CDC25B

Gene Summary

Gene:CDC25B; cell division cycle 25B
Location:20p13
Summary:CDC25B is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25B activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. CDC25B shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm due to nuclear localization and nuclear export signals. The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. CDC25B has oncogenic properties, although its role in tumor formation has not been determined. Multiple transcript variants for this gene exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:M-phase inducer phosphatase 2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC25B (cancer-related)

Cheng XH, Black M, Ustiyan V, et al.
SPDEF inhibits prostate carcinogenesis by disrupting a positive feedback loop in regulation of the Foxm1 oncogene.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(9):e1004656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SAM-pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) is expressed in normal prostate epithelium. While its expression changes during prostate carcinogenesis (PCa), the role of SPDEF in prostate cancer remains controversial due to the lack of genetic mouse models. In present study, we generated transgenic mice with the loss- or gain-of-function of SPDEF in prostate epithelium to demonstrate that SPDEF functions as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Loss of SPDEF increased cancer progression and tumor cell proliferation, whereas over-expression of SPDEF in prostate epithelium inhibited carcinogenesis and reduced tumor cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic over-expression of SPDEF inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Foxm1, a transcription factor critical for tumor cell proliferation, and reduced expression of Foxm1 target genes, including Cdc25b, Cyclin B1, Cyclin A2, Plk-1, AuroraB, CKS1 and Topo2alpha. Deletion of SPDEF in transgenic mice and cultures prostate tumor cells increased expression of Foxm1 and its target genes. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between SPDEF and Foxm1 levels was found in human prostate cancers. The two-gene signature of low SPDEF and high FoxM1 predicted poor survival in prostate cancer patients. Mechanistically, SPDEF bound to, and inhibited transcriptional activity of Foxm1 promoter by interfering with the ability of Foxm1 to activate its own promoter through auto-regulatory site located in the -745/-660 bp Foxm1 promoter region. Re-expression of Foxm1 restored cellular proliferation in the SPDEF-positive cancer cells and rescued progression of SPDEF-positive tumors in mouse prostates. Altogether, SPDEF inhibits prostate carcinogenesis by preventing Foxm1-regulated proliferation of prostate tumor cells. The present study identified novel crosstalk between SPDEF tumor suppressor and Foxm1 oncogene and demonstrated that this crosstalk is required for tumor cell proliferation during progression of prostate cancer in vivo.

Zhang JR, Lu F, Lu T, et al.
Inactivation of FoxM1 transcription factor contributes to curcumin-induced inhibition of survival, angiogenesis, and chemosensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2014; 92(12):1319-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aberrant expression of forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) contributes to carcinogenesis in human cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that the discovery of specific agents targeting FoxM1 would be extremely valuable for the treatment of AML. Curcumin, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, is suggested to possess anti-leukemic activity; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that curcumin inhibited cell survival accompanied by induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HL60, Kasumi, NB4, and KG1 cells. This was associated with concomitant attenuation of FoxM1 and its downstream genes, such as cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, Cdc25B, survivin, Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as the reduction of the angiogenic effect of AML cells. We also found that specific downregulation of FoxM1 by siRNA prior to curcumin treatment resulted in enhanced cell survival inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, FoxM1 siRNA increased the susceptibility of AML cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. More importantly, curcumin suppressed FoxM1 expression, selectively inhibited cell survival as well as the combination of curcumin and doxorubicin exhibited a more inhibitory effect in primary CD34(+) AML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors. These results identify a novel role for FoxM1 in mediating the biological effects of curcumin in human AML cells. Our data provide the first evidence that curcumin together with chemotherapy or FoxM1 targeting agents may be effective strategies for the treatment of AML.
KEY MESSAGE: Curcumin inhibited AML cell survival and angiogenesis and induced chemosensitivity. Aberrant expression of FoxM1 induces AML cell survival and chemoresistance. Inactivation of FoxM1 contributes to curcumin-induced anti-leukemic effects. Curcumin together with FoxM1 targeting agents may be effective for AML therapy.

Lee J, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.
Nanostring-based multigene assay to predict recurrence for gastric cancer patients after surgery.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N=432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N=186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N=216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N=300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N=216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence=3.16, p=0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio=1.77, p=0.0053).

Reikvam H, Tamburini J, Skrede S, et al.
Antileukaemic effect of PI3K-mTOR inhibitors in acute myeloid leukaemia-gene expression profiles reveal CDC25B expression as determinate of pharmacological effect.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 164(2):200-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy. Intracellular signalling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for regulation of cellular growth and metabolism, and inhibitors of this pathway is considered for AML treatment. Primary human AML cells, derived from 96 consecutive adult patients, were examined. The effects of two mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, temsirolimus) and two PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941, 3-methyladenine) were studied, and we investigated cytokine-dependent proliferation, regulation of apoptosis and global gene expression profiles. Only a subset of patients demonstrated strong antiproliferative effects of PI3K-mTOR inhibitors. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified two main clusters of patients; one subset showing weak or absent antiproliferative effects (59%) and another group showing a strong growth inhibition for all drugs and concentrations examined (41%). Global gene expression analyses showed that patients with AML cell resistance against PI3K-mTOR inhibitors showed increased mRNA expression of the CDC25B gene that encodes the cell cycle regulator Cell Division Cycle 25B. The antileukaemic effect of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibition varies between patients, and resistance to these inhibitors is associated with the expression of the cell cycle regulator CDC25B, which is known to crosstalk with the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and mediate rapamycin resistance in experimental models.

