CDH3

Gene Summary

Gene:CDH3; cadherin 3
Aliases: CDHP, HJMD, PCAD
Location:16q22.1
Summary:This gene encodes a classical cadherin of the cadherin superfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate the mature glycoprotein. This calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion protein is comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. This gene is located in a gene cluster in a region on the long arm of chromosome 16 that is involved in loss of heterozygosity events in breast and prostate cancer. In addition, aberrant expression of this protein is observed in cervical adenocarcinomas. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy and ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy syndrome (EEMS). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cadherin-3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Chromosome 16
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Lung Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Stomach Cancer
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Breast Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • RTPCR
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Staging
  • Zonula Occludens-2 Protein
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Cadherins
  • Cell Movement
  • Gene Expression
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Burden
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Case-Control Studies
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDH3 (cancer-related)

Kim TH, Chang JH, Lee HJ, et al.
mRNA expression of CDH3, IGF2BP3, and BIRC5 in biliary brush cytology specimens is a useful adjunctive tool of cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(27):e4132 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although advances have been made in diagnostic tools, the distinction between malignant and benign biliary strictures still remains challenging. Intraductal brush cytology is a convenient and safe method that is used for the diagnosis of biliary stricture, but, low sensitivity limits its usefulness. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of mRNA expression levels of target genes in brush cytology specimens combined with cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture. Immunohistochemistry for cadherin 3 (CDH3), p53, insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), homeobox B7 (HOXB7), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) was performed in 4 benign and 4 malignant bile duct tissues. Through endoscopic or interventional radiologic procedures, brush cytology specimens were prospectively obtained in 21 and 35 paitents with biliary strictures. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expressions levels of 5 genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry for CDH3, p53, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 all showed positive staining in malignant tissues in contrast to benign tissues, which were negative. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expression levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 were significantly higher in cases of malignant biliary stricture compared with cases of benign stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curves of these 4 mRNAs demonstrated that mRNA expression levels are useful for the prediction of malignant biliary stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002). The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for malignant biliary stricture were 57.1% and 100% for cytology, 57.1% and 64.3% for CDH3, 76.2% and 100% for IGF2BP3, 71.4% and 57.1% for HOXB7, and 76.2% and 64.3% for BIRC5. When cytology was combined with the mRNA levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, or BIRC5, the sensitivity for malignant biliary stricture improved to 90.5%. The measurement of the mRNA expression levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, and BIRC5 by real-time polymerase chain reaction combined with cytology was useful for the differentiation of malignant and benign biliary strictures in brush cytology specimens.

Royo F, Zuñiga-Garcia P, Torrano V, et al.
Transcriptomic profiling of urine extracellular vesicles reveals alterations of CDH3 in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):6835-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging structures with promising properties for intercellular communication. In addition, the characterization of EV in biofluids is an attractive source of non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Here we show that urinary EV (uEV) from prostate cancer (PCa) patients exhibit genuine and differential physical and biological properties compared to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Importantly, transcriptomics characterization of uEVs led us to define the decreased abundance of Cadherin 3, type 1 (CDH3) transcript in uEV from PCa patients. Tissue and cell line analysis strongly suggested that the status of CDH3 in uEVs is a distal reflection of changes in the expression of this cadherin in the prostate tumor. CDH3 was negatively regulated at the genomic, transcriptional, and epigenetic level in PCa. Our results reveal that uEVs could represent a non-invasive tool to inform about the molecular alterations in PCa.

Lorenc Z, Opiłka MN, Kruszniewska-Rajs C, et al.
Expression Level of Genes Coding for Cell Adhesion Molecules of Cadherin Group in Colorectal Cancer Patients.
Med Sci Monit. 2015; 21:2031-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and also one of the main death causes. Cell adhesion molecules are taking part in specific junctions, contributing to tissue integrality. Lower expression of the cadherins may be correlated with poorer differentiation of the CRC, and its more aggressive phenotype. The aim of the study is to designate the cadherin genes potentially useful for the diagnostics, prognostics, and the treatment of CRC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens were collected from 28 persons (14 female and 14 male), who were operated for CRC. The molecular analysis was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays, mRNA used was collected from adenocarcinoma, and macroscopically healthy tissue. The results were validated using qRT-PCR technique.
RESULTS: Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of normalized mRNA levels has shown 4 groups with statistically different gene expression. The control group was divided into 2 groups, the one was appropriate control (C1), the second (C2) had the genetic properties of the CRC, without pathological changes histologically and macroscopically. The other 2 groups were: LSC (Low stage cancer) and HSC (High stage cancer). Consolidated results of the fluorescency of all of the differential genes, designated two coding E-cadherin (CDH1) with the lower expression, and P-cadherin (CDH3) with higher expression in CRC tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: The levels of genes expression are different for several groups of cadherins, and are related with the stage of CRC, therefore could be potentially the useful marker of the stage of the disease, also applicable in treatment and diagnostics of CRC.

He K, Lv W, Zheng D, et al.
The stromal genome heterogeneity between breast and prostate tumors revealed by a comparative transcriptomic analysis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):8687-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stromal microenvironment increases tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration, and promotes angiogenesis. In order to provide comprehensive information on the stromal heterogeneity of diverse tumors, here we employed the microarray datasets of human invasive breast and prostate cancer-associated stromals and applied Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to compare the gene expression profiles between them. As a result, 8 up-regulated pathways and 73 down-regulated pathways were identified in the breast tumor stroma, while 32 up-regulated pathways and 18 down-regulated pathways were identified in the prostate tumor stroma. Only 9 pathways such as tryptophan metabolism were commonly up or down regulated, but most of them (including ABC transporters) were specific for these two tumors. Several essential tumors stromal marker genes were also significantly identified. For example, CDH3 was significantly up-regulated in the stromals of both breast and prostate tumors, however EGFR was only significantly down-regulated in the stromal of breast tumor. Our study would be helpful for future therapeutic and predictive applications in breast and prostate cancers.

