Gene Summary

Gene:CDC25B; cell division cycle 25B
Summary:CDC25B is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25B activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. CDC25B shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm due to nuclear localization and nuclear export signals. The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. CDC25B has oncogenic properties, although its role in tumor formation has not been determined. Multiple transcript variants for this gene exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:M-phase inducer phosphatase 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC25B (cancer-related)

Xie D, Liang Y, Su Y, et al.
miR-152 inhibits proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells via inducing G2/M phase arrest by suppressing CDC25B expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 99:299-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNA-152 (miR-152) is a tumor suppressor that is down-regulated in many cancers including endometrial cancer (EC). However, the underlying mechanism of action of miR-152 in EC is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of miR-152 on proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells. Herein, we found that miR-152 overexpression and CDC25B knockdown inhibited proliferative ability and induced G2/M phase arrest in KLE and HEC-1B cells. CDC25B was a target of miR-152. In addition, CDC25B overexpression rescued miR-152-induced proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest in human endometrial cancer cells. The results indicated that miR-152 was a tumor suppressor in EC that inhibited proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells via inducing G2/M phase arrest by suppressing CDC25B expression.

Doerr F, George J, Schmitt A, et al.
Targeting a non-oncogene addiction to the ATR/CHK1 axis for the treatment of small cell lung cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a difficult to treat subtype of lung cancer. One of the hallmarks of SCLC is its almost uniform chemotherapy sensitivity. However, chemotherapy response is typically transient and patients frequently succumb to SCLC within a year following diagnosis. We performed a transcriptome analysis of the major human lung cancer entities. We show a significant overexpression of genes involved in the DNA damage response, specifically in SCLC. Particularly CHEK1, which encodes for the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHK1, is significantly overexpressed in SCLC, compared to lung adenocarcinoma. In line with uncontrolled cell cycle progression in SCLC, we find that CDC25A, B and C mRNAs are expressed at significantly higher levels in SCLC, compared to lung adenocarcinoma. We next profiled the efficacy of compounds targeting CHK1 and ATR. Both, ATR- and CHK1 inhibitors induce genotoxic damage and apoptosis in human and murine SCLC cell lines, but not in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We further demonstrate that murine SCLC tumors were highly sensitive to ATR- and CHK1 inhibitors, while Kras

Wang M, Wang L, Zhang M, et al.
MiR-214 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting CDC25B.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:1678-1683 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of microRNA(miRNAs) expression was reported in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MiR-214 has been found to acts as a tumor suppressor in some tumors including ESCC. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional effect of miR-214 on the regulation of human ESCC progression.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-214 in 57 paired human ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were examined by qRT-PCR. The capacities of cell proliferation and invasion were determined after up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-214 by performing cell viability assay, colony formation assay and transwell assay. Dual luciferase assays, Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR assay were used to demonstrate the association between CDC25B and miR-214. Western blot analysis assessed relative CDC25B protein expression.
RESULTS: We observed that miR-214 expression exhibited a frequent down-regulation in ESCC tissues and cells, compared to adjacent normal tissues and cells, respectively. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-214 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and cell invasion capacities in Eca9706 and Eca109 cells. However, down-regulation of miR-214 exhibited an opposite effects. Dual luciferase assays showed that CDC25B was identified as a direct target of miR-214. Meanwhile, up-regulation of miR-214 decreased CDC25B expression, whereas, down-regulation of miR-214 increased the CDC25B expression in Eca9706 and Eca109 cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-214 inhibited Eca9706 and Eca109 cells proliferation and invasion through CDC25B.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that miR-214 function as a tumor suppressor and may be potential therapeutic target for ESCC.

Zhong Y, Yang J, Xu WW, et al.
KCTD12 promotes tumorigenesis by facilitating CDC25B/CDK1/Aurora A-dependent G2/M transition.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(44):6177-6189 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell cycle dysregulation leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle progression can provide clues leading to the identification of key proteins involved in cancer development. In this study, we performed proteomics analysis to identify novel regulators of the cell cycle. We found that potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 12 (KCTD12) was significantly upregulated in M phase compared with S phase. We also found that KCTD12 overexpression not only facilitated the G2/M transition and induced cancer cell proliferation, but also promoted the growth of subcutaneous tumors and Ki-67 proliferation index in mice. Regarding the mechanism underlying these phenomena, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was identified as an interacting partner of KCTD12 by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, which showed that KCTD12 activated CDK1 and Aurora kinase A (Aurora A) and that the effects of KCTD12 on CDK1 phosphorylation and cell proliferation were abrogated by cell division cycle 25B (CDC25B) silencing. In addition, Aurora A phosphorylated KCTD12 at serine 243, thereby initiating a positive feedback loop necessary for KCTD12 to exert its cancer-promoting effects. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression levels of various genes and the correlations between the expression of these genes and survival using tumor tissue microarray and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data sets. The data showed that KCTD12 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical and lung cancers. More importantly, high KCTD12 expression was associated with larger tumor sizes, higher pathological stages and poor patient survival. Collectively, our study demonstrate that KCTD12 binds to CDC25B and activates CDK1 and Aurora A to facilitate the G2/M transition and promote tumorigenesis and that Aurora A phosphorylates KCTD12 at serine 243 to trigger a positive feedback loop, thereby potentiating the effects of KCTD12. Thus, the KCTD12-CDC25B-CDK1-Aurora A axis has important implications for cancer diagnoses and prognoses.