Tian T, Li J, Li B, et al.
Genistein exhibits anti-cancer effects via down-regulating FoxM1 in H446 small-cell lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4137-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genistein, a major isoflavone constituent in soybeans, has been reported to exhibit multiple anti-tumor effects, such as inducing cell cycle arrest, triggering apoptosis, and inactivating critical signaling pathways in a few human cancer cells. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of genistein on the small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line H446 and the underlying molecular mechanisms. H446 cells were treated with various concentrations of genistein, and experiments including CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry analysis, wound healing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot analysis, and plasmid transfection were used to investigate the influence of genistein on cell proliferation, migration ability, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, as well as the mRNA and protein alterations of FoxM1 pathway molecules. We found that genistein significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of H446 cell, accompanied by apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, genistein enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of cisplatin on H446 cells. Importantly, genistein led to attenuation of the FoxM1 protein and down-regulated a series of FoxM1 target genes regulating cell cycle and apoptosis including Cdc25B, cyclin B1, and survivin. In addition, up-regulation of FoxM1 by cDNA transfection prior to genistein treatment could reduce genistein-induced H446 proliferation inhibition. Thus, for the first time, we demonstrated that genistein exerted multiple anti-tumor effects in H446 SCLC cell line at least partly mediated by the down-regulation of FoxM1. FoxM1 has the potential as a novel therapeutic agent in SCLC and is worthy of further study.

Cai Y, Balli D, Ustiyan V, et al.
Foxm1 expression in prostate epithelial cells is essential for prostate carcinogenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(31):22527-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) remains a challenge. Identification of new molecular mechanisms that regulate PCa initiation and progression would provide targets for the development of new cancer treatments. The Foxm1 transcription factor is highly up-regulated in tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and cells of tumor microenvironment. However, its functions in different cell populations of PCa lesions are unknown. To determine the role of Foxm1 in tumor cells during PCa development, we generated two novel transgenic mouse models, one exhibiting Foxm1 gain-of-function and one exhibiting Foxm1 loss-of-function under control of the prostate epithelial-specific Probasin promoter. In the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of PCa that uses SV40 large T antigen to induce PCa, loss of Foxm1 decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Decreased prostate tumorigenesis was associated with a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and the down-regulation of genes critical for cell proliferation and tumor metastasis, including Cdc25b, Cyclin B1, Plk-1, Lox, and Versican. In addition, tumor-associated angiogenesis was decreased, coinciding with reduced Vegf-A expression. The mRNA and protein levels of 11β-Hsd2, an enzyme playing an important role in tumor cell proliferation, were down-regulated in Foxm1-deficient PCa tumors in vivo and in Foxm1-depleted TRAMP C2 cells in vitro. Foxm1 bound to, and increased transcriptional activity of, the mouse 11β-Hsd2 promoter through the -892/-879 region, indicating that 11β-Hsd2 was a direct transcriptional target of Foxm1. Without TRAMP, overexpression of Foxm1 either alone or in combination with inhibition of a p19(ARF) tumor suppressor caused a robust epithelial hyperplasia, but was insufficient to induce progression from hyperplasia to PCa. Foxm1 expression in prostate epithelial cells is critical for prostate carcinogenesis, suggesting that inhibition of Foxm1 is a promising therapeutic approach for prostate cancer chemotherapy.

Dai B, Gong A, Jing Z, et al.
Forkhead box M1 is regulated by heat shock factor 1 and promotes glioma cells survival under heat shock stress.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(3):1634-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G(2)-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance.

He J, Wu J, Xu N, et al.
MiR-210 disturbs mitotic progression through regulating a group of mitosis-related genes.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41(1):498-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-210 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types but its function is disputable and further investigation is necessary. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified the putative target genes of miR-210 in hypoxia-induced CNE cells from genome-wide scale. Two functional gene groups related to cell cycle and RNA processing were recognized as the major targets of miR-210. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and biological consequence of miR-210 in cell cycle regulation, particularly mitosis. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of miR-210 was highly correlated with the down-regulation of a group of mitosis-related genes, including Plk1, Cdc25B, Cyclin F, Bub1B and Fam83D. MiR-210 suppressed the expression of these genes by directly targeting their 3'-UTRs. Over-expression of exogenous miR-210 disturbed mitotic progression and caused aberrant mitosis. Furthermore, miR-210 mimic with pharmacological doses reduced tumor formation in a mouse metastatic tumor model. Taken together, these results implicate that miR-210 disturbs mitosis through targeting multi-genes involved in mitotic progression, which may contribute to its inhibitory role on tumor formation.