Bauer R, Valletta D, Bauer K, et al.
Downregulation of P-cadherin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma induces tumorigenicity.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):6125-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
P-cadherin is a major contributor to cell-cell adhesion in epithelial tissues, playing pivotal roles in important morphogenetic and differentiation processes and in maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis. Alterations of P-cadherin expression have been observed during the progression of several carcinomas where it appears to act as tumor suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner. Here, we found a significant downregulation of P-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues compared to primary human hepatocytes and non-malignant liver tissues. Combined immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray containing matched pairs of HCC tissue and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue of 69 patients confirmed reduced P-cadherin expression in more than half of the cases. In 35 human HCC tissues, the P-cadherin immunosignal was completely lost which correlated with tumor staging and proliferation. Also in vitro, P-cadherin suppression in HCC cells via siRNA induced proliferation compared to cells transfected with control-siRNA. In summary, downregulation of P-cadherin expression appears to induce tumorigenicity in HCC. Therefore, P-cadherin expression may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target of this highly aggressive tumor.

Sousa B, Ribeiro AS, Nobre AR, et al.
The basal epithelial marker P-cadherin associates with breast cancer cell populations harboring a glycolytic and acid-resistant phenotype.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are hypoxia-resistant and present a preponderant glycolytic metabolism. These characteristics are also found in basal-like breast carcinomas (BLBC), which show increased expression of cancer stem cell markers.Recently, we demonstrated that P-cadherin, a biomarker of BLBC and a poor prognostic factor in this disease, mediates stem-like properties and resistance to radiation therapy. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if P-cadherin expression was associated to breast cancer cell populations with an adapted phenotype to hypoxia.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to address the expression of P-cadherin, hypoxic, glycolytic and acid-resistance biomarkers in primary human breast carcinomas. In vitro studies were performed using basal-like breast cancer cell lines. qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, western blotting and confocal microscopy were used to assess the expression of P-cadherin after HIF-1α stabilization, achieved by CoCl2 treatment. siRNA-mediated knockdown was used to silence the expression of several targets and qRT-PCR was employed to evaluate the effects of P-cadherin on HIF-1α signaling. P-cadherin high and low breast cancer cell populations were sorted by FACS and levels of GLUT1 and CAIX were assessed by FACS and western blotting. Mammosphere forming efficiency was used to determine the stem cell activity after specific siRNA-mediated knockdown, further confirmed by western blotting.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that P-cadherin overexpression was significantly associated with the expression of HIF-1α, GLUT1, CAIX, MCT1 and CD147 in human breast carcinomas. In vitro, we showed that HIF-1α stabilization was accompanied by increased membrane expression of P-cadherin and that P-cadherin silencing led to a decrease of the mRNA levels of GLUT1 and CAIX. We also found that the cell fractions harboring high levels of P-cadherin were the same exhibiting more GLUT1 and CAIX expression. Finally, we showed that P-cadherin silencing significantly decreases the mammosphere forming efficiency in the same range as the silencing of HIF-1α, CAIX or GLUT1, validating that all these markers are being expressed by the same breast cancer stem cell population.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results establish a link between aberrant P-cadherin expression and hypoxic, glycolytic and acid-resistant breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible role for this marker in cancer cell metabolism.

Ko SY, Naora H
HOXA9 promotes homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions that facilitate ovarian cancer dissemination via its induction of P-cadherin.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a lethal disease that frequently involves the peritoneal cavity. Dissemination of EOC is a multi-step process in which exfoliated tumor cells survive in the peritoneal fluid as multi-cellular aggregates and then form invasive implants on peritoneal surfaces. The mechanisms that control this process are poorly understood. We previously identified that high expression of the developmental patterning gene HOXA9 is associated with poor survival in EOC patients. In this study, we investigated the significance and mechanisms of HOXA9 in controlling aggregation and implantation of floating EOC cells.
METHODS: HOXA9 was inhibited by shRNAs or expressed in EOC cells that were propagated in suspension cultures and in the peritoneal cavity of mice. Cell death was assayed by flow cytometry and ELISA. Cell aggregation, attachment and migration were evaluated by microscopy, transwell chamber assays and histopathologic analysis. DNA-binding of HOXA9 and its effect on expression of the cell adhesion molecule P-cadherin were assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. HOXA9 and P-cadherin expression was evaluated in publicly available datasets of EOC clinical specimens.
RESULTS: We identified that HOXA9 promotes aggregation and inhibits anoikis in floating EOC cells in vitro and in xenograft models. HOXA9 also stimulated the ability of EOC cells to attach to peritoneal cells and to migrate. HOXA9 bound the promoter of the CDH3 gene that encodes P-cadherin, induced CDH3 expression in EOC cells, and was associated with increased CDH3 expression in clinical specimens of EOC. Inhibiting P-cadherin in EOC cells that expressed HOXA9 abrogated the stimulatory effects of HOXA9 on cell aggregation, implantation and migration. Conversely, these stimulatory effects of HOXA9 were restored when P-cadherin was reconstituted in EOC cells in which HOXA9 was inhibited.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that HOXA9 contributes to poor outcomes in EOC in part by promoting intraperitoneal dissemination via its induction of P-cadherin.