Zhang Z, Rui W, Wang ZC, et al.
Anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effect of barbaloin in non-small cell lung cancer via inactivating p38MAPK/Cdc25B/Hsp27 pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(2):1172-1180 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer with high morbidity and mortality. The traditional treatment for NSCLC is particularly liable to relapse with many side-effects. Barbaloin is a natural compound with anticancer efficacy. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer potential of barbaloin in NSCLC. The results displayed that barbaloin inhibited the viability of A549 cells by decreasing cell growth and the expression level of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), especially at high concentrations (50 and 100 µM). Besides, barbaloin increased the apoptosis rate of A549 cells and induced an accumulation of G2/M phase. Increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, -8 and -9) and the changed levels of cell cycle checkpoint proteins (p27, p53 and cyclin A) further convinced of the anti-viability effect of barbaloin in A549 cells. On the other hand, barbaloin significantly suppressed the invasion and migration of A549 cells, and restrained the expression of tumor metastasis-related proteins. We further explored the activation of pro-survival or pro-metastasis signaling pathways, including AKT, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK) and β-catenin. The results revealed that barbaloin inactivated the p38MAPK/Cdc25B/Hsp27 pathway by inhibiting p38 nucleus translocation, while no significant influence was observed among other pathways. Finally, barbaloin restrained the growth and hepatic metastases of A549 cells in vivo. Taken together, our research indicated that barbaloin inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vivo and in vitro. This may provide safer and more effective aspects for the treatment of NSCLC.

Leal MF, Ribeiro HF, Rey JA, et al.
YWHAE silencing induces cell proliferation, invasion and migration through the up-regulation of CDC25B and MYC in gastric cancer cells: new insights about YWHAE role in the tumor development and metastasis process.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(51):85393-85410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously observed reduced YWHAE (14-3-3ε) protein expression in a small set of gastric cancer samples. YWHAE may act as a negative regulator of the cyclin CDC25B, which is a transcriptional target of MYC oncogene. The understanding of YWHAE role and its targets is important for the better knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the relationship among YWHAE, CDC25B, and MYC in vitro and in vivo. For this, we analyzed the YWHAE, CDC25B, and MYC expression in YWHA-silenced, CDC25B-silenced, and MYC-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, as well as in gastric cancer and non-neoplastic gastric samples. In gastric cancer cell lines, YWHAE was able to inhibit the cell proliferation, invasion and migration through the reduction of MYC and CDC25B expression. Conversely, MYC induced the cell proliferation, invasion and migration through the induction of CDC25B and the reduction of YWHAE. Most of the tumors presented reduced YWHAE and increased CDC25B expression, which seems to be important for tumor development. Increased MYC expression was a common finding in gastric cancer and has a role in poor prognosis. In the tumor initiation, the opposite role of YWHAE and CDC25B in gastric carcinogenesis seems to be independent of MYC expression. However, the inversely correlation between YWHAE and MYC expression seems to be important for gastric cancer cells invasion and migration. The interaction between YWHAE and MYC and the activation of the pathways related to this interaction play a role in the metastasis process.

Agatheeswaran S, Pattnayak NC, Chakraborty S
Identification and functional characterization of the miRNA-gene regulatory network in chronic myeloid leukemia lineage negative cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32493 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is maintained by leukemic stem cells (LSCs) which are resistant to the existing TKI therapy. Hence a better understanding of the CML LSCs is necessary to eradicate these cells and achieve complete cure. Using the miRNA-gene interaction networks from the CML lin(-) cells we identified a set of up/down-regulated miRNAs and corresponding target genes. Association studies (Pearson correlation) from the miRNA and gene expression data showed that miR-1469 and miR-1972 have significantly higher number of target genes, 75 and 50 respectively. We observed that miR-1972 induces G2-M cell cycle arrest and miR-1469 moderately arrested G1 cell cycle when overexpressed in KCL22 cells. We have earlier shown that a combination of imatinib and JAK inhibitor I can significantly bring down the proliferation of CML lineage negative cells. Here we observed that imatinib and JAK inhibitor I combination restored the expression pattern of the down-regulated miRNAs in primary CML lin(-) cells. Thus effective manipulation of the deregulated miRNAs can restore the miRNA-mRNA networks that can efficiently inhibit CML stem and progenitor cells and alleviate the disease.