He L, Yang X, Cao X, et al.
Casticin induces growth suppression and cell cycle arrest through activation of FOXO3a in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(1):103-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, has been reported to exert anticancer activities. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which casticin induces the growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The HCC cell lines Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 were cultured in vitro. The growth inhibitory effects of casticin were evaluated using clonogenic assays. The distribution of phases in the cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis with propidium iodide (PI) staining. Multiple molecular techniques, such as western blotting and gene transfection, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Our data demonstrated that casticin significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation in HCC cells. Furthermore, it induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Casticin inhibited phosphorylation of the FOXO3a protein and decreased the expression of FoxM1 and its downstream genes, such as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1), cdc25B and cyclin B and increased the expression of p27KIP1. Silencing of FOXO3a expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection clearly attenuated the inhibitory effects of casticin on FOXM1 expression and cell growth. Our findings provided clear evidence that casticin induces growth suppression and cell cycle arrest through inhibition of FOXO3a phosphorylation causing inactivation of FOXM1 in HCC cells.

Xiang HL, Liu F, Quan MF, et al.
7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4'-di-n-octylgenistein inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells through downregulating forkhead box M1.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(33):4618-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate whether the 7-difluoromethoxyl-5, 4'-di-n-octylgenistein (DFOG), a novel synthetic genistein analogue, affects the growth of gastric cancer cells and its mechanisms.
METHODS: A series of genistein analogues were prepared by difluoromethylation and alkylation, and human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and SGC-7901 cultured in vitro were treated with various concentrations of genistein and genistein analogues. The cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cells were incubated by DFOG at different concentrations. The growth inhibitory effects were evaluated using MTT and clonogenic assay. The distribution of the phase in cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression levels of CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B and p27(KIP1) protein were detected using Western blotting.
RESULTS: Nine of the genistein analogues had more effective antitumor activity than genistein. Among the tested analogues, DFOG possessed the strongest activity against AGS and SGC-7901 cells in vitro. DFOG significantly inhibited the cell viability and colony formation of AGS and SGC-7901 cells. Moreover, DFOG efficaciously arrested the cell cycle in G2/M phase. DFOG decreased the expression of FOXM1 and its downstream genes, such as CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B, and increased p27(KIP1) at protein levels. Knockdown of FOXM1 by small interfering RNA before DFOG treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells. Up-regulation of FOXM1 by cDNA transfection attenuated DFOG-induced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells.
CONCLUSION: DFOG inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer cells by down-regulating the FOXM1 expression.

Yu XY, Zhang Z, Zhang GJ, et al.
Knockdown of Cdc25B in renal cell carcinoma is associated with decreased malignant features.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(3):931-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cdc25 phosphatases are important regulators of the cell cycle. Their abnormal expression detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. However, the role of Cdc25B in renal cell carcinomas remains unknown. To shed light on influence on renal cell carcinogenesis and subsequent progression, Cdc25B expression was examined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting in renal cell carcinoma and normal tissues. 65 kDa Cdc25B expression was higher in carcinomas than in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05), positive correlations being noted with clinical stage and histopathologic grade (P<0.05). To additionally investigate the role of Cdc25B alteration in the development of renal cell carcinoma, Cdc25B siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of Cdc25B. Down-regulation resulted in slower growth, more G2/M cells, weaker capacity for migration and invasion, and induction of apoptosis in 769-P transfectants. Reduction of 14-3-3 protein expression appeared related to Cdc25B knockdown. These findings suggest an important role of Cdc25B in renal cell carcinoma development and provide a rationale for investigation of Cdc2B-based gene therapy.

Ning Y, Li Q, Xiang H, et al.
Apoptosis induced by 7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4'-di-n-octyl genistein via the inactivation of FoxM1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(6):1857-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genistein, 5,7,4'-trihydroxylisoflavone, a major component of soybean products, has been reported to possess anticancer activities. We examined the antitumor effects of 7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4'-di-n-octylgenistein (DFOG), a novel synthetic genistein derivative, on human ovarian cancer cells as well as the molecular mechanism. The growth-inhibitory effects of genistein and DFOG were determined using MTT assay and clonogenic assay in CoC1 and SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells. Apoptotic activities of DFOG were observed using histone/DNA ELISA assay and flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) staining. Multiple molecular techniques, such as RT-PCR, western blot analysis, siRNA and cDNA transfection were used to explore the molecular mechanism. We demonstrated that nine of the genistein derivatives had a more effective antitumor activity than genistein. Among the afore-mentioned derivatives, DFOG presented with the strongest activity against CoC1 and SKOV3 cells in vitro. DFOG and genistein inhibited the growth of CoC1 and SKOV3 cells, accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. DFOG caused apoptotic cell death with concomitant attenuation of Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) and its downstream genes, such as survivin, cdc25B, cyclin B, and increased p27KIP1. Downregulation of FoxM1 by siRNA followed by DFOG treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Upregulation of FoxM1 by cDNA transfection attenuated DFOG-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Our results show that the molecular role of FoxM1 in mediating the biological effects of DFOG and genistein in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that FoxM1 could be a novel target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