Fotouhi O, Adel Fahmideh M, Kjellman M, et al.
Global hypomethylation and promoter methylation in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: an in vivo and in vitro study.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(7):987-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is a feature of human cancer affecting gene expression and tumor phenotype. Here, we quantified promoter methylation of candidate genes and global methylation in 44 small intestinal-neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) from 33 patients by pyrosequencing. Findings were compared with gene expression, patient outcome and known tumor copy number alterations. Promoter methylation was observed for WIF1, RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CXCL14, NKX2-3, P16, LAMA1, and CDH1. By contrast APC, CDH3, HIC1, P14, SMAD2, and SMAD4 only had low levels of methylation. WIF1 methylation was significantly increased (P = 0.001) and WIF1 expression was reduced in SI-NETs vs. normal references (P = 0.003). WIF1, NKX2-3, and CXCL14 expression was reduced in metastases vs. primary tumors (P<0.02). Low expression of RASSF1A and P16 were associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.045 and P = 0.011, respectively). Global methylation determined by pyrosequencing of LINE1 repeats was reduced in tumors vs. normal references, and was associated with loss in chromosome 18. The tumors fell into three clusters with enrichment of WIF1 methylation and LINE1 hypomethylation in Cluster I and RASSF1A and CTNNB1 methylation and loss in 16q in Cluster II. In Cluster III, these alterations were low-abundant and NKX2-3 methylation was low. Similar analyses in the SI-NET cell lines HC45 and CNDT2 showed methylation for CDH1 and WIF1 and/or P16, CXCL14, NKX2-3, LAMA1, and CTNNB1. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine reduced DNA methylation and increased expression of these genes in vitro. In conclusion, promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with suppressed gene expression and DNA copy number alterations in SI-NETs, and may be restored in vitro.

Jiang Y, Liu M, Li Z, Jiang Y
Discovery of novel candidate oncogenes in pancreatic carcinoma using high-throughput microarrays.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 60(128):1825-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors in mankind. Its aggressiveness is only due to the biological progressive characteristics but also the difficulty for clinical early detection which urges us to find diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Biomarkers are a developing tool used to measure molecules such as proteins, DNA, or RNAs in blood samples or suspected tumor tissues. The molecular dysregulation is believed to play major roles in tumorigenesis or a result after the tumor formation and can be used as a biomarker for tumor detection.
METHODOLOGY: In this paper, we studied the gene expression profiles using tissues from pancreatic cancer patients.
RESULTS: We observed dysregulation of gene expression profiles using high-throughput sequencing technique and verified three-gene upregulation, REG4, CDH3 and S100P both in pancreatic cell lines and carcinoma tissues by RT-PCR and Northern Blot. A detailed description of the genes involved is listed within this article.
CONCLUSIONS: We believe that by unraveling the gene dysregulation profiles in pancreatic tumor tissues can we achieve an early and precise diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, these newly found genes, due to their functions involved in cell migration and mitosis, may play major roles in tumorigensis.

Li C, Ma H, Wang Y, et al.
Excess PLAC8 promotes an unconventional ERK2-dependent EMT in colon cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(5):2172-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcriptional program is characterized by repression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and induction of N-cadherin (CDH2), and mesenchymal genes like vimentin (VIM). Placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) has been implicated in colon cancer; however, how PLAC8 contributes to disease is unknown, and endogenous PLAC8 protein has not been studied. We analyzed zebrafish and human tissues and found that endogenous PLAC8 localizes to the apical domain of differentiated intestinal epithelium. Colon cancer cells with elevated PLAC8 levels exhibited EMT features, including increased expression of VIM and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), aberrant cell motility, and increased invasiveness. In contrast to classical EMT, PLAC8 overexpression reduced cell surface CDH1 and upregulated P-cadherin (CDH3) without affecting CDH2 expression. PLAC8-induced EMT was linked to increased phosphorylated ERK2 (p-ERK2), and ERK2 knockdown restored cell surface CDH1 and suppressed CDH3, VIM, and ZEB1 upregulation. In vitro, PLAC8 directly bound and inactivated the ERK2 phosphatase DUSP6, thereby increasing p-ERK2. In a murine xenograft model, knockdown of endogenous PLAC8 in colon cancer cells resulted in smaller tumors, reduced local invasion, and decreased p-ERK2. Using MultiOmyx, a multiplex immunofluorescence-based methodology, we observed coexpression of cytosolic PLAC8, CDH3, and VIM at the leading edge of a human colorectal tumor, supporting a role for PLAC8 in cancer invasion in vivo.

Bernardes N, Ribeiro AS, Abreu S, et al.
High-throughput molecular profiling of a P-cadherin overexpressing breast cancer model reveals new targets for the anti-cancer bacterial protein azurin.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 50:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Azurin is a bacterial protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa which exerts an inhibitory activity in cancer cells. In P-cadherin-overexpressing models, a bad prognosis marker in breast cancer increasing invasion and other malignant features, azurin decreases the invasion of cancer cells. We performed a microarray analysis to compare the expression profile of azurin treated cells with different P-cadherin expression levels. Azurin up-regulated apoptosis mediated by p53 protein, endocytosis and vesicle-mediated transport. In the contrary, in invasive MCF-7/AZ.Pcad cells, azurin decreased the expression of genes associated with cell surface receptors and signal transduction, as well as biological adhesion. Further, azurin decreased adhesion of cells to proteins from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and altered protein expression of integrins α6, β4 and β1 and interfered with the ability of these cells to form mammospheres. Altogether, our results further enlighten the anti-cancer effects mediated by azurin in P-cadherin overexpression breast cancer models.

