Gene Summary

Gene:CD46; CD46 molecule
Aliases: MCP, TLX, AHUS2, MIC10, TRA2.10
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system. The encoded protein has cofactor activity for inactivation of complement components C3b and C4b by serum factor I, which protects the host cell from damage by complement. In addition, the encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6, and type IV pili of pathogenic Neisseria. Finally, the protein encoded by this gene may be involved in the fusion of the spermatozoa with the oocyte during fertilization. Mutations at this locus have been associated with susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:membrane cofactor protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Xenograft Models
  • Liver Cancer
  • Adenoviridae
  • Vero Cells
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Transduction
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Complement Activation
  • Measles virus
  • Flow Cytometry
  • siRNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Base Sequence
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Virus Attachment
  • Cercopithecus aethiops
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Viral Proteins
  • CD59 Antigens
  • CD55 Antigens
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Oncolytic Virotherapy
  • Oncolytic Viruses
  • Chromosome 1
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Cultured Cells
  • Young Adult
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • CD Antigens
  • Apoptosis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Membrane Cofactor Protein
  • Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD46 (cancer-related)

Honda T, Inagawa H
Usefulness of Monocytes/macrophages Activated With Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide in Tumor Tissue and Adipose Tissue of Obesity.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4475-4478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation is involved in the development of cancer, lifestyle-related diseases, and autoimmune diseases. It also influences the severity of these diseases. Macrophages that accumulate in tumor tissues and adipose tissues of obesity have been shown to increase expression of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory changes in these tissues. The macrophage phenotype is believed to be important in mediating inflammatory changes in tissues. Recently, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were demonstrated to suppress increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α). By suppressing the increased expression of chemotaxis-related and inflammation-related factors, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose LPS are considered to suppress the migration of macrophages into tissues and to regulate inflammatory changes in these tissues, respectively. The effects of macrophages activated with low-dose LPS were different from those of macrophages activated with high-dose LPS. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of monocytes/macrophages activation by low-dose LPS.

El-Serafi AT, Sandeep D, Abdallah S, et al.
Paradoxical effects of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-deoxycytidine and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on adipogenesis.
Differentiation. 2019 Mar - Apr; 106:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipogenesis is an important biological process that is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, fat regeneration is crucial as a restorative approach following mastectomy or severe burn injury. Furthermore, optimizing an in-vitro model of adipogenesis, which would help in understanding the possible effects and/or side effects of fat-soluble drugs and anti-obesity remedies, in addition to the developmental studies. Epigenetic is an important factor that is involved in cellular differentiation and commitment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of DNA methylation and histone deactylases inhibitors, 5-Aza-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), on the adipogenic differentiation process. The two modifiers were applied according to our previously published protocol, followed by three cycles of a classical, two-step adipogenesis protocol. The cells pretreated with SAHA showed enhanced expression of the many adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as well as the accumulation of intracytoplasmic fat as shown by oil red and Nile red staining and the secretion of adipokines, such as MCP-1 and IP-10. On contrary, 5-Aza-dC inhibited all these markers. In conclusion, adding the reported step with SAHA to the differentiation protocols could have an impact on the progress of the in-vitro fat regenerative approach. The possible role of 5-Aza-dC in the inhibition of adipogenesis can be of clinical interest and will need further characterization in the future.

Tai AS, Peng CH, Peng SC, Hsieh WP
Decomposing the subclonal structure of tumors with two-way mixture models on copy number aberrations.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0206579 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multistage tumorigenesis is a dynamic process characterized by the accumulation of mutations. Thus, a tumor mass is composed of genetically divergent cell subclones. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS), mathematical models have been recently developed to decompose tumor subclonal architecture from a collective genome sequencing data. Most of the methods focused on single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). However, somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) also play critical roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, further modeling subclonal CNAs composition would hold the promise to improve the analysis of tumor heterogeneity and cancer evolution. To address this issue, we developed a two-way mixture Poisson model, named CloneDeMix for the deconvolution of read-depth information. It can infer the subclonal copy number, mutational cellular prevalence (MCP), subclone composition, and the order in which mutations occurred in the evolutionary hierarchy. The performance of CloneDeMix was systematically assessed in simulations. As a result, the accuracy of CNA inference was nearly 93% and the MCP was also accurately restored. Furthermore, we also demonstrated its applicability using head and neck cancer samples from TCGA. Our results inform about the extent of subclonal CNA diversity, and a group of candidate genes that probably initiate lymph node metastasis during tumor evolution was also discovered. Most importantly, these driver genes are located at 11q13.3 which is highly susceptible to copy number change in head and neck cancer genomes. This study successfully estimates subclonal CNAs and exhibit the evolutionary relationships of mutation events. By doing so, we can track tumor heterogeneity and identify crucial mutations during evolution process. Hence, it facilitates not only understanding the cancer development but finding potential therapeutic targets. Briefly, this framework has implications for improved modeling of tumor evolution and the importance of inclusion of subclonal CNAs.