Xu N, Zhang X, Wang X, et al.
FoxM1 mediated resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012; 33(5):675-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Gefitinib is effective in only approximately 20% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. FoxM1 is upregulated in NSCLC and associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. In this study, we examined the possible role of FoxM1 in gefitinib resistance and the related mechanisms.
METHODS: Gefitinib resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and gefitinib-sensitive human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 were used. mRNA and protein expression of FoxM1 and other factors were tested with quantitative RT PCR and Western blot analysis. RNA interference was performed to suppress FoxM1 expression in SPC-A-1 cells, and lentiviral infection was used to overexpress FoxM1 in H292 cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells.
RESULTS: Treatment of SPC-A-1 cells with gefitinib (1 and 10 μmol/L) upregulated the expression of FoxM1 in time- and concentration-dependent manners, while gefitinib (1 μmol/L) downregulated in H292 cells. In SPC-A-1 cells treated with gefitinib (1 μmol/L), the expression of several downstream targets of FoxM1, including survivin, cyclin B1, SKP2, PLK1, Aurora B kinase and CDC25B, were significantly upregulated. Overexpression of FoxM1 increased the resistance in H292 cells, while attenuated FoxM1 expression restored the sensitivity to gefitinib in SPC-A-1 cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that FoxM1 plays an important role in the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vitro. FoxM1 could be used as a therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to gefitinib.

Wang M, Gartel AL
The suppression of FOXM1 and its targets in breast cancer xenograft tumors by siRNA.
Oncotarget. 2011; 2(12):1218-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As an oncogenic transcription factor, the Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) is overexpressed in human tumors. FOXM1 promotes tumorigenesis by regulating genes associated with cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, and its inhibition in cell lines has been shown to sensitize cells to apoptosis. In this report, we examined the possibility of suppressing FOXM1 in tumors in vivo, through the administration of FoxM1-specific siRNA. Firstly, we determined the functionality of siRNA treatment in subcutaneous MDA-MB-231-luc breast cancer tumors. We found that upon encapsulation into a PEI-based delivery agent, fluorescently-labeled siRNA was retained within tumors when administered intratumorally. Injection of anti-luciferase siRNA was also able to suppress tumor-associated luciferase for at least 48 hours. More importantly, repeat administrations of PEI-encapsulated anti-FoxM1 siRNA resulted in the reduced expression of FOXM1 protein levels in tumors. In addition, both the protein levels and mRNA levels of cdc25B and Aurora B Kinase, transcriptional targets of FOXM1 were also reduced in tumors treated with anti-FoxM1 siRNA. p27, an indirect target of FOXM1 associated with growth inhibition was further found be increased in tumors treated with FoxM1-siRNA. Our data suggests that anti-FoxM1 siRNA can be functional when administered into tumors in an in vivo system, and that anti-FoxM1 siRNA holds potential as part of a therapy for cancer treatment.

Jung Y, Joo KM, Seong DH, et al.
Identification of prognostic biomarkers for glioblastomas using protein expression profiling.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 40(4):1122-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A set of proteins reflecting the prognosis of patients have clinical significance since they could be utilized as predictive biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets. With the aim of finding novel diagnostic and prognostic markers for glioblastoma (GBM), a tissue microarray (TMA) library consisting of 62 GBMs and 28 GBM-associated normal spots was constructed. Immunohistochemistry against 78 GBM-associated proteins was performed. Expression levels of each protein for each patient were analyzed using an image analysis program and converted to H-score [summation of the intensity grade of staining (0-3) multiplied by the percentage of positive cells corresponding to each grade]. Based on H-score and hierarchical clustering methods, we divided the GBMs into two groups (n=19 and 37) that had significantly different survival lengths (p<0.05). In the two groups, expression of nine proteins (survivin, cyclin E, DCC, TGF-β, CDC25B, histone H1, p-EGFR, p-VEGFR2/3, p16) was significantly changed (q<0.05). Prognosis-predicting potential of these proteins were validated with another independent library of 82 GBM TMAs and a public GBM DNA microarray dataset. In addition, we determined 32 aberrant or mislocalized subcellular protein expression patterns in GBMs compared with relatively normal brain tissues, which could be useful for diagnostic biomarkers of GBM. We therefore suggest that these proteins can be used as predictive biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets for GBM.