Song S, Walter V, Karaca M, et al.
Gene silencing associated with SWI/SNF complex loss during NSCLC development.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(4):560-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates gene expression and alters chromatin structures in an ATP-dependent manner. Recent sequencing efforts have shown mutations in BRG1 (SMARCA4), one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits in the complex, in a significant number of human lung tumor cell lines and primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) clinical specimens. To determine how BRG1 loss fuels tumor progression in NSCLC, molecular profiling was performed after restoration of BRG1 expression or treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor or a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in a BRG1-deficient NSCLC cells. Importantly, validation studies from multiple cell lines revealed that BRG1 reexpression led to substantial changes in the expression of CDH1, CDH3, EHF, and RRAD that commonly undergo silencing by other epigenetic mechanisms during NSCLC development. Furthermore, treatment with DNMT inhibitors did not restore expression of these transcripts, indicating that this common mechanism of gene silencing did not account for their loss of expression. Collectively, BRG1 loss is an important mechanism for the epigenetic silencing of target genes during NSCLC development.
IMPLICATIONS: Inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex provides a novel mechanism to induce gene silencing during NSCLC development.

Huang W, Jin Y, Yuan Y, et al.
Validation and target gene screening of hsa-miR-205 in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2014; 127(2):272-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancers are classified as squamous cell carcinoma (SQ), adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). SQ is the major subtype of lung cancer. Currently, there are no targeted therapies for SQ due to lack of understanding its driving oncogenes. In this study, we validated an SQ specific biomarker hsa-miR-205 in Chinese patients with lung cancer and screened its candidate target genes for further functional studies to enrich knowledge in SQ target therapies.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (quantitative RT-PCR) was performed on 197 macro-dissected (cancerous cells >75%) surgical lung tissues (45 SQ, 44 AC, 54 SCLC and 54 adjacent normal tissues) to validate the expression profiles of miR-205. Furthermore, the targets of this microRNA were predicted through the gateway miRecords and mapped to lung cancer-associated pathways using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database. Then quantitative RT-PCR was performed on an independent cohort of 44 snap-frozen surgical lung tissues to concurrently assess the expression profiles of miR-205 and its 52 putative targeted genes.
RESULTS: MicroRNA-205 yielded high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating SQ from AC with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.985, and discriminating SQ from SCLC with an AUC of 0.978 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical lung tissues. Predicted targets of miR-205 were associated with 52 key members of lung cancer signaling pathways. Ten target genes (ACSL1, AXIN2, CACNA2D2, FOXO3, PPP1R3A, PRKAG3, RUNX1, SMAD4, STK3 and TBL1XR1) were significantly down-regulated in SQ and had a strong negative correlation with miR-205, while one target gene (CDH3) was up-regulated in SQ and exhibited a strong positive correlation with miR-205.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the high diagnostic accuracy of miR-205 in discriminating SQ from AC and SCLC in Chinese patients. Moreover, we identified 11 significant target genes of miR-205 which could be used for further functional studies as the basis for the development of SQ targeted therapies.

Bernardes N, Ribeiro AS, Abreu S, et al.
The bacterial protein azurin impairs invasion and FAK/Src signaling in P-cadherin-overexpressing breast cancer cell models.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69023 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
P-cadherin overexpression occurs in about 30% of all breast carcinomas, being a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. In a cellular background of wild-type E-cadherin, we have previously shown that its expression promotes invasion, motility and migration of breast cancer cells due to the induced secretion of metalloproteases (MMPs) to the extracellular medium and to the concomitant shedding of a pro-invasive soluble form of this protein (sP-cad). Azurin is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and induces in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity after its preferential penetration in human cancer cells relative to normal cells. Three different breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7/AZ.Mock, MCF-7/AZ.Pcad and SUM149 were treated with sub-killing doses of azurin. Invasion of these cells was measured using Matrigel Invasion Assays and MTT assays were performed to determine cell viability upon treatment and the effects on cadherins expression was determined by Western blot and Immunofluorescence. Gelatin Zymography was used to determine activity of MMP2 in the conditioned media of azurin treated and untreated cells and the phosphorylation levels of intracellular signaling proteins were determined by Western blot. The invasive phenotype of these breast cancer cells was significantly reduced by azurin. Azurin (50-100 µM) also caused a specific decrease on P-cadherin protein levels from 30-50% in MCF-7/AZ.Pcad and SUM149 breast cancer cell lines, but the levels of E-cadherin remain unaltered. More, the levels of sP-cad and the activity of MMP2 were reduced in the extracellular media of azurin treated cells and we also observed a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of both FAK and Src proteins. Our data show that azurin specifically targets P-cadherin, not E-cadherin, abrogating P-cadherin-mediated invasive effects and signaling. Therefore, azurin could possibly be considered a therapeutic tool to treat poor-prognosis breast carcinomas overexpressing P-cadherin in a wild type E-cadherin context.