Li HY, Yang S, Li JC, Feng JX
Galectin 3 inhibition attenuates renal injury progression in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nephrotoxicity is a major toxic effect in chemotherapy, which constitutes up to 60% of hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI). Very few treatment options exist to slow the transition from AKI to subsequent chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Here, we demonstrate that galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside binding lectin that plays an important role in kidney fibrosis and renal failure, is one of the key factors for renal injury progression. Ectopic overexpression of Gal-3 significantly decreased the viability of HEK293, simultaneously inducing of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, inhibition of Gal-3, mediated by modified citrus pectin (MCP), predominantly antagonized the pro-apoptotic effects. Mice were pre-treated with normal or 1% MCP-supplemented drinking water 1 week before cisplatin injection. Analyses of serum creatinine and renal tissue damage indicated that MCP-treated mice demonstrated increased renal function and attenuated renal fibrosis after cisplatin-induced injury. MCP-treated mice also demonstrated decreased renal fibrosis and apoptosis, as revealed by masson trichrome staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, the protective role of Gal-3 inhibition in the kidney injury was shown to be mediated by protein kinase C α (PKC-α), which promoted cell apoptosis and collagen I synthesis in HEK293 cells. These results demonstrated the potential Gal-3 and PKC-α as therapeutic targets for the treatment of AKI and CKD.

Zhou D, Jin J, Liu Q, et al.
PPARδ agonist enhances colitis-associated colorectal cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 842:248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) plays a critical role in regulating inflammation and cancer, while it is still unclear the mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516 on colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Here we found that GW501516 significantly enhanced colitis-associated colorectal cancer in AOM/DSS-induced mice. In addition, PPARδ agonist GW501516 enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expressions (COX-2, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1) in inflamed colon. Further analysis showed that GW501516 increased the expressions of Glut1 and SLC1A5 in colon cancer cells as well as AOM/DSS-induced colorectal tumors. These findings revealed a new mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516-mediated colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

Li YL, Shi ZH, Wang X, et al.
Prognostic significance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor 2 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(2):413-422 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression in malignant tissues have been reported; however, their role in hematological malignancies prognosis remains little known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The study included 221 patients with DLBCL. MCP-1 and CCR2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and its correlations with clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated. High expression of MCP-1 or CCR2 was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, and an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients. Also, significant positive correlation between MCP-1 and CCR2 expression was revealed (r = 0.545, P < 0.001). Patients with high MCP-1 or high CCR2 expression had significantly poorer OS and PFS than those with low MCP-1 or low CCR2 expression (OS: P < 0.001, P < 0.001; PFS: P < 0.001, P < 0.001), respectively, even in the rituximab era, and MCP-1 or CCR2 expression could further identify high-risk patients otherwise classified as low/intermediate risk by the International Prognostic Index (IPI) alone. Furthermore, incorporation of MCP-1 or CCR2 expression into the IPI score could improve prognostic value for OS. This is the first report describing the clinicopathological features and survival outcome according to expression of MCP-1 and CCR2 in DLBCL.