Nakamura S, Nagata Y, Tan L, et al.
Transcriptional repression of Cdc25B by IER5 inhibits the proliferation of leukemic progenitor cells through NF-YB and p300 in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e28011 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The immediately-early response gene 5 (IER5) has been reported to be induced by γ-ray irradiation and to play a role in the induction of cell death caused by radiation. We previously identified IER5 as one of the 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (TMPP)-induced transcriptional responses in AML cells, using microarrays that encompassed the entire human genome. However, the biochemical pathway and mechanisms of IER5 function in regulation of the cell cycle remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of IER5 in the cell cycle and in cell proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. We found that the over-expression of IER5 in AML cell lines and in AML-derived ALDH(hi) (High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity)/CD34(+) cells inhibited their proliferation compared to control cells, through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and a decrease in Cdc25B expression. Moreover, the over-expression of IER5 reduced colony formation of AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells due to a decrease in Cdc25B expression. In addition, over-expression of Cdc25B restored TMPP inhibitory effects on colony formation in IER5-suppressed AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, the IER5 reduced Cdc25B mRNA expression through direct binding to Cdc25B promoter and mediated its transcriptional attenuation through NF-YB and p300 transcriptinal factors. In summary, we found that transcriptional repression mediated by IER5 regulates Cdc25B expression levels via the release of NF-YB and p300 in AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells, resulting in inhibition of AML progenitor cell proliferation through modulation of cell cycle. Thus, the induction of IER5 expression represents an attractive target for AML therapy.

Liffers ST, Munding JB, Vogt M, et al.
MicroRNA-148a is down-regulated in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and regulates cell survival by targeting CDC25B.
Lab Invest. 2011; 91(10):1472-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs: short non-coding RNAs) are emerging as a class of potential novel tumor markers, as their dysregulation is being increasingly reported in various types of cancers. In the present study, we investigated the transcription status of miRNA-148a (miR-148a) in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its role in the regulation of the dual specificity protein phosphatase CDC25B. We observed that miR-148a exhibited a significant 4-fold down-regulation in PDAC as opposed to normal pancreatic ductal cells. In addition, we observed that stable lentiviral-mediated overexpression of miR-148a in the pancreatic cancer cell line IMIM-PC2, inhibited tumor cell growth and colony formation. Furthermore, CDC25B was identified as a potential target of miR-148a by in silico analysis using PicTar, Targetscan and miRanda in conjunction with gene ontology analysis. The proposed interaction between miR-148a and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of CDC25B was verified by in-vitro luciferase assays. We demonstrate that the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3'UTR of CDC25B was repressed in the presence of miR-148a mimics, confirming that miR-148a targets the 3'UTR of CDC25B. Finally, CDC25B was down-regulated at the protein level in miR-148a overexpressing IMIM-PC2-cells, and in transiently transfected pancreatic cell lines (as detected by Western blot analysis), as well as in patient tumor samples (as detected by immunohistochemistry). In summary, we identified CDC25B as a novel miR-148a target which may confer a proliferative advantage in PDAC.

Bergamaschi A, Christensen BL, Katzenellenbogen BS
Reversal of endocrine resistance in breast cancer: interrelationships among 14-3-3ζ, FOXM1, and a gene signature associated with mitosis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(3):R70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Despite the benefits of estrogen receptor (ER)-targeted endocrine therapies in breast cancer, many tumors develop resistance. 14-3-3 ζ/YWHAZ, a member of the 14-3-3 family of conserved proteins, is over-expressed in several types of cancer, and our previous work showed that high expression of 14-3-3ζ in ER-positive breast cancers was associated with a poor clinical outcome for women on tamoxifen. Therefore, we now probe the role of 14-3-3ζ in endocrine resistance, and we examine the functional dimensions and molecular basis that underlie 14-3-3ζ activities.
METHODS: From analyses of four independent breast cancer microarray datasets from nearly 400 women, we characterized a gene signature that correlated strongly with high expression of 14-3-3ζ in breast tumors and examined its association with breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical-pathological features. We investigated the effects of altering 14-3-3ζ levels in ER-positive, endocrine sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells on the regulation of 14-3-3ζ signature genes, and on cellular signaling pathways and cell phenotypic properties.
RESULTS: The gene signature associated with high 14-3-3ζ levels in breast tumors encompassed many with functions in mitosis and cytokinesis, including aurora kinase-B, polo-like kinase-1, CDC25B, and BIRC5/survivin. The gene signature correlated with early recurrence and risk of metastasis, and was found predominantly in luminal B breast cancers, the more aggressive ER-positive molecular subtype. The expression of the signature genes was significantly decreased or increased upon reduction or overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in ER-positive breast cancer cells, indicating their coregulation. 14-3-3ζ also played a critical role in the regulation of FOXM1, with 14-3-3ζ acting upstream of FOXM1 to regulate cell division-signature genes. Depletion of 14-3-3ζ markedly increased apoptosis, reduced proliferation and receptor tyrosine kinase (HER2 and EGFR) signaling, and, importantly, reversed endocrine resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that 14-3-3ζ is a key predictive marker for risk of failure on endocrine therapy and serves a pivotal role impacting growth factor signaling, and promoting cell survival and resistance to endocrine therapies. Targeting 14-3-3ζ and its coregulated proteins, such as FOXM1, should prove valuable in restoring endocrine sensitivity and reducing risk of breast cancer recurrence.