Zhao S, Chen SR, Yang XF, et al.
BTG1 might be employed as a biomarker for carcinogenesis and a target for gene therapy in colorectal cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):7502-7520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here, BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, induced differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (p<0.05). BTG1 overexpression reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and caused senescence in HCT-116 transfectants (p<0.05). BTG1-induced G2 arrest might be related to Cyclin B1 and Cdc25B hypoexpression in HCT-15 transfectants, while G1 arrest in HCT-116 transfectants overexpressing p21 and p27. BTG1 overexpression decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, Akt1 or survivin and increased the expression of Bax or p53 in colorectal cancer cells. BTG1-induced autophagy was dependent on Beclin-1 expression. BTG1 overexpression might weaken β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer cells. The chemosensitivity of BTG1 transfectants to paclitaxel, cisplatin, MG132 or SAHA was positively correlated with its apoptotic induction. There was a lower expression level of BTG1 in cancer than matched non-neoplastic mucosa by RT-PCR (p<0.05), while versa for Western blot and immunohistochemical data (p<0.05). BTG1 overexpression significantly suppressed the growth of HCT-15 and HCT-116 via inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy in nude mice. Up-regulated BTG1 expression plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis as a potential biomarker. BTG1 expression might reverse aggressive phenotypes, so it might be employed as a target of gene therapy for colorectal cancer.

Zhang W, Chen JH, Aguilera-Barrantes I, et al.
Urolithin A suppresses the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells by mediating estrogen receptor-α-dependent gene expression.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016; 60(11):2387-2395 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SCOPE: Obese and overweight women are at high risk of developing endometrial cancer; indeed, many of endometrial cancer patients are obese. The increased number and size of adipocytes due to obesity elevate levels of circulating estrogens that stimulate cell proliferation in the endometrium. However, black raspberries are a promising approach to preventing endometrial cancer.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 17 black raspberry constituents and metabolites (10 μM or 10 μg/mL, 48 h) for their ability to prevent endometrial cancer cells from proliferating. Urolithin A (UA) was most able to suppress proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). It arrested the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by upregulating cyclin-B1, cyclin-E2, p21, phospho-cdc2, and CDC25B. UA also acted as an estrogen agonist by modulating estrogen receptor-α (ERα) dependent gene expression in ER-positive endometrial cancer cells. UA enhanced the expression of ERβ, PGR, pS2, GREB1 while inhibiting the expression of ERα and GRIP1. Coincubating UA-treated cells with the estrogen antagonist ICI182,780 abolished UA's estrogenic effects. Knocking down ERα suppressed PGR, pS2, and GREB gene expression but increased GRIP1 expression. Thus, UA's actions appear to be mediated through ERα.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that UA modulates ERα-dependent gene expression, thereby inhibiting endometrial cancer proliferation.

Chen X, Wu R, Wang S, et al.
RNA-Seq analysis for the potential targets and molecular mechanisms of 17 β-estradiol in squamous cell lung carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(3):394-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
The efficacy of 17 β-estradiol (E2) was valid in some cancers, while its effects on squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) were still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential targets and molecular mechanisms of E2 in SCLC cells.Two RNA libraries from human lung carcinoma cells (SK-MES-1) with and without E2 treatment were constructed and sequenced. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between cells with or without E2 treatment were identified by cuffdiff software. Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) was performed for displaying gene expression changes and classification. Furthermore, enrichment analyses of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO BP) terms were performed through DAVID. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed through STRING. Additionally, differentially expressed lncRNAs were also selected by cuffdiff software.Total 129 DEGs including 58 up- and 71 down- regulated genes were obtained. Cancer-related pathways including small cell lung cancer, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and pathways in cancer and biological processes including regulation of phosphorus metabolic process, protein localization and nucleus organization were enriched. The PPI network with 113 nodes and 312 edges was constructed. CASP3, ITGA2, COL4A6, PML and CDC25B were identified as hub nodes which had more interactions with others in the PPI network. Furthermore, eight up-regulated and ten down-regulated lncRNAs were selected.CASP3, ITGA2 and Lnc-DLK1-4:31 (one of down-regulated lncRNAs) might play pivotal roles in E2 treated SCNC cells by influencing cell apoptosis, angiogenesis and cell invasion respectively.

Li LQ, Pan D, Chen H, et al.
F-box protein FBXL2 inhibits gastric cancer proliferation by ubiquitin-mediated degradation of forkhead box M1.
FEBS Lett. 2016; 590(4):445-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
F-box/LRR-repeat protein 2 (FBXL2), a component of Skp-Cullin-F box (SCF) ubiquitin E3 ligase, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis by targeting and ubiquitinating several oncoproteins. However, its role in gastric cancer remains poorly understood. Here, by tandem mass spectrometry, we show that FBXL2 interacts with forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor. As a result, FBXL2 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of FoxM1 in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXL2 inhibits, while its deficiency promotes cell proliferation and invasion. Expression levels of cell-cycle regulators (Cdc25B and p27), which are down-stream target effectors of FoxM1, are also regulated by FBXL2. Therefore, our results uncover a previous unknown network involving FBXL2 and FoxM1 in the regulation of gastric cancer growth.

