rein-Fischboeck L, Pohl R, et al.
Annexin A6 protein is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 418(1-2):81-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) is a lipid-binding protein highly expressed in the liver, regulating cholesterol homeostasis and signaling pathways with a role in liver physiology. Here, we analyzed whether hepatic AnxA6 levels are affected by pathological conditions that are associated with liver dysfunction and liver injury. AnxA6 levels in the fatty liver of mice fed a high-fat diet, in ob/ob and db/db animals and in human fatty liver are comparable to controls. Similarly, AnxA6 levels appear unaffected in murine nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and human liver fibrosis. Accordingly, adiponectin, lysophosphatidylcholine, palmitate, and TGFbeta, all of which have a role in liver injury, do not affect AnxA6 expression in human hepatocytes. Likewise, adiponectin and IL8 do not alter AnxA6 levels in primary human hepatic stellate cells. However, in hepatic tumors of 18 patients, AnxA6 protein levels are substantially reduced compared to nontumorous tissues. AnxA6 mRNA is even increased in the tumors suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms are involved herein. Lipidomic analysis shows trends toward elevated cholesteryl ester and sphingomyelin in the tumor samples, yet the ratio of tumor to nontumorous AnxA6 does not correlate with these lipids. The current study shows that AnxA6 is specifically reduced in human hepatocellular carcinoma suggesting a role of this protein in hepatocarcinogenesis.

Karin M, Dhar D
Liver carcinogenesis: from naughty chemicals to soothing fat and the surprising role of NRF2.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(6):541-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
The liver is a key metabolic organ that is essential for production of blood proteins, lipid and sugar metabolism and detoxification of naturally occurring and foreign harmful chemicals. To maintain its mass and many essential functions, the liver possesses remarkable regenerative capacity, but the latter also renders it highly susceptible to carcinogenesis. In fact, liver cancer often develops in the context of chronic liver injury. Currently, primary liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and as the rates of other cancers have been declining, the incidence of liver cancer continues to rise with an alarming rate. Although much remains to be accomplished in regards to liver cancer therapy, we have learned a great deal about the molecular etiology of the most common form of primary liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Much of this knowledge has been obtained from studies of mouse models, using either toxic chemicals, a combination of fatty foods and endoplasmic reticulum stress or chronic activation of specific metabolic pathways. Surprisingly, NRF2, a transcription factor that was initially thought to protect the liver from oxidative stress, was found to play a key role in promoting HCC pathogenesis.

Shimabukuro M, Sato H, Izaki H, et al.
Depot- and gender-specific expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and toll-like receptors in adipose tissue of cancer patients.
Biofactors. 2016; 42(4):397-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gender difference in obesity-associated cardiovascular complication could be derived from divergent chronic inflammation. We evaluated depot- and gender-specific regulation of the innate immune system in human adipose tissues. Pair samples were obtained from subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) during elective surgery (Male: 35; Female: 27). Expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines were evaluated by semi-quantitative qPCR. Adipose cell-size distribution was obtained from tissue samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Levels of adiponectin were higher in SAT and VAT of female than those of male (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). NLRP3, IL1β-IL18, TLR2 were comparable in SAT and VAT between genders. However, TLR4 and TLR9 were increased in female SAT and VAT and HMGB1 in female VAT. Levels of adiponectin were not correlated with mean diameter of adipocyte (φ, μm) in SAT and VAT of male, but negatively well correlated in those of female (r = -0.392 and r = -0.616). Such negative correlations were also observed between levels of TLR2, TLR4, and HMGB1 and φ in female. Levels of NLRP3 and IL1β were positively correlated with φ in male, but not in female. In conclusion, Innate signals were differentially expressed in male and female adipose tissues, suggesting that the depot- and gender-specific signals could be related to gender difference in chronic inflammation. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):397-406, 2016.