Albert H, Santos S, Battaglia E, et al.
Differential expression of CDC25 phosphatases splice variants in human breast cancer cells.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011; 49(10):1707-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CDC25 phosphatases control cell cycle progression by activating cyclin dependent kinases. The three CDC25 isoforms encoding genes are submitted to alternative splicing events which generate at least two variants for CDC25A and five for both CDC25B and CDC25C. An over-expression of CDC25 was reported in several types of cancer, including breast cancer, and is often associated with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies did not address the expression of CDC25 splice variants. Here, we evaluated CDC25 spliced transcripts expression in anti-cancerous drug-sensitive and resistant breast cancer cell lines in order to identify potential breast cancer biomarkers.
METHODS: CDC25 splice variants mRNA levels were evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and by an original real-time RT-PCR assay.
RESULTS: CDC25 spliced transcripts are differentially expressed in the breast cancer cell lines studied. An up-regulation of CDC25A2 variant and an increase of the CDC25C5/C1 ratio are associated to the multidrug-resistance in VCREMS and DOXOR breast cancer cells, compared to their sensitive counterpart cell line MCF-7. Additionally, CDC25B2 transcript is exclusively over-expressed in VCREMS resistant cells and could therefore be involved in the development of certain type of drug resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: CDC25 splice variants could represent interesting potential breast cancer prognostic biomarkers.

Zhao W, Zhou SF, Zhang ZP, et al.
Gambogic acid inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(5):1289-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The natural product gambogic acid (GA) has been demonstrated to be a promising chemotherapeutic drug for some cancers because of its ability to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Until now, no studies have looked at the role of GA in osteosarcoma. In this study, we observed the effects of GA on the growth and apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. We found that GA treatment inhibits the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we found that GA induces apoptosis in MG63, HOS and U2OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that GA treatment elevates the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. GA mediated the G0/G1 phase arrest in U2OS cells; this arrest was associated with a decrease in phospho-GSK3-β (Ser9) and the expression of cyclin D1. Similarly, in MG63 cells, GA mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with a decrease in phospho-cdc2 (Thr 161) and cdc25B. Overall, our findings suggest that GA may be an effective anti-osteosarcoma drug because of its capability to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells.

Ji Y, Zhang YC, Pei LB, et al.
Anti-tumor effects of dihydroartemisinin on human osteosarcoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2011; 351(1-2):99-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits antitumor activity against a wide spectrum of cancer cells. However, whether DHA has anti-tumor effect on human osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the anti-tumor activity of DHA and the underlying mechanisms in human osteosarcoma cell lines with different p53 mutation statuses. Four human osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with different concentrations of DHA. Then, cell proliferation was determined by the CCK-8 viability assay; apoptosis and cell cycle progression were evaluated by flow cytometry; protein expression was analyzed by western blot assay; and NF-kB activity was examined by luciferase assay. The results demonstrated that DHA treatment could inhibit the proliferation of four osteosarcoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. P53 wild-type osteosarcoma cells were more sensitive to DHA. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cell and cell arrest in G₂/M phase was increased upon DHA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, DHA activated caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9; upregulated the expression of Bax, FAS, and cyclin D1; downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, Cdc25B, and cyclin B1; and inhibited the activity of NF-кB. In conclusion, DHA has significant anticancer effects against human osteosarcoma cells, which include induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The p53 gene may play a certain role in the DHA-induced human osteosarcoma apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. DHA is a novel anti-osteosarcoma drug candidate that merits further study.

Jia R, Li C, McCoy JP, et al.
SRp20 is a proto-oncogene critical for cell proliferation and tumor induction and maintenance.
Int J Biol Sci. 2010; 6(7):806-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cells display a different profile of gene expression than their normal counterparts. Perturbations in the levels of cellular splicing factors can alter gene expression, potentially leading to tumorigenesis. We found that splicing factor SRp20 (SFRS3) is highly expressed in cancers. SRp20 regulated the expression of Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) and two of its transcriptional targets, PLK1 and Cdc25B, and controlled cell cycle progression and proliferation. Cancer cells with RNAi-mediated reduction of SRp20 expression exhibited G2/M arrest, growth retardation, and apoptosis. Increased SRp20 expression in rodent fibroblasts promoted immortal cell growth and transformation. More importantly, we found that SRp20 promoted tumor induction and the maintenance of tumor growth in nude mice and rendered immortal rodent fibroblasts tumorigenic. Collectively, these results suggest that increased SRp20 expression in tumor cells is a critical step for tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance.