Dalmasso B, Hatse S, Brouwers B, et al.
Age-related microRNAs in older breast cancer patients: biomarker potential and evolution during adjuvant chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cellular function and have been associated with both aging and cancer, but the impact of chemotherapy on age-related miRNAs has barely been studied. Our aim was to examine whether chemotherapy accelerates the aging process in elderly breast cancer patients using miRNA expression profiling.
METHODS: We monitored age-related miRNAs in blood of women, aged 70 or older, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide, TC) for invasive breast cancer (chemo group, CTG, n = 46). A control group of older breast cancer patients without chemotherapy was included for comparison (control group, CG, n = 43). All patients underwent geriatric assessment at inclusion (T0), after 3 months (T1) and 1 year (T2). Moreover, we analysed the serum expression of nine age-related miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-30b, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a, miR-378a) at each timepoint.
RESULTS: Except for miR-106b, which behaved slightly different in CTG compared to CG, all miRNAs showed moderate fluctuations during the study course with no significant differences between groups. Several age-related miRNAs correlated with clinical frailty (miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a), as well as with other biomarkers of aging, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) (miR-106b, miR-301a, miR-374a-5p, miR-378a-3p). Moreover, based on their 'aging miRNA' profiles, patients clustered into two distinct groups exhibiting significantly different results for several biological/clinical aging parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: These results further corroborate our earlier report, stating that adjuvant TC chemotherapy does not significantly boost aging progression in elderly breast cancer patients. Our findings also endorsed specific age-related miRNAs as promising aging/frailty biomarkers in oncogeriatric populations.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT00849758 . Registered on 20 February 2009. This clinical trial was registered prospectively.

Jiang ZY, Jiang JJ, Ma YS, et al.
Downregulation of miR-223 and miR-19a induces differentiation and promotes recruitment of osteoclast cells in giant-cell tumor of the bone via the Runx2/TWIST-RANK/RANKL pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(4):1003-1009 [PubMed] Related Publications
Giant-cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is an invasiveness and high recurrent bone tumor that is considered borderline or potentially malignant. To explore the molecular mechanism leading to bone destruction and identify novel targets for treatment, we conducted silencing of miR-223 and miR-19a in stromal giant cells and identified TWIST and Runx2 as their target genes. We investigated the impact of these microRNAs and their target genes on stromal giant cells that promote the differentiation of monocyte/macrophages into osteoclast cells and recruitment to the bone microenvironment, which in turn enhances the bone destruction capacity of GCT. MiR-223 and miR-19a were found to regulate the expression of TWIST and Runx2, influence the RANKL-RANK pathway and the expression of MCP-1, and finally regulate the pathophysiological process of osteolytic bone destruction. Our results indicate that re-expression of miR-223 and miR-19a induces an inhibitory effect on the bone destruction capacity of GCT, suggesting that re-expression of miR-223 and miR-19a can be a novel strategy for the treatment of GCT.

Do MH, To PK, Cho YS, et al.
Targeting CD46 Enhances Anti-Tumoral Activity of Adenovirus Type 5 for Bladder Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD46 is generally overexpressed in many human cancers, representing a prime target for CD46-binding adenoviruses (Ads). This could help to overcome low anti-tumoral activity by coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR)-targeting cancer gene therapy viruses. However, because of scarce side-by-side information about CAR and CD46 expression levels in cancer cells, mixed observations of cancer therapeutic efficacy have been observed. This study evaluated Ad-mediated therapeutic efficacy using either CAR-targeting Ad5 or CD46-targeting Ad5/35 fiber chimera in bladder cancer cell lines. Compared with normal urothelia, bladder cancer tissue generally overexpressed both CAR and CD46. While CAR expression was not correlated with disease progression, CD46 expression was inversely correlated with tumor grade, stage, and risk grade. In bladder cancer cell lines, expression levels of CD46 and CAR were highly correlated with Ad5/35- and Ad5-mediated gene transduction and cytotoxicity, respectively. In a human EJ bladder cancer xenograft mouse model, with either overexpressed or suppressed CD46 expression levels, Ad5/35-tk followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment significantly affected tumor growth, whereas Ad5-tk/GCV had only minimal effects. Overall, our findings suggest that bladder cancer cells overexpress both CAR and CD46, and that adenoviral cancer gene therapy targeting CD46 represents a more suitable therapy option than a CAR-targeting therapy, especially in patients with low risk bladder cancers.

Makjaroen J, Somparn P, Hodge K, et al.
Comprehensive Proteomics Identification of IFN-λ3-regulated Antiviral Proteins in HBV-transfected Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(11):2197-2215 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a relatively unexplored, yet promising antiviral agent. IFN-λ has recently been tested in clinical trials of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), with the advantage that side effects may be limited compared with IFN-α, as IFN-λ receptors are found only in epithelial cells. To date, IFN-λ's downstream signaling pathway remains largely unelucidated, particularly via proteomics methods. Here, we report that IFN-λ3 inhibits HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells, reducing levels of both HBV transcripts and intracellular HBV DNA. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HBV-transfected cells was performed following 24-hour IFN-λ3 treatment, with parallel IFN-α2a and PBS treatments for comparison using a dimethyl labeling method. The depth of the study allowed us to map the induction of antiviral proteins to multiple points of the viral life cycle, as well as facilitating the identification of antiviral proteins not previously known to be elicited upon HBV infection (

Saarinen L, Nummela P, Leinonen H, et al.
Glycomic Profiling Highlights Increased Fucosylation in Pseudomyxoma Peritonei.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(11):2107-2118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma that most often originates from the appendix, and grows in the peritoneal cavity filling it with mucinous ascites.