Zhao X, Wang Q, Yang S, et al.
Quercetin inhibits angiogenesis by targeting calcineurin in the xenograft model of human breast cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2016; 781:60-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) mediated calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway is crucial in the angiogenesis of human breast cancer. Quercetin (Qu), a flavonoid known to possess anti-angiogenesis and antitumor properties, inhibited calcineurin activity in vitro. Herein, we performed a study in vivo to evaluate the effects of Qu on the angiogenesis in breast cancer. Female BALB/c nude mice were injected with MCF-7 cells into the mammary fat and were randomly divided into four groups. The animals were treated with vehicle solution, tamoxifen (TAM, 5.6mg/kg), tacrolimus (FK506, 3mg/kg), or Qu (34mg/kg) for 21 days, respectively. The results showed that, similar to TAM and FK506, Qu decreased tumor growth, limited oncocyte proliferation and promoted tumor necrosis. Anti-angiogenic actions of Qu were demonstrated as decreased serum VEGF (P<0.01), and sparse microvessel density (P<0.05). Qu significantly inhibited tumor calcineurin activities, and the inhibitory rate was 62.73% in Qu treated animals, compared to that was 72.90% in FK506 group (P>0.05). Effects of Qu on calcineurin/NFAT pathway were confirmed as decreased subcellular located levels of VEGF (P<0.05), VEGFR2 (P<0.05) and NFATc3 (P<0.01), downregulated gene expression of VEGF (P<0.05), VEGFR2 (P<0.05) and NFATc3 (P<0.01), reduced protein levels of VEGF (P<0.05), VEGFR2 (P<0.05), and NFATc3 (P<0.01) in tumor tissues. These findings indicate that Qu inhibit angiogenesis of human breast cancer xenograft in nude mice, which was associated with suppressing calcineurin activity and its regulated pathway activation.

Das SG, Romagnoli M, Mineva ND, et al.
miR-720 is a downstream target of an ADAM8-induced ERK signaling cascade that promotes the migratory and invasive phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ADAM8 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 8) protein promotes the invasive and metastatic phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. High ADAM8 expression in breast cancer patients is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Here, we investigated whether ADAM8 regulates specific miRNAs, their roles in aggressive phenotype, and potential use as biomarkers of disease.
METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from MDA-MB-231 cells after transient ADAM8 knockdown using TaqMan miRNA cards. Changes in miRNA levels were confirmed using two ADAM8 siRNAs in TNBC cell lines. Kinase inhibitors, β1-integrin antagonist antibody, and different forms of ADAM8 were employed to elucidate the signaling pathway required for miR-720 expression. miR-720 levels were modulated using a specific antagomiR or a mimic, and effects on aggressive phenotype of TNBC cells were determined using Boyden chamber and 3D-Matrigel outgrowth assays. Plasma was isolated from mice before and after implantation of MDA-MB-231 cells and analyzed for miR-720 levels. Serum samples of TNBC patients were evaluated for their ADAM8 and miR-720 levels.
RESULTS: We identified 68 miRNAs differentially regulated upon ADAM8 knockdown, including decreased levels of secreted miR-720. Ectopic overexpression of wild-type ADAM8 or forms that lack metalloproteinase activity similarly induced miR-720 levels. The disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains of ADAM8 were shown to induce miR-720 via activation of a β1-integrin to ERK signaling cascade. Knockdown of miR-720 led to a significant decrease in migratory and invasive abilities of TNBC cells. Conversely, miR-720 overexpression rescued these properties. A profound increase in plasma levels of miR-720 was detected 7 days after TNBC cell inoculation into mouse mammary fat pads when tumors were barely palpable. Concordantly, miR-720 levels were found to be significantly higher in serum samples of TNBC patients with high ADAM8 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: We have shown for the first time that miR-720 is induced by ADAM8 signaling via ERK and plays an essential role in promoting the aggressive phenotype of TNBCs. miR-720 is elevated in serum of patients with ADAM8-high TNBC and, in a group with other miRNAs downstream of ADAM8, holds promise as a biomarker for early detection of or treatment response of ADAM8-positive TNBCs.