Ma H, Chen J, Pan S, et al.
Potentially functional polymorphisms in cell cycle genes and the survival of non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Lung Cancer. 2011; 73(1):32-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cell cycle governs the proliferation and growth of cells and is strictly controlled by some regulators including cyclins, CDKs and CKIs. Germ-line and somatic mutations in cell cycle genes were frequently observed in a subset of cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we hypothesized that potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cell cycle genes may contribute to the prognosis of NSCLC in China. 54 potentially functional polymorphisms in key cell cycle genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, CDK7, CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CCNA1, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNH, p15, p16, p18, p19, p21, p27, Cdc25A and Cdc25B) were genotyped by using Illumina SNP genotyping platform to evaluate their associations with survival of NSCLC in a clinical cohort of 568 patients. We found that p18 rs3176447 variant genotypes were significantly associated with the decreased risk of death of NSCLC patients (adjusted HR=0.74, 95% CI=0.57-0.97 in an additive model; adjusted HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.55-0.97 in a dominant model); however, p21 rs2395655 variant genotypes were significantly associated with the increased risk of death (adjusted HR=1.21, 95% CI=1.02-1.42 in an additive model; adjusted HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.07-1.78 in a recessive model). Furthermore, the combined effect of unfavorable genotypes for these two SNPs was more prominent in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, late stage and without chemo- or radio-therapy. Although the exact biological function remains to be explored, our findings suggest possible association of polymorphisms of p18 and p21 with the prognosis of NSCLC in a Chinese population. Further large and functional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Reinhardt HC, Hasskamp P, Schmedding I, et al.
DNA damage activates a spatially distinct late cytoplasmic cell-cycle checkpoint network controlled by MK2-mediated RNA stabilization.
Mol Cell. 2010; 40(1):34-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. p53-defective tumor cells rewire their checkpoint response and become dependent on the p38/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage, despite a functional ATR-Chk1 pathway. We used functional genetics to dissect the contributions of Chk1 and MK2 to checkpoint control. We show that nuclear Chk1 activity is essential to establish a G(2)/M checkpoint, while cytoplasmic MK2 activity is critical for prolonged checkpoint maintenance through a process of posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Following DNA damage, the p38/MK2 complex relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm where MK2 phosphorylates hnRNPA0, to stabilize Gadd45α mRNA, while p38 phosphorylates and releases the translational inhibitor TIAR. In addition, MK2 phosphorylates PARN, blocking Gadd45α mRNA degradation. Gadd45α functions within a positive feedback loop, sustaining the MK2-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration of Cdc25B/C to block mitotic entry in the presence of unrepaired DNA damage. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the MK2 pathway in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression as part of the DNA damage response in cancer cells.

Nakamura S, Hirano I, Okinaka K, et al.
The FOXM1 transcriptional factor promotes the proliferation of leukemia cells through modulation of cell cycle progression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(11):2012-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
FOXM1 is an important cell cycle regulator and regulates cell proliferation. In addition, FOXM1 has been reported to contribute to oncogenesis in various cancers. However, it is not clearly understood how FOXM1 contributes to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the cellular and molecular function of FOXM1 in AML cells. The FOXM1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressed in AML cell lines was predominantly the FOXM1B isoform, and its levels were significantly higher than in normal high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi)) cells. Reduction of FOXM1 expression in AML cells inhibited cell proliferation compared with control cells, through induction of G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, a decrease in the protein expression of Aurora kinase B, Survivin, Cyclin B1, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 and Cdc25B and an increase in the protein expression of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). FOXM1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was overexpressed in all 127 AML clinical specimens tested (n = 21, 56, 32 and 18 for M1, M2, M4 and M5 subtypes, respectively). Compared with normal ALDH(hi) cells, FOXM1 gene expression was 1.65- to 2.26-fold higher in AML cells. Moreover, the FOXM1 protein was more strongly expressed in AML-derived ALDH(hi) cells compared with normal ALDH(hi) cells. In addition, depletion of FOXM1 reduced colony formation of AML-derived ALDH(hi) cells due to inhibition of Cdc25B and Cyclin B1 expression. In summary, we found that FOXM1B mRNA is predominantly expressed in AML cells and that aberrant expression of FOXM1 induces AML cell proliferation through modulation of cell cycle progression. Thus, inhibition of FOXM1 expression represents an attractive target for AML therapy.

Karagoz ID, Ozaslan M, Cengiz B, et al.
CDC 25A gene 263C/T, -350C/T, and -51C/G polymorphisms in breast carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2010; 31(6):597-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
The family of cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatase is one of the important regulators of the cell cycle progression. In mammalian cells, three isoforms have been identified: CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. CDC25A is required to enter S time, and the overexpression of this phosphatase accelerates the entrance to S time. CDC25A overexpression could render tumor cells less sensitive to DNA replication checkpoints, thereby contributing to their genomic instability. We aimed to investigate, for the first time, the frequency of human CDC25A gene SNPs in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. Total number of 281 eligible patients with histologically confirmed incident of breast cancer and 137 cancer-free controls were included. The detection of CDC25A gene polymorphisms was achieved with real-time polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. We found that the 263C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer and risk of metastasis. The -350C/T polymorphism in the promoter region of CDC25A gene was found to associate with neither breast cancer nor metastasis. The other promoter polymorphism -51C/G in the CDC25A gene associated with breast cancer but not associated with metastasis. These data suggest that 263C/T and -51C/G polymorphisms of CDC25A gene could be candidate markers for earlier diagnosis and targets for breast cancer therapy.