Shraibman B, Barnea E, Kadosh DM, et al.
Identification of Tumor Antigens Among the HLA Peptidomes of Glioblastoma Tumors and Plasma.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(11):2132-2145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis to most patients. Immunotherapy of GBM is a potentially beneficial treatment option, whose optimal implementation may depend on familiarity with tumor specific antigens, presented as HLA peptides by the GBM cells. Furthermore, early detection of GBM, such as by a routine blood test, may improve survival, even with the current treatment modalities. This study includes large-scale analyses of the HLA peptidome (immunopeptidome) of the plasma-soluble HLA molecules (sHLA) of 142 plasma samples, and the membranal HLA of GBM tumors of 10 of these patients' tumor samples. Tumor samples were fresh-frozen immediately after surgery and the plasma samples were collected before, and at multiple visits after surgery. In total, this HLA peptidome analysis involved 52 different HLA allotypes and resulted in the identification of more than 35,000 different HLA peptides. Strong correlations were observed in the signal intensities and in the repertoires of identified peptides between the tumors and plasma-soluble HLA peptidomes of the individual patients, whereas low correlations were observed between these HLA peptidomes and the tumors' proteomes. HLA peptides derived from Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) were selected based on their presence among the HLA peptidomes of the patients and absence of expression of their source genes from any healthy and essential human tissues, except from immune-privileged sites. Additionally, peptides were selected as potential biomarkers if their levels in the plasma-sHLA peptidome were significantly reduced after the removal of tumor mass. The CTAs identified among the analyzed HLA peptidomes provide new opportunities for personalized immunotherapy and for early diagnosis of GBM.

Jung Y, Ahn SH, Park H, et al.
MCP-1 and MIP-3α Secreted from Necrotic Cell-Treated Glioblastoma Cells Promote Migration/Infiltration of Microglia.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(3):1332-1346 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The defining characteristics of GBM are diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, a high degree of infiltration of microglia and macrophages, and the presence of necrosis. Microglia/macrophages are frequently found in gliomas and they extensively infiltrate GBM tissue, up to 30% of total tumor mass. However, little is known about the effect of necrotic cells (NCs) on microglia infiltration in GBM and the tumor-infiltrating microglia-induced factors in GBMs.
METHODS: In this study, to address whether necrosis or necrosis-exposed GBM cells affect the degree of microglia/macrophage infiltration, migration and invasion/infiltration assays were performed. Culture supernatants and nuclear extracts of CRT-MG cells treated or untreated with necrotic cells were analyzed using a chemokine array and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The presence of NCs promoted the migration/infiltration of microglia, and GBM cell line CRT-MG cells exposed to NCs further enhanced the migration and infiltration of HMO6 microglial cells. Treatment with NCs induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines such as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3α (CCL20/MIP-3α) in CRT-MG cells. In particular, CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α were significantly increased in NC-treated CRT-MG cells. NCs induced DNA binding of the transcription factors Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) to the CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α promoters, leading to increased CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α mRNA and protein expression in CRT-MG cells.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that NCs induce the expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α in glioblastoma cells through activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and facilitate the infiltration of microglia into tumor tissues.

Ding Q, Shen L, Nie X, et al.
MiR-223-3p overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and migration by regulating inflammation-associated cytokines in glioblastomas.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(9):1330-1339 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma(GBM) is most common brain tumor in adults. Currently standard treatments have limited effect to increase the survival, because there are still largely unclear mechanisms in glioblastoma development. miR-223 was involved in various types of cancer, however, the function of miR-223-3p in GBM was still unclear. In our study, real-time PCR was performed to exam the expression level of miR-223-3p and NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain(NOD)-like receptor family PYRIN domain containing-3) in GBM tissues. Following that, mimic or inhibitor of miR-223-3p were used to modulate miR-223-3p expression in GBM cell lines respectively. Then, we analyzed cell proliferation and migration by cell counting kit and transwell assay. Further, western blot was performed to detect several inflammation-associated cytokines level in GBM cell lines. We found that miR-223-3p was decreased but NLRP3 was increased in GBM tissues. Treatment with miR-223-3p mimic inhibits cell proliferation and migration via decreasing several inflammation-associated cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and IL-18. Importantly, these effects induced by miR-223-3p could be attenuated by NLRP3 overexpression, which was considered as one of target genes of miR-223-3p. In conclusion, these results indicated that miR-223-3p might act as a suppressor and a potential therapy target of GBM.