Zhang F, Dong W, Zeng W, et al.
Naringenin prevents TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer and suppresses pulmonary metastasis by inhibiting PKC activation.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting the TGF-β1 pathway for breast cancer metastasis therapy has become an attractive strategy. We have previously demonstrated that naringenin significantly reduced TGF-β1 levels in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and effectively prevented pulmonary metastases of tumors. This raised the question of whether naringenin can block TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells and inhibit their pulmonary metastasis.
METHODS: We transduced a lentiviral vector encoding the mouse Tgf-β1 gene into mouse breast carcinoma (4T1-Luc2) cells and inoculated the transformant cells (4T1/TGF-β1) into the fourth primary fat pat of Balb/c mice. Pulmonary metastases derived from the primary tumors were monitored using bioluminescent imaging. Spleens, lungs and serum (n = 18-20 per treatment group) were analyzed for immune cell activity and TGF-β1 level. The mechanism whereby naringenin decreases TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells was investigated at different levels, including Tgf-β1 transcription, mRNA stability, translation, and extracellular release.
RESULTS: In contrast to the null-vector control (4T1/RFP) tumors, extensive pulmonary metastases derived from 4T1/TGF-β1 tumors were observed. Administration of the TGF-β1 blocking antibody 1D11 or naringenin showed an inhibition of pulmonary metastasis for both 4T1/TGF-β1 tumors and 4T1/RFP tumors, resulting in increased survival of the mice. Compared with 4T1/RFP bearing mice, systemic immunosuppression in 4T1/TGF-β1 bearing mice was observed, represented by a higher proportion of regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a lower proportion of activated T cells and INFγ expression in CD8(+) T cells. These metrics were improved by administration of 1D11 or naringenin. However, compared with 1D11, which neutralized secreted TGF-β1 but did not affect intracellular TGF-β1 levels, naringenin reduced the secretion of TGF-β1 from the cells, leading to an accumulation of intracellular TGF-β1. Further experiments revealed that naringenin had no effect on Tgf-β1 transcription, mRNA decay or protein translation, but prevented TGF-β1 transport from the trans-Golgi network by inhibiting PKC activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Naringenin blocks TGF-β1 trafficking from the trans-Golgi network by suppressing PKC activity, resulting in a reduction of TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells. This finding suggests that naringenin may be an attractive therapeutic candidate for TGF-β1 related diseases.

Ghatak S, Yadav RP, Lalrohlui F, et al.
Xenobiotic Pathway Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Gastric Cancer in High Risk Mizo-Mongoloid Population, Northeast India.
Helicobacter. 2016; 21(6):523-535 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of gastric cancer associated with individual or combined glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) polymorphism and their interaction with environmental factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping by PCR was carried out for 80 cases and controls each for GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphism and mapped for gene-environment association studies. The samples were subjected to pathogen detection and GSTP1 expression for analyzing their association with different genotypes. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute the influence of both genetic and environmental factors for gastric cancer. MDR analysis was performed to assess the risk of gastric cancer by studying the gene-gene and gene-environment effect on the basis of GST genotyping and GSTP1 gene expression.
RESULTS: Infection with Helicobacter pylori and CagA+ strains was more frequent in patients with GSTM1/T1 null genotype. Intake of high fermented fat and smoked meat was found to be significantly associated with gastric cancer. The G/G, A/G (rs1695), and T/T (rs1138272) were found to be significantly associated with low expression of GSTP1 gene in cancer tissue.
CONCLUSION: Presence of H. pylori with CagA genotype showed significant individual effect with GSTT1 polymorphism as well as strong synergistic effect in gastric cancer risk. Majority of the gastric cancer samples showed significant negative expression in G/G, A/G (rs1695), and T/T (rs1138272) genotypes. This study shows that GST gene polymorphism was significantly relevant for determining the individual susceptibility to gastric cancer.

Manji GA, Schwartz GK
Managing Liposarcomas: Cutting Through the Fat.
J Oncol Pract. 2016; 12(3):221-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liposarcomas are one of the most common of more than 50 histologic subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas that, themselves, are heterogeneous. Liposarcomas fall into four distinct histologic subtypes: atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, myxoid (round cell) liposarcoma, and pleomorphic liposarcoma. Definitive treatment remains surgical resection with negative margins for resectable disease. However, well-differentiated liposarcomas that are large or difficult to operate upon should be followed with close surveillance as long as there is no radiologic concern for a dedifferentiated component. In contrast, first-line chemotherapy with anthracycline with or without ifosfamide, or gemcitabine and docetaxel should be used for inoperable myxoid (round cell) or pleomorphic liposarcomas, which are relatively responsive to chemotherapy. In the second- and third-line setting, myxoid liposarcomas, in particular, seem to be sensitive to trabectedin, which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Eribulin offered a survival benefit when compared with dacarbazine in the third-line setting in liposarcomas (other than the well-differentiated subtype) and is now FDA approved. Recent studies have identified distinct genetic aberrations that not only aid in the diagnosis of liposarcoma subtypes but represent actionable targets. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and murine double minute 2 are overexpressed in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas and offer opportunities that are being pursued in clinical trials. It is critical that liposarcomas are not approached by oncologists as one disease entity but rather subclassified into distinct subtypes using histologic and molecular tools before formalizing a treatment plan.