Broussard EK, Kim R, Wiley JC, et al.
Identification of putative immunologic targets for colon cancer prevention based on conserved gene upregulation from preinvasive to malignant lesions.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(7):666-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The length of time required for preinvasive adenoma to progress to carcinoma, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the identification of high-risk populations make development and testing of a prophylactic vaccine for the prevention of CRC possible. We hypothesized that genes upregulated in adenoma relative to normal tissue, which maintained increased expression in CRC, would encode proteins suitable as putative targets for immunoprevention. We evaluated existing adenoma and CRC microarray datasets and identified 160 genes that were ≥2-fold upregulated in both adenoma and CRC relative to normal colon tissue. We further identified 23 genes that showed protein overexpression in colon adenoma and CRC based on literature review. Silencing the most highly upregulated genes, CDH3, CLDN1, KRT23, and MMP7, in adenoma and CRC cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in viability (P < 0.0001) and proliferation (P < 0.0001) as compared to controls and an increase in cellular apoptosis (P < 0.05 for CDH3, KRT23). Results were duplicated across cell lines representing microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator, and chromosomal instability phenotypes, suggesting immunologic elimination of cells expressing these proteins could impact the progression of all CRC phenotypes. To determine whether these proteins were immunogens, we interrogated sera from early stage CRC patients and controls and found significantly elevated CDH3 (P = 0.006), KRT23 (P = 0.0007), and MMP7 (P < 0.0001) serum immunoglobulin G in cases as compared to controls. These data show a high throughput approach to the identification of biologically relevant putative immunologic targets for CRC and identified three candidates suitable for vaccine development.

Albergaria A, Resende C, Nobre AR, et al.
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) isoforms as transcriptional regulators of the pro-invasive CDH3/P-cadherin gene in human breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55749 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
P-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule codified by the CDH3 gene, which expression is highly associated with undifferentiated cells in normal adult epithelial tissues, as well as with poorly differentiated carcinomas. In breast cancer, P-cadherin is frequently overexpressed in high-grade tumours and is a well-established indicator of aggressive tumour behaviour and poor patient prognosis. However, till now, the mechanisms controlling CDH3 gene activation have been poorly explored. Since we recently described the existence of several CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) transcription factor binding sites at the CDH3 promoter, the aim of this study was to assess if the distinct C/EBPβ isoforms were directly involved in the transcriptional activation of the CDH3 gene in breast cancer cells. DNA-protein interactions, mutation analysis and luciferase reporter assay studies have been performed. We demonstrated that C/EBPβ is co-expressed with P-cadherin in breast cancer cells and all the three isoforms function as transcriptional regulators of the CDH3 gene, directly interacting with specific regions of its promoter. Interestingly, this transcriptional activation was only reflected at the P-cadherin protein level concerning the LIP isoform. Taken together, our data show that CDH3 is a newly defined transcriptional target gene of C/EBPβ isoforms in breast cancer, and we also identified the binding sites that are relevant for this activation.

Ribeiro AS, Sousa B, Carreto L, et al.
P-cadherin functional role is dependent on E-cadherin cellular context: a proof of concept using the breast cancer model.
J Pathol. 2013; 229(5):705-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
P-cadherin overexpression is associated with worse breast cancer survival, being a poor prognostic marker as well as a putative therapeutic target for the aggressive triple-negative and basal-like carcinomas (TNBCs). Previously, we have shown that P-cadherin promotes breast cancer invasion of cells where membrane E-cadherin was maintained; however, it suppresses invasion in models without endogenous cadherins, like melanomas. Here, we investigated if P-cadherin expression would interfere with the normal adhesion complex and which were the cellular/molecular consequences, constituting, in this way, a new mechanism by which E-cadherin invasive-suppressor function was disrupted. Using breast TNBC models, we demonstrated, for the first time, that P-cadherin co-localizes with E-cadherin, promoting cell invasion due to the disruption caused in the interaction between E-cadherin and cytoplasmic catenins. P-cadherin also induces cell migration and survival, modifying the expression profile of cells expressing wild-type E-cadherin and contributing to alter their cellular behaviour. Additionally, E- and P-cadherin co-expressing cells significantly enhanced in vivo tumour growth, compared with cells expressing only E- or only P-cadherin. Finally, we still found that co-expression of both molecules was significantly correlated with high-grade breast carcinomas, biologically aggressive, and with poor patient survival, being a strong prognostic factor in this disease. Our results show a role for E- and P-cadherin co-expression in breast cancer progression and highlight the potential benefit of targeting P-cadherin in the aggressive tumours expressing high levels of this protein.

Sun Q, Yang YM, Yu SH, et al.
Covariation of copy number located at 16q22.1: new evidence in mammary ductal carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(6):2156-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number variation (CNV) is crucial for gene regulation in humans. A number of studies have revealed that CNV contributes to the initiation and progression of cancer. In this study, we analysed four breast cancer cell lines and six fresh frozen tissues from patients to evaluate the CNV present in the genome using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Six genes located at 16q22.1 were analysed by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR analysis revealed that the loss of CDH1/E2F4 may be associated with worse clinical and pathological findings. Interestingly, covariation of CDH1, CDH3, CTCF and E2F4 was found to be associated with triple negative breast cancer and HER-2 receptor status. In conclusion, our study supports the idea that CNV at 16q22.1 in breast cancer is a frequent event; furthermore, it reveals the covariation of CDH1, CDH3, CTCF and E2F4. The role of the covariation is more complex than a simple additive effect of these four separate genes, which may provide a novel target for breast cancer.

Paredes J, Figueiredo J, Albergaria A, et al.
Epithelial E- and P-cadherins: role and clinical significance in cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1826(2):297-311 [PubMed] Related Publications
E-cadherin and P-cadherin are major contributors to cell-cell adhesion in epithelial tissues, playing pivotal roles in important morphogenetic and differentiation processes during development, and in maintaining integrity and homeostasis in adult tissues. It is now generally accepted that alterations in these two molecules are observed during tumour progression of most carcinomas. Genetic or epigenetic alterations in E- and P-cadherin-encoding genes (CDH1 and CDH3, respectively), or alterations in their proteins expression, often result in tissue disorder, cellular de-differentiation, increased invasiveness of tumour cells and ultimately in metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the major properties of E- and P-cadherin molecules, its regulation in normal tissue, and their alterations and role in cancer, with a specific focus on gastric and breast cancer models.