Choi D, Montermini L, Kim DK, et al.
The Impact of Oncogenic EGFRvIII on the Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Released from Glioblastoma Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(10):1948-1964 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous form of primary brain tumors, driven by a complex repertoire of oncogenic alterations, including the constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII). EGFRvIII impacts both cell-intrinsic and non-cell autonomous aspects of GBM progression, including cell invasion, angiogenesis and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. This is, at least in part, attributable to the release and intercellular trafficking of extracellular vesicles (EVs), heterogeneous membrane structures containing multiple bioactive macromolecules. Here we analyzed the impact of EGFRvIII on the profile of glioma EVs using isogenic tumor cell lines, in which this oncogene exhibits a strong transforming activity. We observed that EGFRvIII expression alters the expression of EV-regulating genes (vesiculome) and EV properties, including their protein composition. Using mass spectrometry, quantitative proteomic analysis and Gene Ontology terms filters, we observed that EVs released by EGFRvIII-transformed cells were enriched for extracellular exosome and focal adhesion related proteins. Among them, we validated the association of pro-invasive proteins (CD44, BSG, CD151) with EVs of EGFRvIII expressing glioma cells, and downregulation of exosomal markers (CD81 and CD82) relative to EVs of EGFRvIII-negative cells. Nano-flow cytometry revealed that the EV output from individual glioma cell lines was highly heterogeneous, such that only a fraction of vesicles contained specific proteins (including EGFRvIII). Notably, cells expressing EGFRvIII released EVs double positive for CD44/BSG, and these proteins also colocalized in cellular filopodia. We also detected the expression of homophilic adhesion molecules and increased homologous EV uptake by EGFRvIII-positive glioma cells. These results suggest that oncogenic EGFRvIII reprograms the proteome and uptake of GBM-related EVs, a notion with considerable implications for their biological activity and properties relevant for the development of EV-based cancer biomarkers.

Ressa A, Bosdriesz E, de Ligt J, et al.
A System-wide Approach to Monitor Responses to Synergistic BRAF and EGFR Inhibition in Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(10):1892-1908 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Intrinsic and/or acquired resistance represents one of the great challenges in targeted cancer therapy. A deeper understanding of the molecular biology of cancer has resulted in more efficient strategies, where one or multiple drugs are adopted in novel therapies to tackle resistance. This beneficial effect of using combination treatments has also been observed in colorectal cancer patients harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation, whereby dual inhibition of BRAF(V600E) and EGFR increases antitumor activity. Notwithstanding this success, it is not clear whether this combination treatment is the only or most effective treatment to block intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Here, we investigate molecular responses upon single and multi-target treatments, over time, using BRAF(V600E) mutant colorectal cancer cells as a model system. Through integration of transcriptomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomics data we obtain a comprehensive overview, revealing both known and novel responses. We primarily observe widespread up-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and metabolic pathways upon BRAF inhibition. These findings point to mechanisms by which the drug-treated cells switch energy sources and enter a quiescent-like state as a defensive response, while additionally compensating for the MAPK pathway inhibition.

Hammond DE, Kumar JD, Raymond L, et al.
Stable Isotope Dynamic Labeling of Secretomes (SIDLS) Identifies Authentic Secretory Proteins Released by Cancer and Stromal Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(9):1837-1849 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Analysis of secretomes critically underpins the capacity to understand the mechanisms determining interactions between cells and between cells and their environment. In the context of cancer cell micro-environments, the relevant interactions are recognized to be an important determinant of tumor progression. Global proteomic analyses of secretomes are often performed at a single time point and frequently identify both classical secreted proteins (possessing an N-terminal signal sequence), as well as many intracellular proteins, the release of which is of uncertain biological significance. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method for stable isotope dynamic labeling of secretomes (SIDLS) that, by dynamic SILAC, discriminates the secretion kinetics of classical secretory proteins and intracellular proteins released from cancer and stromal cells in culture. SIDLS is a robust classifier of the different cellular origins of proteins within the secretome and should be broadly applicable to nonproliferating cells and cells grown in short term culture.