Beyaz S, Mana MD, Roper J, et al.
High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors.
Nature. 2016; 531(7592):53-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) signature in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells (non-intestinal stem cells), and pharmacological activation of PPAR-δ recapitulates the effects of a HFD on these cells. Like a HFD, ex vivo treatment of intestinal organoid cultures with fatty acid constituents of the HFD enhances the self-renewal potential of these organoid bodies in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. Notably, HFD- and agonist-activated PPAR-δ signalling endow organoid-initiating capacity to progenitors, and enforced PPAR-δ signalling permits these progenitors to form in vivo tumours after loss of the tumour suppressor Apc. These findings highlight how diet-modulated PPAR-δ activation alters not only the function of intestinal stem and progenitor cells, but also their capacity to initiate tumours.

De Luca P, Dalton GN, Scalise GD, et al.
CtBP1 associates metabolic syndrome and breast carcinogenesis targeting multiple miRNAs.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18798-811 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
Metabolic syndrome (MeS) has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+/NADH ratio. High fat diet (HFD) increases intracellular NADH. We investigated the effect of CtBP1 hyperactivation by HFD intake on mouse breast carcinogenesis. We generated a MeS-like disease in female mice by chronically feeding animals with HFD. MeS increased postnatal mammary gland development and generated prominent duct patterns with markedly increased CtBP1 and Cyclin D1 expression. CtBP1 induced breast cancer cells proliferation. Serum from animals with MeS enriched the stem-like/progenitor cell population from breast cancer cells. CtBP1 increased breast tumor growth in MeS mice modulating multiple genes and miRNA expression implicated in cell proliferation, progenitor cells phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, mammary development and cell communication in the xenografts. These results define a novel function for CtBP1 in breast carcinogenesis.

Zhu Y, Shen J, Gao L, Feng Y
Estrogen promotes fat mass and obesity-associated protein nuclear localization and enhances endometrial cancer cell proliferation via the mTOR signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2391-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extensive exposure to estrogen is generally acknowledged as a risk factor for endometrial cancer. Given that the accumulation of adipocytes also contributes to the increased production of estrogen, in the present study, we evaluated the expression of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene in endometrial tumor tissues and further explored the mechanism of how estrogen facilitates FTO nuclear localization and promotes endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assay was used to detect the FTO expression in endometrial tumor samples. Western blotting was performed to investigate the mechanism of estrogen-induced FTO nuclear localization. siRNA was used to knock down ERα and further explore its role in FTO nuclear localization. MTT assay was carried out to determine cell proliferation. We found that FTO was overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma tissues and served as a poor prognostic marker. Additionally, estrogen induced FTO nuclear accumulation via the mTOR signaling pathway and the nuclear localization was ERα-dependent, which contributed to enhanced proliferative activity. Therefore, the present study provides new insight into the mechanisms of estrogen-induced proliferation, implying the possibility of using FTO as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Yu PY, Balkhi MY, Ladner KJ, et al.
A selective screening platform reveals unique global expression patterns of microRNAs in a cohort of human soft-tissue sarcomas.
Lab Invest. 2016; 96(4):481-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sarcomas are malignant heterogenous tumors of mesenchymal derivation. Emerging data suggest that miRNA might have a causal role in sarcomagenesis. Herein, we used a selective miRNA screening platform to study the comparative global miRNA expression signatures in a cohort of human sarcomas with the caveat that comparisons between tumor and non-tumor cells were performed from the same patients using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Five histologic types were examined that included: myxoid liposarcoma, well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, and synovial sarcoma. In addition, soft-tissue lipomas and normal fat were included as a separate set of controls for the lipogenic tumors. Clustering analysis showed a distinct global difference in expression patterns between the normal and sarcoma tissues. Expression signatures in an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed tight clustering in synovial and myxoid liposarcomas, and the least clustering was observed in the pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma subtype. MiR-145 showed underexpression in pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, well-differentiated liposarcoma, and synovial sarcoma. Unexpectedly, we found that a set of muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs; myomiRs): miR-133, miR-1, and miR-206 was significantly underexpressed in well-differentiated liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma, suggesting that they may function as tumor suppressors as described in muscle-relevant rhabdomyosarcomas. In addition, a tight linear progression of miRNA expression was identified from normal fat to dedifferentiated liposarcoma. These results suggest that miRNA expression profiles could elucidate classes of miRNAs that may elicit tumor-relevant activities in specific sarcoma subtypes.