Vieira AF, Ricardo S, Ablett MP, et al.
P-cadherin is coexpressed with CD44 and CD49f and mediates stem cell properties in basal-like breast cancer.
Stem Cells. 2012; 30(5):854-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the luminal progenitor cell of the normal mammary gland hierarchy has been proposed as the cell-of-origin for basal-like breast cancers, finding the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype for this malignancy has proven a difficult task, mostly due to the lack of specific markers. Recently, basal-like sporadic and familial cases of breast cancer have been linked to BRCA1 gene inactivation, which enables the upregulation of the target-repressed CDH3/P-cadherin gene, an important biomarker of basal-like breast carcinomas. Previously, we demonstrated that P-cadherin overexpression can mediate aggressive behavior in these tumors. Thus, our aim was to test whether P-cadherin mediates stem cell properties in basal-like breast carcinomas. Using a series of breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors, we showed that P-cadherin was directly associated with the expression of the breast stem markers CD44, CD49f, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in the basal subtype. Moreover, cell population enriched for P-cadherin expression comprised increased in vitro mammosphere-forming efficiency and capacity to grow colonies in three-dimensional cultures as well as greater tumorigenicity. Importantly, an association was found with stem-/progenitor-like phenotypes of the breast, including the luminal progenitor population, CD49f(+) CD24(+). Additionally, P-cadherin expression conferred resistance to x-ray-induced cell death, sustaining a role for this molecule in another stem cell property. In summary, we demonstrated, for the first time, that P-cadherin mediates stem cell properties, which could be explored in order to better define the CSC phenotype of basal-like breast tumors and the cell-of-origin of this malignancy.

Palka Bayard de Volo C, Alfonsi M, Gatta V, et al.
16q22.1 microdeletion detected by array-CGH in a family with mental retardation and lobular breast cancer.
Gene. 2012; 498(2):328-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the case of a boy with psychomotor delay and dysmorphic features, with a germline 16q22.1 microdeletion identified by array-CGH. The deletion spans 0.24Mb and encompasses three genes (ZFP90, CDH3 and CDH1). The deletion has been demonstrated to be inherited from his mother who was affected by lobular breast cancer (LBC) without any other apparently phenotypic features. We suppose that the microdeletion, in particular ZFP90 which is cerebrally expressed, is causative for the boy's phenotype. Mental retardation in the affected boy can recognize several mechanisms such as variable expressivity, non-penetrance, multifactorial/polygenic inheritance, recessive inheritance, a second rearrangement event and epigenetics. Furthermore, we suggest that the deletion of the CDH1, a tumor suppressor gene, involved in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and LBC predisposed the mother to the carcinoma.

Boonstra JJ, van Marion R, Douben HJ, et al.
Mapping of homozygous deletions in verified esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines and xenografts.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(3):272-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines and xenografts are powerful tools in the search for genetic alterations because these models are composed of pure human cancer cell populations without admixture of normal human cells. In particular detection of homozygous deletions (HDs) is easier using these pure populations of cancer cells. Identification of HDs could potentially lead to the subsequent identification of new tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis. Genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays were used to identify HDs in 10 verified EAC cell lines and nine EAC xenografts. In total, 61 HDs (range 1-6 per sample) were detected and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Besides HDs observed in common fragile genomic regions (n = 26), and gene deserts (n = 8), 27 HDs were located in gene-containing regions. HDs were noted for known TSGs, including CDKN2A, SMAD4 and CDH3/CDH1. Twenty-two new chromosomal regions were detected harboring potentially new TSGs involved in EAC carcinogenesis. Two of these regions of homozygous loss, encompassing the ITGAV and RUNX1 gene, were detected in multiple samples indicating a potential role in the carcinogenesis of EAC. To exclude culturing artifacts, these last two deletions were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization in the primary tumors of which the involved cell lines and xenografts were derived. In summary, in this report we describe the identification of HDs in a series of verified EAC cell lines and xenografts. The deletions documented here are a step forward identifying the key genes involved in EAC development.

Carvajal-Carmona LG, Cazier JB, Jones AM, et al.
Fine-mapping of colorectal cancer susceptibility loci at 8q23.3, 16q22.1 and 19q13.11: refinement of association signals and use of in silico analysis to suggest functional variation and unexpected candidate target genes.
Hum Mol Genet. 2011; 20(14):2879-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously identified several colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated polymorphisms using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. We sought to fine-map the location of the functional variants for three of these regions at 8q23.3 (EIF3H), 16q22.1 (CDH1/CDH3) and 19q13.11 (RHPN2). We genotyped two case-control sets at high density in the selected regions and used existing data from four other case-control sets, comprising a total of 9328 CRC cases and 10 480 controls. To improve marker density, we imputed genotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project and Hapmap3 data sets. All three regions contained smaller areas in which a cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed clearly stronger association signals than surrounding SNPs, allowing us to assign those areas as the most likely location of the disease-associated functional variant. Further fine-mapping within those areas was generally unhelpful in identifying the functional variation based on strengths of association. However, functional annotation suggested a relatively small number of functional SNPs, including some with potential regulatory function at 8q23.3 and 16q22.1 and a non-synonymous SNP in RPHN2. Interestingly, the expression quantitative trait locus browser showed a number of highly associated SNP alleles correlated with mRNA expression levels not of EIF3H and CDH1 or CDH3, but of UTP23 and ZFP90, respectively. In contrast, none of the top SNPs within these regions was associated with transcript levels at EIF3H, CDH1 or CDH3. Our post-GWA study highlights benefits of fine-mapping of common disease variants in combination with publicly available data sets. In addition, caution should be exercised when assigning functionality to candidate genes in regions discovered through GWA analysis.