Minorics R, Bózsity N, Molnár J, et al.
A molecular understanding of D-homoestrone-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells.
J Cell Mol Med. 2015; 19(10):2365-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
2-Methoxyestradiol (ME), one of the most widely investigated A-ring-modified metabolites of estrone, exerts significant anticancer activity on numerous cancer cell lines. Its pharmacological actions, including cell cycle arrest, microtubule disruption and pro-apoptotic activity, have already been described in detail. The currently tested D-ring-modified analogue of estrone, D-homoestrone, selectively inhibits cervical cancer cell proliferation and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle blockade, resulting in the development of apoptosis. The question arose of whether the difference in the chemical structures of these analogues can influence the mechanism of anticancer action. The aim of the present study was therefore to elucidate the molecular contributors of intracellular processes induced by D-homoestrone in HeLa cells. Apoptosis triggered by D-homoestrone develops through activation of the intrinsic pathway, as demonstrated by determination of the activities of caspase-8 and -9. It was revealed that D-homoestrone-treated HeLa cells are not able to enter mitosis because the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B complex loses its activity, resulting in the decreased inactivation of stathmin and a concomitant disturbance of microtubule formation. However, unlike 2-ME, D-homoestrone does not exert a direct effect on tubulin polymerization. These results led to the conclusion that the D-homoestrone-triggered intracellular processes resulting in a cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells differ from those in the case of 2-ME. This may be regarded as an alternative mechanism of action among steroidal anticancer compounds.

Niu M, Cai W, Liu H, et al.
Plumbagin inhibits growth of gliomas in vivo via suppression of FOXM1 expression.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 128(3):131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plumbagin is a natural compound that is isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. Based on a previous in vitro study performed by our group, which demonstrated the effectiveness of plumbagin against glioma cells, we further ascertained whether plumbagin exhibits the same effectiveness against glioma cell xenografts in nude mice. Our results revealed that tumor volume was reduced by 54.48% in the plumbagin-treated group compared with the controls. Furthermore, there were no obvious signs of toxicity as assessed by the organ sizes and cell morphologies of the mice that were treated with plumbagin. Immunofluorescence assays further revealed that plumbagin significantly inhibited glioma cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Importantly, we also determined that the expressions of FOXM1 and its downstream target effectors, including cyclin D1 and Cdc25B, were down-regulated in the treated group, while the expressions of p21 and p27 were increased; the latter findings corroborate the results of our previous in vitro study. Taken together, these findings indicate that plumbagin may be a natural downregulator of FOXM1 with potential therapeutic effectiveness for the treatment of gliomas.

Garcia PL, Miller AL, Kreitzburg KM, et al.
The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 suppresses growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in patient-derived xenograft models.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(7):833-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient-derived xenograft (tumorgraft) models. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether JQ1 decreases expression of the oncogene c-Myc in PDAC tumors, as has been reported for other tumor types. We used five PDAC tumorgraft models that retain specific characteristics of tumors of origin to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of JQ1. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with JQ1 (50 mg/kg daily for 21 or 28 days). Expression analyses were performed with tumors harvested from host mice after treatment with JQ1 or vehicle control. An nCounter PanCancer Pathways Panel (NanoString Technologies) of 230 cancer-related genes was used to identify gene products affected by JQ1. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblots were carried out to confirm that changes in RNA expression reflected changes in protein expression. JQ1 inhibited the growth of all five tumorgraft models (P<0.05), each of which harbors a KRAS mutation; but induced no consistent change in expression of c-Myc protein. Expression profiling identified CDC25B, a regulator of cell cycle progression, as one of the three RNA species (TIMP3, LMO2 and CDC25B) downregulated by JQ1 (P<0.05). Inhibition of tumor progression was more closely related to decreased expression of nuclear CDC25B than to changes in c-Myc expression. JQ1 and other agents that inhibit the function of proteins with bromodomains merit further investigation for treating PDAC tumors. Work is ongoing in our laboratory to identify effective drug combinations that include JQ1.

Hsu TI, Chen YJ, Hung CY, et al.
A novel derivative of betulinic acid, SYK023, suppresses lung cancer growth and malignancy.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(15):13671-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Herein, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanisms of a novel betulinic acid (BA) derivative, SYK023, by using two mouse models of lung cancer driven by KrasG12D or EGFRL858R. We found that SYK023 inhibits lung tumor proliferation, without side effects in vivo or cytotoxicity in primary lung cells in vitro. SYK023 triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Blockage of ER stress in SYK023-treated cells inhibited SYK023-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that the expression of cell cycle-related genes, including cyclin A2, B1, D3, CDC25a, and CDC25b decreased but, while those of p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and p21CIP1 increased following SYK023 treatment. Finally, low doses of SYK023 significantly decreased lung cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Expression of several genes related to cell migration, including synaptopodin, were downregulated by SYK023, thereby impairing F-actin polymerization and metastasis. Therefore, SYK023 may be a potentially therapeutic treatment for metastatic lung cancer.