Hong CS, Graham NA, Gu W, et al.
MCT1 Modulates Cancer Cell Pyruvate Export and Growth of Tumors that Co-express MCT1 and MCT4.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(7):1590-601 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2017 Related Publications
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibition is thought to block tumor growth through disruption of lactate transport and glycolysis. Here, we show MCT1 inhibition impairs proliferation of glycolytic breast cancer cells co-expressing MCT1 and MCT4 via disruption of pyruvate rather than lactate export. MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic breast tumors, and high MCT1 expression predicts poor prognosis in breast and lung cancer patients. Acute MCT1 inhibition reduces pyruvate export but does not consistently alter lactate transport or glycolytic flux in breast cancer cells that co-express MCT1 and MCT4. Despite the lack of glycolysis impairment, MCT1 loss-of-function decreases breast cancer cell proliferation and blocks growth of mammary fat pad xenograft tumors. Our data suggest MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic cancers to promote pyruvate export that when inhibited, enhances oxidative metabolism and reduces proliferation. This study presents an alternative molecular consequence of MCT1 inhibitors, further supporting their use as anti-cancer therapeutics.

Kumbrink J, de la Cueva A, Soni S, et al.
A truncated phosphorylated p130Cas substrate domain is sufficient to drive breast cancer growth and metastasis formation in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10665-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) levels are found in aggressive breast tumors and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to standard therapeutics in patients. p130Cas signals majorly through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) that contains 15 tyrosine motifs (YxxP) which recruit effector molecules. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas is important for mediating migration, invasion, tumor promotion, and metastasis. We previously developed a Src*/SD fusion molecule approach, where the SD is constitutively phosphorylated. In a polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT)/Src*/SD double-transgenic mouse model, Src*/SD accelerates PyMT-induced tumor growth and promotes a more aggressive phenotype. To test whether Src*/SD also drives metastasis and which of the YxxP motifs are involved in this process, full-length and truncated SD molecules fused to Src* were expressed in breast cancer cells. The functionality of the Src*/SD fragments was analyzed in vitro, and the active proteins were tested in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model. Breast cancer cells expressing the full-length SD and the functional smaller SD fragment (spanning SD motifs 6-10) were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice. The tumor progression was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and caliper measurements. Compared with control animals, the complete SD promoted primary tumor growth and an earlier onset of metastases. Importantly, both the complete and truncated SD significantly increased the occurrence of metastases to multiple organs. These studies provide strong evidence that the phosphorylated p130Cas SD motifs 6-10 (Y236, Y249, Y267, Y287, and Y306) are important for driving mammary carcinoma progression.

Simone V, D'Avenia M, Argentiero A, et al.
Obesity and Breast Cancer: Molecular Interconnections and Potential Clinical Applications.
Oncologist. 2016; 21(4):404-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Obesity is an important risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women; interlinked molecular mechanisms might be involved in the pathogenesis. Increased levels of estrogens due to aromatization of the adipose tissue, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2, insulin resistance and hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors pathways, adipokines, and oxidative stress are all abnormally regulated in obese women and contribute to cancerogenesis. These molecular factors interfere with intracellular signaling in the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatydilinositol-3-phosphate/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, which regulate the progression of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and protein synthesis. In this context, structural defects of typical genes related to both BC and obesity, such as leptin, leptin receptor, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and melanocortin receptor 4, have been associated with a high or low risk of BC development. The early detection of these gene alterations might be useful as risk predictors in obese women, and targeting these pathways involved in the BC pathogenesis in obese women is a potential therapeutic tool. In particular, mTOR pathway deregulation concurs in both obesity and BC, and inhibition of this might disrupt the molecular interlinks in a similar manner to that of metformin, which exerts definite anticancer activity and is currently used as an antidiabetic drug with a weight-reducing property. The identification of both genetic and pharmacological implications on the prevention and management of BC is the ultimate aim of these studies.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Obese women are at risk of breast cancer, but clinicians lack concrete tools for the prevention or early diagnosis of this risk. The present study, starting from the biology and the molecular defects characterizing both obesity and breast cancer, analyzed the potential molecules and genetic defects whose early identification could delineate a risk profile. Three steps are proposed that are potentially achievable in the clinical assessment of obese women, namely the evaluation of altered levels of serum molecules, the identification of genetic polymorphisms, and the study of the transcriptomic profile of premalignant lesions. Finally, the therapeutic implications of this molecular assessment were evaluated.