Albergaria A, Ribeiro AS, Pinho S, et al.
ICI 182,780 induces P-cadherin overexpression in breast cancer cells through chromatin remodelling at the promoter level: a role for C/EBPbeta in CDH3 gene activation.
Hum Mol Genet. 2010; 19(13):2554-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
CDH3/P-cadherin is a classical cadherin. Overexpression of which has been associated with proliferative lesions of high histological grade, decreased cell polarity and poor survival of patients with breast cancer. In vitro studies showed that it can be up-regulated by ICI 182,780, suggesting that the lack of ERalpha signalling is responsible for the aberrant P-cadherin overexpression and for its role in inducing breast cancer cell invasion and migration. However, the mechanism by which ER-signalling inhibition leads to P-cadherin expression is still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism linking the ERalpha-signalling and P-cadherin-regulated expression in breast cancer cell lines. This study showed that ICI 182,780 is able to increase CDH3 promoter activity, inducing high levels of the active chromatin mark H3 lysine 4 dimethylation. We also observed, for the first time, that the transcription factor C/EBPbeta is able to up-regulate CDH3 promoter activity in breast cancer cells. Moreover, we showed that the expression of P-cadherin and C/EBPbeta are highly associated in human breast carcinomas and linked with a worse prognosis of breast cancer patients. This study demonstrates the existence of an epigenetic regulation by which ICI 182,780 up-regulates P-cadherin expression in MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells through chromatin remodelling at CDH3 promoter, bringing forward the growing evidence that ERalpha signalling-abrogation by anti-oestrogens is able to induce the expression of ERalpha-repressed genes which, in the appropriate cell biology context, may contribute to a breast cancer cell invasion phenotype.CDH3 GenBank accession no. NT_010498.

Dejeux E, Rønneberg JA, Solvang H, et al.
DNA methylation profiling in doxorubicin treated primary locally advanced breast tumours identifies novel genes associated with survival and treatment response.
Mol Cancer. 2010; 9:68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and consists of a heterogeneous collection of diseases with distinct histopathological, genetic and epigenetic characteristics. In this study, we aimed to identify DNA methylation based biomarkers to distinguish patients with locally advanced breast cancer who may benefit from neoadjuvant doxorubicin treatment.
RESULTS: We investigated quantitatively the methylation patterns in the promoter regions of 14 genes (ABCB1, ATM, BRCA1, CDH3, CDKN2A, CXCR4, ESR1, FBXW7, FOXC1, GSTP1, IGF2, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, and PTEN) in 75 well-described pre-treatment samples from locally advanced breast cancer and correlated the results to the available clinical and molecular parameters. Six normal breast tissues were used as controls and 163 unselected breast cancer cases were used to validate associations with histopathological and clinical parameters.Aberrant methylation was detected in 9 out of the 14 genes including the discovery of methylation at the FOXC1 promoter. Absence of methylation at the ABCB1 promoter correlated with progressive disease during doxorubicin treatment. Most importantly, the DNA methylation status at the promoters of GSTP1, FOXC1 and ABCB1 correlated with survival, whereby the combination of methylated genes improved the subdivision with respect to the survival of the patients. In multivariate analysis GSTP1 and FOXC1 methylation status proved to be independent prognostic markers associated with survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative DNA methylation profiling is a powerful tool to identify molecular changes associated with specific phenotypes. Methylation at the ABCB1 or GSTP1 promoter improved overall survival probably due to prolonged availability and activity of the drug in the cell while FOXC1 methylation might be a protective factor against tumour invasiveness. FOXC1 proved to be general prognostic factor, while ABCB1 and GSTP1 might be predictive factors for the response to and efficacy of doxorubicin treatment. Pharmacoepigenetic effects such as the reported associations in this study provide molecular explanations for differential responses to chemotherapy and it might prove valuable to take the methylation status of selected genes into account for patient management and treatment decisions.

Sun Y, Wang L, Jiang M, et al.
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 upstream invasive network construction and analysis of lung adenocarcinoma compared with human normal adjacent tissues by integrative biocomputation.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2010; 56(2-3):59-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to set up single molecular secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) upstream invasive network of lung adenocarcinoma. This paper proposed an integrated method based on linear programming and a decomposition procedure with integrated analysis of the significant function cluster using Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering. Our study proved that only modules appearing in lung adenocarcinoma include cytokine module (CXCL13, GREM1_2 inhibition), cell adhesion module (COL11A1_2 activation; CDH3 inhibition), and receptor binding module (NMU activation; CXCL13, GREM1_2 inhibition), which increase the invasion of cancer cell. We compared skeletal development, signal, biological regulation, sequence variant modules between human normal adjacent tissues and lung adenocarcinoma. SPP1 skeletal development module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1 activation; COL10A1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2 activation); signal module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1, CXCL13, MMP11, SPINK1 activation; COL10A1, COL3A1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2, MMP12 activation; CDH3, CXCL13, GREM1_2, MMP11, SPINK1 inhibition); biological regulation module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (CXCL13, MKI67, PYCR1 activation; NEK2, SPDEF, TOP2A_2, TOX3_1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (HMGB3, MKI67, NMU, PYCR1, TOX3_2 activation; CXCL13, SPDEF, TOP2A_2 inhibition); sequence variant module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1, MKI67, MMP11 activation; ASPM, COL10A1, COL3A1, NEK2, TMPRSS4, TOP2A_2 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2, HMMR, MKI67, MMP12 activation; ABCC3, ASPM, CDH3, MMP11, TOP2A_2 inhibition). It can be deduced that modules above in human normal adjacent tissues reflect the invasive inhibition of normal cells, whereas in lung adenocarcinoma increase the invasion of cancer cell. Our study of SPP1 upstream invasive network may be useful to identify novel and potentially targets for prognosis and therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