Chan-On W, Huyen NT, Songtawee N, et al.
Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015; 9:2033-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fork head box M1 (FoxM1) is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently elevated in numerous cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A growing body of evidence documents its diverse functions contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As such, discovery of agents that can target FoxM1 would be valuable for the treatment of CCA. The quinoline-based compounds, namely clioquinol (CQ) and nitroxoline (NQ), represent a new class of anticancer drug. However, their efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in CCA. In this study, anticancer activities and inhibitory effects of CQ and NQ on FoxM1 signaling were explored using CCA cells.
METHODS: The effects of CQ and NQ on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay). Colony formation and cell migration affected by CQ and NQ were investigated using a clonogenic and a wound healing assay, respectively. To demonstrate the agents' effects on FoxM1 signaling, expression levels of the target genes were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: CQ and NQ significantly inhibited cell survival of HuCCT1 and Huh28 in a dose- and a time-dependent fashion. Further investigations using the rapidly proliferating HuCCT1 cells revealed significant suppression of cell proliferation and colony formation induced by low doses of the compounds. Treatment of CQ and NQ repressed expression of cyclin D1 but enhanced expression of p21. Most importantly, upon CQ and NQ treatment, expression of oncogenic FoxM1 was markedly decreased concomitant with downregulation of various FoxM1's downstream targets including cdc25b, CENP-B, and survivin. In addition, the compounds distinctly impaired HuCCT1 migration as well as inhibited expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, this study reports for the first time the anticancer effects of CQ and NQ against CCA cells, and highlights new insights into the mechanism of actions of the quinoline-based compounds to disrupt FoxM1 signaling.

Song GQ, Zhao Y
MicroRNA-211, a direct negative regulator of CDC25B expression, inhibits triple-negative breast cancer cells' growth and migration.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5001-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been associated with initiation and progression of oncogenesis in humans. The abnormal expression of CDC25B phosphatases detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. Using miRNA target prediction software, we found that miR-211 could target the 3'UTR sequence of CDC25B. To shed light on their roles of miR-211 in breast cancer, the expression of miR-211 was examined by real-time RT-PCR in breast cancer and normal tissues. MiR-211 is significantly downregulated in breast cancer. MiR-211 re-expression suppressed cell growth, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB231. Luciferase expression from a reporter vector containing the CDC25B -3'UTR was decreased when this construct was transfected with miR-211. The over-expression of miR-211 suppressed the endogenous CDC25B protein level in TNBC cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that miRNA-211 is a direct negative regulator of CDC25B expression in TNBC cells, alters other related target proteins CCNB1 and FOXM1, and then inhibits breast cancer cells growth, migration, and invasion and lead G2/M arrest. The transcriptional loss of miR-211 and the resultant increase in CDC25B expression facilitate increased genomic instability at an early stage of tumor development.

Weber HL, Gidekel M, Werbajh S, et al.
A Novel CDC25B Promoter-Based Oncolytic Adenovirus Inhibited Growth of Orthotopic Human Pancreatic Tumors in Different Preclinical Models.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(7):1665-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We decided to construct a novel oncolytic adenovirus whose replication was driven by the CDC25B promoter for its use in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We placed the essential E1A gene under control of the CDC25B promoter. Based on preliminary data, we pseudotyped the adenovirus with a chimeric fiber of serotypes 5/3. We investigated the in vitro lytic effect and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy in combination with gemcitabine on human pancreatic tumor xenografts orthotopically growing in nude mice and in tumors growing in Syrian hamsters. We also assessed biochemical markers of hepatic toxicity and CA19.9 levels.
RESULTS: AV25CDC exhibited a strong in vitro lytic effect on pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo administration of AV25CDC combined with gemcitabine in mice harboring subcutaneously growing SW1990 pancreatic tumors almost abrogated tumor growth. Nude mice harboring 15-day-old orthotopic tumors, treated intratumorally or systemically with AV25CDC combined with gemcitabine, exhibited 70% to 80% reduction in tumor size compared with control mice that lasted for at least 60 days. Chemovirotherapy treatment induced a return to normal levels of biochemical parameters of hepatic toxicity; these mice exhibited more than 90% reduction in CA19.9 serum levels compared with control. Chemovirotherapy efficacy was confirmed in mice harboring Mia PaCa-2 tumors and in Syrian hamster harboring HaP-T1 tumors. We observed that viral treatment disrupted tumor architecture and induced an increase in MMP-9 activity that might facilitate gemcitabine penetrability.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that AV25CDC is an effective oncolytic agent candidate for pancreatic cancer chemovirotherapy combination.