Morency E, Laskin W, Lin X
Cytologic and Histologic Features of Pleomorphic Undifferentiated Sarcoma Arising in a Hybrid Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumor and Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor: Report of an Unusual Case with a Literature Review.
Acta Cytol. 2015; 59(6):493-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) are low-grade neoplasms that share clinicopathologic features and recurring translocation t(1;10)(p22;q24) involving the TGFBR3 and MGEA5 genes. Coexistence of these tumors with a high-grade sarcoma is exceedingly rare and the cytologic features have not been widely described in the literature.
CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a soft tissue tumor on the dorsum of the foot. Cytologic smears and corresponding core biopsies were composed of a population of markedly pleomorphic spindle cells seen singly and in loose clusters within a myxofibrous matrix and infiltrating fat, with coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, irregular nuclear contours and delicate to vacuolated cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic hemosiderin granules and rare intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions were identified. The histologic features of the excisional biopsy mirrored those of the cytologic preparations, but also demonstrated cellular foci of higher-grade sarcoma composed of markedly pleomorphic tumor cells with large vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, exhibiting a mitotic index of 12 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
CONCLUSION: While HFLT/PHAT generally can be managed by wide local excision, it is important to be aware of their capacity to harbor higher-grade lesions with metastatic potential which may require more radical surgical excision.

Ashaie MA, Chowdhury EH
Cadherins: The Superfamily Critically Involved in Breast Cancer.
Curr Pharm Des. 2016; 22(5):616-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among females, is regulated in part by diverse classes of adhesion molecules one of which is known as cadherins. Located at adherens junctions, the members of this superfamily are responsible for upholding proper cell-cell adhesion. Cadherins possess diverse structures and functions and any alteration in their structures or functions causes impeding of normal mammary cells development and maintenance, thus leading to breast malignancy. E-, N-, P-, VE-, Proto-, desmosomal and FAT cadherins have been found to regulate breast cancer in positive as well as negative fashion, whereby both Ecadherin (CDH1) and N-cadherin (CDH2) contribute significantly towards transitioning from epithelial state to mesenchymal state (EMT) and enacting the abnormal cells to invade and metastasize nearby and distant tissues. Aberration in gene expression of cadherins can be either due to somatic or epigenetic silencing or via transcriptional factors. Besides other cadherins, E-cadherin which serves as hallmark of EMT is associated with several regulatory factors such as Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb, KLF4, NFI, TBX2, SIX, b-Myb, COX-2, Arf6, FOXA2, GATA3 and SMAR1, which modulate E-cadherin gene transcription to promote or represses tumor invasion and colonization. Signaling molecules such as Notch, TGF-β, estrogen receptors, EGF and Wnt initiate numerous signaling cascades via these vital factors of cell programming, controlling expression of E-cadherin at transcriptional (mRNA) and protein level. Thus, interactions of cadherins with their roles in tumor suppression and oncogenic transformation can be beneficial in providing valuable insights for breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutics development.

Font-Burgada J, Sun B, Karin M
Obesity and Cancer: The Oil that Feeds the Flame.
Cell Metab. 2016; 23(1):48-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although discussion of the obesity epidemic had become a cocktail party cliché, its impact on public health cannot be dismissed. In the past decade, cancer had joined the list of chronic debilitating diseases whose risk is substantially increased by hypernutrition. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding how obesity increases cancer risk and propose a unifying hypothesis according to which the major tumor-promoting mechanism triggered by hypernutrition is the indolent inflammation that takes place at particular organ sites, including liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms by which excessive fat deposition feeds this tumor-promoting inflammatory flame are diverse and tissue specific.