Lucci MA, Orlandi R, Triulzi T, et al.
Expression profile of tyrosine phosphatases in HER2 breast cancer cells and tumors.
Cell Oncol. 2010; 32(5-6):361-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HER2-overexpression promotes malignancy by modulating signalling molecules, which include PTPs/DSPs (protein tyrosine and dual-specificity phosphatases). Our aim was to identify PTPs/DSPs displaying HER2-associated expression alterations.
METHODS: HER2 activity was modulated in MDA-MB-453 cells and PTPs/DSPs expression was analysed with a DNA oligoarray, by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Two public breast tumor datasets were analysed to identify PTPs/DSPs differentially expressed in HER2-positive tumors.
RESULTS: In cells (1) HER2-inhibition up-regulated 4 PTPs (PTPRA, PTPRK, PTPN11, PTPN18) and 11 DSPs (7 MKPs [MAP Kinase Phosphatases], 2 PTP4, 2 MTMRs [Myotubularin related phosphatases]) and down-regulated 7 DSPs (2 MKPs, 2 MTMRs, CDKN3, PTEN, CDC25C); (2) HER2-activation with EGF affected 10 DSPs (5 MKPs, 2 MTMRs, PTP4A1, CDKN3, CDC25B) and PTPN13; 8 DSPs were found in both groups. Furthermore, 7 PTPs/DSPs displayed also altered protein level. Analysis of 2 breast cancer datasets identified 6 differentially expressed DSPs: DUSP6, strongly up-regulated in both datasets; DUSP10 and CDC25B, up-regulated; PTP4A2, CDC14A and MTMR11 down-regulated in one dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: Several DSPs, mainly MKPs and, unexpectedly, MTMRs, were altered following HER2-modulation in cells and 3 DSPs (DUSP6, CDC25B and MTMR11) were altered in both cells and tumors. Among these, DUSP6, strongly up-regulated in HER2-positive tumors, would deserve further investigation as tumor marker or potential therapy target.

Yamashita Y, Kasugai I, Sato M, et al.
CDC25A mRNA levels significantly correlate with Ki-67 expression in human glioma samples.
J Neurooncol. 2010; 100(1):43-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatases are cell-cycle regulatory proteins which are overexpressed in a significant number of human cancers. This study evaluated the role of CDC25 phosphatases in human glioma proliferation. Upregulation of CDC25A was observed in human glioma specimens and human glioma cell lines. Comparison of expression levels of CDC25A and CDC25B messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) to Ki-67 labeling index in glioma tissues found that Ki-67 labeling index was significantly correlated with the expression of CDC25A, but not with that of CDC25B. Depletion of CDC25A by small interfering RNA and inhibition of CDC25 suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines, indicating that CDC25A is a potential target for the development of new therapy for glioma.

Lavecchia A, Di Giovanni C, Novellino E
Inhibitors of Cdc25 phosphatases as anticancer agents: a patent review.
Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2010; 20(3):405-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: The cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) family of proteins are highly conserved dual specificity phosphatases that regulate cyclin-dependent kinases, the main gatekeepers of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. The three isoforms of Cdc25, including Cdc25A, Cdc25B and Cdc25C, appear to act on different cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes at different stages of the cell cycle. Overexpression of Cdc25A and/or Cdc25B, but not Cdc25C, has been detected in numerous cancers and is often correlated with a poor clinical prognosis. Thus, inhibition of these phosphatases may represent a promising therapeutic approach in oncology.
AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: The main focus of the present review is to describe the development of Cdc25 inhibitors over the years. We describe different compounds according to the decade of discovery and focus attention on molecules that were published in patents.
WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: Insight into the most clinically relevant therapeutic Cdc25 analogues that have been published in over 40 patents over the past 19 years.
TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Some Cdc25 inhibitors have suppressed in vivo the growth of human tumor xenografts in animals; this confirmed the validity of using Cdc25 phosphatase inhibition as an anticancer strategy, but side effects and toxicity remain to be investigated.

Ye F, Che Y, McMillen E, et al.
The effect of Scutellaria baicalensis on the signaling network in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2009; 61(4):530-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Scutellaria baicalensis is an anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic Chinese herbal therapy. We have previously shown that S. baicalensis can inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth in vitro. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of S. baicalensis on the cell signaling network using our newly developed Pathway Array technology, which screens cell signaling pathways involved in cell cycle regulation. The HCC cell line (HepG2) was treated with S. baicalensis extract in vitro. The effect on the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of various signaling proteins was assayed with Pathway Array. Our results indicate that S. baicalensis exerts a strong growth inhibition of the HepG2 cells via G(2)/M phase arrest. The Pathway Array analysis of 56 proteins revealed a total of 14 differentially expressed proteins or phosphorylations after treatment. Of these, 9 showed a dose-dependent decrease (p53, ETS1, Cdc25B, p63, EGFR, ERK1/2, XIAP, HIF-2alpha, and Cdc25C) whereas one demonstrated a dose-dependent increase (Cyclin E) after treatment with 200 microg/ml of S. baicalensis. Using computer simulation software, we identified additional hubs in the signaling network activated by S. baicalensis. These results indicate that S. baicalensis exerts a broad effect on cell signaling networks leading to a collective inhibition of cell proliferation.

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