Liu X, Cai W, Niu M, et al.
Plumbagin induces growth inhibition of human glioma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of FOXM1.
J Neurooncol. 2015; 121(3):469-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plumbagin, a natural quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L, has exhibited anti-tumor and anti-proliferative activities in various tumor cell lines as well as in animal tumor models. However, its anticancer effects and the mechanisms underlying its suppression of glioma cell growth have not been elucidated. Oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) has garnered particular interest in recent years as a potential target for the prevention and/or therapeutic intervention in glioma, nevertheless, less information is currently available regarding FOXM1 inhibitor. Here, we reported that plumbagin could effectively inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. Cell cycle assay showed that plumbagin induced G2/M arrest. Interestingly, we found that plumbagin decreased the expression of FOXM1 both at mRNA level and protein level. Plumbagin also inhibited the transactivation ability of FOXM1, resulting in down-regulating the expression of FOXM1 downstream target genes, such as cyclin D1, Cdc25B, survivin, and increasing the expression of p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). Most importantly, down-regulation of FOXM1 by siFOXM1 transfection enhanced plumbagin-induced change in viability. On the contrary, over-expression of FOXM1 by cDNA transfection reduced plumbagin-induced glioma cell growth inhibition. These results suggest that plumbagin exhibits its anticancer activity partially by inactivation of FOXM1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Our findings indicate that plumbagin may be considered as a potential natural FOXM1 inhibitor, which could contribute to the development of new anticancer agent for therapy of gliomas.

Li YC, Kim BH, Cho SC, et al.
6,7-di-O-acetylsinococuline (FK-3000) induces G2/M phase arrest in breast carcinomas through p38 MAPK phosphorylation and CDC25B dephosphorylation.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(2):578-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated the cytostatic effect of 6,7-di-O-acetyl-sinococuline (FK-3000) isolated from Stephania delavayi Diels. against breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB‑231 and MCF-7. FK-3000 suppressed CDC25B phosphorylation directly and indirectly via p38 MAPK phosphorylation. CDC25B dephosphorylation decreased levels of cyclin B and phospho-CDC-2, and ultimately induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB 239063 blocked FK-3000-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, but did not completely rescue cell death. Conclusively FK-3000 exerts its antiproliferative effect through two pathways: i) G2/M cell cycle arrest via downregulation of cyclin B and phospho-CDC2 by p38 MAPK phosphorylation and CDC25B dephosphorylation, and ii) p38 MAPK-independent induction of apoptosis.

Cheng XH, Black M, Ustiyan V, et al.
SPDEF inhibits prostate carcinogenesis by disrupting a positive feedback loop in regulation of the Foxm1 oncogene.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(9):e1004656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SAM-pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) is expressed in normal prostate epithelium. While its expression changes during prostate carcinogenesis (PCa), the role of SPDEF in prostate cancer remains controversial due to the lack of genetic mouse models. In present study, we generated transgenic mice with the loss- or gain-of-function of SPDEF in prostate epithelium to demonstrate that SPDEF functions as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Loss of SPDEF increased cancer progression and tumor cell proliferation, whereas over-expression of SPDEF in prostate epithelium inhibited carcinogenesis and reduced tumor cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic over-expression of SPDEF inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Foxm1, a transcription factor critical for tumor cell proliferation, and reduced expression of Foxm1 target genes, including Cdc25b, Cyclin B1, Cyclin A2, Plk-1, AuroraB, CKS1 and Topo2alpha. Deletion of SPDEF in transgenic mice and cultures prostate tumor cells increased expression of Foxm1 and its target genes. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between SPDEF and Foxm1 levels was found in human prostate cancers. The two-gene signature of low SPDEF and high FoxM1 predicted poor survival in prostate cancer patients. Mechanistically, SPDEF bound to, and inhibited transcriptional activity of Foxm1 promoter by interfering with the ability of Foxm1 to activate its own promoter through auto-regulatory site located in the -745/-660 bp Foxm1 promoter region. Re-expression of Foxm1 restored cellular proliferation in the SPDEF-positive cancer cells and rescued progression of SPDEF-positive tumors in mouse prostates. Altogether, SPDEF inhibits prostate carcinogenesis by preventing Foxm1-regulated proliferation of prostate tumor cells. The present study identified novel crosstalk between SPDEF tumor suppressor and Foxm1 oncogene and demonstrated that this crosstalk is required for tumor cell proliferation during progression of prostate cancer in vivo.