Liapis V, Zinonos I, Labrinidis A, et al.
Anticancer efficacy of the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in osteolytic breast cancer murine models.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(3):534-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Tumor hypoxia is a major cause of treatment failure for a variety of malignancies. However, hypoxia offers treatment opportunities, exemplified by the development of compounds that target hypoxic regions within tumors. Evofosfamide (TH-302) is a prodrug created by the conjugation of 2-nitroimidazole to bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). When evofosfamide is delivered to hypoxic regions, the DNA cross-linking effector, Br-IPM, is released. This study assessed the cytotoxic activity of evofosfamide in vitro and its antitumor activity against osteolytic breast cancer either alone or in combination with paclitaxel in vivo. A panel of human breast cancer cell lines were treated with evofosfamide under hypoxia and assessed for cell viability. Osteolytic MDA-MB-231-TXSA cells were transplanted into the mammary fat pad, or into tibiae of mice, allowed to establish and treated with evofosfamide, paclitaxel, or both. Tumor burden was monitored using bioluminescence, and cancer-induced bone destruction was measured using micro-CT. In vitro, evofosfamide was selectively cytotoxic under hypoxic conditions. In vivo evofosfamide was tumor suppressive as a single agent and cooperated with paclitaxel to reduce mammary tumor growth. Breast cancer cells transplanted into the tibiae of mice developed osteolytic lesions. In contrast, treatment with evofosfamide or paclitaxel resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and an overall reduction in tumor burden in bone, whereas combined treatment resulted in a significantly greater reduction in tumor burden in the tibia of mice. Evofosfamide cooperates with paclitaxel and exhibits potent tumor suppressive activity against breast cancer growth in the mammary gland and in bone.

Lee JO, Kim N, Lee HJ, et al.
Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18923 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis.

Tessitore A, Cicciarelli G, Del Vecchio F, et al.
MicroRNA expression analysis in high fat diet-induced NAFLD-NASH-HCC progression: study on C57BL/6J mice.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent chronic liver disorder in developed countries. NAFLD can progress through the more severe non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and, lastly, HCC. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of coding genes as well as deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) activity play a role in HCC development. In this study, the C57BL/6J mouse model was long term high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet fed, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms responsible for the hepatic damage progression.
METHODS: Mice were HF or LF diet fed for different time points, then plasma and hepatic tissues were collected. Histological and clinical chemistry assays were performed to assess the progression of liver disease. MicroRNAs' differential expression was evaluated on pooled RNAs from tissues, and some miRNAs showing dysregulation were further analyzed at the individual level.
RESULTS: Cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase increase was detected in HF mice. Gross anatomical examination revealed hepatomegaly in HF livers, and histological analysis highlighted different degrees and levels of steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis in HF and LF animals, demonstrating the progression from NAFLD through NASH. Macroscopic nodules, showing typical neoplastic features, were observed in 20% of HF diet fed mice. Fifteen miRNAs differentially expressed in HF with respect to LF hepatic tissues during the progression of liver damage, and in tumors with respect to HF non tumor liver specimens were identified. Among them, miR-340-5p, miR-484, miR-574-3p, miR-720, whose expression was never described in NAFLD, NASH and HCC tissues, and miR-125a-5p and miR-182, which showed early and significant dysregulation in the sequential hepatic damage process.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, fifteen microRNAs which were modulated in hepatic tissues and in tumors during the transition NAFLD-NASH-HCC are reported. Besides some already described, new and early dysregulated miRNAs were identified. Functional analyses are needed to validate the results here obtained, and to better define the role of these molecules in the progression of the hepatic disease.

Nath A, Chan C
Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18669 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

Tan A, Dang Y, Chen G, Mo Z
Overexpression of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in breast cancer and its clinical implications.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13405-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidence of breast cancer is increasing and seems to be associated with fatty foods, metabolism, and so on. The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been intensively investigated in diabetes, obesity and the other diseases. Previous studies have reported that FTO SNPs are associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we investigated the expression of FTO in human breast cancer tissues and its relationship with the clinicopathological features.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, tissues from 79 patients with breast cancer were collected, as well as 43 cases of adjacent breast tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of FTO. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association between FTO expression and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer.
RESULTS: FTO was expressed in both mammary epithelial and breast cancer tissues, but with different degree. The expression level of FTO in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent breast tissues (P < 0.001). The percentage of FTO-positive expression in cases with hormone receptor (HR) negative and HER2 amplification was significantly higher than that in those with HR positive and HER2 negative (P = 0.001, P < 0.001). The positivity rate of FTO in breast cancer with P53 positive and histological grade 3 seemed to be higher than that with P53 negative and histological grade 1 or 2, respectively (P = 0.077, P = 0.082). There was no association between FTO expression and age, T stage, LN status, TNM stage, Ki67, and BMI in breast cancer. Besides, FTO expression in HER2-overexpressed subtype was significantly higher than that in Triple-negative and Luminal A/B1 subtypes (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that FTO expression may have a vital role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer, especially in HER2-overexpressed breast cancer.