Gorski JJ, James CR, Quinn JE, et al.
BRCA1 transcriptionally regulates genes associated with the basal-like phenotype in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 122(3):721-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression profiling of BRCA1-deficient tumours has identified a pattern of gene expression similar to basal-like breast tumours. In this study, we examine whether a BRCA1-dependent transcriptional mechanism may underpin the link between BRCA1 and basal-like phenotype. In methods section, the mRNA and protein were harvested from a number of BRCA1 mutant and wild-type breast cancer cell lines and from matched isogenic controls. Microarray-based expression profiling was used to identify potential BRCA1-regulated transcripts. These gene targets were then validated (by in silico analysis of tumour samples) by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to confirm recruitment of BRCA1 to specific promoters. In results, we demonstrate that functional BRCA1 represses the expression of cytokeratins 5(KRT5) and 17(KRT17) and p-Cadherin (CDH3) in HCC1937 and T47D breast cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein level. ChIP assays demonstrate that BRCA1 is recruited to the promoters of KRT5, KRT17 and CDH3, and re-ChIP assays confirm that BRCA1 is recruited independently to form c-Myc and Sp1 complexes on the CDH3 promoter. We show that siRNA-mediated inhibition of endogenous c-Myc (and not Sp1) results in a marked increase in CDH3 expression analogous to that observed following the inhibition of endogenous BRCA1. The data provided suggest a model whereby BRCA1 and c-Myc form a repressor complex on the promoters of specific basal genes and represent a potential mechanism to explain the observed overexpression of key basal markers in BRCA1-deficient tumours.

Hibi K, Kitamura YH, Mizukami H, et al.
Frequent CDH3 demethylation in advanced gastric carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(10):3945-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We recently found that CDH3 was frequently demethylated in advanced colorectal carcinomas. This prompted us to examine the demethylation status of the CDH3 gene in gastric carcinomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The demethylation status of the CDH3 gene was examined in primary tumors derived from 36 patients with gastric carcinoma using a quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and was evaluated the correlation between the demethylation status and the clinicopathological findings.
RESULTS: Demethylation of the CDH3 gene was detected in 25 out of the 36 (69%) primary gastric carcinomas, suggesting that the aberrant demethylation of CDH3 is a frequent event in gastric carcinomas. Demethylation of CDH3 was significantly associated with increasing TNM stage (p=0.0261). Moreover, a trend was shown toward infiltration beyond the serosa being associated with demethylation of CDH3 (p=0.0733).
CONCLUSION: CDH3 was frequently demethylated in advanced gastric carcinomas.

Sato H, Hatori M, Ando Y, et al.
S-1 mediates the inhibition of lymph node metastasis in oral cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 22(4):719-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
S-1, an oral fluorouracil antitumor drug, is composed of three agents: tegafur (FT), 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), and potassium oxonate (Oxo). Approximately 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) exhibit cervical lymph node metastasis. The extent of lymph node involvement is a major determinant in both staging and prognosis of the majority of OSCC. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of S-1 on the metastatic potential of OSCC cells. We used orthotopic green fluorescence protein (GFP) SAS-L1, in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Mice received oral doses of either 5% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) for control or S-1 (20 mg/kg) and were autopsied at 2 weeks. We also performed in vitro experiments using concomitant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and CDHP as a drug model of S-1 to determine the effect of S-1 on OSCC invasion and metastasis. Although 100% (11 of 11) of mice not treated with S-1 showed cervical lymph node metastasis, only 54.4% (6 of 11) of S-1 treated mice demonstrated metastasis. In in vitro experiments, OSCC cells treated with 5-FU and CDHP showed a marked reduction in invasiveness and in adhesion to laminin coated plates. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with 5-FU and CDHP suppressed expression of integrins alphav, alpha3, alpha6, beta1, beta3, beta4, beta5, and beta6. These results suggest that S-1 inhibits tumor proliferation and lymph node metastasis in OSCC cells. Moreover, expression of integrin subunits and the integrin signal transduction pathway may be closely related to metastasis suppression.

Hibi K, Goto T, Mizukami H, et al.
Demethylation of the CDH3 gene is frequently detected in advanced colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(6):2215-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been proven that the CDH3 promoter was hypomethylated in colonic aberrant foci and colorectal cancer. The hypomethylation was also associated with induction of CDH3 expression in colorectal cancer. These results indicated that epigenetic demethylation of the CDH3 promoter in the human intestine permits its ectopic expression in colorectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The demethylation status of the CDH3 gene was examined in primary carcinomas and the corresponding normal tissues derived from 53 patients with colorectal cancer using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and the correlation between the demethylation status and the clinicopathological findings was evaluated.
RESULTS: Aberrant demethylation of the CDH3 gene was detected in 41 out of the 53 (77%) primary colon carcinomas. The clinicopathological data were correlated with the demethylation results. A significant difference was observed in the tumor site and Dukes' stage (p=0.0187 and p=0.0192, respectively). Moreover, a trend was shown toward preferentially developing tumor size (p=0.140).
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that CDH3 was more frequently demethylated in advanced colorectal carcinomas.

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