Zhang JR, Lu F, Lu T, et al.
Inactivation of FoxM1 transcription factor contributes to curcumin-induced inhibition of survival, angiogenesis, and chemosensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2014; 92(12):1319-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aberrant expression of forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) contributes to carcinogenesis in human cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that the discovery of specific agents targeting FoxM1 would be extremely valuable for the treatment of AML. Curcumin, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, is suggested to possess anti-leukemic activity; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that curcumin inhibited cell survival accompanied by induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HL60, Kasumi, NB4, and KG1 cells. This was associated with concomitant attenuation of FoxM1 and its downstream genes, such as cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, Cdc25B, survivin, Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as the reduction of the angiogenic effect of AML cells. We also found that specific downregulation of FoxM1 by siRNA prior to curcumin treatment resulted in enhanced cell survival inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, FoxM1 siRNA increased the susceptibility of AML cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. More importantly, curcumin suppressed FoxM1 expression, selectively inhibited cell survival as well as the combination of curcumin and doxorubicin exhibited a more inhibitory effect in primary CD34(+) AML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors. These results identify a novel role for FoxM1 in mediating the biological effects of curcumin in human AML cells. Our data provide the first evidence that curcumin together with chemotherapy or FoxM1 targeting agents may be effective strategies for the treatment of AML.
KEY MESSAGE: Curcumin inhibited AML cell survival and angiogenesis and induced chemosensitivity. Aberrant expression of FoxM1 induces AML cell survival and chemoresistance. Inactivation of FoxM1 contributes to curcumin-induced anti-leukemic effects. Curcumin together with FoxM1 targeting agents may be effective for AML therapy.

Lee J, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.
Nanostring-based multigene assay to predict recurrence for gastric cancer patients after surgery.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N=432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N=186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N=216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N=300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N=216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence=3.16, p=0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio=1.77, p=0.0053).

Reikvam H, Tamburini J, Skrede S, et al.
Antileukaemic effect of PI3K-mTOR inhibitors in acute myeloid leukaemia-gene expression profiles reveal CDC25B expression as determinate of pharmacological effect.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 164(2):200-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy. Intracellular signalling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for regulation of cellular growth and metabolism, and inhibitors of this pathway is considered for AML treatment. Primary human AML cells, derived from 96 consecutive adult patients, were examined. The effects of two mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, temsirolimus) and two PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941, 3-methyladenine) were studied, and we investigated cytokine-dependent proliferation, regulation of apoptosis and global gene expression profiles. Only a subset of patients demonstrated strong antiproliferative effects of PI3K-mTOR inhibitors. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified two main clusters of patients; one subset showing weak or absent antiproliferative effects (59%) and another group showing a strong growth inhibition for all drugs and concentrations examined (41%). Global gene expression analyses showed that patients with AML cell resistance against PI3K-mTOR inhibitors showed increased mRNA expression of the CDC25B gene that encodes the cell cycle regulator Cell Division Cycle 25B. The antileukaemic effect of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibition varies between patients, and resistance to these inhibitors is associated with the expression of the cell cycle regulator CDC25B, which is known to crosstalk with the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and mediate rapamycin resistance in experimental models.

Tian T, Li J, Li B, et al.
Genistein exhibits anti-cancer effects via down-regulating FoxM1 in H446 small-cell lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4137-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genistein, a major isoflavone constituent in soybeans, has been reported to exhibit multiple anti-tumor effects, such as inducing cell cycle arrest, triggering apoptosis, and inactivating critical signaling pathways in a few human cancer cells. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of genistein on the small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line H446 and the underlying molecular mechanisms. H446 cells were treated with various concentrations of genistein, and experiments including CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry analysis, wound healing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot analysis, and plasmid transfection were used to investigate the influence of genistein on cell proliferation, migration ability, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, as well as the mRNA and protein alterations of FoxM1 pathway molecules. We found that genistein significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of H446 cell, accompanied by apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, genistein enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of cisplatin on H446 cells. Importantly, genistein led to attenuation of the FoxM1 protein and down-regulated a series of FoxM1 target genes regulating cell cycle and apoptosis including Cdc25B, cyclin B1, and survivin. In addition, up-regulation of FoxM1 by cDNA transfection prior to genistein treatment could reduce genistein-induced H446 proliferation inhibition. Thus, for the first time, we demonstrated that genistein exerted multiple anti-tumor effects in H446 SCLC cell line at least partly mediated by the down-regulation of FoxM1. FoxM1 has the potential as a novel therapeutic agent in SCLC and is worthy of further study.