Tutino V, Defrancesco ML, Tolomeo M, et al.
The Expression of Riboflavin Transporters in Human Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(5):2659-2667 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Riboflavin transport in enterocytes is mediated by three translocators: RFVT3 located on the apical membrane, and RFVT1 and RFVT2 on the basolateral membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression levels of RFVTs are altered in human colorectal cancer (CRC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (CaCo2, DLD-1, HT-29) and in tissues of patients with CRC, gene and protein expression levels were evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Intracellular flavin content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: RFVT3 and RFVT2 gene and protein expression levels were higher in DLD-1 and HT-29 compared to Caco2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the RFVT1 protein level was drastically lower. These differences are presumably responsible for the higher total flavin content in DLD-1 and HT-29 cells. In tumor tissues of patients with CRC, RFVT1 content was reduced at both protein and mRNA levels compared to normal mucosa. RFVT3 and RFVT2 gene expression levels were increased, while protein expression was reduced, with a small reduction in riboflavin amount.
CONCLUSION: This study provides first evidence that transcription/translation of RFVTs are profoundly altered in CRC.

Zacharaki D, Ghazanfari R, Li H, et al.
Effects of JAK1/2 inhibition on bone marrow stromal cells of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients and healthy individuals.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(1):57-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) commonly share hyperactive JAK-STAT signaling affecting hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their progeny. The JAK1/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib has remarkable clinical efficacy, including spleen reduction, improvement of constitutional symptoms, and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis reversal. Whether this is due to inhibition of JAK2-mutated HSC only, or whether Ruxolitinib also affects BM stroma is not known.
METHODS: This study investigated potential effects of Ruxolitinib on BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which are not only major regulators of hematopoiesis but also contribute to fibrosis, from 10 healthy donors and 7 JAK2
RESULTS: Ruxolitinib moderately inhibited the growth of healthy donor MSC (HD-MSC) and MSC from JAK2
CONCLUSION: Ruxolitinib affected JAK2 signaling in MSC at clinically relevant doses, which is likely to contribute to the normalization of the inflammatory milieu in MPNs. Thus, combined HSC and stroma-directed interventions have the potential to improve constitutional symptoms and reduce stromal proliferation in MPNs.

Nguyen EV, Centenera MM, Moldovan M, et al.
Identification of Novel Response and Predictive Biomarkers to Hsp90 Inhibitors Through Proteomic Profiling of Patient-derived Prostate Tumor Explants.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(8):1470-1486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone is a promising therapeutic strategy to target expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and other oncogenic drivers in prostate cancer cells. However, identification of clinically-relevant responses and predictive biomarkers is essential to maximize efficacy and treatment personalization. Here, we combined mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses with a unique patient-derived explant (PDE) model that retains the complex microenvironment of primary prostate tumors. Independent discovery and validation cohorts of PDEs (

Dutta P, Sarkissyan M, Paico K, et al.
MCP-1 is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers and drives cancer invasiveness and metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 170(3):477-486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancer that lacks ER/PR and HER2 receptors. Hence, there is urgency in developing new or novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of TNBC. Our study shows that the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) is a marker associated with TNBC and may play a key role in TNBC disease progression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ELISA method was used to measure secreted MCP-1, and mRNA levels were determined by Real-time PCR in numerous cancer cell lines, representing various breast cancer subtypes. Cellular invasiveness was determined by Boyden chamber assay.
RESULTS: Our data show that MCP-1 is upregulated in TNBC cell lines both transcriptionally as well as in secreted protein levels compared to ER-positive luminal cell line, MCF-7. Breast cancer patients, with Basal or Claudin-low subtypes, also showed high expression of MCP-1. MCP-1 treatment induced cell invasion in various breast cancer cell types, without affecting cell proliferation. Small molecule antagonists against Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2), cognate receptor for MCP-1 as well as the MAP kinase pathway inhibitor U0126 negatively affected MCP-1 induced MCF-7 cell invasion. This suggests that MCP-1-CCR2 axis may regulate invasiveness via the MAP Kinase pathway. Knocking down MCP-1 decreased cell invasion in TNBC cell line BT-549, along with downregulation of key epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers, N-cadherin and Vimentin.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that MCP-1 mediated pathways could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TNBC, and could reduce cancer health disparities.