Huang SC, Li CF, Kao YC, et al.
The clinicopathological significance of NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in 52 cases of intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(2):159-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion drives STAT6 nuclear expression and is the pathognomonic hallmark of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs). However, no study has systematically analyzed the clinicopathological features, STAT6 immunoexpression status, or the fusion variants of NAB2-STAT6 in intrathoracic SFTs. Fifty-two intrathoracic SFTs were retrieved to appraise histopathology, assess STAT6 immunoexpression, and determine NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants by RT-PCR. Location-relevant histologic mimics served as controls. Thirty-one pleura-based, 12 mediastinal/pericardial, and nine intrapulmonary lesions were histologically categorized into eight malignant, eight atypical, and 36 conventional or cellular SFTs, including two fat-forming and two giant cell angiofibroma-like SFTs. STAT6 distinctively decorated the tumoral nuclei in 51 (98%) SFTs. However, no nuclear staining was observed in the histological mimics. NAB2-STAT6 fusion was detected in 34 SFTs. Twenty-nine (85.3%) exhibited the major NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2/3 variant and 5 (14.7%) the minor NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17. NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 was significantly associated with older age (P = 0.01) and pleuropulmonary tumors (P = 0.025). After a median follow-up of 33.9 (range, 0.3-174.6) months, adverse outcomes occurred in one atypical and five malignant SFTs, including two local relapses, one intrapulmonary metastasis, and three extrathoracic metastases. Inferior disease-free survival was univariately associated with atypical/malignant histology (P = 0.001) and a mitosis >4/10 HPFs (P = 0.0012) but was unrelated to fusion variants. In conclusion, the majority of intrathoracic SFTs exhibited STAT6 nuclear staining, and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2/3 was the predominant fusion type. However, clinical aggressiveness is associated with atypical/malignant histology primarily contributed by increased mitosis but was unrelated to the NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants.

Huang QX, Cui JY, Ma H, et al.
Screening of potential biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma by integrated analysis of microarray data sets.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016 Feb-Mar; 23(2-3):48-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) continues to harbor a difficult prognosis and it is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. The molecular mechanisms of CCA oncogenesis and progression are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify candidate biomarkers for CCA. Integrated analysis of microarray data sets was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CCA and normal tissues. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were then performed to identify the functions of DEGs. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed. The expressions of DEGs were validated in human CCA tissues by qRT-PCR. A set of 712 DEGs were identified in CCA compared with normal tissues, including 306 upregulated and 406 downregulated DEGs. It can be shown from the KEGG pathway analysis that some pathways may have important roles in pathology of CCA, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, bile secretion, cell cycle, fat digestion and absorption. PPI network indicated that the significant hub proteins were PKM, SPP1 and TPM1. The abnormally overexpression PKM, SPP1 and TPM1 were closely related to oncogenesis and progression of CCA. PKM, SPP1, TPM1, COL1A1 and COL1A2 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of CCA.

Lewandowski KC, Lewiński A, Dąbrowska K, et al.
Familial partial lipodystrophy as differential diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Endokrynol Pol. 2015; 66(6):550-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: According to current diagnostic criteria, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is effective as a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old woman with a history of oligomenorrhoea and hirsutism, who, despite a "muscular" appearance and a normal body mass index (22.27 kg/m2), was found to have an extreme insulin resistance and diabetes accompanied by hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. An autoimmune screen for possible latent autoimmune diabetes in adults was negative. She was subsequently found to have familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2, OMIM #151660) caused by an R482Q mutation in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A/C. This mutation results in arginine to glutamine substitution at the protein level, while phenotypically this condition presents with a loss of body fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and other features mimicking PCOS. Interestingly her mother, with a history of myocardial infarction and diabetes at the age of 46 but no oligomenorrhoea, was also found to harbour the same mutation (LMNA R482Q).
CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of assessment of adipose tissue distribution, as well as a significance of assessment of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in the differential diagnosis of PCOS. Furthermore, patients with atypical adipose tissue distribution should be referred for formal genetic testing.

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