Cai Y, Balli D, Ustiyan V, et al.
Foxm1 expression in prostate epithelial cells is essential for prostate carcinogenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(31):22527-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) remains a challenge. Identification of new molecular mechanisms that regulate PCa initiation and progression would provide targets for the development of new cancer treatments. The Foxm1 transcription factor is highly up-regulated in tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and cells of tumor microenvironment. However, its functions in different cell populations of PCa lesions are unknown. To determine the role of Foxm1 in tumor cells during PCa development, we generated two novel transgenic mouse models, one exhibiting Foxm1 gain-of-function and one exhibiting Foxm1 loss-of-function under control of the prostate epithelial-specific Probasin promoter. In the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of PCa that uses SV40 large T antigen to induce PCa, loss of Foxm1 decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Decreased prostate tumorigenesis was associated with a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and the down-regulation of genes critical for cell proliferation and tumor metastasis, including Cdc25b, Cyclin B1, Plk-1, Lox, and Versican. In addition, tumor-associated angiogenesis was decreased, coinciding with reduced Vegf-A expression. The mRNA and protein levels of 11β-Hsd2, an enzyme playing an important role in tumor cell proliferation, were down-regulated in Foxm1-deficient PCa tumors in vivo and in Foxm1-depleted TRAMP C2 cells in vitro. Foxm1 bound to, and increased transcriptional activity of, the mouse 11β-Hsd2 promoter through the -892/-879 region, indicating that 11β-Hsd2 was a direct transcriptional target of Foxm1. Without TRAMP, overexpression of Foxm1 either alone or in combination with inhibition of a p19(ARF) tumor suppressor caused a robust epithelial hyperplasia, but was insufficient to induce progression from hyperplasia to PCa. Foxm1 expression in prostate epithelial cells is critical for prostate carcinogenesis, suggesting that inhibition of Foxm1 is a promising therapeutic approach for prostate cancer chemotherapy.

Dai B, Gong A, Jing Z, et al.
Forkhead box M1 is regulated by heat shock factor 1 and promotes glioma cells survival under heat shock stress.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(3):1634-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G(2)-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance.

He J, Wu J, Xu N, et al.
MiR-210 disturbs mitotic progression through regulating a group of mitosis-related genes.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41(1):498-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-210 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types but its function is disputable and further investigation is necessary. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified the putative target genes of miR-210 in hypoxia-induced CNE cells from genome-wide scale. Two functional gene groups related to cell cycle and RNA processing were recognized as the major targets of miR-210. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and biological consequence of miR-210 in cell cycle regulation, particularly mitosis. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of miR-210 was highly correlated with the down-regulation of a group of mitosis-related genes, including Plk1, Cdc25B, Cyclin F, Bub1B and Fam83D. MiR-210 suppressed the expression of these genes by directly targeting their 3'-UTRs. Over-expression of exogenous miR-210 disturbed mitotic progression and caused aberrant mitosis. Furthermore, miR-210 mimic with pharmacological doses reduced tumor formation in a mouse metastatic tumor model. Taken together, these results implicate that miR-210 disturbs mitosis through targeting multi-genes involved in mitotic progression, which may contribute to its inhibitory role on tumor formation.

He L, Yang X, Cao X, et al.
Casticin induces growth suppression and cell cycle arrest through activation of FOXO3a in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(1):103-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, has been reported to exert anticancer activities. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which casticin induces the growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The HCC cell lines Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 were cultured in vitro. The growth inhibitory effects of casticin were evaluated using clonogenic assays. The distribution of phases in the cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis with propidium iodide (PI) staining. Multiple molecular techniques, such as western blotting and gene transfection, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Our data demonstrated that casticin significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation in HCC cells. Furthermore, it induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Casticin inhibited phosphorylation of the FOXO3a protein and decreased the expression of FoxM1 and its downstream genes, such as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1), cdc25B and cyclin B and increased the expression of p27KIP1. Silencing of FOXO3a expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection clearly attenuated the inhibitory effects of casticin on FOXM1 expression and cell growth. Our findings provided clear evidence that casticin induces growth suppression and cell cycle arrest through inhibition of FOXO3a phosphorylation causing inactivation of FOXM1 in HCC cells.

Xiang HL, Liu F, Quan MF, et al.
7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4'-di-n-octylgenistein inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells through downregulating forkhead box M1.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(33):4618-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate whether the 7-difluoromethoxyl-5, 4'-di-n-octylgenistein (DFOG), a novel synthetic genistein analogue, affects the growth of gastric cancer cells and its mechanisms.
METHODS: A series of genistein analogues were prepared by difluoromethylation and alkylation, and human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and SGC-7901 cultured in vitro were treated with various concentrations of genistein and genistein analogues. The cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cells were incubated by DFOG at different concentrations. The growth inhibitory effects were evaluated using MTT and clonogenic assay. The distribution of the phase in cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression levels of CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B and p27(KIP1) protein were detected using Western blotting.
RESULTS: Nine of the genistein analogues had more effective antitumor activity than genistein. Among the tested analogues, DFOG possessed the strongest activity against AGS and SGC-7901 cells in vitro. DFOG significantly inhibited the cell viability and colony formation of AGS and SGC-7901 cells. Moreover, DFOG efficaciously arrested the cell cycle in G2/M phase. DFOG decreased the expression of FOXM1 and its downstream genes, such as CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B, and increased p27(KIP1) at protein levels. Knockdown of FOXM1 by small interfering RNA before DFOG treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells. Up-regulation of FOXM1 by cDNA transfection attenuated DFOG-induced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells.
CONCLUSION: DFOG inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer cells by down-regulating the FOXM1 expression.

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