Jia L, Wu D, Wang Y, et al.
Orphan nuclear receptor TLX contributes to androgen insensitivity in castration-resistant prostate cancer via its repression of androgen receptor transcription.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(25):3340-3355 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal form of prostate cancer, in which the expression of androgen receptor (AR) is highly heterogeneous. Indeed, lower AR expression and attenuated AR signature activity is shown in CRPC tissues, especially in the subset of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) and prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSCs). However, the significance of AR downregulation in androgen insensitivity and de-differentiation of tumor cells in CRPC is poorly understood and much neglected. Our previous study shows that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1), which is upregulated in prostate cancer, plays an oncogenic role in prostate carcinogenesis by suppressing oncogene-induced senescence. In the present study, we further established that TLX exhibited an increased expression in metastatic CRPC. Further analyses showed that overexpression of TLX could confer resistance to androgen deprivation and anti-androgen in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of endogenous TLX could potentiate the sensitivity to androgen deprivation and anti-androgen in prostate cancer cells. Our study revealed that the TLX-induced resistance to androgen deprivation and anti-androgen was mediated through its direct suppression of AR gene transcription and signaling in both androgen-stimulated and -unstimulated prostate cancer cells. We also characterized that TLX could bind directly to AR promoter and repress AR transcription by recruitment of histone modifiers, including HDAC1, HDAC3, and LSD1. Together, our present study shows, for the first time, that TLX can contribute to androgen insensitivity in CRPC via repression of AR gene transcription and signaling, and also implicates that targeting the druggable TLX may have a potential therapeutic significance in CRPC management, particularly in NEPC and PCSCs.

Gulati T, Huang C, Caramia F, et al.
Proteotranscriptomic Measurements of E6-Associated Protein (E6AP) Targets in DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(6):1170-1183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a common cause of cancer-related death in men. E6AP (E6-Associated Protein), an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a transcription cofactor, is elevated in a subset of prostate cancer patients. Genetic manipulations of E6AP in prostate cancer cells expose a role of E6AP in promoting growth and survival of prostate cancer cells

He S, Zhang X
The rs1024611 in the CCL2 gene and risk of gynecological cancer in Asians: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The -2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism of the CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2), also known as MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) gene, has been reported to be associated with increased gynecological cancer risk, but the results are conflicting.
METHODS: In this analysis, 1089 cases and 1553 controls from six publications were used to investigate the association between CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism and the risk of gynecological cancer with a meta-analytic approach. Studies published on EBSCO, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Weipu, and CNKI databases were identified (last update was on November 3, 2015). Six articles focused on the association between CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism, and gynecological cancer risk was selected and data were extracted. The cancer type included endometrial cancer (n = 1), breast cancer (n = 2), ovarian cancer (n = 2), and cervical cancer (n = 1). All statistical analyses were performed using the STATA version 12.0 software.
RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism is associated with risk of gynecological cancer (GG vs AG + AA, OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.07-2.24, P < 0.05; AA vs GG, OR = 0.59 95%CI = 0.38-0.92, P < 0.05). Notably, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that the genotype AA is associated with a reduced gynecological cancer risk in Asians, but an increased risk when compared to AG in Europeans.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of gynecological cancer, and the association differs by ethnicity.

Nakamura N, Matsui T, Ishibashi Y, et al.
RAGE-aptamer Attenuates the Growth and Liver Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma in Nude Mice.
Mol Med. 2017; 23:295-306 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Epidemiological studies have suggested the link between cumulative diabetic exposure and cancer. Interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with their receptor (RAGE) may contribute to the phenomenon. We examined here the effects of DNA aptamer raised against RAGE (RAGE-aptamer) on growth and liver metastasis of G361 melanoma in nude mice. Malignant melanoma cells were intradermally injected into the upper flank region of nude mice, which received continuous administration of RAGE-aptamer (38.4 pmol/day/g body weight) or vehicle intraperitoneally by an osmotic pump up to 42 days. RAGE-aptamer significantly reduced levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine, AGEs, RAGE, proliferating nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and CD31 and Mac-3, respective markers of endothelial cells and macrophages in tumors of nude mice and suppressed the proliferation and liver metastasis of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, RAGE-aptamer attenuated the AGE-induced oxidative stress generation, proliferation, and VEGF and MCP-1 gene expression in both G361 melanoma cells and endothelial cells. The present findings suggest that RAGE-aptamer could attenuate melanoma growth and liver metastasis in nude mice by suppressing the tumor angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration via inhibition of the AGE-RAGE system. RAGE-aptamer may be a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

Hawkins AG, Basrur V, da Veiga Leprevost F, et al.
The Ewing Sarcoma Secretome and Its Response to Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(5):901-912 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Tumor: tumor microenvironment (TME) interactions are critical for tumor progression and the composition and structure of the local extracellular matrix (ECM) are key determinants of tumor metastasis. We recently reported that activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in Ewing sarcoma cells induces widespread transcriptional changes that are associated with acquisition of a metastatic tumor phenotype. Significantly, ECM protein-encoding genes were found to be enriched among Wnt/beta-catenin induced transcripts, leading us to hypothesize that activation of canonical Wnt signaling might induce changes in the Ewing sarcoma secretome. To address this hypothesis, conditioned media from Ewing sarcoma cell lines cultured in the presence or absence of Wnt3a was collected for proteomic analysis. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify differentially secreted proteins. We then used in silico databases to identify only proteins annotated as secreted. Comparison of the secretomes of two Ewing sarcoma cell lines revealed numerous shared proteins, as well as a degree of heterogeneity, in both basal and Wnt-stimulated conditions. Gene set enrichment analysis of secreted proteins revealed that Wnt stimulation reproducibly resulted in increased secretion of proteins involved in ECM organization, ECM receptor interactions, and collagen formation. In particular, Wnt-stimulated Ewing sarcoma cells up-regulated secretion of structural collagens, as well as matricellular proteins, such as the metastasis-associated protein, tenascin C (TNC). Interrogation of published databases confirmed reproducible correlations between Wnt/beta-catenin activation and

Li Y, Zhuang H, Zhang X, et al.
Multiomics Integration Reveals the Landscape of Prometastasis Metabolism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(4):607-618 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The systematic investigation of gene mutation and expression is important to discover novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancers. Here, we integrated genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to analyze three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with differential metastatic potentials. The results revealed the profile of the prometastasis metabolism potentially associated with HCC metastasis. The multiomic analysis identified 12 genes with variations at multiple levels from three metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, starch, and sucrose metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Furthermore, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), was observed to be persistently up-regulated with increased metastatic potential. UGP2 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion and enhanced glycogenesis

Kostas M, Haugsten EM, Zhen Y, et al.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type G (PTPRG) Controls Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) 1 Activity and Influences Sensitivity to FGFR Kinase Inhibitors.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(5):850-870 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Recently, FGFR1 was found to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and represents an important target for precision medicine. However, because targeted cancer therapy based on FGFR inhibitors has so far been less efficient than expected, a detailed understanding of the target is important. We have here applied proximity-dependent biotin labeling combined with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify determinants of FGFR1 activity in an osteosarcoma cell line. Many known FGFR interactors were identified (

Atay S, Wilkey DW, Milhem M, et al.
Insights into the Proteome of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors-Derived Exosomes Reveals New Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(3):495-515 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Developing tumors continuously release nano-sized vesicles that represent circulating "fingerprints" of the tumor's identity. In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), we have previously reported that these tumors release "oncosomes" carrying the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor KIT. Despite the clinical utility of TK inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate (IM), recurrence and metastasis are clinical problems that urge the need to identify new tumor-derived molecules. To this aim, we performed the first high quality proteomic study of GIST-derived exosomes (GDEs) and identified 1,060 proteins composing the core GDE proteome (cGDEp). The cGDEp was enriched in diagnostic markers (

Wang X, Codreanu SG, Wen B, et al.
Detection of Proteome Diversity Resulted from Alternative Splicing is Limited by Trypsin Cleavage Specificity.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(3):422-430 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Alternative splicing dramatically increases transcriptome complexity but its contribution to proteome diversity remains controversial. Exon-exon junction spanning peptides provide direct evidence for the translation of specific splice isoforms and are critical for delineating protein isoform complexity. Here we found that junction-spanning peptides are underrepresented in publicly available mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics data sets. Further analysis showed that evolutionarily conserved preferential nucleotide usage at exon boundaries increases the occurrence of lysine- and arginine-coding triplets at the end of exons. Because both lysine and arginine residues are cleavage sites of trypsin, the nearly exclusive use of trypsin as the protein digestion enzyme in shotgun proteomic analyses hinders the detection of junction-spanning peptides. To study the impact of enzyme selection on splice junction detectability, we performed

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